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  1. Norwegian mastitis control programme

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    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  2. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  3. The effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on glucose metabolism: results of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery randomized controlled trial.

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    Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C; Bere, Elling; Torstveit, Monica K; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Pripp, Are; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-06-02

    The effectiveness of prenatal lifestyle intervention to prevent gestational diabetes and improve maternal glucose metabolism remains to be established. The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention participants but no improvement in obstetrical outcomes or the proportion of large infants. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of the NFFD intervention on glucose metabolism, including an assessment of the subgroups of normal-weight and overweight/obese participants. Healthy, non-diabetic women expecting their first child, with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥19 kg/m 2 , age ≥ 18 years and a singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational-weeks were enrolled from healthcare clinics in southern Norway. Gestational weight gain was the primary endpoint. Participants (n = 606) were individually randomized to intervention (two dietary consultations and access to twice-weekly exercise groups) or control group (routine prenatal care). The effect of intervention on glucose metabolism was a secondary endpoint, measuring glucose (fasting and 2-h following 75-g glucose load), insulin, homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and leptin levels at gestational-week 30. Blood samples from 557 (91.9%) women were analyzed. For the total group, intervention resulted in reduced insulin (adj. Mean diff -0.91 mU/l, p = 0.045) and leptin levels (adj. Mean diff -207 pmol/l, p = 0.021) compared to routine care, while glucose levels were unchanged. However, the effect of intervention on both fasting and 2-h glucose was modified by pre-pregnancy BMI (interaction p = 0.030 and p = 0.039, respectively). For overweight/obese women (n = 158), intervention was associated with increased risk of at least one glucose measurement exceeding International Association of

  4. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

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    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  5. The Norwegian dietary guidelines and colorectal cancer survival (CRC-NORDIET) study: a food-based multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Hege Berg; Ræder, Hanna; Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Paur, Ingvild; Kværner, Ane Sørlie; Billington, Siv Åshild; Eriksen, Morten Tandberg; Wiedsvang, Gro; Erlund, Iris; Færden, Arne; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Zucknick, Manuela; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Blomhoff, Rune

    2017-01-30

    Colorectal cancer survivors are not only at risk for recurrent disease but also at increased risk of comorbidities such as other cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and functional decline. In this trial, we aim at investigating whether a diet in accordance with the Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines and focusing at dampening inflammation and oxidative stress will improve long-term disease outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer patients. This paper presents the study protocol of the Norwegian Dietary Guidelines and Colorectal Cancer Survival study. Men and women aged 50-80 years diagnosed with primary invasive colorectal cancer (Stage I-III) are invited to this randomized controlled, parallel two-arm trial 2-9 months after curative surgery. The intervention group (n = 250) receives an intensive dietary intervention lasting for 12 months and a subsequent maintenance intervention for 14 years. The control group (n = 250) receives no dietary intervention other than standard clinical care. Both groups are offered equal general advice of physical activity. Patients are followed-up at 6 months and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years after baseline. The study center is located at the Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, and patients are recruited from two hospitals within the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority. Primary outcomes are disease-free survival and overall survival. Secondary outcomes are time to recurrence, cardiovascular disease-free survival, compliance to the dietary recommendations and the effects of the intervention on new comorbidities, intermediate biomarkers, nutrition status, physical activity, physical function and quality of life. The current study is designed to gain a better understanding of the role of a healthy diet aimed at dampening inflammation and oxidative stress on long-term disease outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer patients. Since previous research on the role of diet for

  6. The study protocol of the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder

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    Oedegaard Ketil J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some controversies as to the cognitive side effects. The aim of this study is to compare the effects and side effects of electroconvulsive therapy to pharmacological treatment in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Cognitive changes and quality of life during the treatment will be assessed. Methods/Design A prospective, randomised controlled, multi-centre six- week acute treatment trial with seven clinical assessments. Follow up visit at 26 weeks or until remission (max 52 weeks. A neuropsychological test battery designed to be sensitive to changes in cognitive function will be used. Setting: Nine study centres across Norway, all acute psychiatric departments. Sample: n = 132 patients, aged 18 and over, who fulfil criteria for treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Score of at least 25 at baseline. Intervention: Intervention group: 3 sessions per week for up to 6 weeks, total up to 18 sessions. Control group: algorithm-based pharmacological treatment as usual. Discussion This study is the first randomized controlled trial that aims to investigate whether electroconvulsive therapy is better than pharmacological treatment as usual in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Possible long lasting cognitive side effects will be evaluated. The study is investigator initiated, without support from industry. Trial registration NCT00664976

  7. How does a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy influence perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity? The Norwegian fit for delivery study, a randomized controlled trial.

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    Haakstad, Lene A H; Vistad, Ingvild; Sagedal, Linda Reme; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Torstveit, Monica K

    2018-05-03

    To develop effective health promotional and preventive prenatal programs, it is important to understand perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy, including exercise and sport participation. The aims of the present study was 1) to assess the effect of prenatal lifestyle intervention on the perceived barrier to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy and the first year after delivery and 2) identify the most important perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity at multiple time points during and after pregnancy. This secondary analysis was part of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study, a combined lifestyle intervention evaluated in a blinded, randomized controlled trial. Healthy, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational weeks, age ≥ 18 years and body mass index ≥19 kg/m 2 were recruited via healthcare clinics in southern Norway, including urban and rural settings. Participants were randomized to either twice-weekly supervised exercise sessions and nutritional counselling (n = 303) or standard prenatal care (n = 303). The principal analysis was based on the participants who completed the standardized questionnaire assessing their perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity at inclusion (gestational week 16, n = 589) and following intervention (gestational week 36, n = 509), as well as six months (n = 470) and 12 months (n = 424) postpartum. Following intervention (gestation week 35.4 ± 1.0), a significant between-group difference in perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity was found with respect to time constraints: "... I do not have the time" (intervention: 22 vs. control: 38, p = 0.030), mother-child safety concerns: "... afraid to harm the baby" (intervention: 8 vs. control: 25, p = 0.002) and self-efficacy: "... I do not believe/think that I can do it" (intervention: 3 vs. control: 10, p = 0.050). No positive effect was seen

  8. The Norwegian healthy body image programme: study protocol for a randomized controlled school-based intervention to promote positive body image and prevent disordered eating among Norwegian high school students.

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    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Engen, Kethe M E; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Kolle, Elin; Piran, Niva; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2018-03-06

    Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating. Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition. The intervention comprised three workshops, each of 90 min with the main themes body image, media literacy, and lifestyle. The intervention was interactive in nature, and were led by trained scientists. The outcome measures include standardized instruments administered pre-post intervention, and at 3 and 12 months follow-ups, respectively. Survey data cover feasibility and implementation issues. Qualitative interviews covers experiential data about students' benefits and satisfaction with the programme. The present study is one of the first in the body image and disordered eating literature that integrates a health promotion and a disease prevention approach, as well as integrating standardized outcome measures and experiential findings. Along with mediator and moderator analyses it is expected that the Healthy Body Image programme may prove its efficacy. If so, plans are made with respect to further dissemination as well as communicating the findings to regional and national decision makers in the education and health care services. The study was registered and released at ClinicalTrials.gov 21th August 2016 with the Clinical Trial.gov ID: PRSNCT02901457 . In addition, the study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics.

  9. Cross-cultural validation of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) norms in a randomized Norwegian population.

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    Berg, M; Aamodt, G; Stanghelle, J; Krumlinde-Sundholm, L; Hussain, A

    2008-09-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is one of the most commonly used assessments for children with a disability. Normative data from the US are used to determine whether a deficit or delay exists with regard to functional skill development. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cross-cultural validity of the PEDI American normative data for a general Norwegian population. A random selection of 174 typically developed Norwegian children between 1.0 and 5.9 years participated. The results for capability and caregiver assistance in the domains of self-care, mobility, and social function ranged from a mean of 38.0-46.8 against an expected 50. The Norwegian sample scored significantly lower than the US reference values for functional skills and caregiver assistance, and the results had less fit, especially for self-care. For mobility and social function, the magnitudes of the differences were smaller than self-care. Specific items deviated, suggesting necessary adjustments for the applicability of the norm-referenced scores of the PEDI in the Norwegian culture. The result of this research confirms other findings of cultural influence of the age norms in PEDI. Even though interpretations of the normative score results must be made with some caution, the option of using the scaled scores of PEDI is useful and recommended to describe and measure abilities and to evaluate change. This finding highlights the importance of cultural validation of norm-referenced tests.

  10. A Low-Intensity Mobile Health Intervention With and Without Health Counseling for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes, Part 1: Baseline and Short-Term Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Norwegian Part of RENEWING HEALTH.

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    Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Arsand, Eirik; Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Ribu, Lis

    2014-12-11

    Self-management support for people with type 2 diabetes is essential in diabetes care. Thus, mobile health technology with or without low-intensity theory-based health counseling could become an important tool for promoting self-management. The aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of technology-supported self-management using the Few Touch Application (FTA) diabetes diary with or without health counseling improved glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, self-management, behavioral change, and health-related quality of life, and to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants after 4 months. A 3-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted in Norway during 2011-2013. In the 2 intervention groups, participants were given a mobile phone for 1 year, which provided access to the FTA diary, a self-help tool that recorded 5 elements: blood glucose, food habits, physical activity, personal goal setting, and a look-up system for diabetes information. One of the intervention groups was also offered theory-based health counseling with a specialist diabetes nurse by telephone for 4 months from baseline. Both intervention groups and the control group were provided usual care according to the national guidelines. Adults with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥7.1% were included (N=151). There were 3 assessment points: baseline, 4 months, and 1 year. We report the short-term findings after 4 months. HbA1c was the primary outcome and the secondary outcomes were self-management (Health Education Impact Questionnaire, heiQ), behavioral change (diet and physical activity), and health-related quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire). The data were analyzed using univariate methods (ANOVA), multivariate linear, and logistic regression. Data were analyzed from 124 individuals (attrition rate was 18%). The groups were well balanced at baseline. There were no differences in HbA1c between groups after 4 months, but there was a decline in all

  11. Country-wide quality control of equipment in Norwegian laboratories performing in vivo nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skretting, A.; Rootwelt, K.; Berthelsen, T.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents the methods used and the results obtained in quality control tests performd in all Norwegian hospital laboratories performing in vivo nuclear medicine examinations. The tests included activity meters and scintillation cameras. The activity meters were tested by means of calibrated, long-lived radioactive sources. The quality of these instruments were judged to be satisfactory for moderate and high activities, non of them showing a deviation of more than 10% from the calibration value. Deviations were larger at low activities and were for some laboratories unacceptable. The scintillation cameras test included studies of flood field (homogeneity), geometrical resolution and energy resolution, as well as measurements of count rate characteristics and sensitivity. 40% of the cameras were judged to have flood field responses with satisfactory homogeneity, whereas 32% of the cameras had a satisfactory resolution ability. A liver/abdomen phantom test was carried out by the staff of the actual laboratory. This test proved that only 20% of the laboratories had a satisfactory total performance, managing to detect and describe satisfactorily 4 out of 5 simulated defects in the liver phantom. Lack of information density and insufficient number of projections was the main reason for unsatisfactory results with good cameras. It is recommended that quality control equipment as used in the described tests should be made available to Norwegian hospitals for self assessment. Regular quality assurance tests as recommended by the Norwegian Association for Radiation Physics and Norwegian Society of Nuclear Medicine should be implemented in all hospitals. Moreover, a practical training course in quality assurance should be arranged. (RF)

  12. Are adolescent elite athletes less psychologically distressed than controls? A cross-sectional study of 966 Norwegian adolescents

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    Rosenvinge JH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan H Rosenvinge,1 Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen,2 Gunn Pettersen,3 Marianne Martinsen,4 Annett Victoria Stornæs,2 Anne Marte Pensgaard5 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Department of Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Physical Education, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Hamar, Norway; 5Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sports Science, Oslo, Norway Introduction: Psychological distress is increasing among adolescents and clusters with other mental health problems such as eating problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychological distress among young elite athletes and age-matched controls and whether prevalence figures may be attributed to perfectionism and eating problems. Methods: First-year athletes from all Norwegian elite sport high schools (n=711 and 500 ­students from randomly selected ordinary high schools were eligible for this cross-sectional study. In total, 611 athletes and 355 student controls provided self-report data about psychological distress, perfectionism, and eating problems (ie, body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness, as well as their physical training/activity. Results: A significantly higher proportion of controls scored above the cutoff point for marked psychological distress. Physical activity above the recommended levels for this age group predicted psychological distress among the controls, while the opposite was found in the student elite athlete sample. In both samples, perfectionistic concerns, ie, concern over mistakes, predicted overall psychological distress. However, among elite athletes, perfectionistic concerns were particularly associated with clinically significant

  13. Leukemia and brain tumors in Norwegian railway workers, a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, T; Jynge, H; Vistnes, A I

    1994-04-01

    In an attempt to assess whether exposure to electromagnetic fields on Norwegian railways induces brain tumors or leukemia, the authors conducted a nested case-control study of railway workers based on incident cases from the Cancer Registry of Norway in a cohort of 13,030 male Norwegian railway workers who had worked on either electric or non-electric railways. The cohort comprised railway line, outdoor station, and electricity workers. The case series comprised 39 men with brain tumors and 52 men with leukemia (follow-up, 1958-1990). Each case was matched on age with four or five controls selected from the same cohort. The exposure of each study subject to electric and magnetic fields was evaluated from cumulative exposure measures based on present measurements and historical data. Limited information on potential confounders such as creosote, solvents, and herbicides was also collected; information on whether the subject had smoked was obtained by interviews with the subjects or work colleagues. The case-control analysis showed that men employed on electric railways, compared with non-electric ones, had an odds ratio for leukemia of 0.70 (adjusted for smoking) and an odds ratio for brain tumor of 0.87. No significant trend was shown for exposure to either magnetic or electric fields. These results do not support an association between exposure to 16 2/3-Hertz electric or magnetic fields and the risk for leukemia or brain tumors.

  14. a randomized controlled trial

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    MS Yıldırım

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching and Mulligan technique on hip flexion range of motion (ROM in subjects with bilateral hamstring tightness. A total of 40 students (mean age: 21.5±1.3 years, mean body height: 172.8±8.2 cm, mean body mass index: 21.9±3.0 kg • m-2 with bilateral hamstring tightness were enrolled in this randomized trial, of whom 26 completed the study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups performing (I typical static stretching, (II PNF stretching, (III Mulligan traction straight leg raise (TSLR technique, (IV no intervention. Hip flexion ROM was measured using a digital goniometer with the passive straight leg raise test before and after 4 weeks by two physiotherapists blinded to the groups. 52 extremities of 26 subjects were analyzed. Hip flexion ROM increased in all three intervention groups (p<0.05 but not in the no-intervention group after 4 weeks. A statistically significant change in initial–final assessment differences of hip flexion ROM was found between groups (p<0.001 in favour of PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique in comparison to typical static stretching (p=0.016 and p=0.02, respectively. No significant difference was found between Mulligan TSLR technique and PNF stretching (p=0.920. The initial–final assessment difference of hip flexion ROM was similar in typical static stretching and no intervention (p=0.491. A 4-week stretching intervention is beneficial for increasing hip flexion ROM in bilateral hamstring tightness. However, PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique are superior to typical static stretching. These two interventions can be alternatively used for stretching in hamstring tightness.

  15. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3%) and 238 goat flocks (52.6%) were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6%) and goat (85.1%) flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year) in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007), whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of anthelmintic resistance

  16. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

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    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  17. a randomized, placebo- controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Franziska van

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a well-tolerated non-invasive method, which has also been proved to have mild antidepressant effects and is used as “add-on“-therapy in treating pharmaco-resistant major depression. Objective: The efficacy of an escitalopram plus rTMS-combination-treatment was evaluated and compared to escitalopram plus sham rTMS. Methods: We designed a four week-, randomized, rater-blinded, and controlled add-on study with two trea...

  18. Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches.

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    Tenga, Albin; Holme, Ingar; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Bahr, Roald

    2010-02-01

    Methods of analysis that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid means of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possession by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer matches. We analysed a random series of 1703 team possessions from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the professional men's league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from ten ordered categorical variables were used. Offensive tactics were more effective in producing score-box possessions when playing against an imbalanced defence (28.5%) than against a balanced defence (6.5%) (P tactics on producing score-box possessions, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.

  19. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  20. Norwegian Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, SCADA systems were considered safe from cyber attacks and were not designed for security. The situation...operational data that could result in public safety concerns.43 In 2013 Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet found over 2,500 SCADA systems in Norway used for ...a. Siberian Pipeline Explosion (1982) In 1982, intruders planted a Trojan horse in the SCADA system that controls the Siberian Pipeline . This is the

  1. Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Packet Dropout and Random Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  3. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi C. Dreyer; Jan O. Strandhagen; Maria K. Thomassen; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...

  4. ASSISTments Dataset from Multiple Randomized Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selent, Douglas; Patikorn, Thanaporn; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dataset consisting of data generated from 22 previously and currently running randomized controlled experiments inside the ASSISTments online learning platform. This dataset provides data mining opportunities for researchers to analyze ASSISTments data in a convenient format across multiple experiments at the same time.…

  5. On Apologizing in Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Awedyk, Witosław

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses selected points concerning the verbal realization of the speech act of apology in Norwegian. It sets out to establish prevailing tendencies in the choice of apology strategies applied by the native speakers of Norwegian. The present findings, which seem to indicate that Norwegian apology strategies are fairly routinized, ought to be perceived as preliminary as a more detailed analysis of apology formulae will be presented in an upcoming article.

  6. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Recent randomized controlled trials in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banglawala, Sarfaraz M; Lawrence, Lauren A; Franko-Tobin, Emily; Soler, Zachary M; Schlosser, Rodney J; Ioannidis, John

    2015-03-01

    To assess recent trends in the prevalence and quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in 4 otolaryngology journals. Methodology and reporting analysis. Randomized controlled trials in 4 otolaryngology journals. All RCTs published from 2011 to 2013 in 4 major otolaryngology journals were examined for characteristics of study design, quality of design and reporting, and funding. Of 5279 articles published in 4 leading otolaryngology journals from 2011 to 2013, 189 (3.3%) were RCTs. The majority of RCTs were clinical studies (86%), with the largest proportion consisting of sinonasal topics (31%). Most interventions were medical (46%), followed by surgical (38%) and mixed (16%). In terms of quality, randomization method was reported in 54% of RCTs, blinding in 33%, and adverse events in 65%. Intention-to-treat analysis was used in 32%; P values were reported in 87% and confidence intervals in 10%. Research funding was most often absent or not reported (55%), followed by not-for-profit (25%). Based on review of 4 otolaryngology journals, RCTs are still a small proportion of all published studies in the field of otolaryngology. There seem to be trends toward improvement in quality of design and reporting of RCTs, although many quality features remain suboptimal. Practitioners both designing and interpreting RCTs should critically evaluate RCTs for quality. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  8. Ultrasound-guided sclerosis of neovessels in painful chronic patellar tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoksrud, Aasne; Ohberg, Lars; Alfredson, Håkan; Bahr, Roald

    2006-11-01

    Color Doppler ultrasound examination frequently reveals neovascularization in chronic painful Achilles and patellar tendinopathy. Sclerosing the area with vascular ingrowth using polidocanol has shown promising clinical results in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. To investigate sclerosing treatment using polidocanol on a group of elite athletes with patellar tendinopathy. Randomized controlled trial/cross-over study; Level of evidence, 1. The authors recruited 33 patients (42 tendons), mainly from the Norwegian elite divisions in basketball, team handball, and volleyball. Seventeen patients (23 knees) were randomized to the treatment group (polidocanol injections in the area of neovascularization) and 16 patients (20 knees) to the control group (similar injections with lidocaine/epinephrine). After 4 months of treatment, the control group was crossed over to active treatment. Pain and function were recorded using the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score before the start of treatment and 4, 8, and 12 months after the first injection. Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment scores between groups were compared using multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures. The treatment group reported a significant improvement in Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score from 51 to 62 after 4 months; there was no change for the control group (group by time interaction, P = .052). After 8 months, when the control group had also received active treatment with polidocanol, they had a greater improvement in Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score (58-79) than did the treatment group (54-70; group by time interaction, P = .022; time effect, P patellar tendinopathy.

  9. Celiac Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD is mandatory for celiac disease (CD but has poor compliance, justifying novel strategies. We found that wheat flour transamidation inhibited IFN-γ secretion by intestinal T cells from CD patients. Herein, the primary endpoint was to evaluate the ability of transamidated gluten to maintain GFD CD patients in clinical remission. Secondary endpoints were efficacy in prevention of the inflammatory response and safety at the kidney level, where reaction products are metabolized. In a randomized single blinded, controlled 90-day trial, 47 GFD CD patients received 3.7 g/day of gluten from nontransamidated (12 or transamidated (35 flour. On day 15, 75% and 37% of patients in the control and experimental groups, respectively, showed clinical relapse (=0.04 whereas intestinal permeability was mainly altered in the control group (50% versus 20%, =0.06. On day 90, 0 controls and 14 patients in the experimental group completed the challenge with no variation of antitransglutaminase IgA (=0.63, Marsh-Oberhuber grading (=0.08, or intestinal IFN-γ mRNA (>0.05. Creatinine clearance did not vary after 90 days of treatment (=0.46. In conclusion, transamidated gluten reduced the number of clinical relapses in challenged patients with no changes of baseline values for serological/mucosal CD markers and an unaltered kidney function.

  10. Coronary risk factors in Norwegian Seventh-day Adventists: a study of 247 Seventh-day Adventists and matched controls. The Cardiovascular Disease Studies in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fønnebø, V

    1992-03-01

    Coronary risk factors in Seventh-day Adventists were compared with those in non-Seventh-day Adventist matched controls in the Norwegian Cardiovascular Disease Studies, 1973-1987. Only 10% of the Seventh-day Adventists were smokers (p less than 0.001) and serum cholesterol was 0.86 mmol/liter (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-1.13) lower in men and 0.48 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.25-0.71) lower in women. Blood pressure was significantly lower only in women. Ex-members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and members who did not comply with the recommended life-style had a risk factor level significantly higher than Seventh-day Adventists who complied with the life-style.

  11. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...

  12. Pain Control Interventions in Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vivek V; Bansal, Satvik; Nimbalkar, Archana; Chapla, Apurva; Phatak, Ajay; Patel, Dipen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2018-04-15

    To compare individual efficacy and additive effects of pain control interventions in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trial. Level-3 University affiliated neonatal intensive care unit. 200 neonates (26-36 wk gestational age) requiring heel-prick for bedside glucose assessment. Exclusion criteria were neurologic impairment and critical illness precluding study interventions. Neonates were randomly assigned to Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy, Music therapy, Kangaroo Mother care or Control (no additional intervention) groups. All groups received expressed breast milk with cup and spoon as a baseline pain control intervention. Assessment of pain using Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score on recorded videos. The mean (SD) birth weight and gestational age of the neonates was 1.9 (0.3) kg and 34 (2.3) wk, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant difference in total PIPP score across groups (P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons using Sheffe's test revealed that the mean (SD) total PIPP score was significantly lower in Kangaroo mother care group [7.7 (3.9) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95% CI(-5.9, -1.7), P<0.001] as well as Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy group [8.5 (3.2) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95%CI (-5.1, -0.9), P=0.001] as compared to Control group. PIPP score was not significantly different between Control group and Music therapy group. Kangaroo mother care with and without Music therapy (with expressed breast milk) significantly reduces pain on heel-prick as compared to expressed breast milk alone. Kangaroo mother care with expressed breast milk should be the first choice as a method for pain control in preterm neonates.

  13. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Michael Allan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005 from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188 of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188 of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188 of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005 and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009 or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02. Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. CONCLUSION: While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  14. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; LaSalle, Kate; Vandermeer, Ben; Ma, Victoria; Klein, Douglas; Manca, Donna

    2010-08-23

    Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs) routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005) from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188) of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188) of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188) of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005) and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009) or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02). Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  15. Preference towards Control in Risk Taking: Control, No Control, or Randomize?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, King King

    2010-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates preference towards different methods of control in risk taking. Participants are asked to choose between different ways for choosing which numbers to bet on for a gamble. They can choose the numbers themselves (control), let the experimenter choose (no control), or randomize. It is found that in addition to the more conventional preference for control, some participants prefer not to control, or randomization. These preferences are robust as participants...

  16. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.

  17. Designing a risk-based surveillance program for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Norwegian dairy herds using multivariate statistical process control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, A C; Liland, K H; Jonsson, M E; Sæbø, S; Sviland, S; Østerås, O; Norström, M; Hopp, P

    2014-11-01

    Surveillance programs for animal diseases are critical to early disease detection and risk estimation and to documenting a population's disease status at a given time. The aim of this study was to describe a risk-based surveillance program for detecting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Norwegian dairy cattle. The included risk factors for detecting MAP were purchase of cattle, combined cattle and goat farming, and location of the cattle farm in counties containing goats with MAP. The risk indicators included production data [culling of animals >3 yr of age, carcass conformation of animals >3 yr of age, milk production decrease in older lactating cows (lactations 3, 4, and 5)], and clinical data (diarrhea, enteritis, or both, in animals >3 yr of age). Except for combined cattle and goat farming and cattle farm location, all data were collected at the cow level and summarized at the herd level. Predefined risk factors and risk indicators were extracted from different national databases and combined in a multivariate statistical process control to obtain a risk assessment for each herd. The ordinary Hotelling's T(2) statistic was applied as a multivariate, standardized measure of difference between the current observed state and the average state of the risk factors for a given herd. To make the analysis more robust and adapt it to the slowly developing nature of MAP, monthly risk calculations were based on data accumulated during a 24-mo period. Monitoring of these variables was performed to identify outliers that may indicate deviance in one or more of the underlying processes. The highest-ranked herds were scattered all over Norway and clustered in high-density dairy cattle farm areas. The resulting rankings of herds are being used in the national surveillance program for MAP in 2014 to increase the sensitivity of the ongoing surveillance program in which 5 fecal samples for bacteriological examination are collected from 25 dairy herds

  18. Mental health and satisfaction with life among upper limb amputees: a Norwegian population-based survey comparing adult acquired major upper limb amputees with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Magnus, Per; Skjeldal, Ola H; Garfelt, Beate; Tambs, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To assess how upper limb amputation affects mental health and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional study comparing the mental health and perceived satisfaction with life among adult acquired major upper limb amputees in Norway with a control group drawn from the Norwegian general population. The scales used were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25-item (SCL-25). The groups were compared using multiple linear regression analyses. The amputees scored significantly lower on life satisfaction than the control group. A tendency to poorer mental health in the amputee group was observed, but there was no clear evidence of such a difference. The amputation effect on life satisfaction seemed to be mediated mainly by changes in occupational status and by the occurrence of short- or long-term complications related to the amputation. Our findings imply that rehabilitation of upper limb amputees should emphasise facilitating return to work as well as the prevention of short- and long-term complications, and that this will be of importance not only for the amputees' physical function, but for the maintenance of acceptable life satisfaction. Further studies on the effect of upper limb amputation on mental health are recommended.

  19. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  20. Digital servo control of random sound fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakich, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is necessary to place number of sensors at different positions in sound field to determine actual sound intensities to which test object is subjected. It is possible to determine whether specification is being met adequately or exceeded. Since excitation is of random nature, signals are essentially coherent and it is impossible to obtain true average.

  1. Autoshaping, random control, and omission training in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, C; Terrace, H S; Gibbon, J

    1976-11-01

    The role of the stimulus-reinforcer contingency in the development and maintenance of lever contact responding was studied in hooded rats. In Experiment I, three groups of experimentally naive rats were trained either on autoshaping, omission training, or a random-control procedure. Subjects trained by the autoshaping procedure responded more consistently than did either random-control or omission-trained subjects. The probability of at least one lever contact per trial was slightly higher in subjects trained by the omission procedure than by the random-control procedure. However, these differences were not maintained during extended training, nor were they evident in total lever-contact frequencies. When omission and random-control subjects were switched to the autoshaping condition, lever contacts increased in all animals, but a pronounced retardation was observed in omission subjects relative to the random-control subjects. In addition, subjects originally exposed to the random-control procedure, and later switched to autoshaping, acquired more rapidly than naive subjects that were exposed only on the autoshaping procedure. In Experiment II, subjects originally trained by an autoshaping procedure were exposed either to an omission, a random-control, or an extinction procedure. No differences were observed among the groups either in the rate at which lever contacts decreased or in the frequency of lever contacts at the end of training. These data implicate prior experience in the interpretation of omission-training effects and suggest limitations in the influence of stimulus-reinforcer relations in autoshaping.

  2. Autoshaping, random control, and omission training in the rat1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, Charles; Terrace, H. S.; Gibbon, John

    1976-01-01

    The role of the stimulus-reinforcer contingency in the development and maintenance of lever contact responding was studied in hooded rats. In Experiment I, three groups of experimentally naive rats were trained either on autoshaping, omission training, or a random-control procedure. Subjects trained by the autoshaping procedure responded more consistently than did either random-control or omission-trained subjects. The probability of at least one lever contact per trial was slightly higher in subjects trained by the omission procedure than by the random-control procedure. However, these differences were not maintained during extended training, nor were they evident in total lever-contact frequencies. When omission and random-control subjects were switched to the autoshaping condition, lever contacts increased in all animals, but a pronounced retardation was observed in omission subjects relative to the random-control subjects. In addition, subjects originally exposed to the random-control procedure, and later switched to autoshaping, acquired more rapidly than naive subjects that were exposed only on the autoshaping procedure. In Experiment II, subjects originally trained by an autoshaping procedure were exposed either to an omission, a random-control, or an extinction procedure. No differences were observed among the groups either in the rate at which lever contacts decreased or in the frequency of lever contacts at the end of training. These data implicate prior experience in the interpretation of omission-training effects and suggest limitations in the influence of stimulus-reinforcer relations in autoshaping. PMID:16811960

  3. Randomized Controlled Trials: The Most Powerful Tool In Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized controlled trial (RCT) can be said to be one of the simplest but most powerful tool of research. It is the most rigorous way of determining whether a cause-effect relation exists between treatment and outcome and for assessing the cost effectiveness of a treatment. Through the randomization, bias will be avoided ...

  4. Evaluating the Flipped Classroom: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozny, Nathan; Balser, Cary; Ives, Drew

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent interest in flipped classrooms, rigorous research evaluating their effectiveness is sparse. In this study, the authors implement a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a flipped classroom technique relative to a traditional lecture in an introductory undergraduate econometrics course. Random assignment enables the…

  5. Transforming Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertsen, Tom A

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of Norwegian Special Operation Forces (NORSOF), raising the hypothesis that its current organizational structure is inconsistent with its future roles and missions...

  6. Safety management and control policy. A study of the safety regulation of offshore oil activity by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Sikkerhetsstyring og reguleringsteknikk. Oljedirektoratets regulering av sikkerheten ved produksjon av petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graver, H P

    1983-01-01

    The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) is the main administrative body with responsibility to regulate and control the safety aspects of drilling for and production of petroleum on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Its responsibility does not, however, include the aspects of maritime safety, which are regulated by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate. This study is limited to the regulation of safety on fixed installations for production of petroleum. The object has been to describe the methods applied by the NPD to achieve better safety, and to give answers to why these specific methods of approach have developed as they have. A conclusion that may be drawn from this study is that there exists a relationship of close cooperation between the NPD and the oil industry represented by the operating companies. Only this can explain the differences we find in the NPD approach as compared to the approach of other parts of public administration. Such a relationship probably leads to better safety within the scope of technical rationality than would have a more hostile relationship between the Directorate and the industry. This has its price, however. Aspects of the safety question not included within the limits of a purely technical approach are not as easily taken into account. Partly due to this fact, other parties with interests in safety are not represented.

  7. Effect of etanercept in polymyalgia rheumatica: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Frederik; Galbo, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and the therapeutic potential of blockade with soluble TNF-α receptor, we carried out the first randomized controlled trial with etanercept in PMR.......To elucidate in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and the therapeutic potential of blockade with soluble TNF-α receptor, we carried out the first randomized controlled trial with etanercept in PMR....

  8. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including 50 consecutive patients in the age group of 1‑10 years, who underwent urogenital surgeries ... The duration of absolute analgesia was defined as the time from caudal injection until the pain score was >2. Motor block was assessed by modified Bromage scale. .... double-blind, phase III, controlled trial comparing.

  9. The ambiguity of contents and results in the Norwegian internal control of safety, health and environment reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovden, Jan

    1998-05-01

    The results of introducing a mandatory public reform in Norway with regard to the requirements on enterprises' management of safety, health and environment (SHE) systems are reviewed and discussed. The reform, named internal control (IC), implies a delegation of the direct control of SHE conditions to the enterprises, and introduces system auditing as the main tool for the regulatory bodies. A mixture of successes and failures in implementing the reform, including some perspectives for further adaptation and development of the IC concept are discussed.

  10. THERAPY: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIA VON HUMBOLDT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio que se informa fue ex- plorar si una intervención individual de terapia centrada en la persona (TCP en personas adul- tas mayores puede promover su sentido de cohe- rencia, en comparación con un grupo control (lista de espera. Se plantea que los participantes asignados al azar a TCP informarían mejoras en SDC de pre y post-intervención en comparación con el grupo control. Un grupo de 87 participantes de 65 a 86 años (M = 72.4; DE = 5.15 fue evaluado con la Escala de Sentido de Coherencia (ESDC y el cuestio- nario sociodemográfico en tres momentos dife- rentes: al inicio del estudio (t1, post-tratamiento (t2 y a los 12 meses de seguimiento (t3. Los resultados indicaron que los participan- tes en TCP evidenciaron un aumento significa- tivo en cuanto a su SDC (16.7%, mientras que en el grupo control se encontró una disminu- ción significativa (-2.7%, entre el inicio del es- tudio y el momento de seguimiento. El tamaño del efecto en el grupo TCP fue alto (η2p = .776. En concreto, tanto en la post-intervención como en el momento del seguimiento, los participan- tes que se sometieron a TCP tenían un SDC sig- nificativamente mayor (M = 3.84, DE = .219 Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el grupo de intervención y el grupo control en la post-intervención y en el seguimiento. Se concluye que los cambios en SDC fueron positivos y mantenidos, por lo tanto, los resul- tados sugieren que la TCP es favorable a la me- jora de SDC. Por otra parte, ya que la SDC se asocia con el bienestar relacionado con la salud de las poblaciones de mayor edad, hay que en- fatizar el desarrollo de SDC en la vejez.

  11. Randomized algorithms in automatic control and data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Granichin, Oleg; Toledano-Kitai, Dvora

    2015-01-01

    In the fields of data mining and control, the huge amount of unstructured data and the presence of uncertainty in system descriptions have always been critical issues. The book Randomized Algorithms in Automatic Control and Data Mining introduces the readers to the fundamentals of randomized algorithm applications in data mining (especially clustering) and in automatic control synthesis. The methods proposed in this book guarantee that the computational complexity of classical algorithms and the conservativeness of standard robust control techniques will be reduced. It is shown that when a problem requires "brute force" in selecting among options, algorithms based on random selection of alternatives offer good results with certain probability for a restricted time and significantly reduce the volume of operations.

  12. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husabo, Elisabeth; Monstad, Karin; Holmås, Tor Helge; Oyeflaten, Irene; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje

    2017-06-14

    It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP) is too close, as this may hinder the GP's objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians' and social insurance agencies' current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18-65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the "common trend" assumption. The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  13. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Husabo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP is too close, as this may hinder the GP’s objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. Methods/design The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians’ and social insurance agencies’ current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18–65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the “common trend” assumption. Discussion The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of an electronic informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Wong, Bob; Rose, Nancy C; Anderson, Rebecca; Fedor, Beth; Stark, Louisa A; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-01

    A pilot study assessed an electronic informed consent model within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants who were recruited for the parent RCT project were randomly selected and randomized to either an electronic consent group (n = 32) or a simplified paper-based consent group (n = 30). Results from the electronic consent group reported significantly higher understanding of the purpose of the study, alternatives to participation, and who to contact if they had questions or concerns about the study. However, participants in the paper-based control group reported higher mean scores on some survey items. This research suggests that an electronic informed consent presentation may improve participant understanding for some aspects of a research study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Randomized, Controlled Study of Adderall XR in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of Adderall XR in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and diurnal variation in responses were assessed by a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial at 47 sites, and reported from the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

  16. Yoga for High‑Risk Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a single‑blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Perceived stress scale (PSS) was measured during the 12th, 20th, and 28th weeks of pregnancy. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all data analysis. When the data were found to be normally distributed,the RMANOVA were used to assess ...

  17. A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Efficacy, Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Efficacy, Safety and Cost Effectiveness of Lornoxicam with Diclofenac Sodium in Patients of Osteoarthritis Knee. ... All patients were assessed with visual analogue scale and 100 meter walking test before starting of therapy, at 15 days and at 1, 2 and 3 months of therapy.

  18. Asthma Self-Management Model: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Carolina M. X.; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira; Bonizio, Roni C.; de Menezes, Marcelo B.; Ferraz, Erica; Cetlin, Andrea A.; Valdevite, Laura M.; Almeida, Gustavo A.; Araujo, Ana S.; Simoneti, Christian S.; de Freitas, Amanda; Lizzi, Elisangela A.; Borges, Marcos C.; de Freitas, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Information for patients provided by the pharmacist is reflected in adhesion to treatment, clinical results and patient quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess an asthma self-management model for rational medicine use. This was a randomized controlled trial with 60 asthmatic patients assigned to attend five modules presented by…

  19. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  20. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  1. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  2. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, Dag Harald.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the first study in the research project '' Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation''. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad's research program ''Petropol''. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  3. Protocol for the effect evaluation of Individual Placement and Support (IPS): a randomized controlled multicenter trial of IPS versus treatment as usual for patients with moderate to severe mental illness in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Løvvik, Camilla; Fyhn, Tonje; Monstad, Karin; Ludvigsen, Kari; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen

    2014-11-18

    Roughly one third of disability pensions in Norway are issued for mental and behavioral disorders, and vocational rehabilitation offered to this group has traditionally been dominated by train-and-place approaches with assisted or sheltered employment. Based on a more innovative place-and-train approach, Individual Placement and Support (IPS) involves supported employment in real-life competitive work settings, and has shown great promise for patients with severe mental illness. The study is a multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of IPS in a Norwegian context, involving an effect evaluation, a process evaluation, and a cost/benefit analysis. IPS will be compared to high quality treatment as usual (TAU), with labor market participation and educational activity at 12 months post inclusion as the primary outcome. The primary outcome will be measured using register data, and the project will also include complete follow-up up to 4 years after inclusion for long-term outcome data. Secondary outcomes include mental health status, disability and quality of life, collected through survey questionnaires at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Participants will include patients undergoing treatment for moderate to severe mental illness who are either unemployed or on sickness or social benefits. The estimated total sample size of 400-500 will be randomly assigned to the interventions. To be eligible, participants must have an expressed desire to work, and sufficient Norwegian reading and writing skills to fill out the questionnaires. The Effect Evaluation of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) will be one of the largest randomized controlled trials to date investigating the effectiveness of IPS on competitive employment, and the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of IPS for patients with moderate to severe mental illness within a Norwegian context. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01964092 . Registered October 16th, 2013.

  4. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-29

    clinician applicants occurred. b. SP baseline interviews with eligible clinicians occurred. c. Automated random assignment of participants with Completed SP...intervention without web-centered supervision and a wait-list control with regard to improvements in two CBT-based skill areas (behavioral task...Secondary Aim #1: To compare improvements in knowledge and attitudes following internet- based training with or without web-centered supervision and

  5. Random Forest Application for NEXRAD Radar Data Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keem, M.; Seo, B. C.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and elimination of non-meteorological radar echoes (e.g., returns from ground, wind turbines, and biological targets) are the basic data quality control steps before radar data use in quantitative applications (e.g., precipitation estimation). Although WSR-88Ds' recent upgrade to dual-polarization has enhanced this quality control and echo classification, there are still challenges to detect some non-meteorological echoes that show precipitation-like characteristics (e.g., wind turbine or anomalous propagation clutter embedded in rain). With this in mind, a new quality control method using Random Forest is proposed in this study. This classification algorithm is known to produce reliable results with less uncertainty. The method introduces randomness into sampling and feature selections and integrates consequent multiple decision trees. The multidimensional structure of the trees can characterize the statistical interactions of involved multiple features in complex situations. The authors explore the performance of Random Forest method for NEXRAD radar data quality control. Training datasets are selected using several clear cases of precipitation and non-precipitation (but with some non-meteorological echoes). The model is structured using available candidate features (from the NEXRAD data) such as horizontal reflectivity, differential reflectivity, differential phase shift, copolar correlation coefficient, and their horizontal textures (e.g., local standard deviation). The influence of each feature on classification results are quantified by variable importance measures that are automatically estimated by the Random Forest algorithm. Therefore, the number and types of features in the final forest can be examined based on the classification accuracy. The authors demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach using several cases ranging from distinct to complex rain/no-rain events and compare the performance with the existing algorithms (e

  6. Neighborhood Effects in a Behavioral Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5,628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient’s CRC test use. This potentially import...

  7. Electroacupuncture treatment for pancreatic cancer pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Tang-Yi; Kuai, Le; Zhu, Ji; Wu, Cai-Jun; Liu, Lu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is often accompanied by severe abdominal or back pain. It's the first study to evaluate the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on pancreatic cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial compared electroacupuncture with control acupuncture using the placebo needle. Sixty patients with pancreatic cancer pain were randomly assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 30) and the placebo control group (n = 30). Patients were treated on Jiaji (Ex-B2) points T8-T12 bilaterally for 30 min once a day for 3 days. Pain intensity was assessed with numerical rated scales (NRS) before the treatment (Baseline), after 3 treatments, and 2 days follow-up. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. After 3 treatment, pain intensity on NRS decreased compared with Baseline (-1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.46 to -1.87) in the electroacupuncture group; there was little change (-0.13, 95% CI 0.08 to -0.35) in control group; the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P electroacupuncture group compared with the control group (P Electroacupuncture was an effective treatment for relieving pancreatic cancer pain. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  9. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  10. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  11. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  12. The effectiveness of propolis on gingivitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Walter A; Paulino, Niraldo; Nör, Jacques E; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days -14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13-22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period.

  13. Norwegian oil and gas policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjerde, B

    1978-04-01

    The Norwegian Minister of Oil and Energy explains the importance of integrating petroleum policy into the broad political picture because of Norway's economic situation. Since oil was found on the continental shelf 13 years ago, changes have been made in projected production levels to reflect the international recession and concerns over unemployment in Norway. Policies are aimed at keeping a constant activity in the petroleum sector through allocation of particular block development that will improve continental shelf mapping and encourage new deepwater exploration and development. He outlines licensing criteria and future exploratory activities. The report covers aspects of safety, transportation, and landing and the impacts of petroleum activities on Norwegian communities.

  14. Yoga in Correctional Settings: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of yoga in the reduction of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, anger as well as in the increased ability of behavioral control has been shown. These effects of yoga are highly relevant for prison inmates who often have poor mental health and low impulse control. While it has been shown that yoga and meditation can be effective in improving subjective well-being, mental health, and executive functioning within prison populations, only a limited number of studies have proved this, using randomized controlled settings.MethodsA total of 152 participants from nine Swedish correctional facilities were randomly assigned to a 10-week yoga group (one class a week; N = 77 or a control group (N = 75. Before and after the intervention period, participants answered questionnaires measuring stress, aggression, affective states, sleep quality, and psychological well-being and completed a computerized test measuring attention and impulsivity.ResultsAfter the intervention period, significant improvements were found on 13 of the 16 variables within the yoga group (e.g., less perceived stress, better sleep quality, an increased psychological and emotional well-being, less aggressive, and antisocial behavior and on two within the control group. Compared to the control group, yoga class participants reported significantly improved emotional well-being and less antisocial behavior after 10 weeks of yoga. They also showed improved performance on the computerized test that measures attention and impulse control.ConclusionIt can be concluded that the yoga practiced in Swedish correctional facilities has positive effects on inmates’ well-being and on considerable risk factors associated with recidivism, such as impulsivity and antisocial behavior. Accordingly, the results show that yoga practice can play an important part in the rehabilitation of prison inmates.

  15. Biomimetic propulsion under random heaving conditions, using active pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gerasimos; Politis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Marine mammals travel long distances by utilizing and transforming wave energy to thrust through proper control of their caudal fin. On the other hand, manmade ships traveling in a wavy sea store large amounts of wave energy in the form of kinetic energy for heaving, pitching, rolling and other ship motions. A natural way to extract this energy and transform it to useful propulsive thrust is by using a biomimetic wing. The aim of this paper is to show how an actively pitched biomimetic wing could achieve this goal when it performs a random heaving motion. More specifically, we consider a biomimetic wing traveling with a given translational velocity in an infinitely extended fluid and performing a random heaving motion with a given energy spectrum which corresponds to a given sea state. A formula is invented by which the instantaneous pitch angle of the wing is determined using the heaving data of the current and past time steps. Simulations are then performed for a biomimetic wing at different heave energy spectra, using an indirect Source-Doublet 3-D-BEM, together with a time stepping algorithm capable to track the random motion of the wing. A nonlinear pressure type Kutta condition is applied at the trailing edge of the wing. With a mollifier-based filtering technique, the 3-D unsteady rollup pattern created by the random motion of the wing is calculated without any simplifying assumptions regarding its geometry. Calculated unsteady forces, moments and useful power, show that the proposed active pitch control always results in thrust producing motions, with significant propulsive power production and considerable beneficial stabilizing action to ship motions. Calculation of the power required to set the pitch angle prove it to be a very small percentage of the useful power and thus making the practical application of the device very tractable.

  16. The multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphism G-rs3789243-A is not associated with disease susceptibility in Norwegian patients with colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer; a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Agerstjerne, L.; Jensen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Smoking, dietary factors, and alcohol consumption are known life style factors contributing to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in carcinogen handling may affect cancer risk. The multidrug resistance 1(MDR1/ABCB1) gene encodes the transport protein P-glycoprotein (a...... in inflammation, and may thereby affect the risk of malignity. Hence, genetic variations that modify the function of P-glycoprotein may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have previously found an association between the MDR1 intron 3 G-rs3789243-A polymorphism and the risk of CRC...... of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas in the Norwegian population was assessed in 167 carcinomas, 990 adenomas, and 400 controls. Genotypes were determined by allelic discrimination. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. Results: No association...

  17. Building Kindergartners' Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2012-08-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups ( n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures.

  18. Building Kindergartners’ Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. PMID:25866417

  19. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; pnattokinase group compared with the control group (pnattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension.

  20. Systematic screening with information and home sampling for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young men and women in Norway: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløvstad, Hilde; Natås, Olav; Tverdal, Aage; Aavitsland, Preben

    2013-01-23

    As most genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic, many patients do not seek health care for testing. Infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. We studied whether screening with information and home sampling resulted in more young people getting tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention compared to the current strategy of testing in the health care system. We conducted a population based randomized controlled trial among all persons aged 18-25 years in one Norwegian county (41 519 persons). 10 000 persons (intervention) received an invitation by mail with chlamydia information and a mail-back urine sampling kit. 31 519 persons received no intervention and continued with usual care (control). All samples from both groups were analysed in the same laboratory. Information on treatment was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We estimated risk ratios and risk differences of being tested, diagnosed and treated in the intervention group compared to the control group. In the intervention group 16.5% got tested and in the control group 3.4%, risk ratio 4.9 (95% CI 4.5-5.2). The intervention led to 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.4) times as many individuals being diagnosed and 2.5 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) times as many individuals receiving treatment for chlamydia compared to no intervention in the three months following the intervention. In Norway, systematic screening with information and home sampling results in more young people being tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention than the current strategy of testing in the health care system. However, the study has not established that the intervention will reduce the chlamydia prevalence or the risk of complications from chlamydia.

  1. Balneotherapy in fibromyalgia: a single blind randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkurt, Seçil; Dönmez, Arif; Zeki Karagülle, M; Uzunoğlu, Emel; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of balneotherapy in fibromyalgia management. Fifty women with fibromyalgia under pharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to either the balneotherapy (25) or the control (25) group. Four patients from the balneotherapy group and one patient from the control group left the study after randomization. The patients in the balneotherapy group (21) had 2 thermomineral water baths daily for 2 weeks in Tuzla Spa Center. The patients in the control group (24) continued to have their medical treatment and routine daily life. An investigator who was blinded to the study arms assessed the patients. All patients were assessed four times; at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 2nd week, the 1st month, and the 3rd month after balneotherapy. Outcome measures of the study were pain intensity, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), patient's global assessment, investigator's global assessment, SF-36 scores, and tender point count. Balneotherapy was found to be superior at the end of the cure period in terms of pain intensity, FIQ, Beck Depression Inventory, patient's global assessment, investigator's global assessment scores, and tender point count as compared to the control group. The superiority of balneotherapy lasted up to the end of the 3rd month, except for the Beck Depression Inventory score and the investigator's global assessment score. Significant improvements were observed in PF, GH, and MH subscales of SF-36 during the study period in the balneotherapy group; however, no such improvement was observed in the control group. Balneotherapy was superior only in VT subscale at the end of therapy and at the end of the third month after the therapy as compared to the controls. It was concluded that balneotherapy provides beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia.

  2. Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt Jane M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1 effective use of controller medications, 2 effective use of rescue medications and 3 monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1 the child's asthma control score, 2 the parent's quality of life score, and 3 the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications

  3. Standards for reporting randomized controlled trials in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehna, Erin N; Starke, Robert M; Pouratian, Nader; Dumont, Aaron S

    2011-02-01

    The Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) criteria were published in 1996 to standardize the reporting and improve the quality of clinical trials. Despite having been endorsed by major medical journals and shown to improve the quality of reported trials, neurosurgical journals have yet to formally adopt these reporting criteria. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in neurosurgery and the factors that may affect the quality of reported trials. The authors evaluated all neurosurgical RCTs published in 2006 and 2007 in the principal neurosurgical journals (Journal of Neurosurgery; Neurosurgery; Surgical Neurology; Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry; and Acta Neurochirurgica) and in 3 leading general medical journals (Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, and the New England Journal of Medicine). Randomized controlled trials that addressed operative decision making or the treatment of neurosurgical patients were included in this analysis. The RCT quality was evaluated using the Jadad score and the CONSORT checklist. In 2006 and 2007, 27 RCTs relevant to intracranial neurosurgery were reported. Of these trials, only 59% had a Jadad score ≥ 3. The 3 major medical journals all endorsed the CONSORT guidelines, while none of the neurosurgical journals have adopted these guidelines. Randomized controlled trials published in the 3 major medical journals had a significantly higher mean CONSORT score (mean 41, range 39-44) compared with those published in neurosurgical journals (mean 26.4, range 17-38; p journals (mean 3.42, range 2-5) than neurosurgical journals (mean 2.45, range 1-5; p = 0.05). Despite the growing volume of RCTs in neurosurgery, the quality of reporting of these trials remains suboptimal, especially in the neurosurgical journals. Improved awareness of the CONSORT guidelines by journal editors, reviewers, and authors of these papers could

  4. Time-delayed feedback control of diffusion in random walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroyasu; Takehara, Kohta; Kobayashi, Miki U.

    2017-07-01

    Time delay in general leads to instability in some systems, while specific feedback with delay can control fluctuated motion in nonlinear deterministic systems to a stable state. In this paper, we consider a stochastic process, i.e., a random walk, and observe its diffusion phenomenon with time-delayed feedback. As a result, the diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing delay time. We analytically illustrate this suppression of diffusion by using stochastic delay differential equations and justify the feasibility of this suppression by applying time-delayed feedback to a molecular dynamics model.

  5. Acupucture as pain relief during delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... to existing pain relief methods. (BIRTH 36:1 March 2009)...

  6. Medication reconciliation at patient admission: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes AE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure length of hospital stay (LHS in patients receiving medication reconciliation. Secondary characteristics included analysis of number of preadmission medications, medications prescribed at admission, number of discrepancies, and pharmacists interventions done and accepted by the attending physician. Methods: A 6 month, randomized, controlled trial conducted at a public teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Patients admitted to general wards were randomized to receive usual care or medication reconciliation, performed within the first 72 hours of hospital admission. Results: The randomization process assigned 68 patients to UC and 65 to MR. LHS was 10±15 days in usual care and 9±16 days in medication reconciliation (p=0.620. The total number of discrepancies was 327 in the medication reconciliation group, comprising 52.6% of unintentional discrepancies. Physicians accepted approximately 75.0% of the interventions. Conclusion: These results highlight weakness at patient transition care levels in a public teaching hospital. LHS, the primary outcome, should be further investigated in larger studies. Medication reconciliation was well accepted by physicians and it is a useful tool to find and correct discrepancies, minimizing the risk of adverse drug events and improving patient safety.

  7. Empowerment Program for People With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Hung, Shu-Ling; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2017-04-01

    Practicing a health-promoting lifestyle is believed to be effective for delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes. However, although empowerment interventions have proven effective for encouraging the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle in people with diabetes, these interventions are rarely promoted to people with prediabetes. The aims of this study were to develop an empowerment program for people with prediabetes and to examine its efficacy in terms of the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle and improvements in blood sugar, body mass index, and self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between May and December 2013. A convenience sample of people with a fasting blood sugar level of 100-125 mg/dl during the previous 3 months was recruited from the health examination center of a hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants were assigned to either the experimental group or the control group using block randomization with a block size of 8. The experimental group (n = 38) participated in a 4-month empowerment program (the ABC empowerment program), which encouraged participants to practice a health-promoting lifestyle in three phases: awareness raising, behavior building, and results checking. The control group (n = 40) received routine clinical care. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, independent t test, paired t test, and generalized estimated equations. After controlling for the differences at baseline and considering the interaction between group and time from baseline to 1 week and 3 months after completing the intervention, the generalized estimating equation showed significantly larger improvements in a health-promoting lifestyle, blood sugar, and self-efficacy in the experimental group than in the control group (p empowerment program was shown to have short-term, positive effects on behavioral, physical, and psychosocial outcomes in a Taiwan population with prediabetes. The results of this study provide a useful

  8. Efficacy of Yoga for Vasomotor Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Carpenter, Janet S.; Learman, Lee A.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Hunt, Julie R.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of yoga in alleviating VMS frequency and bother. Methods Three by two factorial design, randomized, controlled. Eligible women were randomized to yoga (n=107), exercise (n=106), or usual activity (n=142), and were simultaneously randomized to double-blind comparison of omega-3 fatty acid (n=177) or placebo (n=178) capsules. Yoga intervention was twelve, weekly, 90-minute yoga classes with daily home practice. Primary outcomes were VMS frequency and bother assessed by daily diaries at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index) at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Among 249 randomized women, 237 (95%) completed 12-week assessments. Mean baseline VMS frequency was 7.4/day (95% CI 6.6, 8.1) in the yoga group and 8.0/day (95% CI 7.3, 8.7) in the usual activity group. Intent-to-treat analyses included all participants with response data (n=237). There was no difference between intervention groups in change in VMS frequency from baseline to 6 and 12 weeks (mean difference (yoga – usual activity) from baseline −0.3 (95% CI −1.1, 0.5) at 6 weeks and −0.3 (95% CI −1.2, 0.6) at 12 weeks (p=0.119 across both time points). Results were similar for VMS bother. At week 12, yoga was associated with an improvement in insomnia symptoms (mean difference [yoga-usual activity] in change –Insomnia Severity Index, 1.3 [95% CI −2.5, −0.1][p=0.007]). Conclusion Among healthy women, 12 weeks of yoga class plus home practice compared with usual activity did not improve VMS frequency or bother, but reduced insomnia symptoms. PMID:24045673

  9. A randomized, controlled trial of oral propranolol in infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Hoeger, Peter; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Guibaud, Laurent; Baselga, Eulalia; Posiunas, Gintas; Phillips, Roderic J; Caceres, Hector; Lopez Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Ballona, Rosalia; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Powell, Julie; Perek, Danuta; Metz, Brandie; Barbarot, Sebastien; Maruani, Annabel; Szalai, Zsuzsanna Zsofia; Krol, Alfons; Boccara, Olivia; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Febrer Bosch, Maria Isabel; Su, John; Buckova, Hana; Torrelo, Antonio; Cambazard, Frederic; Grantzow, Rainer; Wargon, Orli; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Roessler, Jochen; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Valencia, Adriana M; Przewratil, Przemyslaw; Glick, Sharon; Pope, Elena; Birchall, Nicholas; Benjamin, Latanya; Mancini, Anthony J; Vabres, Pierre; Souteyrand, Pierre; Frieden, Ilona J; Berul, Charles I; Mehta, Cyrus R; Prey, Sorilla; Boralevi, Franck; Morgan, Caroline C; Heritier, Stephane; Delarue, Alain; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2015-02-19

    Oral propranolol has been used to treat complicated infantile hemangiomas, although data from randomized, controlled trials to inform its use are limited. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, adaptive, phase 2-3 trial assessing the efficacy and safety of a pediatric-specific oral propranolol solution in infants 1 to 5 months of age with proliferating infantile hemangioma requiring systemic therapy. Infants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or one of four propranolol regimens (1 or 3 mg of propranolol base per kilogram of body weight per day for 3 or 6 months). A preplanned interim analysis was conducted to identify the regimen to study for the final efficacy analysis. The primary end point was success (complete or nearly complete resolution of the target hemangioma) or failure of trial treatment at week 24, as assessed by independent, centralized, blinded evaluations of standardized photographs. Of 460 infants who underwent randomization, 456 received treatment. On the basis of an interim analysis of the first 188 patients who completed 24 weeks of trial treatment, the regimen of 3 mg of propranolol per kilogram per day for 6 months was selected for the final efficacy analysis. The frequency of successful treatment was higher with this regimen than with placebo (60% vs. 4%, P<0.001). A total of 88% of patients who received the selected propranolol regimen showed improvement by week 5, versus 5% of patients who received placebo. A total of 10% of patients in whom treatment with propranolol was successful required systemic retreatment during follow-up. Known adverse events associated with propranolol (hypoglycemia, hypotension, bradycardia, and bronchospasm) occurred infrequently, with no significant difference in frequency between the placebo group and the groups receiving propranolol. This trial showed that propranolol was effective at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram per day for 6 months in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. (Funded by

  10. Operating costs on Norwegian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.; Nansve, A.H.

    1992-09-01

    In this report we summarize some of the findings in a project for A/S Norske Shell, where the objective was to find trends in the development of operating expenditures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf if any, and to explain these. We also present a short compilation of articles on the subject. 23 refs., 13 figs

  11. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  12. Norwegian Gas in International Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Scarcity of oil and gas will continue to characterize international energy markets, either in an economic, physical or political sense, over shorter or longer time. With a constantly increasing Norwegian petroleum production, it is likely that the international community closely will observe petroleum developments in Norway. Apart from security policy, petroleum issues may be the most central single factor in Norwegian foreign policy, simply because the outside world defines it so. The size of the natural gas exports makes Norway a strategic player in a market of vital interest for the energy supplies to Europe. The economic development and national security of the receiving countries depend on secure supplies of energy at stable prices on an acceptable level. Norwegian gas strategy must be conscious that the USA, the EU and great European purchasing countries like Germany, France, the UK and Italy, as well as competitors Russia, Algeria and others, will be interested in its content. As an example of how Norwegian petroleum policy may be influenced from the outside world, the author analyzes the case when Norwegian energy policy first became an explicit element in a larger political game. In order to prevent Western European countries from completing a notable gas contract with the Soviet Union in 1982, the U.S. introduced a ban on all American exports to firms supporting the project. Also the U.S. boycotted European firms supplying equipment. The Americans claimed that if Western Europe became too dependent on Soviet gas, one might come under pressure in a future political crisis if the Soviets turned off the taps to stop the energy supply. The U. S. urged Norway to increase her gas exports as a substitute for Soviet gas. Norway, on the other hand, maintained that gas production could not be increased as quickly as desired. The Norwegians also wanted, in case a development should be accelerated, a ''price premium'' to justify an act that otherwise would have been

  13. MiDAS ENCORE: Randomized Controlled Study Design and Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Ramsin M; Staats, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are commonly used for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). ESIs are generally administered after failure of conservative therapy. For LSS patients suffering from neurogenic claudication, the mild® procedure provides an alternative to ESIs via minimally invasive lumbar decompression. Both ESIs and mild offer interventional pain treatment options for LSS patients experiencing neurogenic claudication refractory to more conservative therapies. Prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled, clinical study. Twenty-six interventional pain management centers throughout the United States. To compare patient outcomes following treatment with either mild or ESIs in LSS patients with neurogenic claudication and having verified ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. Study participants include Medicare beneficiaries who meet study inclusion/exclusion criteria. Eligible patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one of 2 treatment arms, mild (treatment group) or ESI (control group). Each study group will include approximately 150 patients who have experienced neurogenic claudication symptoms for ≥ 3 months duration who have failed to respond to physical therapy, home exercise programs, and oral analgesics. Those randomized to mild are prohibited from receiving lumbar ESIs during the study period, while those randomized to ESI may receive ESIs up to 4 times per year. Patient assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months, and one year. An additional assessment will be conducted for the mild patient group at 2 years. The primary efficacy outcome measure is the proportion of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) responders from baseline to one year follow-up in the treatment group (mild) versus the control group (ESI). ODI responders are defined as those patients achieving the validated Minimal Important Change (MIC) of ≥ 10 point improvement in ODI from baseline to follow-up as a clinically significant efficacy threshold. Secondary

  14. Random fiber lasers based on artificially controlled backscattering fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daru; Wang, Xiaoliang; She, Lijuan; Qiang, Zexuan; Yu, Zhangwei

    2017-10-01

    The random fiber laser (RFL) which is a milestone in laser physics and nonlinear optics, has attracted considerable attention recently. Most previous RFLs are based on distributed feedback of Rayleigh scattering amplified through stimulated Raman/Brillouin scattering effect in single mode fibers, which required long-distance (tens of kilometers) single mode fibers and high threshold up to watt-level due to the extremely small Rayleigh scattering coefficient of the fiber. We proposed and demonstrated a half-open cavity RFL based on a segment of a artificially controlled backscattering SMF(ACB-SMF) with a length of 210m, 310m or 390m. A fiber Bragg grating with the central wavelength of 1530nm and a segment of ACB-SMF forms the half-open cavity. The proposed RFL achieves the threshold of 25mW, 30mW and 30mW, respectively. Random lasing at the wavelength of 1530nm and the extinction ratio of 50dB is achieved when a segment of 5m EDF is pumped by a 980nm LD in the RFL. Another half-open cavity RFL based on a segment of a artificially controlled backscattering EDF(ACBS-EDF) is also demonstrated without an ACB-SMF. The 3m ACB-EDF is fabricated by using the femtosecond laser with pulse energy of 0.34mJ which introduces about 50 reflectors in the EDF. Random lasing at the wavelength of 1530nm is achieved with the output power of 7.5mW and the efficiency of 1.88%. Two novel RFLs with much short cavities have been achieved with low threshold and high efficiency.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Meditation for Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason C.; Manber, Rachel; Segal, Zindel; Xia, Yinglin; Shapiro, Shauna; Wyatt, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic insomnia. Design: Three-arm, single-site, randomized controlled trial. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: Fifty-four adults with chronic insomnia. Interventions: Participants were randomized to either mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBTI), or an eight-week self-monitoring (SM) condition. Measurements and Results: Patient-reported outcome measures were total wake time (TWT) from sleep diaries, the pre-sleep arousal scale (PSAS), measuring a prominent waking correlate of insomnia, and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to determine remission and response as clinical endpoints. Objective sleep measures were derived from laboratory polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. Linear mixed models showed that those receiving a meditation-based intervention (MBSR or MBTI) had significantly greater reductions on TWT minutes (43.75 vs 1.09), PSAS (7.13 vs 0.16), and ISI (4.56 vs 0.06) from baseline-to-post compared to SM. Post hoc analyses revealed that each intervention was superior to SM on each of the patient-reported measures, but no significant differences were found when comparing MBSR to MBTI from baseline-to-post. From baseline to 6-month follow-up, MBTI had greater reductions in ISI scores than MBSR (P insomnia and could provide an alternative to traditional treatments for insomnia. Trial Registration: Mindfulness-Based Approaches to Insomnia: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00768781 Citation: Ong JC, Manber R, Segal Z, Xia Y, Shapiro S, Wyatt JK. A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation for chronic insomnia. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1553-1563. PMID:25142566

  16. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance...... increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests...... that the playful interaction with the modular interactive tiles has a significant effect even after a very short time of play. The average total training time to obtain the statistical significant effect amounted to just 2h45m....

  17. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A

    2013-12-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience. In a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial, 1,222 healthy nulliparous women were allocated to one of three groups during pregnancy: A hypnosis group participating in three 1-hour sessions teaching self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and Mindfulness, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Wijmas Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) was used to measure the childbirth experience 6 weeks postpartum. The intention-to-treat analysis indicated that women in the hypnosis group experienced their childbirth as better compared with the other two groups (mean W-DEQ score of 42.9 in the Hypnosis group, 47.2 in the Relaxation group, and 47.5 in the Care as usual group (p = 0.01)). The tendency toward a better childbirth experience in the hypnosis group was also seen in subgroup analyses for mode of delivery and for levels of fear. In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis improved the women's childbirth experience. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Random fiber laser based on artificially controlled backscattering fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Daru; Li, Haitao; She, Lijuan; Wu, Qiong

    2018-01-10

    The random fiber laser (RFL), which is a milestone in laser physics and nonlinear optics, has attracted considerable attention recently. Most previously reported RFLs are based on distributed feedback of Rayleigh scattering amplified through the stimulated Raman-Brillouin scattering effect in single-mode fibers, which require long-distance (tens of kilometers) single-mode fibers and high threshold, up to watt level, due to the extremely small Rayleigh scattering coefficient of the fiber. We proposed and demonstrated a half-open-cavity RFL based on a segment of an artificially controlled backscattering single-mode fiber with a length of 210 m, 310 m, or 390 m. A fiber Bragg grating with a central wavelength of 1530 nm and a segment of artificially controlled backscattering single-mode fiber fabricated by using a femtosecond laser form the half-open cavity. The proposed RFL achieves thresholds of 25 mW, 30 mW, and 30 mW, respectively. Random lasing at a wavelength of 1530 nm and extinction ratio of 50 dB is achieved when a segment of 5 m erbium-doped fiber is pumped by a 980 nm laser diode in the RFL. A novel RFL with many short cavities has been achieved with low threshold.

  19. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Massage in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Niemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth affects about 10% of infants born in the United States. Massage therapy is being used in some neonatal intensive care units for its potential beneficial effects on preterm infants. This article reviews published randomized controlled trials on the effects of massage in preterm infants. Most studies evaluating the effect of massage in weight gain in premature infants suggest a positive effect on weight gain. Increase in vagal tone has been reported in infants who receive massage and has been suggested as a possible mechanism for improved weight gain. More studies are needed on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of massage therapy on weight gain in preterm infants. While some trials suggest improvements in developmental scores, decreased stress behavior, positive effects on immune system, improved pain tolerance and earlier discharge from the hospital, the number of such studies is small and further evidence is needed. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed on the effects of massage in preterm infants.

  20. Moxibustion for breech version: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittier, Marie-Julia; Pichon, Michelle; Dong, Hongguang; Irion, Olivier; Boulvain, Michel

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the efficacy of moxibustion between 34 and 38 weeks of gestation to facilitate the cephalic version of fetuses in breech presentation and the acceptability of this method by women. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in a Swiss university hospital maternity unit. We proposed to stimulate the acupoint BL 67 by moxibustion daily for 2 weeks for 212 consenting women between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation with a single fetus in breech presentation. We did the intervention three times weekly in the hospital and a teaching session and information leaflet on the technique for additional daily therapy at home. The control group received expectant management care. The availability of external cephalic version was maintained for both groups. The main outcome measure was the comparison of the proportion of women with cephalic presentation at delivery. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, except more nulliparous women were randomized to moxibustion. The percentage of versions was similar between groups: 18% in the moxibustion group compared with 16% in the control group (relative risk 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 2.03). Adjustment for the imbalance in parity did not change these results. The frequency of cesarean delivery was similar (64% compared with 58% in the moxibustion group and the control group, respectively). Acceptability of the intervention and women's perceptions of moxibustion were favorable. We observed no beneficial effect of moxibustion to facilitate the cephalic version of fetuses in breech presentation. Despite this lack of proven effectiveness, women had positive opinions on the intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov,NCT00890474. I.

  1. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  2. A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert P; Highfield, David A; Jaffe, Jerome H; Brady, Joseph V; Butler, Carol B; Rouse, Charles O; Callaman, Jason M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Battjes, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Effective alternatives to long waiting lists for entry into methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment are needed to reduce the complications of continuing heroin dependence and to increase methadone treatment entry. To compare the effectiveness of interim methadone maintenance with that of the usual waiting list condition in facilitating methadone treatment entry and reducing heroin and cocaine use and criminal behavior. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial using 2 conditions, with treatment assignment on a 3:2 basis to interim maintenance-waiting list control. A methadone treatment program in Baltimore. A total of 319 individuals meeting the criteria for current heroin dependence and methadone maintenance treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to either interim methadone maintenance, consisting of an individually determined methadone dose and emergency counseling only for up to 120 days, or referral to community-based methadone treatment programs. Entry into comprehensive methadone maintenance therapy at 4 months from baseline; self-reported days of heroin use, cocaine use, and criminal behavior; and number of urine drug test results positive for heroin and cocaine at the follow-up interview conducted at time of entry into comprehensive methadone treatment (or at 4 months from baseline for participants who did not enter regular treatment). Significantly more participants assigned to the interim methadone maintenance condition entered comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment by the 120th day from baseline (75.9%) than those assigned to the waiting list control condition (20.8%) (Pmethadone maintenance results in a substantial increase in the likelihood of entry into comprehensive treatment, and is an effective means of reducing heroin use and criminal behavior among opioid-dependent individuals awaiting entry into a comprehensive methadone treatment program.

  3. Combination Analgesia for Neonatal Circumcision: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara-Chami, Rana; Lakissian, Zavi; Charafeddine, Lama; Milad, Nadine; El-Hout, Yaser

    2017-12-01

    There is no consensus on the most effective pain management for neonatal circumcision. We sought to compare different modalities. This is a double-blinded randomized controlled trial comparing 3 combination analgesics used during circumcision (EMLA + sucrose; EMLA + sucrose + dorsal penile nerve block [DPNB]; EMLA + sucrose + ring block [RB]) with the traditional topical analgesic cream EMLA alone. The trial was set in the normal nursery of a teaching hospital. The sample included 70 healthy male newborns, randomly assigned to intervention and control groups at a 2:1 ratio. Infants were videotaped (face and torso) during the procedure for assessment of pain by 2 blinded, independent reviewers. The primary outcome measure is the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale score. Secondary outcomes include heart rate, oxygen saturation, and crying time. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale scores were significantly lower in the intervention groups (EMLA + sucrose, mean [SD]: 3.1 [1.33]; EMLA + sucrose + DPNB: 3 [1.33]; EMLA + sucrose + RB: 2.45 [1.27]) compared with the control (5.5 [0.53]). Between-group analyses showed RB + EMLA + sucrose to be significantly more effective than EMLA + sucrose; EMLA + sucrose + DPNB ( P = .009 and P = .002, respectively). Interrater reliability was κ = 0.843. Significant increase in heart rate (139.27 [9.63] to 163 [13.23] beats per minute) and crying time (5.78 [6.4] to 45.37 [12.39] seconds) were noted in the EMLA group. During neonatal circumcision in boys, the most effective analgesia is RB combined with oral sucrose and EMLA cream. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Christian Lein Størmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  5. A randomized controlled trial to promote volunteering in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Random and externally controlled occurrences of Dansgaard–Oeschger events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lohmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO events constitute the most pronounced mode of centennial to millennial climate variability of the last glacial period. Since their discovery, many decades of research have been devoted to understand the origin and nature of these rapid climate shifts. In recent years, a number of studies have appeared that report emergence of DO-type variability in fully coupled general circulation models via different mechanisms. These mechanisms result in the occurrence of DO events at varying degrees of regularity, ranging from periodic to random. When examining the full sequence of DO events as captured in the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP ice core record, one can observe high irregularity in the timing of individual events at any stage within the last glacial period. In addition to the prevailing irregularity, certain properties of the DO event sequence, such as the average event frequency or the relative distribution of cold versus warm periods, appear to be changing throughout the glacial. By using statistical hypothesis tests on simple event models, we investigate whether the observed event sequence may have been generated by stationary random processes or rather was strongly modulated by external factors. We find that the sequence of DO warming events is consistent with a stationary random process, whereas dividing the event sequence into warming and cooling events leads to inconsistency with two independent event processes. As we include external forcing, we find a particularly good fit to the observed DO sequence in a model where the average residence time in warm periods are controlled by global ice volume and cold periods by boreal summer insolation.

  7. Random and externally controlled occurrences of Dansgaard-Oeschger events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Johannes; Ditlevsen, Peter D.

    2018-05-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events constitute the most pronounced mode of centennial to millennial climate variability of the last glacial period. Since their discovery, many decades of research have been devoted to understand the origin and nature of these rapid climate shifts. In recent years, a number of studies have appeared that report emergence of DO-type variability in fully coupled general circulation models via different mechanisms. These mechanisms result in the occurrence of DO events at varying degrees of regularity, ranging from periodic to random. When examining the full sequence of DO events as captured in the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice core record, one can observe high irregularity in the timing of individual events at any stage within the last glacial period. In addition to the prevailing irregularity, certain properties of the DO event sequence, such as the average event frequency or the relative distribution of cold versus warm periods, appear to be changing throughout the glacial. By using statistical hypothesis tests on simple event models, we investigate whether the observed event sequence may have been generated by stationary random processes or rather was strongly modulated by external factors. We find that the sequence of DO warming events is consistent with a stationary random process, whereas dividing the event sequence into warming and cooling events leads to inconsistency with two independent event processes. As we include external forcing, we find a particularly good fit to the observed DO sequence in a model where the average residence time in warm periods are controlled by global ice volume and cold periods by boreal summer insolation.

  8. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested.

  9. Reiki for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefi, Nassim; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2008-11-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common, chronic pain condition for which patients frequently use complementary and alternative medicine, including Reiki. Our objective was to determine whether Reiki is beneficial as an adjunctive fibromyalgia treatment. This was a factorial designed, randomized, sham-controlled trial in which participants, data collection staff, and data analysts were blinded to treatment group. The study setting was private medical offices in the Seattle, Washington metropolitan area. The subjects were comprised 100 adults with fibromyalgia. Four (4) groups received twice-weekly treatment for 8 weeks by either a Reiki master or actor randomized to use direct touch or no touch (distant therapy). The primary outcome was subjective pain as measured by visual analog scale at weeks 4, 8, and 20 (3 months following end of treatment). Secondary outcomes were physical and mental functioning, medication use, and health provider visits. Participant blinding and adverse effects were ascertained by self-report. Improvement between groups was examined in an intention-to-treat analysis. Neither Reiki nor touch had any effect on pain or any of the secondary outcomes. All outcome measures were nearly identical among the 4 treatment groups during the course of the trial. Neither Reiki nor touch improved the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Energy medicine modalities such as Reiki should be rigorously studied before being recommended to patients with chronic pain symptoms.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of nasolaryngoscopy training techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Leung, Billy C; Sharma, Rishi; Nazeer, Sammar; McFerran, Don J

    2014-09-01

    Flexible nasolaryngoscopy is an essential skill for otolaryngology trainees to develop, but there is a lack of standardized training for this procedure. The aim of this study was to assess whether using training on a realistic human mannequin together with structured video feedback improved trainees' performance at flexible nasolaryngoscopy. Three-armed, single-blinded, randomized controlled study. Thirty-six junior doctors and final-year medical students were randomly allocated to one of three groups. All received a lecture and video presentation on flexible nasolaryngoscopy. One group received additional tuition using a training mannequin. The last group received mannequin training and feedback on their performance using a video recording. The trainees then undertook flexible nasolaryngoscopy on volunteers with these endoscopies recorded. Blinded observers scored the trainees on a range of objective and subjective measures. The volunteers who were also blinded to the candidates' training scored the comfort of the procedure. Adding mannequin training showed a trend toward improvement of performance but did not reach statistical significance. Mannequin training together with video feedback produced significant performance improvement in patient comfort (P = .0065), time to reach the vocal folds (P = .017), and global ability (P = .0006). Inter-rater reliability was excellent with P training using an anatomically correct model of the upper airway together with formalized video-assisted feedback on that training is a simple and effective way to improve endoscopy skills prior to starting flexible nasolaryngoscopy on patients. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease: a controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, A R; Manfredi, V; Parente, A; Schifano, L; Oliveri, S; Avanzini, G

    2017-08-01

    This controlled randomized single-blind study evaluated the effects of cognitive training (CT), compared to active music therapy (AMT) and neuroeducation (NE), on initiative in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secondarily, we explored the effects of CT on episodic memory, mood, and social relationships. Thirty-nine AD patients were randomly assigned to CT, AMT, or NE. Each treatment lasted 3 months. Before, at the end, and 3 months after treatment, neuropsychological tests and self-rated scales assessed initiative, episodic memory, depression, anxiety, and social relationships. At the end of the CT, initiative significantly improved, whereas, at the end of AMT and NE, it was unchanged. Episodic memory showed no changes at the end of CT or AMT and a worsening after NE. The rates of the patients with clinically significant improvement of initiative were greater after CT (about 62%) than after AMT (about 8%) or NE (none). At the 3-month follow-up, initiative and episodic memory declined in all patients. Mood and social relationships improved in the three groups, with greater changes after AMT or NE. In patients with mild to moderate AD, CT can improve initiative and stabilize memory, while the non-cognitive treatments can ameliorate the psychosocial aspects. The combining of CT and non-cognitive treatments may have useful clinical implications.

  12. Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells the story of Jens Glad Balchen (1926-2009, a Norwegian research scientist and engineer who is widely regarded as the father of Engineering Cybernetics in Norway. In 1954, he founded what would later become the Department of Automatic Control at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. This name was changed to the Department of Engineering Cybernetics in 1972 to reflect the broader efforts being made, not only within the purely technical disciplines, but also within biology, oceanography and medicine. Balchen established an advanced research community in cybernetics in postwar Norway, whose applications span everything from the process industry and positioning of ships to control of fish and lobster farming. He was a chief among the tribe of Norwegian cybernetics engineers and made a strong impact on his colleagues worldwide. He planted the seeds of a whole generation of Norwegian industrial companies through his efforts of seeking applications for every scientific breakthrough. His strength and his wisdom in combination with his remarkable stubbornness gave extraordinary results.

  13. Acupuncture as pain relief during delivery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... with the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Use of pharmacological and invasive methods was significantly lower in the acupuncture group (acupuncture vs traditional, p acupuncture vs TENS, p = 0.031). Pain scores were comparable. Acupuncture did not influence the duration of labor or the use of oxytocin...

  14. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China.

  15. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect.

  16. Neighborhood effects in a behavioral randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient's CRC test use. This potentially important spatially-varying covariate has not previously been considered in a RCT. Our results suggest that future RCTs of health behavior interventions should assess potential social interactions between participants, which may cause intervention arm contamination and may bias effect size estimation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of results of randomized controlled trials of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, M.L.; Powe, N.R.; Steinberg, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors review 100 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examine the safety or efficacy of new low-osmolality contrast media (LOM) and focus on the 43 RCTs judged to be of the highest quality. These RCTs showed no consistent differences in nephrotoxicity between high- and low-osmolality contrast media. Certain cardiovascular parameters were altered less with low-osmolality agents during intracardiac injection, but the clinical significance of these differences in unclear. Heat and pain sensations occurred less often with low-osmolality contrast media. No differences were noted in the incidence of nausea, vomiting, urticaria, or bronchospasm. Even with numerous RCTs comparing these media, physicians still must make economically significant choices about contrast media without sufficient data about their relative safety

  18. Biofeedback Training in Crisis Managers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Brunner, B; Oppenrieder, S; Duschek, S

    2017-06-01

    Working in crisis environments represents a major challenge, especially for executive personnel engaged in directing disaster operations, i.e. crisis managers. Crisis management involves operating under conditions of extreme stress resulting, for instance, from high-level decision-making, principal responsibility for personnel, multitasking or working under conditions of risk and time pressure. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a newly developed biofeedback training procedure based on electrodermal activity, especially designed for the target group of crisis managers. The training comprised exercises promoting acquisition of control over sympathetic arousal under resting conditions and during exposure to visual, acoustic and cognitive stressors resembling situations related to crisis management. In a randomized controlled design, 36 crisis managers were assigned to either a biofeedback training group or waiting list control group. Subjective stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. In the training group, stress level markedly decreased; the decrease remained stable at follow-up 2 months after the training. The results indicate that biofeedback training in crisis management is an effective method for stress management that may help to reduce vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and stress-related disease.

  19. Qigong and Fibromyalgia: Randomized Controlled Trials and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sawynok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Qigong is currently considered as meditative movement, mindful exercise, or complementary exercise and is being explored for relief of symptoms in fibromyalgia. Aim. This narrative review summarizes randomized controlled trials, as well as additional studies, of qigong published to the end of 2013 and discusses relevant methodological issues. Results. Controlled trials indicate regular qigong practice (daily, 6–8 weeks produces improvements in core domains for fibromyalgia (pain, sleep, impact, and physical and mental function that are maintained at 4–6 months compared to wait-list subjects or baselines. Comparisons with active controls show little difference, but compared to baseline there are significant and comparable effects in both groups. Open-label studies provide information that supports benefit but remain exploratory. An extension trial and case studies involving extended practice (daily, 6–12 months indicate marked benefits but are limited by the number of participants. Benefit appears to be related to amount of practice. Conclusions. There is considerable potential for qigong to be a useful complementary practice for the management of fibromyalgia. However, there are unique methodological challenges, and exploration of its clinical potential will need to focus on pragmatic issues and consider a spectrum of trial designs. Mechanistic considerations need to consider both system-wide and more specific effects.

  20. Random number generation as an index of controlled processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Saleem, T; Ho, Aileen K; Dirnberger, Georg; Fuller, R

    2006-07-01

    Random number generation (RNG) is a functionally complex process that is highly controlled and therefore dependent on Baddeley's central executive. This study addresses this issue by investigating whether key predictions from this framework are compatible with empirical data. In Experiment 1, the effect of increasing task demands by increasing the rate of the paced generation was comprehensively examined. As expected, faster rates affected performance negatively because central resources were increasingly depleted. Next, the effects of participants' exposure were manipulated in Experiment 2 by providing increasing amounts of practice on the task. There was no improvement over 10 practice trials, suggesting that the high level of strategic control required by the task was constant and not amenable to any automatization gain with repeated exposure. Together, the results demonstrate that RNG performance is a highly controlled and demanding process sensitive to additional demands on central resources (Experiment 1) and is unaffected by repeated performance or practice (Experiment 2). These features render the easily administered RNG task an ideal and robust index of executive function that is highly suitable for repeated clinical use. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Wellness program for anesthesiology residents: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, H; Snow, D L; Ottenheimer, S; Dai, F; Kain, Z N

    2012-10-01

    Multiple reports illustrate the deleterious effects of stress on physicians' mental and physical health, as well as on patient care. This study evaluates the effects of a wellness program on anesthesiology residents' well-being. Sixty residents were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) wellness intervention group, (2) no-treatment control with release time, and (3) no-treatment control with routine duties. Coping, stressors, social support, psychological symptoms, and alcohol and tobacco use were measured using a pre-test-post-test design. Residents in the wellness program reported significantly fewer stressors in their role as parent, increased social support at work, greater problem-solving coping, and less anxiety as compared with one or both of the control groups. Findings related to reducing avoidance coping and alcohol consumption also were suggestive of positive intervention effects. An intervention to increase the use of active coping and social support, to reduce reliance on avoidance coping, and to decrease work and family stressors had an overall pattern of beneficial effects on residents' well-being. The importance of offering such programs during residency training, ways to strengthen intervention effectiveness, and areas for future research are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  2. Behavioral neurocardiac training in hypertension: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Robert P; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J; Kamath, Markad V; Picton, Peter E; Chessex, Caroline; Hiscock, Natalie; Powell, Jonathan; Catt, Michael; Hendrickx, Hilde; Talbot, Duncan; Chen, Maggie H

    2010-04-01

    It is not established whether behavioral interventions add benefit to pharmacological therapy for hypertension. We hypothesized that behavioral neurocardiac training (BNT) with heart rate variability biofeedback would reduce blood pressure further by modifying vagal heart rate modulation during reactivity and recovery from standardized cognitive tasks ("mental stress"). This randomized, controlled trial enrolled 65 patients with uncomplicated hypertension to BNT or active control (autogenic relaxation), with six 1-hour sessions over 2 months with home practice. Outcomes were analyzed with linear mixed models that adjusted for antihypertensive drugs. BNT reduced daytime and 24-hour systolic blood pressures (-2.4+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.009, and -2.1+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.03, respectively) and pulse pressures (-1.7+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.004, and -1.4+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.02, respectively). No effect was observed for controls (P>0.10 for all indices). BNT also increased RR-high-frequency power (0.15 to 0.40 Hz; P=0.01) and RR interval (P0.10). In contrast to relaxation therapy, BNT with heart rate variability biofeedback modestly lowers ambulatory blood pressure during wakefulness, and it augments tonic vagal heart rate modulation. It is unknown whether efficacy of this treatment can be improved with biofeedback of baroreflex gain. BNT, alone or as an adjunct to drug therapy, may represent a promising new intervention for hypertension.

  3. Infant Sleep After Immunization: Randomized Controlled Trial of Prophylactic Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Caryl L.; Lynch, Mary; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of acetaminophen and axillary temperature responses on infant sleep duration after immunization. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial to compare the sleep of 70 infants monitored by using ankle actigraphy for 24 hours before and after their first immunization series at ∼2 months of age. Mothers of infants in the control group received standard care instructions from their infants' health care provider, and mothers of infants in the intervention group were provided with predosed acetaminophen and instructed to administer a dose 30 minutes before the scheduled immunization and every 4 hours thereafter, for a total of 5 doses. Infant age and birth weight and immunization factors, such as acetaminophen use and timing of administration, were evaluated for changes in infant sleep times after immunization. RESULTS: Sleep duration in the first 24 hours after immunization was increased, particularly for infants who received their immunizations after 1:30 pm and for those who experienced elevated temperatures in response to the vaccines. Infants who received acetaminophen at or after immunization had smaller increases in sleep duration than did infants who did not. However, acetaminophen use was not a significant predictor of sleep duration when other factors were controlled. CONCLUSIONS: If further research confirms the relationship between time of day of vaccine administration, increased sleep duration after immunization, and antibody responses, then our findings suggest that afternoon immunizations should be recommended to facilitate increased sleep in the 24 hours after immunization, regardless of acetaminophen administration. PMID:22123869

  4. Acupuncture Improves Peri-menopausal Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Cong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhen; Yuan, Lu-Hua; Xie, Chen; Yang, Wen-Jia; Yu, Xin-Tong; Yu, Huan; Chen, Yun-Fei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of peri-menopausal insomnia (PMI). Design: A randomized, participant-blind, placebo-controlled trial consisted of the acupuncture group (n = 38) and placebo-acupuncture group (n = 38). Setting: A tertiary teaching and general hospital. Participants: 76 peri-menopausal women with insomnia disorder based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition. Interventions: A 10-session of acupuncture at bilateral Shenshu (BL 23) and Ganshu (BL 18) with unilateral Qimen (LR 14) and Jingmen (GB 25) or Streitberger needles at the same acupoints was performed for over 3 weeks. Measurements: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) with over-night polysomnography (PSG) exam were completed at baseline and post-treatment. After the treatments, the decrease from baseline in PSQI score was 8.03 points in acupuncture group and 1.29 points in placebo-acupuncture group. The change from baseline in ISI score was 11.35 points in acupuncture group and 2.87 points in placebo-acupuncture group. In PSG data, acupuncture significantly improved the sleep efficiency and total sleep time, associated with less wake after sleep onset and lower percent stage 1 after the treatment. No significant differences from baseline to post-treatment were found in placebo-acupuncture group. Acupuncture can contribute to a clinically relevant improvement in the short-term treatment of PMI, both subjectively and objectively. Acupuncture for peri-menopause insomnia: a randomized controlled trial, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=12118 ChiCTR-IPR-15007199, China. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Outcomes in registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials of patient education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Pino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life. METHODS: On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1 patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2 surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333 of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623 of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150 used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150 as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150, primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61 of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59 in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22 in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs.

  6. Hockey Fans in Training: A Pilot Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Robert J; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; DE Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Bartol, Cassandra; Danylchuk, Karen; Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Bunn, Christopher; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2017-12-01

    Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) is a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program. We investigated 1) feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight and obese men into a pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial and 2) potential for Hockey FIT to lead to weight loss and improvements in other outcomes at 12 wk and 12 months. Male fans of two ice hockey teams (35-65 yr; body mass index ≥28 kg·m) located in Ontario (Canada) were randomized to intervention (Hockey FIT) or comparator (wait-list control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-wk active phase (weekly, coach-led group meetings including provision of dietary information, practice of behavior change techniques, and safe exercise sessions plus incremental pedometer walking) and a 40-wk minimally supported phase (smartphone app for sustaining physical activity, private online social network, standardized e-mails, booster session/reunion). Measurement at baseline and 12 wk (both groups) and 12 months (intervention group only) included clinical outcomes (e.g., weight) and self-reported physical activity, diet, and self-rated health. Eighty men were recruited in 4 wk; trial retention was >80% at 12 wk and >75% at 12 months. At 12 wk, the intervention group lost 3.6 kg (95% confidence interval, -5.26 to -1.90 kg) more than the comparator group (P < 0.001) and maintained this weight loss to 12 months. The intervention group also demonstrated greater improvements in other clinical measures, physical activity, diet, and self-rated health at 12 wk; most sustained to 12 months. Results suggest feasible recruitment/retention of overweight and obese men in the Hockey FIT program. Results provide evidence for the potential effectiveness of Hockey FIT for weight loss and improved health in at-risk men and, thus, evidence to proceed with a definitive trial.

  7. Acupuncture intervention in ischemic stroke: a randomized controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peng-Fei; Kong, Li; Ni, Li-Wei; Guo, Hai-Long; Yang, Sha; Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Long; Guo, Jia-Kui; Xiong, Jie; Zhen, Zhong; Shi, Xue-Min

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and few pharmacological therapies show benefits in ischemic stroke. In this study, 290 patients aged 40-75 years old with first onset of acute ischemic stroke (more than 24 hours but within 14 days) were treated with standard treatments, and then were randomly allocated into an intervention group (treated with resuscitating acupuncture) and a control group (treated using sham-acupoints). Primary outcome measures included Barthel Index (BI), relapse and death up to six months. For the 290 patients in both groups, one case in the intervention group died, and two cases in the control group died from the disease (p = 0.558). Six patients of the 144 cases in the intervention group had relapse, whereas 34 of 143 patients had relapse in the control group (p two groups, respectively (p two groups for the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), not at two weeks (7.03 ± 3.201 vs. 8.13 ± 3.634; p = 0.067), but at four weeks (4.15 ± 2.032 vs. 6.35 ± 3.131, p Stroke Scale (CSS) at four weeks showed more improvement in the intervention group than that in the control group (9.40 ± 4.51 vs. 13.09 ± 5.80, p Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL) at six months was higher in the intervention group (166.63 ± 45.70) than the control group (143.60 ± 50.24; p < 0.01). The results of this clinical trial showed a clinically relevant decrease of relapse in patients treated with resuscitating acupuncture intervention by the end of six months, compared with needling at the sham-acupoints. The resuscitating acupuncture intervention could also improve self-care ability and quality of life, evaluated with BI, NIHSS, CSS, Oxford Handicap Scale (OHS), and SS-QOL.

  8. Mixing Methods in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Validation, Contextualization, Triangulation, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Dorner, Lisa; Barnes, Carol; May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Camburn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we described how we mixed research approaches in a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) of a school principal professional development program. Using examples from our study we illustrate how combining qualitative and quantitative data can address some key challenges from validating instruments and measures of mediator variables to…

  9. ORCHIDS: an Observational Randomized Controlled Trial on Childhood Differential Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhangur Rabia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central tenet in developmental psychopathology is that childhood rearing experiences have a major impact on children’s development. Recently, candidate genes have been identified that may cause children to be differentially susceptible to these experiences (i.e., susceptibility genes. However, our understanding of the differential impact of parenting is limited at best. Specifically, more experimental research is needed. The ORCHIDS study will investigate gene-(gene-environment interactions to obtain more insight into a moderating effects of polymorphisms on the link between parenting and child behavior, and b behavioral mechanisms that underlie these gene-(gene-environment interactions in an experimental design. Methods/Design The ORCHIDS study is a randomized controlled trial, in which the environment will be manipulated with an intervention (i.e., Incredible Years parent training. In a screening, families with children aged 4–8 who show mild to (subclinical behavior problems will be targeted through community records via two Dutch regional healthcare organizations. Assessments in both the intervention and control condition will be conducted at baseline (i.e., pretest, after 6 months (i.e., posttest, and after 10 months (i.e., follow-up. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that investigates gene-(gene-environment interactions in the development of child behavior. Two hypotheses will be tested. First, we expect that children in the intervention condition who carry one or more susceptibility genes will show significantly lower levels of problem behavior and higher levels of prosocial behavior after their parent(s received the Incredible Years training, compared to children without these genes, or children in the control group. Second, we expect that children carrying one or more susceptibility genes will show a heightened sensitivity to changes in parenting behaviors, and

  10. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  11. A school intervention for mental health literacy in adolescents: effects of a non-randomized cluster controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background “Mental health for everyone” is a school program for mental health literacy and prevention aimed at secondary schools (13–15 yrs). The main aim was to investigate whether mental health literacy, could be improved by a 3-days universal education programme by: a) improving naming of symptom profiles of mental disorder, b) reducing prejudiced beliefs, and c) improving knowledge about where to seek help for mental health problems. A secondary aim was to investigate whether adolescent sex and age influenced the above mentioned variables. A third aim was to investigate whether prejudiced beliefs influenced knowledge about available help. Method This non-randomized cluster controlled trial included 1070 adolescents (53.9% boys, M age14 yrs) from three schools in a Norwegian town. One school (n = 520) received the intervention, and two schools (n = 550) formed the control group. Pre-test and follow-up were three months apart. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations models were employed for analysis. Results Mental health literacy improved contingent on the intervention, and there was a shift towards suggesting primary health care as a place to seek help. Those with more prejudiced beleifs did not suggest places to seek help for mental health problems. Generally, girls and older adolescents recognized symptom profiles better and had lower levels of prejudiced beliefs. Conclusions A low cost general school program may improve mental health literacy in adolescents. Gender specific programs and attention to the age and maturity of the students should be considered when mental health literacy programmes are designed and tried out. Prejudice should be addressed before imparting information about mental health issues. PMID:24053381

  12. Gender-specific effects of physical activity on children's academic performance: The Active Smarter Kids cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resaland, G K; Moe, V F; Bartholomew, J B; Andersen, L B; McKay, H A; Anderssen, S A; Aadland, E

    2018-01-01

    Active learning combines academic content with physical activity (PA) to increase child PA and academic performance, but the impact of active learning is mixed. It may be that this is a moderated relationship in which active learning is beneficial for only some children. This paper examine the impact of baseline academic performance and gender as moderators for the effects of active learning on children's academic performance. In the ASK-study, 1129 fifth-graders from 57 Norwegian elementary schools were randomized by school to intervention or control in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015. Academic performance in numeracy, reading, and English was measured and a composite score was calculated. Children were split into low, middle and high academic performing tertiles. 3-way-interactions for group (intervention, control)∗gender (boys, girls)∗academic performance (tertiles) were investigated using mixed model regression. There was a significant, 3-way-interaction (p=0.044). Both boys (ES=0.11) and girls (ES=0.18) in the low performing tertile had a similar beneficial trend. In contrast, middle (ES=0.03) and high performing boys (ES=0.09) responded with small beneficial trends, while middle (ES=-0.11) and high performing girls (ES=-0.06) responded with negative trends. ASK was associated with a significant increase in academic performance for low performing children. It is likely that active learning benefited children most in need of adapted education but it may have a null or negative effect for those girls who are already performing well in the sedentary classroom. Differences in gendered responses are discussed as a possible explanation for these results. Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  14. Psychosocial benefits of workplace physical exercise: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-10-10

    While benefits of workplace physical exercise on physical health is well known, little is known about the psychosocial effects of such initiatives. This study evaluates the effect of workplace versus home-based physical exercise on psychosocial factors among healthcare workers. A total of 200 female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1) from 18 departments at three hospitals were cluster-randomized to 10 weeks of: 1) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure time for 10 min 5 days per week or 2) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 10 min 5 days per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise. Vitality and mental health (SF-36, scale 0-100), psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ, scale 0-100), work- and leisure disability (DASH, 0-100), control- (Bournemouth, scale 0-10) and concern about pain (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, scale 0-10) were assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. Vitality as well as control and concern about pain improved more following WORK than HOME (all p health remained unchanged. Between-group differences at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) were 7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3 to 10] for vitality, -0.8 [95% CI -1.3 to -0.3] for control of pain and -0.9 [95% CI -1.4 to -0.5] for concern about pain, respectively. Performing physical exercise together with colleagues during working hours was more effective than home-based exercise in improving vitality and concern and control of pain among healthcare workers. These benefits occurred in spite of increased work pace. NCT01921764 at ClinicalTrials.gov . Registered 10 August 2013.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Eczema Care Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Corinna J; Tran, Katherine D; Jorina, Maria; Wenren, Larissa M; Hawryluk, Elena B; Toomey, Sara L

    2018-03-02

    To test whether an eczema care plan (ECP) would improve provider documentation and management, decrease eczema severity, and increase patient quality of life (QOL) in the pediatric primary care setting. We conducted a randomized controlled trial from June 2015 to September 2016 at a large hospital-based pediatric primary care clinic. Participants included children from 1 month to 16 years of age with a diagnosis of eczema. The intervention group received the ECP and the control group received usual care. Both groups completed a validated eczema severity scale (Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure [POEM]) and a QOL scale (Infant's Dermatitis Quality of Life Index [IDQOL]) or Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index [CDLQI]) before the visit and again ~1 month later. A total of 211 caregivers completed both the pre- and postintervention surveys (100 control group and 111 intervention group [94% completion]). Intervention group providers were more likely to recommend a comprehensive "step-up" plan (88%) vs 28%; P plan to families (80%) vs 2%; P improved between the pre- and postintervention periods. However, there was not a significant difference between the groups on either measure: POEM difference -0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.2 to 1.7; IDQOL difference -0.1, 95% CI -1.8 to 1.6; CDLQI difference 0.8, 95% CI -0.9 to 2.6. Intervention group providers documented more comprehensive eczema care than control group providers. Although patients improved on all measures in the postintervention period, the ECP did not augment that improvement. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  17. Norwegian Foreign Direct Investment : Destination Singapore Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasli, Siri Hetle

    2009-01-01

    The growth and spread of FDI during the 20th century has been described as a significant economic-geographic development. Norwegian FDI has been increasing since the 1980s, but the large scale of it is a new phenomenon. Singapore is now the third most important host country for Norwegian FDI. This thesis is a study of Norwegian FDI in Singapore, and the research question is: Which economic and political factors do Norwegian companies regard as important when investing abroad, and to what degr...

  18. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  19. Biofeedback treatment for Tourette syndrome: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoko; Cavanna, Andrea E; Critchley, Hugo D; Stern, Jeremy J; Robertson, Mary M; Joyce, Eileen M

    2014-03-01

    To study the clinical effectiveness of biofeedback treatment in reducing tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Despite advances in the pharmacologic treatment of patients with Tourette syndrome, many remain troubled by their tics, which may be resistant to multiple medications at tolerable doses. Electrodermal biofeedback is a noninvasive biobehavioral intervention that can be useful in managing neuropsychiatric and neurologic conditions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of electrodermal biofeedback training in 21 patients with Tourette syndrome. After training the patients for 3 sessions a week over 4 weeks, we observed a significant reduction in tic frequency and improved indices of subjective well-being in both the active-biofeedback and sham-feedback (control) groups, but there was no difference between the groups in these measurements. Furthermore, the active-treatment group did not demonstrably learn to reduce their sympathetic electrodermal tone using biofeedback. Our findings indicate that this form of biofeedback training was unable to produce a clinical effect greater than placebo. The main confounding factor appeared to be the 30-minute duration of the training sessions, which made it difficult for patients to sustain a reduction in sympathetic tone when their tics themselves were generating competing phasic electrodermal arousal responses. Despite a negative finding in this study, electrodermal biofeedback training may have a role in managing tics if optimal training schedules can be identified.

  20. Rural providers’ access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants’ attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA, paired t tests, and Cohen’s d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results: Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to ‘‘about right amounts of information’’ at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen’s d increase of þ1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users’ reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen’s d. Conclusion: Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine.

  1. Dextrose Prolotherapy for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Patterson, Jeffrey J.; Mundt, Marlon; Kijowski, Richard; Grettie, Jessica; Segal, Neil A.; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Knee osteoarthritis is a common, debilitating chronic disease. Prolotherapy is an injection therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conducted a 3-arm, blinded (injector, assessor, injection group participants), randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis. METHODS Ninety adults with at least 3 months of painful knee osteoarthritis were randomized to blinded injection (dextrose prolotherapy or saline) or at-home exercise. Extra- and intra-articular injections were done at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed additional treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Exercise participants received an exercise manual and in-person instruction. Outcome measures included a composite score on the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; 100 points); knee pain scale (KPS; individual knee), post-procedure opioid medication use, and participant satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analysis using analysis of variance was used. RESULTS No baseline differences existed between groups. All groups reported improved composite WOMAC scores compared with baseline status (P dextrose prolotherapy improved more (P <.05) at 52 weeks than did scores for patients receiving saline and exercise (score change: 15.3 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 3.4, and 8.2 ± 3.3 points, respectively) and exceeded the WOMAC-based minimal clinically important difference. Individual knee pain scores also improved more in the prolotherapy group (P = .05). Use of prescribed postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of injection-related pain. Satisfaction with prolotherapy was high. There were no adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Prolotherapy resulted in clinically meaningful sustained improvement of pain, function, and stiffness scores for knee osteoarthritis compared with blinded saline injections and at-home exercises. PMID:23690322

  2. Rural providers' access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laura J.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Warner, Teddy D.; Stromberg, Tiffany L.; Trost, Jaren; Jelinek, Devin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC) resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants' attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t tests, and Cohen's d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to “about right amounts of information” at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen's d increase of +1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users' reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen's d. Conclusion Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine. PMID:26807050

  3. Developing scenarios for the Norwegian travel industry 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anniken Enger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The Norwegian travel industry faces decline in important international tourism segments and needs an industry wide and future‐oriented strategy to face these challenges. Accordingly, a common understanding of future drivers and different scenarios for the industry is needed. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Using the process of scenario analysis and drawing upon the involvement of the tourism industry, this paper describes the method, drivers, scenarios, and implications. Findings – The research identified six important drivers with predictable outcomes: uneven global economic development, digitalization, climate change, consumer demand – return on time, centralization, and demography. The Norwegian economy and Norwegian politics were the two drivers that stood out as the most significant for the tourism industry, with a very uncertain outcome, and constituted the two axes of the scenarios. This resulted in four scenarios: Money Rules, The Urban Diamond, Opportunities for All, and Master Plan. Practical implications – The four scenarios represent different economic value of international tourism in Norway. The Opportunities for All and Master Plan scenarios represent the greatest economic value for Norwegian tourism. They indicate great opportunities for tourism to become the “new oil” in Norway if the oil economy declines. The two scenarios differ with respect to the degree of governance control vs market liberalization. The scenarios will be used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the tourism industry, and to further explore how governance control and market liberalization may be combined. Originality/value – The research identified six drivers which are significant for the Norwegian tourism industry. This resulted in four scenarios which are used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the industry.

  4. Does occupational therapy reduce the need for surgery in carpometacarpal osteoarthritis? Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeken, Ingvild; Eide, Ruth Else Mehl; Klokkeide, Åse; Matre, Karin Hoegh; Olsen, Monika; Mowinckel, Petter; Andreassen, Øyvor; Darre, Siri; Nossum, Randi

    2016-11-15

    In the absence of disease-modifying interventions for hand osteoarthritis (OA), occupational therapy (OT) comprising patient education, hand exercises, assistive devices and orthoses are considered as core treatments, whereas surgery are recommended for those with severe carpometacarpal (CMC1) OA. However, even though CMC1 surgery may reduce pain and improve function, the risk of adverse effects is high, and randomized controlled trials comparing surgery with non-surgical interventions are warranted. This multicentre randomized controlled trial aims to address the following questions: Does OT in the period before surgical consultation reduce the need for surgery in CMC1-OA? What are patients' motivation and reasons for wanting CMC1-surgery? Are there differences between departments of rheumatology concerning the degree of CMC1-OA, pain and functional limitations in patients who are referred for surgical consultation for CMC1 surgery? Is the Measure of Activity Performance of the Hand a reliable measure in patients with CMC1-OA? Do patients with CMC1-OA with and without affection of the distal and proximal interphalangeal finger joints differ with regard to symptoms and function? Do the degree of CMC1-OA, symptoms and functional limitations significantly predict improvement after 2 years following OT or CMC1-surgery? Is OT more cost-effective than surgery in the management of CMC1-OA? All persons referred for surgical consultation due to their CMC1-OA at one of three Norwegian departments of rheumatology are invited to participate. Those who agree attend a clinical assessment and report their symptoms, function and motivation for surgery in validated outcome measures, before they are randomly selected to receive OT in the period before surgical consultation (estimated n = 180). The primary outcome will be the number of participants in each group who have received surgical treatment after 2 years. Secondary and tertiary outcomes are pain, function and

  5. Encouraging GPs to undertake screening and a brief intervention in order to reduce problem drinking: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Jørgen; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Beich, Anders

    1999-01-01

    intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services......intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services...

  6. Job maintenance through Supported Employment PLUS: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Torge Telle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sickness absence from work due to experienced distress and mental health issues has continuously increased over the past years in Germany. To investigate how this alarming development can be counteracted, we conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating a job coaching intervention to maintain the working capacity of members of staff and ultimately prevent sickness absence. Our sample included N = 99 employees who reported mental distress due to work-related problems. The intervention group (n = 58 received between 8 and 12 individual job coaching sessions in which they worked with a professional job coach to reduce their mental distress. The control group (n = 41 received a brochure about mental distress. Data were collected before the start of the study, at the end of the job coaching intervention and at a 3-month follow up. These data included the number of sickness absence days as the primary outcome and questionnaire measures to assess burnout indicators, life satisfaction and work-related experiences and behaviors. Compared with the control group, the results indicated no reduction in sickness absence in the intervention group but fewer depressive symptoms, a heightened ability of the participants to distance themselves from work, more experience of work-related success, less depletion of emotional resources and a greater satisfaction with life when participants had received the job coaching. Thus, although we could not detect a reduction in sickness absence between the groups, job coaching was shown to be a viable intervention technique to benefit employees by contributing to re-establish their mental health. We discuss the implications of the study and outline future research.

  7. Job Maintenance through Supported Employment PLUS: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telle, Nils-Torge; Moock, Jörn; Heuchert, Sandra; Schulte, Vivian; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Sickness absence from work due to experienced distress and mental health issues has continuously increased over the past years in Germany. To investigate how this alarming development can be counteracted, we conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating a job coaching intervention to maintain the working capacity of members of staff and ultimately prevent sickness absence. Our sample included N  = 99 employees who reported mental distress due to work-related problems. The intervention group ( n  = 58) received between 8 and 12 individual job coaching sessions in which they worked with a professional job coach to reduce their mental distress. The control group ( n  = 41) received a brochure about mental distress. Data were collected before the start of the study, at the end of the job coaching intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. These data included the number of sickness absence days as the primary outcome and questionnaire measures to assess burnout indicators, life satisfaction, and work-related experiences and behaviors. Compared with the control group, the results indicated no reduction in sickness absence in the intervention group but fewer depressive symptoms, a heightened ability of the participants to distance themselves from work, more experience of work-related success, less depletion of emotional resources, and a greater satisfaction with life when participants had received the job coaching. Thus, although we could not detect a reduction in sickness absence between the groups, job coaching was shown to be a viable intervention technique to benefit employees by contributing to re-establish their mental health. We discuss the implications of the study and outline future research.

  8. Treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Newnham, Ian A; Ball, Colleen M; Wright, Michelle; Pennell, Craig E; Swain, Jonathan; Doherty, Dorota A

    2009-12-01

    To investigate whether treating periodontal disease prevents preterm birth and other major complications of pregnancy. This single-center trial was conducted across six obstetric sites in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Pregnant women identified by history to be at risk (n=3,737) were examined for periodontal disease. Approximately 1,000 women with periodontal disease were allocated at random to receive periodontal treatment commencing around 20 weeks of gestation (n=542) or 6 weeks after the pregnancy was completed (controls; n=540). The treatment included mechanical removal of oral biofilms together with oral hygiene instruction and motivation at a minimum of three weekly visits, with further visits if required. There were no differences between the control and treatment groups in preterm birth (9.3% compared with 9.7%, odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI 0.7-1.58], P=.81), birth weight (3,450 compared with 3,410 g, P=.12), preeclampsia (4.1% compared with 3.4%, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.44-1.56, P=.55), or other obstetric endpoints. There were four unexplained stillbirths in the control group and no pregnancy losses in the treated group (P=.12). Measures of fetal and neonatal well-being were similar in the two groups, including abnormalities in fetal heart rate recordings (P=.26), umbilical artery flow studies (P=.96), and umbilical artery blood gas values (P=.37). The periodontal treatment was highly successful in improving health of the gums (Pperiodontal disease during pregnancy in this population prevents preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, or preeclampsia. Periodontal treatment was not hazardous to the women or their pregnancies. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00133926. I.

  9. Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Cooley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anxiety is a serious personal health condition and represents a substantial burden to overall quality of life. Additionally anxiety disorders represent a significant cost to the health care system as well as employers through benefits coverage and days missed due to incapacity. This study sought to explore the effectiveness of naturopathic care on anxiety symptoms using a randomized trial. METHODS: Employees with moderate to severe anxiety of longer than 6 weeks duration were randomized based on age and gender to receive naturopathic care (NC (n = 41 or standardized psychotherapy intervention (PT (n = 40 over a period of 12 weeks. Blinding of investigators and participants during randomization and allocation was maintained. Participants in the NC group received dietary counseling, deep breathing relaxation techniques, a standard multi-vitamin, and the herbal medicine, ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (300 mg b.i.d. standardized to 1.5% with anolides, prepared from root. The PT intervention received psychotherapy, and matched deep breathing relaxation techniques, and placebo. The primary outcome measure was the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and secondary outcome measures included the Short Form 36 (SF-36, Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI, and Measure Yourself Medical Outcomes Profile (MY-MOP to measure anxiety, mental health, and quality of life respectively. Participants were blinded to the placebo-controlled intervention. RESULTS: Seventy-five participants (93% were followed for 8 or more weeks on the trial. Final BAI scores decreased by 56.5% (p<0.0001 in the NC group and 30.5% (p<0.0001 in the PT group. BAI group scores were significantly decreased in the NC group compared to PT group (p = 0.003. Significant differences between groups were also observed in mental health, concentration, fatigue, social functioning, vitality, and overall quality of life with the NC group exhibiting greater clinical benefit. No serious adverse reactions

  10. Treatment for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, N.; Basharat, A.; Fahim, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of multiple doses of vaginal clindamycin with a single oral dose of secnidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Study Design: Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa Foundation Community Health Center, from March 2012 till February 2015. Methodology: After obtaining written informed consent, a pelvic examination was performed for the confirmation of symptoms of milky white vaginal discharge on speculum examination, positive Amine test and presence of clue cells on microscopy. Pregnant women, known diabetes or any immunocompromised condition, were excluded. Blinding of the patient, doctor, and the pharmacist was done. Study cohort was then divided into two groups, Group A received medicine pack A which contained active clindamycin and placebo oral preparation, whereas group B was given pack B which contained active 2-gm secnidazole with placebo vaginal cream. Primary outcome and therapeutic success were defined by correction of two out of three (normal Nugent score, negative Amine test, and no milky white discharge) on day 15. Results: At 15th day of treatment, 96.6% participants in vaginal clindamycin group (Group A), recovered from the bacterial vaginosis; whereas, (group B) 23% patients were cured in oral secnidazole group. Conclusion: Multiple doses of vaginal clindamycin are superior to single dose of oral secnidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. (author)

  11. Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and infant morbidity: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Romieu, Isabelle; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) influence immune function and inflammation; however, the influence of maternal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity is unknown. We investigated the effects of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women received daily supplementation with 400 mg of DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks' gestation through parturition. In infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months, caregivers reported the occurrence of common illness symptoms in the preceding 15 days. Data were available at 1, 3, and 6 months for 849, 834, and 834 infants, respectively. The occurrence of specific illness symptoms did not differ between groups; however, the occurrence of a combined measure of cold symptoms was lower in the DHA group at 1 month (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-1.00). At 1 month, the DHA group experienced 26%, 15%, and 30% shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, respectively, but 22% longer duration of rash (all P ≤ .01). At 3 months, infants in the DHA group spent 14% less time ill (P DHA group experienced 20%, 13%, 54%, 23%, and 25% shorter duration of fever, nasal secretion, difficulty breathing, rash, and "other illness," respectively, but 74% longer duration of vomiting (all P DHA supplementation during pregnancy decreased the occurrence of colds in children at 1 month and influenced illness symptom duration at 1, 3, and 6 months.

  12. Measurement model choice influenced randomized controlled trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Rosalie; Fox, Jean-Paul; Apeldoorn, Adri; Twisk, Jos

    2016-11-01

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), outcome variables are often patient-reported outcomes measured with questionnaires. Ideally, all available item information is used for score construction, which requires an item response theory (IRT) measurement model. However, in practice, the classical test theory measurement model (sum scores) is mostly used, and differences between response patterns leading to the same sum score are ignored. The enhanced differentiation between scores with IRT enables more precise estimation of individual trajectories over time and group effects. The objective of this study was to show the advantages of using IRT scores instead of sum scores when analyzing RCTs. Two studies are presented, a real-life RCT, and a simulation study. Both IRT and sum scores are used to measure the construct and are subsequently used as outcomes for effect calculation. The bias in RCT results is conditional on the measurement model that was used to construct the scores. A bias in estimated trend of around one standard deviation was found when sum scores were used, where IRT showed negligible bias. Accurate statistical inferences are made from an RCT study when using IRT to estimate construct measurements. The use of sum scores leads to incorrect RCT results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrical stimulation enhances sensory recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua N; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Chan, K Ming

    2015-06-01

    Brief postsurgical electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models following axotomy and crush injury. However, whether this treatment is beneficial in humans with sensory nerve injury has not been tested. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that ES would enhance sensory nerve regeneration following digital nerve transection compared to surgery alone. Patients with complete digital nerve transection underwent epineurial nerve repair. After coaptation of the severed nerve ends, fine wire electrodes were implanted before skin closure. Postoperatively, patients were randomized to receiving either 1 hour of 20Hz continuous ES or sham stimulation in a double-blinded manner. Patients were followed monthly for 6 months by a blinded evaluator to monitor physiological recovery of spatial discrimination, pressure threshold, and quantitative small fiber sensory testing. Functional disability was measured using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were recruited, with 18 in each group. Those in the ES group showed consistently greater improvements in all sensory modalities by 5 to 6 months postoperatively compared to the controls. Although there was a trend of greater functional improvements in the ES group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Postsurgical ES enhanced sensory reinnervation in patients who sustained complete digital nerve transection. The conferred benefits apply to a wide range of sensory functions. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  14. Validating Obstetric Emergency Checklists using Simulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Komal; Rivera-Chiauzzi, Enid Y; Lee, Colleen; Shepard, Cynthia; Bernstein, Peter S; Moore-Murray, Tanya; Smith, Heather; Nathan, Lisa; Walker, Katie; Chazotte, Cynthia; Goffman, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Background The World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist has demonstrated significant reduction in surgical morbidity. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists District II Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI) safety bundles include eclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) checklists. Objective To determine whether use of the SMI checklists during simulated obstetric emergencies improved completion of critical actions and to elicit feedback to facilitate checklist revision. Study Design During this randomized controlled trial, teams were assigned to use a checklist during one of two emergencies: eclampsia and PPH. Raters scored teams on critical step completion. Feedback was elicited through structured debriefing. Results In total, 30 teams completed 60 scenarios. For eclampsia, trends toward higher completion were noted for blood pressure and airway management. For PPH, trends toward higher completion rates were noted for PPH stage assessment and fundal massage. Feedback resulted in substantial checklist revision. Participants were enthusiastic about using checklists in a clinical emergency. Conclusion Despite trends toward higher rates of completion of critical tasks, teams using checklists did not approach 100% task completion. Teams were interested in the application of checklists and provided feedback necessary to substantially revise the checklists. Intensive implementation planning and training in use of the revised checklists will result in improved patient outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Efficacy of Exercise for Menopausal Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Larson, Joseph C.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Roberts, Melanie; Caan, Bette J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine efficacy of exercise training for alleviating vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. METHODS Late-peri and post-menopausal, sedentary women with frequent vasomotor symptoms (VMS) participated in a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites: 106 to exercise and 142 to usual activity. The exercise intervention consisted of individual, facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week for 12 weeks. VMS frequency and bother were recorded on daily diaries at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Intent to treat analyses compared between group differences in changes in VMS frequency and bother, sleep symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire). RESULTS At the end of week 12, changes in VMS frequency in the exercise group (mean change of −2.4/day, 95% CI −3.0, −1.7) and VMS bother (mean change of −0.5 on a 4 point scale, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4) were not significantly different from those in the control group (−2.6 VMS/day, 95% CI −3.2, −2.0, p=0.43; −0.5 points, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4, p=0.75). The exercise group reported greater improvement in insomnia symptoms (p=0.03), subjective sleep quality (p=0.01), and depressive symptoms (p=0.04), but differences were small and not statistically significant when p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results were similar when considering treatment-adherent women only. CONCLUSION These findings provide strong evidence that 12-weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise does not alleviate VMS but may result in small improvements in sleep quality, insomnia and depression in midlife, sedentary women. PMID:23899828

  16. Inadequate description of educational interventions in ongoing randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The registration of clinical trials has been promoted to prevent publication bias and increase research transparency. Despite general agreement about the minimum amount of information needed for trial registration, we lack clear guidance on descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions in trial registries. We aimed to evaluate the quality of registry descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs of patient education. Methods On 6 May 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the 10 trial registries accessible through the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included trials evaluating an educational intervention (that is, designed to teach or train patients about their own health and dedicated to participants, their family members or home caregivers. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data related to the description of the experimental intervention, the centers, and the caregivers. Results We selected 268 of 642 potentially eligible studies and appraised a random sample of 150 records. All selected trials were registered in 4 registers, mainly ClinicalTrials.gov (61%. The median [interquartile range] target sample size was 205 [100 to 400] patients. The comparator was mainly usual care (47% or active treatment (47%. A minority of records (17%, 95% CI 11 to 23% reported an overall adequate description of the intervention (that is, description that reported the content, mode of delivery, number, frequency, duration of sessions and overall duration of the intervention. Further, for most reports (59%, important information about the content of the intervention was missing. The description of the mode of delivery of the intervention was reported for 52% of studies, the number of sessions for 74%, the frequency of sessions for 58%, the duration of each session for 45% and the overall duration for 63

  17. Can Parallelingualism Save Norwegian from Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Language extinction is one of the most pressing issues in linguistics today, and the literature is full of discussion about how to combat it. Statements that Norwegian is amongst the languages that are already extinct are merely examples of a widespread tendency in the literature towards erroneous information about Norwegian. Nonetheless, there is…

  18. Norwegian gas supplies for the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the Norwegian key role in the European gas market with increasing market shares. The supply capacity in a long-term perspective can be 65-70 bcm/year or more if export prices support the development of new and more costly gas resources. The main challenges for the Norwegian shelf are discussed. 5 figs

  19. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  20. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  1. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. https://www.norad.no/en/front/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative · View all initiatives.

  2. Synthesis for robust synchronization of chaotic systems under output feedback control with multiple random delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Guilin; Wang Qingguo; Lin Chong; Han Xu; Li Guangyao

    2006-01-01

    Synchronization under output feedback control with multiple random time delays is studied, using the paradigm in nonlinear physics-Chua's circuit. Compared with other synchronization control methods, output feedback control with multiple random delay is superior for a realistic synchronization application to secure communications. Sufficient condition for global stability of delay-dependent synchronization is established based on the LMI technique. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach, in spite of the random delays

  3. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway's largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Fundamental movement skills in preschoolers: a randomized controlled trial targeting object control proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Faude, O; Hagmann, S; Roth, R; Zahner, L

    2015-11-01

    Adequately developed fundamental movement skills, particularly object control dimensions, are considered essential to learn more complex movement patterns and to increase the likelihood to successfully participate in organized and non-organized sports during later years. Thus, the present randomized controlled trial aimed at improving object control dimensions at an early state in a kindergarten setting. Catching, throwing, kicking, rolling and stationary dribbling were assessed via gross motor development 2 (TGMD-2) testing in 41 normally developed preschoolers. On a cluster-randomized basis [strata: age, sex and body mass index (BMI)], three kindergartens were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 22, INT, age: 4.6 ± 1.0 years; BMI: 16.2 ± 1.1 kg/m(2) ) and three to a control group (n = 19, CON: age: 4.5 ± 1.2 years; BMI: 16.8 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ). Twelve structured training sessions were given within 6 weeks (12 sessions). The total training volume was 330 min. Moderate time × group interaction were observed for the total sum score (Δ+22%, P = 0.05) and dribbling (Δ+41%, P = 0.002). Adjusting for baseline differences analyses of covariance did not affect these results. Interestingly, likely to most likely practically worthwhile effects were detected for the total sum score, catching and dribbling. Object control dimensions such as dribbling and catching that apparently rely on rhythmical movement patterns and anticipatory eye-hand coordination seem to benefit from short-term object control training. These skills are considered important for successful team-sport participation and appropriate sportive motor development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  6. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  7. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Evelim L F D; Carvalho, Celso R F; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  8. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  9. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Pselective mutism, even if further studies are needed. The present study identifies in psychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  10. Difficulties in recruitment for a randomized controlled trial involving hysterosalpingography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmerhorst Frans M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of hysterosalpingography (HSG as routine investigation in the fertility work-up prior to laparoscopy and dye had been assessed in a randomized controlled trial. Recruiting subjects to the study was more difficult than anticipated. The objective of this study was to explore possible reasons for non-participation in the trial. Methods All newly referred subfertile women admitted to the Reproductive Medicine Clinic of Leiden University Medical Centre between 1 April 1997 and 31 December 1999, were eligible for the study. The reasons for non-participation were evaluated by scrutinizing the medical records. Results Out of 759 women, a total of 127 (17% agreed to participate in the trial. The most important reason for non-participation was because of exclusion criteria (73%. Other reasons were inattentive clinicians (3% and patient-associated reasons (24%. Patient refusal and indecisiveness to enroll in the study were the most common patient-associated reasons. The most frequently stated reason for trial refusal was reluctance to undergo laparoscopy and dye mainly due to issues related to anesthesia and scheduling of procedure. Conclusion Almost three-quarters of recruitment difficulties in this study were due to unavoidable reasons. To overcome the remaining avoidable reasons for non-participation, attention should be paid to appropriate instruction of the study protocol to the participating doctors and to provide adequate information, in layman's terms, to the patients. Reminding patients by notes or telephone calls for attending the clinic are helpful. It may be contingent upon tracing the reasons of clinicians and patients for non-participation to improve enrollment during a trial.

  11. On reporting results from randomized controlled trials with recurrent events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev Boris G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based medicine has been advanced by the use of standards for reporting the design and methodology of randomized controlled trials (RCT. Indeed, without this information it is difficult to assess the quality of evidence from an RCT. Although a variety of statistical methods are available for the analysis of recurrent events, reporting the effect of an intervention on outcomes that recur is an area that remains poorly understood in clinical research. The purpose of this paper is to outline guidelines for reporting results from RCTs where the outcome of interest is a recurrent event. Methods We used a simulation study to relate an event process and results from analyses of the gamma-Poisson, independent-increment, conditional, and marginal Cox models. We reviewed the utility of regression models for the rate of a recurrent event by articulating the associated study questions, preenting the risk sets, and interpreting the regression coefficients. Results Based on a single data set produced by simulation, we reported and contrasted results from statistical methods for evaluating treatment effect from an RCT with a recurrent outcome. We showed that each model has different study questions, assumptions, risk sets, and rate ratio interpretation, and so inferences should consider the appropriateness of the model for the RCT. Conclusion Our guidelines for reporting results from an RCT involving a recurrent event suggest that the study question and the objectives of the trial, such as assessing comparable groups and estimating effect size, should determine the statistical methods. The guidelines should allow clinical researchers to report appropriate measures from an RCT for understanding the effect of intervention on the occurrence of a recurrent event.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of storytelling as a communication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hartling

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stories may be an effective tool to communicate with patients because of their ability to engage the reader. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of story booklets compared to standard information sheets for parents of children attending the emergency department (ED with a child with croup. METHODS: Parents were randomized to receive story booklets (n=208 or standard information sheets (n=205 during their ED visit. The primary outcome was change in anxiety between triage to ED discharge as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted at 1 and 3 days after discharge, then every other day until 9 days (or until resolution of symptoms, and at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included: expected future anxiety, event impact, parental knowledge, satisfaction, decision regret, healthcare utilization, time to symptom resolution. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of change in parental anxiety between recruitment and ED discharge (change of 5 points for the story group vs. 6 points for the comparison group, p=0.78. The story group showed significantly greater decision regret regarding their decision to go to the ED (p<0.001: 6.7% of the story group vs. 1.5% of the comparison group strongly disagreed with the statement "I would go for the same choice if I had to do it over again". The story group reported shorter time to resolution of symptoms (mean 3.7 days story group vs. 4.0 days comparison group, median 3 days both groups; log rank test, p=0.04. No other outcomes were different between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Stories about parent experiences managing a child with croup did not reduce parental anxiety. The story group showed significantly greater decision regret and quicker time to resolution of symptoms. Further research is needed to better understand whether stories can be effective in improving patient-important outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  13. Minimal stimulation IVF vs conventional IVF: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, John J.; Merhi, Zaher; Yang, Mingxue; Bodri, Daniel; Chavez-Badiola, Alejandro; Repping, Sjoerd; van Wely, Madelon

    2016-01-01

    Minimal stimulation in vitro fertilization (mini-in vitro fertilization) is an alternative in vitro fertilization treatment protocol that may reduce ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, multiple pregnancy rates, and cost while retaining high live birth rates. We performed a randomized noninferiority

  14. A randomized controlled trial comparing haemodynamic stability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Thirty two elderly patients scheduled for lower limb or pelvic surgery under spinal anaesthesia were randomized .... conducted and that their personal information would be kept .... file which was stored in a lockable filing drawer.

  15. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  16. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  17. Lansoprazole for children with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Janet T; Wise, Robert A; Gold, Benjamin D; Blake, Kathryn; Brown, Ellen D; Castro, Mario; Dozor, Allen J; Lima, John J; Mastronarde, John G; Sockrider, Marianna M; Teague, W Gerald

    2012-01-25

    Asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is prevalent in children with asthma. Untreated GER has been postulated to be a cause of inadequate asthma control in children despite inhaled corticosteroid treatment, but it is not known whether treatment with proton pump inhibitors improves asthma control. To determine whether lansoprazole is effective in reducing asthma symptoms in children without overt GER. The Study of Acid Reflux in Children With Asthma, a randomized, masked, placebo-controlled, parallel clinical trial that compared lansoprazole with placebo in children with poor asthma control who were receiving inhaled corticosteroid treatment. Three hundred six participants enrolled from April 2007 to September 2010 at 19 US academic clinical centers were followed up for 24 weeks. A subgroup had an esophageal pH study before randomization. Participating children were randomly assigned to receive either lansoprazole, 15 mg/d if weighing less than 30 kg or 30 mg/d if weighing 30 kg or more (n = 149), or placebo (n = 157). The primary outcome measure was change in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score (range, 0-6; a 0.5-unit change is considered clinically meaningful). Secondary outcome measures included lung function measures, asthma-related quality of life, and episodes of poor asthma control. The mean age was 11 years (SD, 3 years). The mean difference in change (lansoprazole minus placebo) in the ACQ score was 0.2 units (95% CI, 0.0-0.3 units). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean difference in change for the secondary outcomes of forced expiratory volume in the first second (0.0 L; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.1 L), asthma-related quality of life (-0.1; 95% CI, -0.3 to 0.1), or rate of episodes of poor asthma control (relative risk, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5). Among the 115 children with esophageal pH studies, the prevalence of GER was 43%. In the subgroup with a positive pH study, no treatment effect for lansoprazole vs placebo was observed for

  18. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magura Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two did not have a significant effect

  19. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two) did not have a significant effect on any outcomes

  20. The reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempesi, Evangelia; Koletsi, Despina; Fleming, Padhraig S; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2014-06-01

    Accurate trial reporting facilitates evaluation and better use of study results. The objective of this article is to investigate the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in leading orthodontic journals, and to explore potential predictors of improved reporting. The 50 most recent issues of 4 leading orthodontic journals until November 2013 were electronically searched. Reporting quality assessment was conducted using the modified CONSORT statement checklist. The relationship between potential predictors and the modified CONSORT score was assessed using linear regression modeling. 128 RCTs were identified with a mean modified CONSORT score of 68.97% (SD = 11.09). The Journal of Orthodontics (JO) ranked first in terms of completeness of reporting (modified CONSORT score 76.21%, SD = 10.1), followed by American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO) (73.05%, SD = 10.1). Journal of publication (AJODO: β = 10.08, 95% CI: 5.78, 14.38; JO: β = 16.82, 95% CI: 11.70, 21.94; EJO: β = 7.21, 95% CI: 2.69, 11.72 compared to Angle), year of publication (β = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.67 for each additional year), region of authorship (Europe: β = 5.19, 95% CI: 1.30, 9.09 compared to Asia/other), statistical significance (significant: β = 3.10, 95% CI: 0.11, 6.10 compared to non-significant) and methodologist involvement (involvement: β = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.66, 9.54 compared to non-involvement) were all significant predictors of improved modified CONSORT scores in the multivariable model. Additionally, median overall Jadad score was 2 (IQR = 2) across journals, with JO (median = 3, IQR = 1) and AJODO (median = 3, IQR = 2) presenting the highest score values. The reporting quality of RCTs published in leading orthodontic journals is considered suboptimal in various CONSORT areas. This may have a bearing in trial result interpretation and use in clinical decision making and evidence- based orthodontic treatment interventions. Copyright

  1. FIT for FUNCTION: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julie; Tang, Ada; Guyatt, Gordon; Thabane, Lehana; Xie, Feng; Sahlas, Demetrios; Hart, Robert; Fleck, Rebecca; Hladysh, Genevieve; Macrae, Louise

    2018-01-15

    The current state of evidence suggests that community-based exercise programs are beneficial in improving impairment, function, and health status, and are greatly needed for persons with stroke. However, limitations of these studies include risk of bias, feasibility, and cost issues. This single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 216 participants with stroke will compare the effectiveness of a 12-week YMCA community-based wellness program (FIT for FUNCTION) specifically designed for community-dwelling persons with stroke to persons who receive a standard YMCA membership. The primary outcome will be community reintegration using the Reintegration to Normal Living Index at 12 and 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measurement of physical activity level using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity and accelerometry; balance using the Berg Balance Scale; lower extremity function using the Short Physical Performance Battery; exercise capacity using the 6-min walk test; grip strength and isometric knee extension strength using hand held dynamometry; and health-related quality of life using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimension Questionnaire. We are also assessing cardiovascular health and lipids; glucose and inflammatory markers will be collected following 12-h fast for total cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. Self-efficacy for physical activity will be assessed with a single question and self-efficacy for managing chronic disease will be assessed using the Stanford 6-item Scale. The Patient Activation Measure will be used to assess the patient's level of knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. Healthcare utilization and costs will be evaluated. Group, time, and group × time interaction effects will be estimated using generalized linear models for continuous variables, including relevant baseline variables as covariates in the analysis that differ appreciably between groups at baseline. Cost data will be treated

  2. Heterogenic control groups in randomized, controlled, analgesic trials of total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anders P; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative analgesic interventions are often tested adjunct to basic non-opioid analgesics in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Consequently, treatment in control groups, and possible assay sensitivity, differs between trials. We hypothesized that postoperative opioid requirements and pain intensities vary between different control groups in analgesic trials. Control groups from RCTs investigating analgesic interventions after total hip and knee arthroplasty were categorized based on standardized basic analgesic treatment. Morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively, and resting pain scores at 6 and 24 hours for subgroups of basic treatments, were compared with ANOVA. In an additional analysis, we compared pain and opioid requirements in trials where a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was administered as an intervention with trial where NSAID was administered in a control group. We included 171 RCTs employing 28 different control groups with large variability in pain scores and opioid requirements. Four types of control groups (comprising 78 trials) were eligible for subgroup comparisons. These subgroups received "opioid" alone, "NSAID + opioid", "acetaminophen + opioid", or "NSAID + acetaminophen + opioid", respectively. Morphine consumption and pain scores varied substantially between these groups, with no consistent superior efficacy in any subgroup. Additionally, trials administering NSAID as an intervention demonstrated lower pain scores and opioid requirements than trials where NSAID was administered in a control group. Analgesic treatment in RCT control groups varies considerably. Control groups receiving various combinations of opioid, NSAID and acetaminophen did not differ consistently in pain and opioid requirements. Pain and opioid requirements were lower in trials administering NSAID as an intervention compared with trials administering NSAID in a control group.

  3. No Randomization? No Problem: Experimental Control and Random Assignment in Single Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    Randomization of large number of participants to different treatment groups is often not a feasible or preferable way to answer questions of immediate interest to professional practice. Single case designs (SCDs) are a class of research designs that are experimental in nature but require only a few participants, all of whom receive the…

  4. Predictors of Missed Research Appointments in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie J.E. Becker

    2014-09-01

     Younger patients with no college education, who believe their health can be controlled, are more likely to miss a research appointment when enrolled in a randomized placebo injection-controlled trial. 

  5. The Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese Families: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Sin, Tammy C. S.; Choi, Siu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the efficacy of the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Hong Kong Chinese families, using randomized controlled trial design. Methods: The participants included 111 Hong Kong Chinese parents with children aged 2--7 years old, who were randomized into the intervention group (n = 54) and control group (n…

  6. Randomized controlled study of CBT in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Naveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.

  7. Implementing international osteoarthritis treatment guidelines in primary health care: study protocol for the SAMBA stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, Nina; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Dziedzic, Krysia; Moseng, Tuva; Aas, Eline; Andreassen, Øyvor; Mdala, Ibrahim; Natvig, Bård; Røtterud, Jan Harald; Schjervheim, Unni-Berit; Vlieland, Thea Vliet; Hagen, Kåre Birger

    2015-12-02

    Previous research indicates that people with osteoarthritis (OA) are not receiving the recommended and optimal treatment. Based on international treatment recommendations for hip and knee OA and previous research, the SAMBA model for integrated OA care in Norwegian primary health care has been developed. The model includes physiotherapist (PT) led patient OA education sessions and an exercise programme lasting 8-12 weeks. This study aims to assess the effectiveness, feasibility, and costs of a tailored strategy to implement the SAMBA model. A cluster randomized controlled trial with stepped wedge design including an effect, process, and cost evaluation will be conducted in six municipalities (clusters) in Norway. The municipalities will be randomized for time of crossover from current usual care to the implementation of the SAMBA model by a tailored strategy. The tailored strategy includes interactive workshops for general practitioners (GPs) and PTs in primary care covering the SAMBA model for integrated OA care, educational material, educational outreach visits, feedback, and reminder material. Outcomes will be measured at the patient, GP, and PT levels using self-report, semi-structured interviews, and register based data. The primary outcome measure is patient-reported quality of care (OsteoArthritis Quality Indicator questionnaire) at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include referrals to PT, imaging, and referrals to the orthopaedic surgeon as well as participants' treatment satisfaction, symptoms, physical activity level, body weight, and self-reported and measured lower limb function. The actual exposure to the tailor made implementation strategy and user experiences will be measured in a process evaluation. In the economic evaluation, the difference in costs of usual OA care and the SAMBA model for integrated OA care will be compared with the difference in health outcomes and reported by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The results

  8. The Norwegian hydrogen guide 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies are maturing at rapid speed, something we experience in Norway and around the globe every day as demonstration projects for vehicles and infrastructure expand at a rate unthinkable of only a few years ago. An example of this evolution happened in Norway in 2009 when two hydrogen filling stations were opened on May the 11th, making it possible to arrange the highly successful Viking Rally from Oslo to Stavanger with more than 40 competing teams. The Viking Rally demonstrated for the public that battery and hydrogen-electric vehicles are technologies that exist today and provide a real alternative for zero emission mobility in the future. The driving range of the generation of vehicles put into demonstration today is more than 450 km on a full hydrogen tank, comparable to conventional vehicles. As the car industry develops the next generation of vehicles for serial production within the next 4-5 years, we will see vehicles that are more robust, more reliable and cost effective. Also on the hydrogen production and distribution side progress is being made, and since renewable hydrogen from biomass and electrolysis is capable of making mobility basically emission free, hydrogen can be a key component in combating climate change and reducing local emissions. The research Council of Norway has for many years supported the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and The Research Council firmly believes that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies play a crucial role in the energy system of the future. Hydrogen is a flexible transportation fuel, and offers possibilities for storing and balancing intermittent electricity in the energy system. Norwegian companies, research organisations and universities have during the last decade developed strong capabilities in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, capabilities it is important to further develop so that Norwegian actors can supply high class hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to global markets

  9. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Liv M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a result of non-availability due to logistic problems. Remifentanil, a synthetic opioid, is very suitable for patient controlled analgesia. Recent studies show that epidural analgesia is superior to remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in terms of pain intensity score; however there was no difference in satisfaction with pain relief between both treatments. Methods/design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of remifentanil patient controlled analgesia compared to epidural analgesia. We hypothesize that remifentanil patient controlled analgesia is as effective in improving pain appreciation scores as epidural analgesia, with lower costs and easier achievement of 24 hours availability of pain relief for women in labour and efficient pain relief for those with a contraindication for epidural analgesia. Eligible women will be informed about the study and randomized before active labour has started. Women will be randomly allocated to a strategy based on epidural analgesia or on remifentanil patient controlled analgesia when they request pain relief during labour. Primary outcome is the pain appreciation score, i.e. satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcome parameters are costs, patient satisfaction, pain scores (pain-intensity, mode of delivery and maternal and neonatal side effects. The economic analysis will be performed from a short-term healthcare perspective. For both strategies the cost of perinatal care for mother and child, starting at the onset of labour and ending ten days after delivery, will be registered and compared. Discussion This study, considering cost

  10. Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisel Susanne F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800 will be randomized to receive either 1 their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA, or 2 only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO. Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663

  11. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    PI, program manager, and two research assistants will guide the mixed-method coding, analysis, and synthesis of the three consultation data sources...A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), fluoxetine , and pill placebo in the treatment of

  12. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  14. CO2 driven endotracheal tube cuff control in critically ill patients: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Gennaro; Pennisi, Mariano Alberto; Vallecoccia, Maria Sole; Bello, Giuseppe; Maviglia, Riccardo; Montini, Luca; Di Gravio, Valentina; Cutuli, Salvatore Lucio; Conti, Giorgio; Antonelli, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the safety and clinical efficacy of an innovative integrated airway system (AnapnoGuard™ 100 system) that continuously monitors and controls the cuff pressure (Pcuff), while facilitating the aspiration of subglottic secretions (SS). This was a prospective, single centre, open-label, randomized, controlled feasibility and safety trial. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of device related adverse events (AE) and serious AE (SAE) as a result of using AnapnoGuard (AG) 100 during mechanical ventilation. Secondary endpoints were: (1) mechanical complications rate (2) ICU staff satisfaction; (3) VAP occurrence; (4) length of mechanical ventilation; (5) length of Intensive Care Unit stay and mortality; (6) volume of evacuated subglottic secretions. Sixty patients were randomized to be intubated with the AG endotracheal-tube (ETT) and connected to the AG 100 system allowing Pcuff adjustment and SS aspiration; or with an ETT combined with SS drainage and Pcuff controlled manually. No difference in adverse events rate was identified between the groups. The use of AG system was associated with a significantly higher incidence of Pcuff determinations in the safety range (97.3% vs. 71%; paspirated SS secretions: (192.0[64-413] ml vs. 150[50-200], p = 0.19 (total)); (57.8[20-88.7] ml vs. 50[18.7-62] ml, p = 0.11 (daily)). No inter-group difference was detected using AG system vs. controls in terms of post-extubation throat pain level (0 [0-2] vs. 0 [0-3]; p = 0.7), hoarseness (42.9% vs. 75%; p = 0.55) and tracheal mucosa oedema (16.7% vs. 10%; p = 0.65). Patients enrolled in the AG group had a trend to reduced VAP risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP) (14.8% vs. 40%; p = 0.06), which were more frequently monomicrobial (25% vs. 70%; p = 0.03). No statistically significant difference was observed in duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and mortality. The use AG 100 system and AG tube in critically ill intubated patients is safe and

  15. CO2 driven endotracheal tube cuff control in critically ill patients: A randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro De Pascale

    Full Text Available To determine the safety and clinical efficacy of an innovative integrated airway system (AnapnoGuard™ 100 system that continuously monitors and controls the cuff pressure (Pcuff, while facilitating the aspiration of subglottic secretions (SS.This was a prospective, single centre, open-label, randomized, controlled feasibility and safety trial. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of device related adverse events (AE and serious AE (SAE as a result of using AnapnoGuard (AG 100 during mechanical ventilation. Secondary endpoints were: (1 mechanical complications rate (2 ICU staff satisfaction; (3 VAP occurrence; (4 length of mechanical ventilation; (5 length of Intensive Care Unit stay and mortality; (6 volume of evacuated subglottic secretions. Sixty patients were randomized to be intubated with the AG endotracheal-tube (ETT and connected to the AG 100 system allowing Pcuff adjustment and SS aspiration; or with an ETT combined with SS drainage and Pcuff controlled manually.No difference in adverse events rate was identified between the groups. The use of AG system was associated with a significantly higher incidence of Pcuff determinations in the safety range (97.3% vs. 71%; p<0.01 and a trend to a greater volume of aspirated SS secretions: (192.0[64-413] ml vs. 150[50-200], p = 0.19 (total; (57.8[20-88.7] ml vs. 50[18.7-62] ml, p = 0.11 (daily. No inter-group difference was detected using AG system vs. controls in terms of post-extubation throat pain level (0 [0-2] vs. 0 [0-3]; p = 0.7, hoarseness (42.9% vs. 75%; p = 0.55 and tracheal mucosa oedema (16.7% vs. 10%; p = 0.65. Patients enrolled in the AG group had a trend to reduced VAP risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP (14.8% vs. 40%; p = 0.06, which were more frequently monomicrobial (25% vs. 70%; p = 0.03. No statistically significant difference was observed in duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and mortality.The use AG 100 system and AG tube in critically ill

  16. Where is synergy indicated in the Norwegian innovation system? Triple-Helix relations among technology, organization, and geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strand, Ø.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    Using information theory and data for all (0.5 million) Norwegian firms, the national and regional innovation systems are decomposed into three subdynamics: (i) economic wealth generation, (ii) technological novelty production, and (iii) government interventions and administrative control. The

  17. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions have been shown to be effective in alleviating symptoms of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) and related... traumatic stress disorder treatment providers: design and methods for a randomized, prospective intervention study. Implement Sci, 7, 43. doi: 10.1186...Friedman, M. J., Young-Xu, Y., & Stevens, S. P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder

  18. Acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, François; Oez, Suzan; Stähli, Peter; Brenner, Hans Dieter; Jüni, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous trials on acupuncture in alcohol addiction were in outpatients and focused on relapse prevention. Rates of dropout were high and interpretation of results difficult. We compared auricular laser and needle acupuncture with sham laser stimulation in reducing the duration of alcohol withdrawal. Inpatients undergoing alcohol withdrawal were randomly allocated to laser acupuncture (n = 17), needle acupuncture (n = 15) or sham laser stimulation (n = 16). Attempts were made to blind patients, therapists and outcome assessors, but this was not feasible for needle acupuncture. The duration of withdrawal symptoms (as assessed using a nurse-rated scale) was the primary outcome; the duration of sedative prescription was the secondary outcome. Patients randomized to laser and sham laser had identical withdrawal symptom durations (median 4 days). Patients randomized to needle stimulation had a shorter duration of withdrawal symptoms (median 3 days; P = 0.019 versus sham intervention), and tended to have a shorter duration of sedative use, but these differences diminished after adjustment for baseline differences. The data from this pilot trial do not suggest a relevant benefit of auricular laser acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal. A larger trial including adequate sham interventions is needed, however, to reliably determine the effectiveness of any type of auricular acupuncture in this condition.

  19. Big challenges for the Norwegian processessing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry has been reduced by 50 per cent during the last decade. This is due to the large sums invested by the industry in environmental technology. The article deals with the environmental challenges of the Norwegian processing industry in general, but with an emphasis on energy recovery from waste. It also discusses industrial competitivity; unlike Norway, some of the major competing countries have not committed themselves to the Kyoto agreement

  20. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Creswell, J David

    Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)-a hub of the executive control network-and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function. Thirty-five adults with elevated levels of psychological distress participated in a 3-day randomized controlled trial of intensive mindfulness meditation or relaxation training. Participants completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after the intervention. We tested whether mindfulness meditation training increased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dlPFC and frontoparietal control network regions. Left dlPFC showed increased connectivity to the right inferior frontal gyrus (T = 3.74), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) (T = 3.98), right supplementary eye field (T = 4.29), right parietal cortex (T = 4.44), and left middle temporal gyrus (T = 3.97, all p < .05) after mindfulness training relative to the relaxation control. Right dlPFC showed increased connectivity to right MFG (T = 4.97, p < .05). We report that mindfulness training increases rsFC between dlPFC and dorsal network (superior parietal lobule, supplementary eye field, MFG) and ventral network (right IFG, middle temporal/angular gyrus) regions. These findings extend previous work showing increased functional connectivity among brain regions associated with executive function during active meditation by identifying specific neural circuits in which rsFC is enhanced by a mindfulness intervention in individuals with high levels of psychological distress. Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT01628809.

  2. A Novel Algorithm of Quantum Random Walk in Server Traffic Control and Task Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yumin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantum random walk optimization model and algorithm in network cluster server traffic control and task scheduling is proposed. In order to solve the problem of server load balancing, we research and discuss the distribution theory of energy field in quantum mechanics and apply it to data clustering. We introduce the method of random walk and illuminate what the quantum random walk is. Here, we mainly research the standard model of one-dimensional quantum random walk. For the data clustering problem of high dimensional space, we can decompose one m-dimensional quantum random walk into m one-dimensional quantum random walk. In the end of the paper, we compare the quantum random walk optimization method with GA (genetic algorithm, ACO (ant colony optimization, and SAA (simulated annealing algorithm. In the same time, we prove its validity and rationality by the experiment of analog and simulation.

  3. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change; Norsk gasseksportpolitikk - haandtering av ytre endring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claes, Dag Harald

    1997-12-31

    This report is the first study in the research project `` Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation``. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad`s research program ``Petropol``. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  4. Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Patil, Grete; Ihlebaek, Camilla

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in cognitively impaired nursing home residents is known to be very high, with depression and agitation being the most common symptoms. The possible effects of a 12-week intervention with animal-assisted activities (AAA) in nursing homes were studied. The primary outcomes related to depression, agitation and quality of life (QoL). A prospective, cluster randomized multicentre trial with a follow-up measurement 3 months after end of intervention was used. Inclusion criteria were men and women aged 65 years or older, with a diagnosis of dementia or having a cognitive deficit. Ten nursing homes were randomized to either AAA with a dog or a control group with treatment as usual. In total, 58 participants were recruited: 28 in the intervention group and 30 in the control group. The intervention consisted of a 30-min session with AAA twice weekly for 12 weeks in groups of three to six participants, led by a qualified dog handler. Norwegian versions of the Cornell Scale for Depression, the Brief Agitation Rating Scale and the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia scale were used. A significant effect on depression and QoL was found for participants with severe dementia at follow-up. For QoL, a significant effect of AAA was also found immediately after the intervention. No effects on agitation were found. Animal-assisted activities may have a positive effect on symptoms of depression and QoL in older people with dementia, especially those in a late stage. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Prediagnostic serum calcium and albumin and ovarian cancer: A nested case-control study in the Norwegian Janus Serum Bank Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary G; Tretli, Steinar; Vos, Linda; Robsahm, Trude E

    2017-08-01

    Women with higher serum calcium may be more likely to be diagnosed and die of ovarian cancer. We evaluated that finding in a large, prospective cohort. We conducted a nested case-control study using a population-based biobank from Norway. We compared 202 ovarian cancer cases and 202 controls, matched for age, date at blood draw, and county of residence, with respect to serum calcium and albumin, adjusted for anthropometric variables. We evaluated risks using the entire follow-up period as well as 2-15 years and 16-25 years ("early" and "late", respectively). For the entire follow-up, risk was significantly increased in the highest tertile of albumin and for high albumin and calcium jointly. Risks for ovarian cancer differed markedly by follow-up time. In early follow-up, women in the highest tertile of serum calcium had a 2.5-fold increased risk, adjusted for height and body mass index (OR=2.47, 95% C.I. 1.12-5.45) with a significant dose-response (p=0.024). Risk was not elevated in late follow-up (OR=0.62, 95% C.I. 0.27-1.36). Similarly, in early follow-up, women in the highest tertile of serum albumin had an increased risk (OR=2.55, 95% C.I.1.22-5.49) with a significant dose-response (p=0.009). Conversely, risk was not increased in late follow-up (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 0.65-2.83). These data confirm a prospective association between higher serum calcium and ovarian cancer. An association in early, but not late, follow-up suggests that the higher calcium reflects the presence of existing cancer. A positive association with serum albumin is novel and should be interpreted cautiously. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of a medical food in mild Alzheimer's disease: A randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Kamphuis, P.J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Wurtman, R.J.; Wilkinson, D.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Kurz, A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a medical food on cognitive function in people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 225 drug-naive AD patients participated in this randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Patients were randomized to active product, Souvenaid, or a

  7. Efficacy of a medical food in mild Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Kamphuis, P.J.G.H.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Wurtman, R.J.; Wilkinson, D.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Kurz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a medical food on cognitive function in people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A total of 225 drug-naïve AD patients participated in this randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Patients were randomized to active product, Souvenaid, or a

  8. Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Ng, Gene S. H.; Choi, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 32) and…

  9. After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

  10. Testing a Violence-Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women Using a Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Beyond Violence (BV), a new prevention program for women with assaultive offenses, demonstrated feasibility in previous studies. This study's purpose is to assess the efficacy of BV using a randomized control trial. Method: Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures of…

  11. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  12. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  13. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  14. Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual…

  15. Norwegian petroleum technology. A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the Norwegian petroleum industry is an economic and technological fairy tale. In the course of a little more than 30 years Norway has developed a petroleum industry with world class products and solutions. This book highlights some of the stories behind this Norwegian success. A strong Norwegian home market has helped Norwegian industries to develop technologies in the absolute forefront. In some important areas, like the subsea market, the Norwegian 'oil cluster' became world leaders through companies like Vetco, Aker Kvaerner and FMC Technologies. Advanced products for the domestic market, with cost effective and flexible solutions, are also sought after in the international market place. Norwegian companies are now involved in some of the world's foremost projects, from Sakhalin in the east to Brazil in the west and Angola in the south. Norway, with its 4.5 million inhabitants, is a very small country indeed. As an energy supplier, however, Norway will play an increasingly important role. This will require an even stronger emphasis on research, competence and technology development. Today some 75.000 highly qualified people are working directly in the Norwegian petroleum industry, where the domestic market is still strong with large field developments like Snoehvit and Ormen Lange. Norway has established a unique Petroleum Fund, which currently is passing $ 160 billion, and political leaders in resource rich oil countries are looking to Norway for inspiration and guidance. This book describes some of the best technology stories that have emerged from Norwegian research institutions. Financial support, text and illustrations from the companies and institutions presented in the book have made its publication possible and are gratefully acknowledged. An editorial committee has been responsible for producing the book under the chairmanship of Research Director Ole Lindefjeld of ConocoPhillips, who once demonstrated a multiplier effect of at least 15

  16. Discharges and Emissions on the Norwegian Continental Shelf : Oil, chemicals and emissions to air; Utslipp paa norsk kontinentalsokkel 2000. Olje, kjemikalier og utslipp til luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The report gives an overview of the discharges of oil and chemicals to sea and emissions to air from the Norwegian Continental Shelf for 2000. This report is based on the operators annual report to the Norwegian Pollution Control Authorities. (author)

  17. Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9 weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1 Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group; (2 He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group; (3 Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group. The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. The first two of second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2 and 4 weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4 weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012 will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501

  18. Improving preschoolers' mathematics achievement with tablets: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

    2017-09-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered by their classroom teachers. After 22 weeks, there was a large and statistically significant effect on mathematics achievement for Math Shelf students (Cohen's d = .94). Moderator analyses demonstrated an even larger effect for low achieving children (Cohen's d = 1.27). These results suggest that early education teachers can improve their students' mathematics outcomes by integrating experimentally proven tablet software into their daily routines.

  19. Design and rationale of the HITTS randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytrøen, Kari; Yardley, Marianne; Rolid, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    There is no consensus on how, when, and at what intensity exercise should be performed and organized after heart transplantation (HTx). Most rehabilitation programs are conducted in HTx centers, which might be impractical and costly. We have recently shown that high-intensity interval training (HIT...... Scandinavian HTx centers. Participants are randomized to HIT or moderate training, shortly after surgery. All exercises are supervised in the patients' local communities. Testing at baseline and follow-up includes the following: VO2peak (primary end point), muscle strength, body composition, quality of life......) is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in maintenance HTx recipients, but there are no studies among de novo patients, and whether HIT is feasible and superior to moderate training in HTx recipients is unclear. A total of 120 clinically stable HTx recipients older than 18 years will be recruited from 3...

  20. Sentence retrieval for abstracts of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Grace Y

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM requires clinicians to integrate their expertise with the latest scientific research. But this is becoming increasingly difficult with the growing numbers of published articles. There is a clear need for better tools to improve clinician's ability to search the primary literature. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs are the most reliable source of evidence documenting the efficacy of treatment options. This paper describes the retrieval of key sentences from abstracts of RCTs as a step towards helping users find relevant facts about the experimental design of clinical studies. Method Using Conditional Random Fields (CRFs, a popular and successful method for natural language processing problems, sentences referring to Intervention, Participants and Outcome Measures are automatically categorized. This is done by extending a previous approach for labeling sentences in an abstract for general categories associated with scientific argumentation or rhetorical roles: Aim, Method, Results and Conclusion. Methods are tested on several corpora of RCT abstracts. First structured abstracts with headings specifically indicating Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures are used. Also a manually annotated corpus of structured and unstructured abstracts is prepared for testing a classifier that identifies sentences belonging to each category. Results Using CRFs, sentences can be labeled for the four rhetorical roles with F-scores from 0.93–0.98. This outperforms the use of Support Vector Machines. Furthermore, sentences can be automatically labeled for Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures, in unstructured and structured abstracts where the section headings do not specifically indicate these three topics. F-scores of up to 0.83 and 0.84 are obtained for Intervention and Outcome Measure sentences. Conclusion Results indicate that some of the methodological elements of RCTs are

  1. A quality assessment of randomized controlled trial reports in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, C; Souza, E M; Voinea, G C; Pulgar, R; Valderrama, M J; De-Deus, G

    2017-03-01

    To assess the quality of the randomized clinical trial (RCT) reports published in Endodontics between 1997 and 2012. Retrieval of RCTs in Endodontics was based on a search of the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) database (March 2013). Quality evaluation was performed using a checklist based on the Jadad criteria, CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement and SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). Descriptive statistics were used for frequency distribution of data. Student's t-test and Welch test were used to identify the influence of certain trial characteristics upon report quality (α = 0.05). A total of 89 RCTs were evaluated, and several methodological flaws were found: only 45% had random sequence generation at low risk of bias, 75% did not provide information on allocation concealment, and 19% were nonblinded designs. Regarding statistics, only 55% of the RCTs performed adequate sample size estimations, only 16% presented confidence intervals, and 25% did not provide the exact P-value. Also, 2% of the articles used no statistical tests, and in 87% of the RCTs, the information provided was insufficient to determine whether the statistical methodology applied was appropriate or not. Significantly higher scores were observed for multicentre trials (P = 0.023), RCTs signed by more than 5 authors (P = 0.03), articles belonging to journals ranked above the JCR median (P = 0.03), and articles complying with the CONSORT guidelines (P = 0.000). The quality of RCT reports in key areas for internal validity of the study was poor. Several measures, such as compliance with the CONSORT guidelines, are important in order to raise the quality of RCTs in Endodontics. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Complementary feeding: a Global Network cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasha Omrana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate and inappropriate complementary feeding are major factors contributing to excess morbidity and mortality in young children in low resource settings. Animal source foods in particular are cited as essential to achieve micronutrient requirements. The efficacy of the recommendation for regular meat consumption, however, has not been systematically evaluated. Methods/Design A cluster randomized efficacy trial was designed to test the hypothesis that 12 months of daily intake of beef added as a complementary food would result in greater linear growth velocity than a micronutrient fortified equi-caloric rice-soy cereal supplement. The study is being conducted in 4 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research located in Guatemala, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and Zambia in communities with toddler stunting rates of at least 20%. Five clusters per country were randomized to each of the food arms, with 30 infants in each cluster. The daily meat or cereal supplement was delivered to the home by community coordinators, starting when the infants were 6 months of age and continuing through 18 months. All participating mothers received nutrition education messages to enhance complementary feeding practices delivered by study coordinators and through posters at the local health center. Outcome measures, obtained at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months by a separate assessment team, included anthropometry; dietary variety and diversity scores; biomarkers of iron, zinc and Vitamin B12 status (18 months; neurocognitive development (12 and 18 months; and incidence of infectious morbidity throughout the trial. The trial was supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee provided oversight for the safety and conduct of the trial. Discussion Findings from this trial will test the efficacy of daily intake of meat commencing at age 6 months and, if beneficial, will

  3. Effect of Providing Ankle-Foot Orthoses in Patients with Acute and Subacute Stroke: a Randomized Controlled Trial : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikamp-Simons, Corien D.M.; Buurke, Jaap H.; Van Der Palen, Job; Hermens, Hermie J.; Rietman, Johan S.; Ibánez, Jaime; Azorín, José María; Akay, Metin; Pons, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Despite frequent application of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), little scientific evidence is available to guide AFO-provision early after stroke. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to study the effects of AFO-provision in (sub-) acute stroke patients. Primary aim: to study effects of the

  4. Optimal strategy analysis based on robust predictive control for inventory system with random demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Aditya; Widowati, Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the optimal strategy for a single product single supplier inventory system with random demand is analyzed by using robust predictive control with additive random parameter. We formulate the dynamical system of this system as a linear state space with additive random parameter. To determine and analyze the optimal strategy for the given inventory system, we use robust predictive control approach which gives the optimal strategy i.e. the optimal product volume that should be purchased from the supplier for each time period so that the expected cost is minimal. A numerical simulation is performed with some generated random inventory data. We simulate in MATLAB software where the inventory level must be controlled as close as possible to a set point decided by us. From the results, robust predictive control model provides the optimal strategy i.e. the optimal product volume that should be purchased and the inventory level was followed the given set point.

  5. Arthrocentesis as initial treatment for temporomandibular joint arthropathy : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, L. M.; Huddleston Slater, J. J. R.; Stegenga, B.

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of arthrocentesis compared to conservative treatment as initial treatment with regard to temporomandibular joint pain and mandibular movement. Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients with arthralgia of the TMJ (classified

  6. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. METHOD: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  7. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. Method: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  8. Randomized controlled trial of the Pentax AWS, Glidescope, and Macintosh laryngoscopes in predicted difficult intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential for the Pentax AWS and the Glidescope to reduce the difficulty of tracheal intubation in patients at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation, in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, N.J.; Wildt, S.N. de; Verlaat, C.W.; Knibbe, C.A.; Mooij, M.G.; Woensel, J.B. van; Rosmalen, J. van; Tibboel, D.; Hoog, M. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare daily sedation interruption plus protocolized sedation (DSI + PS) to protocolized sedation only (PS) in critically ill children. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized controlled trial in three pediatric intensive care units in the Netherlands, mechanically ventilated critically

  10. A randomized controlled trial of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, Nienke J.; de Wildt, Saskia N.; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; Mooij, Miriam G.; van Woensel, Job B. M.; van Rosmalen, Joost; Tibboel, Dick; de Hoog, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    To compare daily sedation interruption plus protocolized sedation (DSI + PS) to protocolized sedation only (PS) in critically ill children. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial in three pediatric intensive care units in the Netherlands, mechanically ventilated critically ill children with

  11. The effect of COPD severity and study duration on exacerbation outcome in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Goran; Calverley, Peter M.; Jenkins, Christine R.; Anzueto, Antonio R.; Make, Barry J.; Lindberg, Magnus; Fageras, Malin; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: When discontinuation in COPD randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is unevenly distributed between treatments (differential dropout), the capacity to demonstrate treatment effects may be reduced. We investigated the impact of the time of differential dropout on exacerbation outcomes in

  12. Sleep disorders in patients with depression or schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial using acupuncture treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this preliminary clinical trial was to investigate whether acupuncture has a positive influence on sleep and symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia or depression. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was used. One hundred participants were recruited: 40

  13. An alternative approach to treating lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noxious level electrical stimulation on pain, grip strength and functional abilities in subjects with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Design: Randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Setting: Physical Therapy Department, North Georgia College and

  14. Interspinous process device versus standard conventional surgical decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Moojen (Wouter); M.P. Arts (Mark); W.C.H. Jacobs (Wilco); E.W. van Zwet (Erik); M.E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); B.W. Koes (Bart); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Objective To assess whether interspinous process device implantation is more effective in the short term than conventional surgical decompression for patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis. Design Randomized controlled

  15. Melodic intonation therapy in chronic aphasia: Evidence from a pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. van der Meulen (Ineke); W.M.E. van de Sandt-Koenderman (Mieke); Heijenbrok, M.H. (Majanka H.); E.G. Visch-Brink (Evy); Ribber, G.M. (Gerard M.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMelodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a language production therapy for severely nonfluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT) examining

  16. Sodium Restriction in Patients With CKD : A Randomized Controlled Trial of Self-management Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Yvette; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; Navis, Gerjan; Vogt, Liffert; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van Dijk, Sandra

    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of self-managed sodium restriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Study Design: Open randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants: Patients with moderately decreased kidney function from 4 hospitals in the Netherlands.

  17. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. Copyright © 2014

  18. Hydrotherapy for the Treatment of Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-we...

  19. Promoting healthful family meals to prevent obesity: HOME Plus, a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen; Horning, Melissa; Draxten, Michelle; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Gurvich, Olga; Story, Mary; Garwick, Ann; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Family meal frequency has been shown to be strongly associated with better dietary intake; however, associations with weight status have been mixed. Family meals-focused randomized controlled trials with weight outcomes have not been previously conducted. Therefore, this study purpose was to describe weight-related outcomes of the HOME Plus study, the first family meals-focused randomized controlled trial to prevent excess weight gain among youth. Methods Families (n?=?160 8-12-yea...

  20. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Mill?n-Calenti, Jos? C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for random...

  1. Components of effective randomized controlled trials of hydrotherapy programs for fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Perraton, Luke; Machotka, Zuzana; Kumar, Saravana

    2009-01-01

    Luke Perraton, Zuzana Machotka, Saravana KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAim: Previous systematic reviews have found hydrotherapy to be an effective management strategy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the components of hydrotherapy programs used in randomized controlled trials.Method: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Onl...

  2. Hydrotherapy improves pain and function in older women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Marcos; Cisneros, Lígia; Dias, Rosângela; Fritsch, Carolina; Gomes, Wellington; Pereira, Leani; Santos, Mary Luci; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, there is poor evidence of the effect of hydrotherapy alone on patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. Objectives The study aimed to assess the impact of hydrotherapy on pain, function, and muscle function in older women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of hydrotherapy in women with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-three women aged 65 and older were randomized to hydrotherapy (n = 36) or a control group (...

  3. External validity of randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control and vascular disease: how representative are participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C; Byrne, C D; Guthrie, B; Lindsay, R S; McKnight, J A; Philip, S; Sattar, N; Walker, J J; Wild, S H

    2013-03-01

    To describe the proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland who meet eligibility criteria for inclusion in several large randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control to inform physicians and guideline developers about the generalizibility of trial results. A literature review was performed to identify large trials assessing the impact of glycaemic control on risk of macrovascular disease. Inclusion and exclusion criteria from each trial were applied to data on the population of people with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland in 2008 (n = 180,590) in a population-based cross-sectional study and the number and proportion of people eligible for each trial was determined. Seven trials were identified. The proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes who met the eligibility criteria for the trials ranged from 3.5 to 50.7%. Trial participants were younger at age of diagnosis of diabetes and at time of trial recruitment than in the Scottish study population. The application of upper age criteria excluded the largest proportion of patients, with up to 39% of people with Type 2 diabetes ineligible for a trial with the most stringent criteria based on age alone. We found that many of the large trials of glycaemic control among people with Type 2 diabetes have limited external validity when applied to a population-based cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes. In particular, the age distribution of trial participants often does not reflect that of people with Type 2 diabetes in a contemporary British population. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  4. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0....

  5. Evaluation of Kilifi epilepsy education programme: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibinda, Fredrick; Mbuba, Caroline K; Kariuki, Symon M; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Lowe, Brett; Fegan, Greg; Carter, Julie A; Newton, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The epilepsy treatment gap is largest in resource-poor countries. We evaluated the efficacy of a 1-day health education program in a rural area of Kenya. The primary outcome was adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as measured by drug levels in the blood, and the secondary outcomes were seizure frequency and Kilifi Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scores (KEBAS). Seven hundred thirty-eight people with epilepsy (PWE) and their designated supporter were randomized to either the intervention (education) or nonintervention group. Data were collected at baseline and 1 year after the education intervention was administered to the intervention group. There were 581 PWE assessed at both time points. At the end of the study, 105 PWE from the intervention group and 86 from the nonintervention group gave blood samples, which were assayed for the most commonly used AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine). The proportions of PWE with detectable AED levels were determined using a standard blood assay method. The laboratory technicians conducting the assays were blinded to the randomization. Secondary outcomes were evaluated using questionnaires administered by trained field staff. Modified Poisson regression was used to investigate the factors associated with improved adherence (transition from nonoptimal AED level in blood at baseline to optimal levels at follow-up), reduced seizures, and improved KEBAS, which was done as a post hoc analysis. This trial is registered in ISRCTN register under ISRCTN35680481. There was no significant difference in adherence to AEDs based on detectable drug levels (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.74-2.90, p = 0.28) or by self-reports (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71-1.40, p = 1.00) between the intervention and nonintervention group. The intervention group had significantly fewer beliefs about traditional causes of epilepsy, cultural treatment, and negative stereotypes than the nonintervention group. There was no

  6. Blinding in randomized control trials: the enigma unraveled.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Saxena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for new treatments and testing of new ideas begins in the laboratory and then established in clinical research settings. Studies addressing the same therapeutic problem may produce conflicting results hence Randomised Clinical Trial is regarded as the most valid method for assessing the benefits and harms of healthcare interventions. The next challenge face by the medical community is the validity of such trials as theses tend to deviate from the truth because of various biases. For the avoidance of the same it has been suggested that the validity or quality of primary trials should be assessed under blind conditions. Thus blinding, is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. Blinding can be defined as withholding information about the assigned interventions from people involved in the trial who may potentially be prejudiced by this knowledge. In this article we make an effort to define blinding, explain its chronology, hierarchy and discuss methods of blinding, its assessment, its possibility, un-blinding and finally the latest guidelines.

  7. Balneotherapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, Nur; Karakas, Sinem; Gun, Kerem; Gun, Nuran; Murat, Sadiye; Uludag, Murat

    2012-10-01

    A large number of treatments were used for patients with chronic low back pain. Frequent episodes have been reported very high. Although balneotherapy was found effective in this disease, there are not well-designed studies. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of balneotherapy versus physical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain. Exercise was added to both treatment programs. Sixty patients with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. Physical modalities plus exercise were applied to group 1, and group 2 was received balneotherapy plus exercise for ten sessions. The following parameters were measured: visual analogue scale at rest and movement for pain, paracetamol dose, manual muscle test for lumber muscles, modified Schoeber' test, Oswestry disability index, and Short-Form 36 at the beginning and end of the therapies and at the 3 months follow-up. The statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 10.0 program. Both groups achieved significant improvements within themselves. But balneotherapy groups were improved at back extensor muscle test (P Balneotherapy combined with exercise therapy had advantages than therapy with physical modalities plus exercise in improving quality of life and flexibility of patients with chronic low back pain.

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Daycare and Overnight Stay Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, A A M; Affirul, C A; Hairol, O; Zamri, Z; Azlanudin, A; Hilmi, M A; Razman, J

    2015-01-01

    This present study sought to review the feasibility and patients' satisfaction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to be perform as daycare procedure. Sixty-two patients with symptomatic gallstones were recruited within a year. They were randomized into overnight stay and daycare groups. The outcomes and post-operative complications were analyzed. Fifty-eight patients were eligible for analysis and four patients were excluded because of conversion to open cholecystectomy. All patients in daycare group reported no fever but two patients in the overnight stay group complaint of post-operative fever (p=0.150). The mean pain score using Visual Analogue Score (VAS) in daycare group was 2.93 but in the overnight stay was recorded as 3.59 (p=0.98). Five patients had post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in daycare group compared to 2 patients in the overnight stay group (p=0.227). Patient's satisfaction were higher in the daycare group (p=0.160). All patients in daycare group were back at work within a week but in overnight stay, 11 patients had to stay off work for more than one week (p=0.01). Daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and feasible. The satisfaction of daycare surgery is higher than overnight stay group. Patients' selection is an important aspect of its success.

  9. Efficacy of Arthroscopic Teaching Methods: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Luke; Spanyer, Jonathon; Yenna, Zachary; Burchell, Patrick; Garber, Andrew; Riehl, John

    Arthroscopic education research recently has been focused on the use of skills labs to facilitate resident education and objective measure development to gauge technical skill. This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different teaching methods. Medical students were randomized into three groups. The first group received only classroom-based lecture. The second group received the same lecture and 28 minutes of lab-based hands-off arthroscopy instruction using a cadaver and arthroscopy setup. The final group received the same lecture and 7 minutes of hands-on arthroscopy instruction in the lab on a cadaver knee. The arthroscopic knee exam that followed simulated a diagnostic knee exam and subjects were measured on task completion and by the number of look downs. The number of look downs and the number of tasks completed did not achieve statistical significance between groups. Posttest survey results revealed that the hands-on group placed significantly more value on their educational experience as compared with the other two groups. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances.

  10. Pelvic Static Magnetic Stimulation to Control Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne C.; Davies, Elizabeth A.; Thalib, Lukman; Griffiths, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy of non-invasive static magnetic stimulation (SMS) of the pelvic floor compared to placebo in the treatment of women aged 60 years and over with urinary incontinence for 6 months or more. Subjects and Methods A single-blinded randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Subjects were excluded if they had an implanted electronic device, had experienced a symptomatic urinary tract infection, or had commenced pharmacotherapy for the same in the previous 4 weeks, or if they were booked for pelvic floor or gynecological surgery within the next 3 months. Once written consent was obtained, subjects were randomly assigned to the active SMS group (n=50) or the placebo group (n=51). Treatment was an undergarment incorporating 15 static magnets of 800–1200 Gauss anterior, posterior, and inferior to the pelvis for at least 12 hours a day for 3 months. Placebo was the same protocol with inert metal disks replacing the magnets. Primary outcome measure was cessation of incontinence as measured by a 24-hour pad test. Secondary outcomes were frequency and severity of symptoms as measured by the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF), the Incontinence Severity Index, a Bothersomeness Visual Analog scale, and a 24-hour bladder diary. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the outcome measures from baseline to 12 weeks. Initial evidence of subjective improvement in the treatment group compared to the placebo group was not sustained with sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This study found no evidence that static magnets cure or decrease the symptoms of urinary incontinence. Additional work into the basic physics of the product and garment design is recommended prior to further clinical trials research. PMID:21817123

  11. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities

  12. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  13. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  15. A Randomized trial of an Asthma Internet Self-management Intervention (RAISIN): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deborah; Wyke, Sally; Thomson, Neil C; McConnachie, Alex; Agur, Karolina; Saunderson, Kathryn; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Mair, Frances S

    2014-05-24

    The financial costs associated with asthma care continue to increase while care remains suboptimal. Promoting optimal self-management, including the use of asthma action plans, along with regular health professional review has been shown to be an effective strategy and is recommended in asthma guidelines internationally. Despite evidence of benefit, guided self-management remains underused, however the potential for online resources to promote self-management behaviors is gaining increasing recognition. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pilot evaluation of a website 'Living well with asthma' which has been developed with the aim of promoting self-management behaviors shown to improve outcomes. The study is a parallel randomized controlled trial, where adults with asthma are randomly assigned to either access to the website for 12 weeks, or usual asthma care for 12 weeks (followed by access to the website if desired). Individuals are included if they are over 16-years-old, have a diagnosis of asthma with an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score of greater than, or equal to 1, and have access to the internet. Primary outcomes for this evaluation include recruitment and retention rates, changes at 12 weeks from baseline for both ACQ and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores, and quantitative data describing website usage (number of times logged on, length of time logged on, number of times individual pages looked at, and for how long). Secondary outcomes include clinical outcomes (medication use, health services use, lung function) and patient reported outcomes (including adherence, patient activation measures, and health status). Piloting of complex interventions is considered best practice and will maximise the potential of any future large-scale randomized controlled trial to successfully recruit and be able to report on necessary outcomes. Here we will provide results across a range of outcomes which will provide estimates of

  16. The effectiveness of a parental guide for prevention of problematic video gaming in children: A public health randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krossbakken, Elfrid; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; King, Daniel Luke; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Pallesen, Ståle

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of video games among children and adolescents is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief parental guide with advices and strategies for regulating video gaming in children. Methods A random sample of guardians of children between the age of 8-12 years old (N = 5,864) was drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry and equally randomized into an intervention and a control condition. A parental guide based on clinical and research literature was distributed by postal mail to those in the intervention condition. A 4-month follow-up survey comprising questions about problematic video gaming, gaming behavior, sleep activity, and parental video game regulation behavior was administered. Results Independent t-tests revealed no significant differences between the two conditions (N = 1,657, response rate 30.1%) on any outcome measure. An ANOVA with planned comparisons showed that respondents who reported that they had read and followed the parental guide reported more video game problems and used more parental mediation strategies than those who did not read and follow the guide. Conclusions We found no evidence for the effectiveness of the psychoeducational parental guide on preventing problematic video gaming in children. However, the guide was read and positively assessed by a significant proportion of guardians. Differences between those who studied the guide and those who did not may indicate that parental guides are better aimed at providing important information to those who already have problems rather than as a mean of primary prevention.

  17. The Complexity of Architecture : An Analysis of Design Intentions and Theories in the Norwegian National Tourist Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Roan, Beck

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the design intentions of architects in the Norwegian National Tourist Routes. Since architecture is not an isolated concept, this analysis incorporates philosophical and theoretical ideas in an investigation of the Tourist Route site design. Although they were hired to build compelling architectural sites along unique Norwegian nature, the Tourist Route architects also address subjects like practicality, balance, intention, meaning, control, freedom, and reflection in the...

  18. Intravenous nitroglycerin for external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jennifer; Allan, Bruce; Swaby, Cheryl; Wahba, Raouf; Wah, Raouf; Jarrell, John; Wood, Stephen; Ross, Sue; Tran, Quynh

    2009-09-01

    To estimate whether treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin for uterine relaxation increases the chance of successful external cephalic version. Two double-blind, randomized clinical trials were undertaken: one in nulliparous women and a second in multiparous women. Women presenting for external cephalic version at term were eligible to participate. The primary outcome was immediate success of external cephalic version. Other outcomes were presentation at delivery, cesarean delivery rate, and side effects and complications. Sample size calculations were based on a 100% increase in success of external cephalic version with a one-sided analysis and alpha=0.05 (80% power). In total, 126 women were recruited-82 in the nulliparous trial and 44 in the multiparous trial. Seven patients did not have external cephalic version before delivery but were included in the analysis of success of external cephalic version. One patient was lost to follow-up. The external cephalic version success rate for nulliparous patients was 24% (10 of 42) in patients who received nitroglycerin compared with 8% (3 of 40) in those who receive placebo (P=.04, one-sided Fisher exact test, odds ratio 3.85, lower bound 1.22). In multiparous patients, the external cephalic version success rate did not differ significantly between groups: 44% (10 of 23) in the nitroglycerin group compared with 43% (9 of 21) in the placebo group (P=.60). Treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin increased the rate of successful external cephalic version in nulliparous, but not in multiparous, women. Treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin appeared to be safe, but our numbers were too small to rule out rare serious adverse effects. I.

  19. A pilot randomized controlled trial of EKG for neonatal resuscitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Katheria

    Full Text Available The seventh edition of the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommends the use of a cardiac monitor in infants that need resuscitation. Previous trials have shown that EKG heart rate is available before pulse rate from a pulse oximeter. To date no trial has looked at how the availability of electrocardiogram (EKG affects clinical interventions in the delivery room.To determine whether the availability of an EKG heart rate value and tracing to the clinical team has an effect on physiologic measures and related interventions during the stabilization of preterm infants.Forty (40 premature infants enrolled in a neuro-monitoring study (The Neu-Prem Trial: NCT02605733 who had an EKG monitor available were randomized to have the heart rate information from the bedside EKG monitor either displayed or not displayed to the clinical team. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, FiO2 and mean airway pressure from a data acquisition system were recorded every 2 seconds. Results were averaged over 30 seconds and the differences analyzed using two-tailed t-test. Interventions analyzed included time to first change in FiO2, first positive pressure ventilation, first increase in airway pressure, and first intubation.There were no significant differences in time to clinical interventions between the blinded and unblinded group, despite the unblinded group having access to a visible heart rate at 66 +/- 20 compared to 114 +/- 39 seconds for the blinded group (p < .0001. Pulse rate from oximeter was lower than EKG heart rate during the first 2 minutes of life, but this was not significant.EKG provides an earlier, and more accurate heart rate than pulse rate from an oximeter during stabilization of preterm infants, allowing earlier intervention. All interventions were started earlier in the unblinded EKG group but these numbers were not significant in this small trial. Earlier EKG placement before pulse oximeter placement may affect other

  20. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of dexamethasone for bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Howard M; Zorc, Joseph J; Mahajan, Prashant; Majahan, Prashant; Shaw, Kathy N; Holubkov, Richard; Reeves, Scott D; Ruddy, Richard M; Malik, Baqir; Nelson, Kyle A; Bregstein, Joan S; Brown, Kathleen M; Denenberg, Matthew N; Lillis, Kathleen A; Cimpello, Lynn Babcock; Tsung, James W; Borgialli, Dominic A; Baskin, Marc N; Teshome, Getachew; Goldstein, Mitchell A; Monroe, David; Dean, J Michael; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2007-07-26

    Bronchiolitis, the most common infection of the lower respiratory tract in infants, is a leading cause of hospitalization in childhood. Corticosteroids are commonly used to treat bronchiolitis, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial comparing a single dose of oral dexamethasone (1 mg per kilogram of body weight) with placebo in 600 children (age range, 2 to 12 months) with a first episode of wheezing diagnosed in the emergency department as moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis (defined by a Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score > or =6). We enrolled patients at 20 emergency departments during the months of November through April over a 3-year period. The primary outcome was hospital admission after 4 hours of emergency department observation. The secondary outcome was the Respiratory Assessment Change Score (RACS). We also evaluated later outcomes: length of hospital stay, later medical visits or admissions, and adverse events. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The admission rate was 39.7% for children assigned to dexamethasone, as compared with 41.0% for those assigned to placebo (absolute difference, -1.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9.2 to 6.5). Both groups had respiratory improvement during observation; the mean 4-hour RACS was -5.3 for dexamethasone, as compared with -4.8 for placebo (absolute difference, -0.5; 95% CI, -1.3 to 0.3). Multivariate adjustment did not significantly alter the results, nor were differences detected in later outcomes. In infants with acute moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis who were treated in the emergency department, a single dose of 1 mg of oral dexamethasone per kilogram did not significantly alter the rate of hospital admission, the respiratory status after 4 hours of observation, or later outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00119002 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  1. Pilates in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; d'Avila, Veridiana Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Conventional cardiac rehabilitation program consist of 15 min of warm-up, 30 min of aerobic exercise and followed by 15 min calisthenics exercise. The Pilates method has been increasingly applied for its therapeutic benefits, however little scientific evidence supports or rebukes its use as a treatment in patients with heart failure (HF). Investigate the effects of Pilates on exercise capacity variables in HF. Sixteen pts with HF, left ventricular ejection fraction 27 ± 14%, NYHA class I-II were randomly assigned to conventional cardiac rehabilitation program (n = 8) or mat Pilates training (n = 8) for 16 weeks of 30 min of aerobic exercise followed by 20 min of the specific program. At 16 weeks, pts in the mat Pilates group and conventional group showed significantly increase on exercise time 11.9 ± 2.5 to 17.8 ± 4 and 11.7 ± 3.9 to 14.2 ± 4 min, respectively. However, only the Pilates group increased significantly the ventilation (from 56 ± 20 to 69 ± 17 L/min, P = 0.02), peak VO(2) (from 20.9 ± 6 to 24.8 ± 6 mL/kg/min, P = 0.01), and O(2) pulse (from 11.9 ± 2 to 13.8 ± 3 mL/bpm, P = 0.003). The Pilates group showed significantly increase in peak VO(2) when compared with conventional group (24.8 ± 6 vs. 18.3 ± 4, P = 0.02). The result suggests that the Pilates method may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances functional capacity in patients with HF who are already receiving standard medical therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  3. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  4. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  5. Control of Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae sand fly in Bangladesh: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Chowdhury

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on visceral leishmaniasis (VL vector control have been conducted during the past decade, sometimes came to very different conclusion. The present study on a large sample investigated different options which are partially unexplored including: (1 indoor residual spraying (IRS with alpha cypermethrin 5WP; (2 long lasting insecticide impregnated bed-net (LLIN; (3 impregnation of local bed-nets with slow release insecticide K-O TAB 1-2-3 (KOTAB; (4 insecticide spraying in potential breeding sites outside of house using chlorpyrifos 20EC (OUT and different combinations of the above.The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial where 3089 houses from 11 villages were divided into 10 sections, each section with 6 clusters and each cluster having approximately 50 houses. Based on vector density (males plus females during baseline survey, the 60 clusters were categorized into 3 groups: (1 high, (2 medium and (3 low. Each group had 20 clusters. From these three groups, 6 clusters (about 300 households were randomly selected for each type of intervention and control arms. Vector density was measured before and 2, 4, 5, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18 and 22 months after intervention using CDC light traps. The impact of interventions was measured by using the difference-in-differences regression model.A total of 17,434 sand flies were collected at baseline and during the surveys conducted over 9 months following the baseline measurements. At baseline, the average P. argentipes density per household was 10.6 (SD = 11.5 in the control arm and 7.3 (SD = 8.46 to 11.5 (SD = 20.2 in intervention arms. The intervention results presented as the range of percent reductions of sand flies (males plus females and rate ratios in 9 measurements over 22 months. Among single type interventions, the effect of IRS with 2 rounds of spraying (applied by the research team ranged from 13% to 75% reduction of P. argentipes density compared to the control arm (rate

  6. Efficiency effects of observed and unobserved heterogeneity: Evidence from Norwegian electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Wetzel, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of observable environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms and unobserved factors that are not identifiable on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of observed geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001–2004 period. We utilise data on 78 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observed and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the Factor Analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. In order to identify firm-specific inefficiency, we then estimate a pooled version of the established stochastic frontier model of Aigner et al. (1977) and the recent true random effects model of Greene (2004; 2005a,b) without and with environmental variables. The results indicate that the observed environmental factors have a rather limited influence on the utilities' average efficiency and the efficiency rankings. Moreover, the difference between the average efficiency scores and the efficiency rankings among the pooled and the true random effects models imply that the type of SFA model used is highly influencing the efficiency estimates.

  7. Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C; Bellringer, Maria; Vandal, Alain C; Palmer Du Preez, Katie; Landon, Jason; Sullivan, Sean; Rodda, Simone; Feigin, Valery

    2018-05-01

    Problem gambling is a significant public health issue world-wide. There is substantial investment in publicly funded intervention services, but limited evaluation of effectiveness. This study investigated three brief telephone interventions to determine whether they were more effective than standard helpline treatment in helping people to reduce gambling. Randomized clinical trial. National gambling helpline in New Zealand. A total of 462 adults with problem gambling. INTERVENTIONS AND COMPARATOR: (1) Single motivational interview (MI), (2) single motivational interview plus cognitive-behavioural self-help workbook (MI + W) and (3) single motivational interview plus workbook plus four booster follow-up telephone interviews (MI + W + B). Comparator was helpline standard care [treatment as usual (TAU)]. Blinded follow-up was at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes were days gambled, dollars lost per day and treatment goal success. There were no differences across treatment arms, although participants showed large reductions in gambling during the 12-month follow-up period [mean reduction of 5.5 days, confidence interval (CI) = 4.8, 6.2; NZ$38 lost ($32, $44; 80.6%), improved (77.2%, 84.0%)]. Subgroup analysis revealed improved days gambled and dollars lost for MI + W + B over MI or MI + W for a goal of reduction of gambling (versus quitting) and improvement in dollars lost by ethnicity, gambling severity and psychological distress (all P gambling severity than TAU or MI at 12 months and also better for those with higher psychological distress and lower self-efficacy to MI (all P gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with changes in days gambling and dollars lost similar to more intensive interventions, suggesting that more treatment is not necessarily better than less. Some client subgroups, in particular those with greater problem severity and greater distress, achieve better outcomes when they receive more

  8. CoCo trial: Color-coded blood pressure Control, a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmiel C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corinne Chmiel, Oliver Senn, Thomas Rosemann, Valerio Del Prete, Claudia Steurer-Stey Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Inadequate blood pressure (BP control is a frequent challenge in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine whether a color-coded BP booklet using a traffic light scheme (red, >180 mmHg systolic BP and/or >110 mmHg diastolic BP; yellow, >140–180 mmHg systolic BP or >90–110 mmHg diastolic BP; green, ≤140 mmHg systolic BP and ≤90 mmHg diastolic BP improves BP control and adherence with home BP measurement.Methods: In this two-group, randomized controlled trial, general practitioners recruited adult patients with a BP >140 mmHg systolic and/or >90 mmHg diastolic. Patients in the control group received a standard BP booklet and the intervention group used a color-coded booklet for daily home BP measurement. The main outcomes were changes in BP, BP control (treatment goal <140/90 mmHg, and adherence with home BP measurement after 6 months.Results: One hundred and twenty-one of 137 included patients qualified for analysis. After 6 months, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP was achieved in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups (16.1/7.9 mmHg in the intervention group versus 13.1/8.6 mmHg in the control group, P=0.3/0.7. BP control (treatment target <140/90 mmHg was achieved significantly more often in the intervention group (43% versus 25%; P=0.037; number needed to treat of 5. Adherence with home BP measurement overall was high, with a trend in favor of the intervention group (98.6% versus 96.2%; P=0.1Conclusion: Color-coded BP self-monitoring significantly improved BP control (number needed to treat of 5, meaning that every fifth patient utilizing color-coded self-monitoring achieved better BP control after 6 months, but no significant between-group difference was

  9. White Paper No 54 (2000-2001). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This White Paper from the Norwegian Government discusses the climate problem as a global challenge, Norway's strategy for meeting the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, the national climate policies of other countries, Norwegian national climate policy in the short term, and Norwegian national climate policy with the Kyoto agreement in force

  10. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  11. Norwegian gas on the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    1999-01-01

    Article. Norsk Hydro's acquisition of Saga has made the organization of Norwegian gas sales a very topical issue. Traditionally, Norwegian gas has been sold on long-term take-or-pay contracts where the sales volume is secured and the price is linked to the prices of other energy carriers, primarily oil. Norway has sold large volumes of gas to the continent and has an increasing share of the market. However, the long-term contracts place most of the price risk on the seller. Although the sale is guaranteed, earnings are low. Statoil, the largest seller of Norwegian gas, has so far earned much more by transporting the gas to the continent than by producing and selling it. The long-term take-or-pay contracts are no longer safe. In Germany, the power market is quickly opening for competition, implying falling prices and lapsing long-term contracts. A similar development is likely to occur in the gas market. From Norwegian quarters there has been little interest in establishing oneself in the gas markets on the continent, which worries the author. However, the traditional contracts will have to be renegotiated so that the prices will reflect the real competition in the market. It is argued that a sensible Norwegian strategy will be to prepare for a new world for gas, not to hold tight to historical positions. It is suggested that old plans to establish a gas transport company, Gassledd, should be revived. Such a company would be subject to the European Gas Directive and would have to admit a third party. It is likely that the Norwegian opposition to liberalization of the European gas market will one day appear poorly thought out, and that defensive considerations have overshadowed new opportunities

  12. Controlling memory impairment in elderly adults using virtual reality memory training: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optale, Gabriele; Urgesi, Cosimo; Busato, Valentina; Marin, Silvia; Piron, Lamberto; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gamberini, Luciano; Capodieci, Salvatore; Bordin, Adalberto

    2010-05-01

    Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG underwent 6 months of VR memory training (VRMT) that involved auditory stimulation and VR experiences in path finding. The initial training phase lasted 3 months (3 auditory and 3 VR sessions every 2 weeks), and there was a booster training phase during the following 3 months (1 auditory and 1 VR session per week). The CG underwent equivalent face-to-face training sessions using music therapy. Both groups participated in social and creative and assisted-mobility activities. Neuropsychological and functional evaluations were performed at baseline, after the initial training phase, and after the booster training phase. The EG showed significant improvements in memory tests, especially in long-term recall with an effect size of 0.7 and in several other aspects of cognition. In contrast, the CG showed progressive decline. The authors suggest that VRMT may improve memory function in elderly adults by enhancing focused attention.

  13. Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2011-02-01

    stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Norwegians would - UK wouldn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, David.

    1988-01-01

    The Norwegians are now the world leaders in wave power technology and are exporting oscillating water column power stations to Tonga, Western Samoa, Vanuatu and Bali. The United Kingdom research programme was curtailed, although a wave power unit is being constructed on Islay in the Inner Hebrides. Those who favour nuclear energy generation claim that renewable sources, such as wave power, are uneconomic, but the Norwegians claim that the cost of wave-generated electricity is between 3p and 8p depending on local conditions. The economic case for nuclear power over renewables that will be presented at the Hinkley Point C Inquiry is thus less convincing. (U.K.)

  16. Effectiveness in practice-based research: Looking for alternatives to the randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavecchio, L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the status of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), hallmark of evidence-based medicine (research), has been growing strongly in general practice, social work and public health. But this type of research is only practicable under strictly controlled and well-defined settings

  17. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Hanen's "More than Words" in Toddlers with Early Autism Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alice S.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.; Celimli, Seniz; Nahmias, Allison S.; Yoder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: This randomized controlled trial compared Hanen's "More than Words" (HMTW), a parent-implemented intervention, to a "business as usual" control group. Methods: Sixty-two children (51 boys and 11 girls; M age = 20 months; SD = 2.6) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their parents participated in the study. The HMTW…

  19. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  20. Controlled Assembly of Fibronectin Nanofibrils Triggered by Random Copolymer Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanyan, Hayk; Rico, Patricia; Grigoriou, Eleni; Candelas, Aarón Maturana; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Sabater i Serra, Roser

    2015-08-19

    Fibronectin fibrillogenesis is the physiological process by which cells elaborate a fibrous FN matrix. Poly(ethyl acrylate), PEA, has been described to induce a similar process upon simple adsorption of fibronectin (FN) from a protein solution-in the absence of cells-leading to the so-called material-driven fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Poly(methyl acrylate), PMA, is a polymer with very similar chemistry to PEA, on which FN is adsorbed, keeping the globular conformation of the protein in solution. We have used radical polymerization to synthesize copolymers with controlled EA/MA ratio, seeking to modulate the degree of FN fibrillogenesis. The physicochemical properties of the system were studied using dynamic-mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and water contact angle. Both the degree of FN fibrillogenesis and the availability of the integrin binding region of FN directly depend on the percentage of EA in the copolymer, whereas the same total amount of FN was adsorbed regardless the EA/MA ratio. Cell morphology adhesion and differentiation of murine C2C12 were shown to depend on the degree of FN fibrillogenesis previously attained on the material surface. Myogenic differentiation was enhanced on the copolymers with higher EA content, i.e. more interconnected FN fibrils.

  1. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 solution in chronic constipation: randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Thomas McGraw Global Medical Affairs, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of aqueous solution concentrate (ASC) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in patients with functional constipation.Patients and methods: The patients who met Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation were randomized in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study to receive once daily dose of PEG 3350 (17 g) ASC or ...

  2. Transient Oscilliations in Mechanical Systems of Automatic Control with Random Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royev, B.; Vinokur, A.; Kulikov, G.

    2018-04-01

    Transient oscillations in mechanical systems of automatic control with random parameters is a relevant but insufficiently studied issue. In this paper, a modified spectral method was applied to investigate the problem. The nature of dynamic processes and the phase portraits are analyzed depending on the amplitude and frequency of external influence. It is evident from the obtained results, that the dynamic phenomena occurring in the systems with random parameters under external influence are complex, and their study requires further investigation.

  3. Effectiveness of Wii-based rehabilitation in stroke: A randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayça Utkan Karasu; Elif Balevi Batur; Gülçin Kaymak Karataş

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of Nintendo Wii Fit®-based balance rehabilitation as an adjunc-tive therapy to conventional rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods: During the study period, 70 stroke patients were evaluated. Of these, 23 who met the study criteria were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 11) by block randomization. Primary outcome measures were Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, Postural Asses...

  4. A cluster-based randomized controlled trial promoting community participation in arsenic mitigation efforts in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    George, Christine Marie; van Geen, Alexander; Slavkovich, Vesna; Singha, Ashit; Levy, Diane; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Tarozzi, Alessandro; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To reduce arsenic (As) exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs) testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs...

  5. Daily text messaging for weight control among racial and ethnic minority women: randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-11-18

    Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women. Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts. The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference -2.41 kg, 95% CI -5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=-.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence. Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1).

  6. 6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

  7. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  8. The effect of staff training on agitation and use of restraint in nursing home residents with dementia: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testad, Ingelin; Ballard, Clive; Brønnick, Kolbjørn; Aarsland, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Agitation is common in dementia and is associated with use of restraints and use of psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine whether an education and supervision intervention could reduce agitation and the use of restraints and antipsychotic drugs in nursing homes. Four Norwegian nursing homes were randomly allocated to receive either treatment as usual or an intervention consisting of a 2-day educational seminar and monthly group guidance for 6 months. One hundred forty-five residents with dementia (based on medical records and corroborated with a Functional Assessment Staging score >or= 4) completed baseline and 6-month intervention assessments and were included in the analyses. The co-primary outcome measures were the proportion of residents subject to interactional restraint and the severity of agitation using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Patients were assessed at baseline, immediately after completion of the intervention at 6 months, and 12 months after baseline. Comparison of change in the 2 groups was made using repeated-measures analysis of variance (CMAI) and Mann-Whitney test (restraints). The study was conducted from 2003 to 2004. The proportion of residents starting new restraint was lower in the intervention than in the control group at 6-month evaluation (P = .02), but no statistically significant differences were found at 12-month assessment (P = .57). The total CMAI score declined from baseline to 6 and 12 months' follow-up in the intervention homes compared to a small increase in the control homes (F2,176 = 3.46, P = .034). There were no statistically significant differences in use of antipsychotic drugs. A brief 2-day staff education program followed by continued monthly guidance was able both to improve quality of care by reducing the frequency of interactional restraints and to reduce severity of agitation. ©Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Gaze-Contingent Music Reward Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety were acquired pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Dwell time on socially threatening faces was assessed during the training sessions and at pre- and posttreatment. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy yielded greater reductions of symptoms of social anxiety disorder than the control condition on both clinician-rated and self-reported measures. Therapeutic effects were maintained at follow-up. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also reduced dwell time on threat, which partially mediated clinical effects. Finally, gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also altered dwell time on socially threatening faces not used in training, reflecting near-transfer training generalization. This is the first randomized controlled trial to examine a gaze-contingent intervention in social anxiety disorder. The results demonstrate target engagement and clinical effects. This study sets the stage for larger randomized controlled trials and testing in other emotional disorders.

  10. Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, A C; Mwinuka, V; Malema, S S; Glynn, J R; Fine, P E

    2001-01-01

    Selection bias, particularly of controls, is common in case-control studies and may materially affect the results. Methods of control selection should be tailored both for the risk factors and disease under investigation and for the population being studied. We present here a control selection method devised for a case-control study of tuberculosis in rural Africa (Karonga, northern Malawi) that selects an age/sex frequency-matched random sample of the population, with a geographical distribution in proportion to the population density. We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings.

  11. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  12. The communication atmosphere between physician colleagues: competitive perfectionism or supportive dialogue? A Norwegian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, V; Falkum, E; Hoftvedt, B O; Aasland, O G

    1997-02-01

    Open and supportive communication is probably one of the most important promotors of learning, coping and satisfaction at the workplace. The aim of this paper is to describe and predict the communication atmosphere between Norwegian physicians. Twenty statements describing communication, as perceived by the physicians themselves, were presented to a random sample of the members of the Norwegian Medical Association of which more than 90% of the physicians in the country are members (N = 2628). In general, this investigation indicates that the communication atmosphere among Norwegian physicians is characterised by support and mutual respect. More than half of the respondents fully agreed that communication between colleagues in the workplace is marked by solidarity, and that experienced colleagues show respect for the less experienced in both personal and professional matters. Physicians working in hospitals described the communication atmosphere as substantially more selfish and competitive than non-hospital physicians, whilst general practitioners considered the atmosphere between colleagues to be more supportive than non-specialists. In addition, high perceived stress was associated with the perception of a less supportive atmosphere. However, the strongest predictor of the communication atmosphere was clearly the physician's perceived autonomy. The comprehensive retrenchment programmes implemented in Norwegian hospitals during recent years have increased stress and restricted professional autonomy among both physicians and other occupational groups. Our findings indicate that the communication atmosphere necessary to secure continuity of knowledge within the medical profession may have been jeopardised by this process. In the long term, this may prove hazardous to the quality of medical care.

  13. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  14. Randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Meghan O; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Knap, Kim E; Evans, Richard B

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy (PST) in reducing pain and increasing function in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) using a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial. Adult dogs (n = 60) with moderate-to-severe clinical signs of OA. Dogs were randomized by age into 2 groups: dogs ≥ 9 years and dogs Goniometry and gait analysis were performed, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) questionnaire was given to the owners to fill out without supervision. Outcome measures were repeated at the end of treatment (Day 11) and 6 weeks after beginning treatment (Day 42). The PST group performed significantly better than the control group as measured by the CBPI Severity and Interference scores (P Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Network meta-analysis incorporating randomized controlled trials and non-randomized comparative cohort studies for assessing the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Chris; Fireman, Bruce; Hutton, Brian; Clifford, Tammy; Coyle, Doug; Wells, George; Dormuth, Colin R.; Platt, Robert; Toh, Sengwee

    2015-01-01

    Network meta-analysis is increasingly used to allow comparison of multiple treatment alternatives simultaneously, some of which may not have been compared directly in primary research studies. The majority of network meta-analyses published to date have incorporated data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) only; however, inclusion of non-randomized studies may sometimes be considered. Non-randomized studies can complement RCTs or address some of their limitations, such as short follow-up...

  16. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-01-01

    with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish......This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status...... weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated...

  17. Effect of playing tactics on goal scoring in Norwegian professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenga, Albin; Holme, Ingar; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Bahr, Roald

    2010-02-01

    Methods that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid analysis of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on goal scoring by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer. The sample included 203 team possessions leading to goals (cases) and 1688 random team possessions (control group) from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the men's professional league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data using ten ordered categorical variables were obtained to characterize each team possession. The proportion of goals scored during counterattacks (52%) was higher than during elaborate attacks (48%), while for the control group the proportion using elaborate attacks (59%) was higher than when using counterattacks (41%) (P = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that, for the main variable "team possession type", counterattacks were more effective than elaborate attacks when playing against an imbalanced defence (OR = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 2.61; P = 0.038). Assessment of opponent interactions is critical to evaluate the effectiveness of offensive playing tactics on the probability of scoring goals, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.

  18. Contribution of family social support to the metabolic control of people with diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lilian Cristiane; Coelho, Anna Claudia Martins; Gomides, Danielle Dos Santos; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Foss, Milton César; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-08-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the contribution of family social support to the clinical/metabolic control of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires continuous care in order for individuals to reach glycemic control, the primordial goal of treatment. Family social support is essential to the development of care skills and their maintenance. However, there are few studies that investigate the contribution of family social support to diabetes control. The study was developed between June 2011 and May 2013, and included 164 people who were randomized using simple randomization. The intervention group differed from the control group in that it included a family caregiver, who was recognized by the patient as a source of social support. The educational interventions received by people with diabetes mellitus were used as the basis of the education provided through telephone calls to patients' family members and caregivers, and their purpose was to encourage dialogue between the patients and their relatives about the topics related to diabetes. Regarding the clinical impact, the results showed that there was a greater reduction in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin in the intervention group than in the control group, showing a positive effect on the control of the disease. Families should be incorporated into the care of people with diabetes mellitus and especially in health care programs, in particular those that can promote different forms of social support to strengthen the bond between family members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Applying the theory of planned behavior to self-report dental attendance in Norwegian adults through structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrøm, Anne N; Lie, Stein Atle; Gülcan, Ferda

    2018-05-31

    Understanding factors that affect dental attendance behavior helps in constructing effective oral health campaigns. A socio-cognitive model that adequately explains variance in regular dental attendance has yet to be validated among younger adults in Norway. Focusing a representative sample of younger Norwegian adults, this cross-sectional study provided an empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) augmented with descriptive norm and action planning and estimated direct and indirect effects of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control and action planning on intended and self-reported regular dental attendance. Self-administered questionnaires provided by 2551, 25-35 year olds, randomly selected from the Norwegian national population registry were used to assess socio-demographic factors, dental attendance as well as the constructs of the augmented TPB model (attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, intention, action planning). A two-stage process of structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the augmented TPB model. Confirmatory factor analysis, CFA, confirmed the proposed correlated 6-factor measurement model after re-specification. SEM revealed that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and descriptive norms explained intention. The corresponding standardized regression coefficients were respectively (β = 0.70), (β =0.18), (β = - 0.17) and (β =0.11) (p planning and action planning (β =0.19) predicted dental attendance behavior (p behavioral control on behavior through action planning and through intention and action planning, respectively. The final model explained 64 and 41% of the total variance in intention and dental attendance behavior. The findings support the utility of the TPB, the expanded normative component and action planning in predicting younger adults' intended- and self-reported dental attendance. Interventions targeting young adults' dental

  20. Robust Fuzzy Control for Fractional-Order Uncertain Hydroturbine Regulating System with Random Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjiao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The robust fuzzy control for fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system is studied in this paper. First, the more practical fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system with uncertain parameters and random disturbances is presented. Then, on the basis of interval matrix theory and fractional-order stability theorem, a fuzzy control method is proposed for fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system, and the stability condition is expressed as a group of linear matrix inequalities. Furthermore, the proposed method has good robustness which can process external random disturbances and uncertain parameters. Finally, the validity and superiority are proved by the numerical simulations.

  1. Digital servo control of random sound test excitation. [in reverberant acoustic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakich, R. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital servocontrol system for random noise excitation of a test object in a reverberant acoustic chamber employs a plurality of sensors spaced in the sound field to produce signals in separate channels which are decorrelated and averaged. The average signal is divided into a plurality of adjacent frequency bands cyclically sampled by a time division multiplex system, converted into digital form, and compared to a predetermined spectrum value stored in digital form. The results of the comparisons are used to control a time-shared up-down counter to develop gain control signals for the respective frequency bands in the spectrum of random sound energy picked up by the microphones.

  2. Patient safety culture in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2017-06-20

    Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient safety factor scores in nursing homes were poorer than previously found in Norwegian general practices, but similar to findings in out-of-hours primary care clinics. Patient safety culture assessment may help nursing home leaders to initiate targeted quality improvement interventions. Further research should investigate associations between patient safety culture and the occurrence

  3. Environment 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the government's goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of produced water treatment techniques. It demonstrates that new Norwegian technology helps to limit the risk of environmental harm. New treatment techniques have been developed and adopted, but it can be difficult to understand why a specific solution is not applicable to every field. Through the thematic section in part 2, we endeavour to explain why the choice of solution will vary from field to field, and how that reflects such considerations as technical reservoir conditions and costs. The strong focus on the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas production has undoubtedly helped to make the Norwegian petroleum sector a leader in this area. That reflects both the way the authorities have incorporated environmental considerations extensively into the industry's frame conditions, and from the commitment made by the industry itself. Environment 2004 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions discharges, environmental impacts, measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities.

  4. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  5. Effects of exercise and diet in nonobese asthma patients - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Meteran, Howraman; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied...... the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma. METHODS: Nonobese adult patients with asthma (n = 149) were randomized to 1...... of 4 groups: an exercise group, a diet group, an exercise + diet group, or a control group. Outcomes included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score, asthma-related quality-of-life (Asthma-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [AQLQ]) score, inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum, FEV1...

  6. Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems With Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tempo, Roberto; Dabbene, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The presence of uncertainty in a system description has always been a critical issue in control. The main objective of Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems, with Applications (Second Edition) is to introduce the reader to the fundamentals of probabilistic methods in the analysis and design of systems subject to deterministic and stochastic uncertainty. The approach propounded by this text guarantees a reduction in the computational complexity of classical  control algorithms and in the conservativeness of standard robust control techniques. The second edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect recent research and new applications with chapters on statistical learning theory, sequential methods for control and the scenario approach being completely rewritten.   Features: ·         self-contained treatment explaining Monte Carlo and Las Vegas randomized algorithms from their genesis in the principles of probability theory to their use for system analysis; ·    ...

  7. Enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 and neurogenin 3 cells in the large intestine of Thai and Norwegian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence, gender distribution and clinical presentation of IBS differ between Asian and Western countries. This study aimed at studying and comparing enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 (Msi 1) and neurogenin 3 (neurog 3) cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Thirty Thai and 61 Norwegian IBS patients as well as 20 Thai and 24 Norwegian controls were included. Biopsy samples were taken from each of the sigmoid colon and the rectum during a standard colonoscopy. The samples were immunostained for serotonin, peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, Msi 1 and neurog 3. The densities of immunoreactive cells were determined with computerized image analysis. The densities of several enteroendocrine cell types were altered in both the colon and rectum of both Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Some of these changes were similar in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients, while others differed. The findings of abnormal densities of the enteroendocrine cells in Thai patients support the notion that enteroendocrine cells are involved in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present observations highlight that IBS differs in Asian and Western countries, and show that the changes in large-intestine enteroendocrine cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients might be caused by different mechanisms.

  8. Tuning of an optimal fuzzy PID controller with stochastic algorithms for networked control systems with random time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi; Gupta, Amitava

    2011-01-01

    An optimal PID and an optimal fuzzy PID have been tuned by minimizing the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE) and squared controller output for a networked control system (NCS). The tuning is attempted for a higher order and a time delay system using two stochastic algorithms viz. the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and two variants of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the closed loop performances are compared. The paper shows that random variation in network delay can be handled efficiently with fuzzy logic based PID controllers over conventional PID controllers. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early food for future health: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an eHealth intervention aiming to promote healthy food habits from early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Christine; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Omholt, Mona Linge; Øverby, Nina Cecilie

    2017-09-20

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health challenge. Primary prevention initiatives targeting parents have been called for to encourage a positive feeding environment and healthy eating habits that may lay a good foundation for future health. At the same time, there is a need for interventions which combine accessibility and scalability with cost effectiveness. Today's parents are extensive Internet-users, but only a few randomized controlled trials have investigated the use of Internet to promote healthy eating habits in early childhood. In Early Food for Future Health we have developed and will evaluate an Internet-based tool for parents of children between 6 and 12 months, aiming to increase knowledge about infant nutrition and foster protective feeding behavior. During springtime 2016, parents of children aged between 3 and 5 months were recruited through Norwegian child health centres and announcements on Facebook. After completing the baseline questionnaire, 718 parents were individually randomized to intervention- or control group. The intervention group received monthly emails with links to an age-appropriate web-site when their child was between 6 and 12 months. The control group received ordinary care from the child health centres. The data-collection is ongoing. All participants will be followed up at ages 12 and possibly 24 and 48 months, with questionnaires relating to eating behaviour and feeding practices, food variety and diet quality. Providing guidance and counseling to parents of infants is an important task for health authorities and the public child health services. Early Food for Future health is an intervention focusing on promoting early healthy food-habits which may prevent childhood overweight and obesity. If proven to be effective, Early Food for Future Health can be used by parents and public health nurses for supplementary guidance on feeding practices and diet. This study has the potential to provide greater

  10. Online distribution channel increases article usage on Mendeley: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlow, Paul; Cockerill, Matthew; Toccalino, Danielle; Dziadyk, Devin Bissky; Rutledge, Alan; Shachak, Aviv; McIntyre, Roger S; Ravindran, Arun; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Prior research shows that article reader counts (i.e. saves) on the online reference manager, Mendeley, correlate to future citations. There are currently no evidenced-based distribution strategies that have been shown to increase article saves on Mendeley. We conducted a 4-week randomized controlled trial to examine how promotion of article links in a novel online cross-publisher distribution channel (TrendMD) affect article saves on Mendeley. Four hundred articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research were randomized to either the TrendMD arm ( n  = 200) or the control arm ( n  = 200) of the study. Our primary outcome compares the 4-week mean Mendeley saves of articles randomized to TrendMD versus control. Articles randomized to TrendMD showed a 77% increase in article saves on Mendeley relative to control. The difference in mean Mendeley saves for TrendMD articles versus control was 2.7, 95% CI (2.63, 2.77), and statistically significant ( p  < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between pageviews driven by TrendMD and article saves on Mendeley (Spearman's rho r  = 0.60). This is the first randomized controlled trial to show how an online cross-publisher distribution channel (TrendMD) enhances article saves on Mendeley. While replication and further study are needed, these data suggest that cross-publisher article recommendations via TrendMD may enhance citations of scholarly articles.

  11. Effect of Rosa damascene aromatherapy on sleep quality in cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibagheri, Ali; Babaii, Atye; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    Sleep disorders are common among patients hospitalized in coronary care unit (CCU). This study aimed to investigate the effect of Rosa damascene aromatherapy on sleep quality of patients hospitalized in CCU. In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were conveniently sampled and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Patients in the control group received routine care. In the experimental group, patients received routine care and Rosa damascene aromatherapy for three subsequent nights. In the both groups the sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. After the study, the mean scores of five domains of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index as well as the mean of total score of the index in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. Rosa damascene aromatherapy can significantly improve the sleep quality of patients hospitalized in CCUs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30…

  13. Nifedipine as a uterine relaxant for external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Marjolein; Bais, Joke M.; van Lith, Jan M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri M.; Kleiverda, Gunilla; Hanny, Dahrs; Doornbos, Johannes P.; Mol, Ben W.; van der Post, Joris A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of nifedipine as a uterine relaxant during external cephalic version to correct breech presentation. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women with a singleton fetus in breech presentation and a gestational age of 36 weeks or

  14. Compression Stockings after Endovenous Laser Ablation of the Great Saphenous Vein : A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, N. A.; Schieven, L. W.; Bruins, R. M. G.; van den Berg, M.; Hissink, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if the duration of wearing compression stockings after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the great saphenous vein (GSV) has influence on pain and quality of life. Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial. Between December 2006 and February 2008, 109

  15. Expanding the Evidence Base: Comparing Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies of Statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atar, Dan; Ong, Seleen; Lansberg, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for demonstrating the efficacy of a given therapy (results under ideal conditions). Observational studies, on the other hand, can complement this by demonstrating effectiveness (results under real-world conditions).

  16. Randomized controlled trial of surface peroneal nerve stimulation for motor relearning in lower limb hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheffler, L.R.; Taylor, P.N.; Gunzler, D.D.; Buurke, Jaap; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Chae, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the motor relearning effect of a surface peroneal nerve stimulator (PNS) versus usual care on lower limb motor impairment, activity limitation, and quality of life among chronic stroke survivors. Design: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Teaching hospital of

  17. Attention Training in Individuals with Generalized Social Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Beard, Courtney; Taylor, Charles T.; Klumpp, Heide; Elias, Jason; Burns, Michelle; Chen, Xi

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the efficacy of an attention training procedure in reducing symptoms of social anxiety in 44 individuals diagnosed with generalized social phobia (GSP). Attention training comprised a probe detection task in which pictures of faces with either a threatening or…

  18. Efficacy of Souvenaid in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Twisk, J.W.; Blesa, R.; Scarpini, E.; von Arnim, C.A.F.; Bongers, A.; Harrison, J.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Stam, C.J.; de Waal, H.; Wurtman, R.J.; Wieggers, R.L.; Vellas, B.; Kamphuis, P.J.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Souvenaid aims to improve synapse formation and function. An earlier study in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) showed that Souvenaid increased memory performance after 12 weeks in drug-naïve patients with mild AD. The Souvenir II study was a 24-week, randomized, controlled, double-blind,

  19. Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Rosalie H.; Bourdon, Celine; Potani, Isabel; Mhango, Brian; van den Brink, Deborah A.; Mponda, John S.; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller; Bandsma, Robert H.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Voskuijl, Wieger P.

    Objective: To assess the benefits of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition. Study design: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in 90 children aged 6-60 months with complicated severe acute malnutrition at the Queen Elizabeth

  20. Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Rosalie H.; Bourdon, Céline; Potani, Isabel; Mhango, Brian; van den Brink, Deborah A.; Mponda, John S.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Bandsma, Robert H.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Voskuijl, Wieger P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the benefits of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition. Study design We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in 90 children aged 6-60 months with complicated severe acute malnutrition at the Queen Elizabeth Central

  1. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program

  2. The Effectiveness of Healthy Start Home Visit Program: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study reported the effectiveness of a home visit program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, using cluster randomized controlled trial design. Method: Participants included 191 parents and their children from 24 preschools, with 84 dyads (12 preschools) in the intervention group and 107 dyads (12 preschools) in…

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Teaching Methods: Do Classroom Experiments Improve Economic Education in High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkopf, Gerald; Sulser, Pascal A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present results from a comprehensive field experiment at Swiss high schools in which they compare the effectiveness of teaching methods in economics. They randomly assigned classes into an experimental and a conventional teaching group, or a control group that received no specific instruction. Both teaching treatments improve economic…

  4. Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jaime; Thabut, Dominique; Albillos, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal...

  5. A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve Treatment in Heterogeneous Emphysema (TRANSFORM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, Samuel V.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Kirk, Alan; Kornaszewska, Malgorzata; Carron, Kris; Ek, Lars; Broman, Gustav; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Mal, Herve; Pison, Christophe; Briault, Amandine; Downer, Nicola; Darwiche, Kaid; Rao, Jagan; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Ruwwe-Glosenkamp, Christof; Trosini-Desert, Valery; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J.; Derom, Eric; Malfait, Thomas; Shah, Pallav L.; Garner, Justin L.; ten Hacken, Nick H.; Fallouh, Hazem; Leroy, Sylvie; Marquette, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Single-center randomized controlled trials of the Zephyr endobronchial valve (EBV) treatment have demonstrated benefit in severe heterogeneous emphysema. This is the first multicenter study evaluating this treatment approach. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Zephyr EBVs

  6. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  7. Acupuncture for treating polycystic ovary syndrome: guidance for future randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Y; Robinson, N; Hardiman, PJ; Taw, MB; Zhou, J; Wang, FF; Qu, F

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide guidance for future randomized controlled trials (RCTs) based on a review concerning acupuncture for treating polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in October 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCISEARCH, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group trials register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and...

  8. Effects of PMTO in foster families with children with behavior problems : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Arntz, M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon for foster parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. Foster children’s behavior problems are challenging for

  9. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  10. Vestibular Stimulation for ADHD: Randomized Controlled Trial of Comprehensive Motion Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Crowl, Lindsay; Bozzolo, Hernan; Peruggia, Mario; Ramadan, Yaser; Bornstein, Robert; Hollway, Jill A.; Thompson, Susan; Malone, Krista; Hall, Kristy L.; Shelton, Sara B.; Bozzolo, Dawn R.; Cook, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research evaluates effects of vestibular stimulation by Comprehensive Motion Apparatus (CMA) in ADHD. Method: Children ages 6 to 12 (48 boys, 5 girls) with ADHD were randomized to thrice-weekly 30-min treatments for 12 weeks with CMA, stimulating otoliths and semicircular canals, or a single-blind control of equal duration and…

  11. Self-tracking of physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiman, Thea; de Groot, Martijn; Hoogenberg, Klaas; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Kooy, Adriaan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an online self-tracking program on physical activity, glycated hemoglobin, and other health measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-two patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All

  12. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2008-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

  13. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  14. Learning Mathematics in a Visuospatial Format: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Mental Abacus Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, David; Alvarez, George; Sullivan, Jessica; Brooks, Neon; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Frank, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a technique of performing fast, accurate arithmetic using a mental image of an abacus; experts exhibit astonishing calculation abilities. Over 3 years, 204 elementary school students (age range at outset: 5-7 years old) participated in a randomized, controlled trial to test whether MA expertise (a) can be acquired in standard…

  15. A randomized controlled trial of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Vet (Nienke); S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); C.W.M. Verlaat (Carin); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne); M.G. Mooij (Miriam); J.B. van Woensel (Job); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); D. Tibboel (Dick); M. de Hoog (Matthijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare daily sedation interruption plus protocolized sedation (DSI + PS) to protocolized sedation only (PS) in critically ill children. Methods: In this multicenter randomized controlled trial in three pediatric intensive care units in the Netherlands, mechanically

  16. Mobile Phone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia : A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.; Lancee, J.; Griffioen-Both, F.; Spruit, S.; Fitrianie, S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Beun, R.J.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    Background: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have

  17. Mobile Phone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia : A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.; Lancee, J; Griffioen-Both, Fiemke; Spruit, Sandor; Fitrianie, S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Beun, RJ; Brinkman, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have

  18. Theory of Mind training in children with autism: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, S.M.; Gevers, C.; Clifford, P.; Verhoeve, M.; Kat, K.; Hoddenbach, E.; Boer, F.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13

  19. Theory of Mind Training in Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Gevers, Carolien; Clifford, Pamela; Verhoeve, Manja; Kat, Kirstin; Hoddenbach, Elske; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13 year old children with ASD and normal IQs (n = 40).…

  20. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  1. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  2. A neurofeedback video game (MindLight) to prevent anxiety in children: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoneveld, E.A.; Malmberg, M.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Verheijen, G.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood anxiety is a global mental health concern. Interventions are needed that are effective, but also cost less, are more accessible and engage children long enough to build emotional resilience skills through practice. Methods The present randomized controlled study aimed to examine

  3. Mainstreaming Remedial Mathematics Students in Introductory Statistics: Results Using a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Alexandra W.; Watanabe-Rose, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This study used a randomized controlled trial to determine whether students, assessed by their community colleges as needing an elementary algebra (remedial) mathematics course, could instead succeed at least as well in a college-level, credit-bearing introductory statistics course with extra support (a weekly workshop). Researchers randomly…

  4. The Results of a Randomized Control Trial Evaluation of the SPARK Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Curtis J.; Christian, Michael; Rice, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a two-year randomized control trial evaluation of the SPARK literacy program. SPARK is an early grade literacy program developed by Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Milwaukee. In 2010, SPARK was awarded an Investing in Innovation (i3) Department of Education grant to further develop the…

  5. Nasal Oxytocin for Social Deficits in Childhood Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R.; MacDonald, Elayne; Cauchi, Avril; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Brennan, John

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a surge in research investigating the application of oxytocin as a method of enhancing social behaviour in humans. Preliminary evidence suggests oxytocin may have potential as an intervention for autism. We evaluated a 5-day "live-in" intervention using a double-blind randomized control trial. 38 male…

  6. A Randomized Control Study of Responsive Teaching with Young Turkish Children and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Ozcan; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    A randomized control study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of responsive teaching (RT) with a sample of 19 Turkish preschool-age children with disabilities and their mothers over a 6-months period. RT is an early intervention curriculum that attempts to promote children's development by encouraging parents to engage in highly…

  7. Shared Care in Monitoring Stable Glaucoma Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtzer-Goor, Kim M.; van Vliet, Ellen J.; van Sprundel, Esther; Plochg, Thomas; Koopmanschap, Marc A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Lemij, Hans G.

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the quality of care provided by a hospital-based shared care glaucoma follow-up unit with care as usual. This randomized controlled trial included stable glaucoma patients and patients at risk for developing glaucoma. Patients in the Usual Care group (n=410) were seen by glaucoma

  8. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…

  9. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for residents: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, H.; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Burnout is highly prevalent in residents. No randomized controlled trials have been conducted measuring the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on burnout in residents. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing burnout in residents. Design: A

  10. Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in spinal cord injury neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede

    2015-01-01

    . Methods  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel multicenter study. Study population of at least 66 patients must complete the 12 week trial.Questionnaires regarding neuropathic pain, spasticity, insomnia, anxiety and depression are completed before and after treatment. A numeric...

  11. Vitamin D and Testosterone in Healthy Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Pilz, Stefan; Trummer, Christian; Schwetz, Verena; Pachernegg, Oliver; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is

  12. Potassium supplementation and heart rate : A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Moelenberg, F. J. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and results:

  13. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  14. Quantity and quality assessment of randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tatsuo; Takayama, Hisako; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2010-07-01

    To find current high-quality evidence for orthodontic practice within a reasonable time, we tested the performance of a PubMed search. PubMed was searched using publication type randomized controlled trial and medical subject heading term "orthodontics" for articles published between 2003 and 2007. The PubMed search results were compared with those from a hand search of four orthodontic journals to determine the sensitivity of PubMed search. We evaluated the precision of the PubMed search result and assessed the quality of individual randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. Sensitivity and precision were 97.46% and 58.12%, respectively. In PubMed, of the 277 articles retrieved, 161 (58.12%) were randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, and 115 of the 161 articles (71.42%) were published in four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics. Assessment by the Jadad scale revealed 60 high-quality randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, of which 45 (75%) were published in these four journals. PubMed is a highly desirable search engine for evidence-based orthodontic practice. To stay current and get high-quality evidence, it is reasonable to look through four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics.

  15. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: A Randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Heijden, J.A.M. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of melatonin treatment in childhood sleep onset insomnia, 40 elementary school children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more than 1 year from chronic sleep onset insomnia, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The children were randomly assigned to

  16. The impact of life review on depression in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, A.M.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Onrust, S.; Melenhorst, A.S.; Veerbeek, M.A.; de Vries, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We developed an indicated preventive life-review course, Looking for Meaning, based on the assumption that reminiscence styles influence coping with depressive symptoms. This study describes the impact of this course in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Methods: Inclusion criteria

  17. The impact of life review on depression in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Onrust, Simone; Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Veerbeek, Marjolein; de Vries, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    Background: We developed an indicated preventive life-review course, “Looking for Meaning”, based on the assumption that reminiscence styles influence coping with depressive symptoms. This study describes the impact of this course in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Methods: Inclusion

  18. A randomized controlled trial of the ketogenic diet in refractory childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, D.A.J.E.; de Kinderen, R.J.A.; Vles, J.S.H.; de Louw, A.J.A.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Majoie, H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) during the first 4 months of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in refractory epilepsy patients aged 1–18 years. Methods: Children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy, not eligible for epilepsy surgery, were

  19. Cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Derkx, Bert H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits; de Haan, Else

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a 6-session protocolized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) compared with 6 visits to a pediatrician (intensive medical care; IMC) for the treatment of pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP). One hundred four children aged 7 to 18

  20. QUINT : A tool to detect qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doove, L.L.; Van Deun, K.; Dusseldorp, E.; van Mechelen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The detection of subgroups involved in qualitative treatment–subgroup interactions (i.e., for one subgroup of clients treatment A outperforms treatment B, whereas for another the reverse holds true) is crucial for personalized health. In typical Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), the

  1. Unmeasured confounding caused slightly better response to HAART within than outside a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Bach Bergstrøm; Gerstoft, J.; Kirk, O.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients initiating equivalent regimens within and outside a randomized controlled trial (RCT). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The Danish Protease Inhibitor Study (DAPIS) was a national multicenter RCT...

  2. Benchmarking recent national practice in rectal cancer treatment with landmark randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borstlap, Waa; Deijen, C. L.; den Dulk, M.; Bonjer, H. J.; van de Velde, C. J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Aalbers, A.; Acherman, Y.; Algie, G. D.; Alting von Geusau, B.; Amelung, F.; Aukema, T. S.; Bakker, I. S.; Basha, S.; Bastiaansen, A. J. N. M.; Belgers, E.; Bleeker, W.; Blok, J.; Bosker, R. J. I.; Bosmans, J. W.; Boute, M. C.; Bouvy, N. D.; Bouwman, H.; Brandt-Kerkhof, A.; Brinkman, D. J.; Bruin, S.; Bruns, E. R. J.; Burbach, J. P. M.; Burger, J. W. A.; Buskens, C. J.; Clermonts, S.; Coenen, P. P. L. O.; Compaan, C.; Consten, E. C. J.; Darbyshire, T.; de Mik, S. M. L.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; de Groot, I.; de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, R. J. L.; de Wilt, J. H. W.; van der Wolde, J.; den Boer, F. C.; Dekker, J. W. T.; Demirkiran, A.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Musters, G. D.; van Rossem, C. C.; Schreuder, A. M.; Swank, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim A Snapshot study design eliminates changes in treatment and outcome over time. This population based Snapshot study aimed to determine current practice and outcome of rectal cancer treatment with published landmark randomized controlled trials as a benchmark. Method In this collaborative

  3. Benchmarking recent national practice in rectal cancer treatment with landmark randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borstlap, W. A. A.; Deijen, C. L.; den Dulk, M.; Bonjer, H. J.; van de Velde, C. J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Aalbers, A.; Acherman, Y.; Algie, G. D.; von Geu-sau, B. Alting; Amelung, F.; Aukema, T. S.; Bakker, I. S.; Bartels, S. A.; Basha, S.; Bastiaansen, A. J. N. M.; Belgers, E.; Bleeker, W.; Blok, J.; Bosker, R. J. I.; Bosmans, J. W.; Boute, M. C.; Bouvy, N. D.; Bouwman, H.; Brandt-Kerkhof, A.; Brinkman, D. J.; Bruin, S.; Bruns, E. R. J.; Burbach, J. P. M.; Burger, J. W. A.; Buskens, C. J.; Clermonts, S.; Coene, P. P. L. O.; Compaan, C.; Consten, E. C. J.; Darbyshire, T.; de Mik, S. M. L.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; de Groot, I.; Cappel, R. J. L. de Vos Tot Nederveen; de Wilt, J. H. W.; van der Wolde, J.; den Boer, F. C.; Furnee, E. J. B.; Havenga, K.; Klaase, J.; Holzik, M. F. Lutke; Meerdink, M.; Wevers, K.

    Aim A Snapshot study design eliminates changes in treatment and outcome over time. This population based Snapshot study aimed to determine current practice and outcome of rectal cancer treatment with published landmark randomized controlled trials as a benchmark. Method In this collaborative

  4. Treatment of post-myocardial infarction depressive disorder : A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with mirtazapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honig, Adriaan; Kuyper, Astrid M. G.; Schene, Aart H.; van Melle, Joost P.; De Jonge, Peter; Tulner, Dorien M.; Schins, Annique; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Kuijpers, Petra M. J. C.; Vossen, Helen; Lousberg, Richel; Ormel, Johan

    Objective: To examine the antidepressant efficacy of a dual-acting antidepressant (mirtazapine) in patients with post-myocardial infarction (MI) depressive disorder. Antidepressants used in post MI trials with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design have been restricted to selective

  5. Effectiveness of a parent training program in (pre)adolescence: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.H.O.; Overbeek, G.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of the parent training program Parents and Children Talking Together (PCTT) for parents with children in the preadolescent period who experience parenting difficulties. The program is focused on reducing child problem behavior by

  6. Comparing surgical repair with conservative treatment for degenerative rotator cuff tears : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Okke; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Koorevaar, Rinco C. T.; van Eerden, Pepijn J. M.; Westerbeek, Robin E.; van 't Riet, Esther; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ronald L.

    Background: Good clinical results have been reported for both surgical and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare functional and radiologic improvement after surgical and conservative treatment of degenerative rotator cuff

  7. Using the symptom monitor in a randomized controlled trial: the effect on symptom prevalence and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Johanna; de Vos, Rien; van Duijn, Nico P.; Schadé, Egbert; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of reporting physical symptoms by using a systematic symptom monitoring instrument, the Symptom Monitor, on symptom prevalence and severity among patients with cancer in the palliative phase. The overall objective was to achieve symptom relief

  8. A review of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Hot topics from randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F

    2018-01-01

    The first clinical study to investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition was published in 2002, and since then, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that DPP-4 inhibitors are efficacious, safe and well-tolerated. This review will focus upon RCTs which have i...

  9. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  10. Fit 5 Kids TV reduction program for Latino preschoolers: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing Latino preschoolers' TV viewing is needed to reduce their risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. This study's objective was to evaluate the Fit 5 Kids (F5K) TV reduction program's impact on Latino preschooler's TV viewing. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT...

  11. Early vibration assisted physiotherapy in toddlers with cerebral palsy - a randomized controlled pilot trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, C.; Herkenrath, P.; Hollmann, H.; Waltz, S.; Becker, I.; Hoebing, L.; Semler, O.; Hoyer-Kuhn, H.; Duran, I.; Hero, B.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Schoenau, E.

    OBJECTIVES: to investigate feasibility, safety and efficacy of home-based side-alternating whole body vibration (sWBV) to improve motor function in toddlers with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Randomized controlled trial including 24 toddlers with CP (mean age 19 months (SD±3.1); 13 boys).

  12. Independent and Social Living Skills Training for People with Schizophrenia in Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbalaee-Nouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Schizophrenia is responsible for a significant proportion of burden of mental diseases in Iran. Lack of a follow-up system has resulted in the repeated hospitalizations. In this study it is hypothesized that standardized living skills training delivered to participants with schizophrenia in outpatient and inpatient centers can be effective compared to a  control group (with occupational therapy in reducing psychopathology severity and increasing quality of life. Methods: This is a multi-centered parallel group randomized controlled trial in Iran and it is single-blinded. Eligible participants are randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants are assigned by stratified balanced block randomization method. The trial is conducted in the cities of Tehran and Mashhad. Its aim is to recruit 160 clients with schizophrenia. The intervention for the experimental group is social living skills training. The intervention for the control group is occupational therapy. The intervention for both groups is conducted in 90 to 120-minute group sessions. Results: The primary outcome of the study would be a decrease in  psychopathology severity, an improvement in participants' quality of life, and reduction in family burden will be followed for 6 months. Discussion: This paper presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of independent and social living skills training intervention delivered to participants with schizophrenia. If this intervention is effective, it could be scaled up to be developing for policymaking and improving outcomes for schizophrenic participants and their families in Iran.

  13. Intrahospital Weight and Aerobic Training in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa, Elena Santana; Groeneveld, Iris F.; Gonzalez-Saiz, Laura; López-Mojares, Luis M.; Villa-Asensi, José R.; Gonzalez, María I. Barrio; Fleck, Steven J.; Pérez, Margarita; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    SOSA, E. S., I. F. GROENEVELD, L. GONZALEZ-SAIZ, L. M. LOPEZ-MOJARES, J. R. VILLA-ASENSI, M. I. BARRIO GONZALEZ, S. J. FLECK, M. PEREZ, and A. LUCIA. Intrahospital Weight and Aerobic Training in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 1,

  14. Integrating CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits: A randomized controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n=5...

  15. Sunbed radiation provokes cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in humans--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to investigate whether the use of sunbeds with sunlamps emitting mainly UVA and only 0.5% or 1.4% UVB will increase the level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). In a randomized, controlled, open study on healthy, Caucasian females (> 50 years) sunbed radiation was given as follows...

  16. Mupirocin for the reduction of colonization of internal jugular cannulae: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L.R. Hill; A. P. Fisher; R. J. Ware; S. Wilson (Susan); M. W. Casewell

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective study, 218 cardiothoracic patients, in whom 'Abbocath-T' cannulae had been inserted preoperatively into the internal jugular vein, were randomized to receive skin preparation of the insertion site with tincture of iodine (108 controls) or tincture of iodine followed by

  17. Completion report : Effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing program on type 2 diabetes: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has been shown to be benefi cial in diabetes in many studies, though randomized control trials are few. The aim of this randomized control trial was to see the effect of Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (comprehensive yogic breathing program on quality of life, glycemic control, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been implicated in the causation of sudden cardiac death. Therefore, a maneuver to prevent progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy holds signifi cance. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients of diabetes on oral medication and diet and exercise advice were randomized into two groups: (1 Continued to receive standard treatment for diabetes. (2 Patients administered comprehensive yogic breathing program and monitored to regularly practice yoga in addition to standard treatment of diabetes. At 6 months, quality of life and postprandial plasma glucose signifi cantly improved in the group practicing yoga compared to baseline, but there was no significant improvement in the fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Results: On per protocol analysis, sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions signifi cantly improved from baseline in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing. Conclusion: This randomized control trial points towards the beneficial effect of yogic breathing program in preventing progression of cardiac neuropathy. This has important implications as cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been considered as one of the factors for sudden cardiac deaths.Keywords: comprehensive yogic breathing program, diabetes mellitus, cardiac autonomic function

  18. Robust Fuzzy Control for Fractional-Order Uncertain Hydroturbine Regulating System with Random Disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Fengjiao Wu; Guitao Zhang; Zhengzhong Wang

    2016-01-01

    The robust fuzzy control for fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system is studied in this paper. First, the more practical fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system with uncertain parameters and random disturbances is presented. Then, on the basis of interval matrix theory and fractional-order stability theorem, a fuzzy control method is proposed for fractional-order hydroturbine regulating system, and the stability condition is expressed as a group of linear matrix inequalities. ...

  19. Computer-Based Cognitive Training for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results from a Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Belfor, Nataliya; Jagust, William J.; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce R.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial of intensive, computer-based cognitive training in 47 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The intervention group performed exercises specifically designed to improve auditory processing speed and accuracy for 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; the control group performed more passive computer activities (reading, listening, visuospatial game) for similar amounts of time. Subjects had a mean age of 74 years and 60% were men; 7...

  20. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Paul Crawford, MD Clinical Investigation...Title: “Cinnamon Bark, Water-Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled...as initial treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized, controlled trial. IRB #: FWH20110004H Principal Investigator (PI) Rank / Civ

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial for Behavioral Smoking and Weight Control Treatment: Effect of Concurrent Versus Sequential Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…

  2. A randomized control trial evaluating fluorescent ink versus dark ink tattoos for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeg, Steven J; Kirby, Anna M; Lee, Steven F; Bartlett, Freddie; Titmarsh, Kumud; Donovan, Ellen; Griffin, Clare L; Gothard, Lone; Locke, Imogen; McNair, Helen A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this UK study was to evaluate interfraction reproducibility and body image score when using ultraviolet (UV) tattoos (not visible in ambient lighting) for external references during breast/chest wall radiotherapy and compare with conventional dark ink. In this non-blinded, single-centre, parallel group, randomized control trial, patients were allocated to receive either conventional dark ink or UV ink tattoos using computer-generated random blocks. Participant assignment was not masked. Systematic (∑) and random (σ) setup errors were determined using electronic portal images. Body image questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, 1 month and 6 months to determine the impact of tattoo type on body image. The primary end point was to determine that UV tattoo random error (σ setup ) was no less accurate than with conventional dark ink tattoos, i.e. tattoos. 45 patients completed treatment (UV: n = 23, dark: n = 22). σ setup for the UV tattoo group was tattoo group compared with the dark ink group at 1 month [56% (13/23) vs 14% (3/22), respectively] and 6 months [52% (11/21) vs 38% (8/21), respectively]. UV tattoos were associated with interfraction setup reproducibility comparable with conventional dark ink. Patients reported a more favourable change in body image score up to 6 months following treatment. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to evaluate UV tattoo external references in a randomized control trial.

  3. Randomized Controlled Ethanol Cookstove Intervention and Blood Pressure in Pregnant Nigerian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donee; Northcross, Amanda; Wilson, Nathaniel; Dutta, Anindita; Pandya, Rishi; Ibigbami, Tope; Adu, Damilola; Olamijulo, John; Morhason-Bello, Oludare; Karrison, Theodore; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Christopher O

    2017-06-15

    Hypertension during pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Exposure to household air pollution elevates blood pressure (BP). To investigate the ability of a clean cookstove intervention to lower BP during pregnancy. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Nigeria. Pregnant women cooking with kerosene or firewood were randomly assigned to an ethanol arm (n = 162) or a control arm (n = 162). BP measurements were taken during six antenatal visits. In the primary analysis, we compared ethanol users with control subjects. In subgroup analyses, we compared baseline kerosene users assigned to the intervention with kerosene control subjects and compared baseline firewood users assigned to ethanol with firewood control subjects. The change in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over time was significantly different between ethanol users and control subjects (P = 0.040); systolic blood pressure (SBP) did not differ (P = 0.86). In subgroup analyses, there was no significant intervention effect for SBP; a significant difference for DBP (P = 0.031) existed among preintervention kerosene users. At the last visit, mean DBP was 2.8 mm Hg higher in control subjects than in ethanol users (3.6 mm Hg greater in control subjects than in ethanol users among preintervention kerosene users), and 6.4% of control subjects were hypertensive (SBP ≥140 and/or DBP ≥90 mm Hg) versus 1.9% of ethanol users (P = 0.051). Among preintervention kerosene users, 8.8% of control subjects were hypertensive compared with 1.8% of ethanol users (P = 0.029). To our knowledge, this is the first cookstove randomized controlled trial examining prenatal BP. Ethanol cookstoves have potential to reduce DBP and hypertension during pregnancy. Accordingly, clean cooking fuels may reduce adverse health impacts associated with household air pollution. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02394574).

  4. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The paper gives a historical technical review of the development and installation of approximately 20 000 MW of hydraulic turbines in Norway after World War II. The non polluting production of electricity was consumed for lightening and heating for civil consume and the growing electric furnace industry in Norway in addition to export in rainy years. The paper is mainly based on the authors experience in the design of large turbines, and control systems for operation of Francis Turbines and Reversible Pump Turbines for high and medium heads and Pelton turbines for high heads. During the last 15 years the development of small hydro power plants has also given an increasing contribution to the power production. A brief discussion will be given on the choice of equipment for small hydro production with a very small winter production and overload during the summer. The possibility of operation of a small hydropower plants connected to an isolated grid will also briefly be presented. In addition to the general design of turbines and control systems for large hydro plants, a detailed description will be given of the stability analysis for the governing system which was developed for the large high head plants with long high pressure tunnels systems. A discussion will be included on the introduction of the air cushioned surge chambers for fast stable operation of power plants with long tunnels, connected to isolated grids. Also the principle of stabilizing unstable turbine governing system by means of pressure feed back systems, will be presented and discussed. A description of such system developed in 1992, will be given proving that stability could be obtained in a system with long conduits connected to the turbines. However, the 'governing speed' needed for isolated operation could not be fulfilled without a fast by pass pressure relieve system for Francis turbines, which was not installed in the case for the analysis. Finally a discussion will be

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of Social Media: Effect of Increased Intensity of the Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Gurary, Ellen B; Ryan, John; Bonaca, Marc; Barry, Karen; Loscalzo, Joseph; Massaro, Joseph

    2016-04-27

    A prior randomized controlled trial of social media exposure at Circulation determined that social media did not increase 30-day page views. Whether insufficient social media intensity contributed to these results is uncertain. Original article manuscripts were randomized to social media exposure compared with no social media exposure (control) at Circulation beginning in January 2015. Social media exposure consisted of Facebook and Twitter posts on the journal's accounts. To increase social media intensity, a larger base of followers was built using advertising and organic growth, and posts were presented in triplicate and boosted on Facebook and retweeted on Twitter. The primary outcome was 30-day page views. Stopping rules were established at the point that 50% of the manuscripts were randomized and had 30-day follow-up to compare groups on 30-day page views. The trial was stopped for futility on September 26, 2015. Overall, 74 manuscripts were randomized to receive social media exposure, and 78 manuscripts were randomized to the control arm. The intervention and control arms were similar based on article type (P=0.85), geographic location of the corresponding author (P=0.33), and whether the manuscript had an editorial (P=0.80). Median number of 30-day page views was 499.5 in the social media arm and 450.5 in the control arm; there was no evidence of a treatment effect (P=0.38). There were no statistically significant interactions of treatment by manuscript type (P=0.86), by corresponding author (P=0.35), by trimester of publication date (P=0.34), or by editorial status (P=0.79). A more intensive social media strategy did not result in increased 30-day page views of original research. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Double threshold behavior in a resonance-controlled ZnO random laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Niyuki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We observed unusual lasing characteristics, such as double thresholds and blue-shift of lasing peak, in a resonance-controlled ZnO random laser. From the analysis of lasing threshold carrier density, we found that the lasing at 1st and 2nd thresholds possibly arises from different mechanisms; the lasing at 1st threshold involves exciton recombination, whereas the lasing at 2nd threshold is caused by electron-hole plasma recombination, which is the typical origin of conventional random lasers. These phenomena are very similar to the transition from polariton lasing to photon lasing observed in a well-defined cavity laser.

  7. Family psychoeducation for major depressive disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen F; Ussing, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder has been shown to affect many domains of family life including family functioning. Conversely, the influence of the family on the course of the depression, including the risk of relapse, is one reason for targeting the family in interventions. The few studies...... will investigate the effect of family psychoeducation compared to social support on the course of the illness in patients with major depressive disorder. METHOD/DESIGN: The study is designed as a dual center, two-armed, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Relatives are randomized to participate in one...

  8. Aerobic exercise in obese diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized and controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cheryl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD are generally physically inactive, have a high mortality rate, and may benefit from an exercise program. Methods We performed a 24-week randomized controlled feasibility study comparing aerobic exercise plus optimal medical management to medical management alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m2, and stage 2-4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with persistent proteinuria. Subjects randomized to exercise underwent thrice weekly aerobic training for 6 followed by 18 weeks of supervised home exercise. The primary outcome variable was change in proteinuria. Results Seven subjects randomized to exercise and 4 control subjects completed the study. Exercise training resulted in an increase in exercise duration during treadmill testing, which was accompanied by slight but insignificant decreases in resting systolic blood pressure and 24-hour proteinuria. Exercise did not alter GFR, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, serum lipids, or C-reactive protein (CRP. Caloric intake and body weight and composition also did not change with exercise training. Conclusion Exercise training in obese diabetic patients with CKD is feasible and may have clinical benefits. A large-scale randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of exercise on renal functions, cardiovascular fitness, inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetic patients with CKD is planned.

  9. Radioactivity in the Norwegian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The national monitoring programme for radioactivity in the marine environment was established in 1999. The programme is coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in cooperation with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR). The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of radionuclides in the marine environment. Data regarding discharges of radionuclides from both Norwegian and other sources are collected, and assessments of the resulting radiation exposures of humans and biota will be carried out. Results from the analysis of environmental samples collected in 1999 are presented in a new NRPA report (NRPA, 2001:9 ''Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999''. Some results from the monitoring programme in 1999 are summarised below along with more recent data concerning concentrations of the radionuclide technetium-99. (author)

  10. Supertankers are threatening the Norwegian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steensen, Anders J.; Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article has three sections. The first discusses the environmental problems the tanker traffic poses to the Norwegian coastal waters and shores. Various precautionary measures and requirements are briefly presented. The size of the present marine transportation and the future Russian marine petroleum activity in the Barents area are briefly mentioned. The second named, conflicting exploration drilling, presents the conflicting interests regarding exploratory drilling in the Barents Sea in Norway. The environmental problems are large and have lead to an on-going reevaluation. Some pollution abatement measures are mentioned. The regional economic development is briefly outlined. The third deals with the Norwegian governmental safety activities and presents a brief survey of the official safety activities in the petroleum sector in Norway and the international cooperation particularly with the Russian Federation. The emphasis is on the maritime security, the safety of the maritime transportation systems, the environmental aspects such as pollution management and on the legal frameworks

  11. Relexification in a Northern Norwegian dialect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Sollid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how the process of relexification can contribute to the understanding of the genesis of the new Norwegian dialect of Sappen in Nordreisa. The dialect has emerged in the context of language shift from Finnish to Norwegian, and the dialect syntax has features that might be regarded as products of relexification. One example is declarative main clauses with the finite verb in the third position (V3. The discussion adheres to a more general discussion of approaches to language genesis, where substratist and universalist (and also superstratist theories often are regarded as contrary to each other. I argue that different theories can contribute to the understanding of different aspects of the same question.

  12. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  13. Stabilization of Continuous-Time Random Switching Systems via a Fault-Tolerant Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the stabilization problem of continuous-time random switching systems via exploiting a fault-tolerant controller, where the dwell time of each subsystem consists of a fixed part and random part. It is known from the traditional design methods that the computational complexity of LMIs related to the quantity of fault combination is very large; particularly system dimension or amount of subsystems is large. In order to reduce the number of the used fault combinations, new sufficient LMI conditions for designing such a controller are established by a robust approach, which are fault-free and could be solved directly. Moreover, the fault-tolerant stabilization realized by a mode-independent controller is considered and suitably applied to a practical case without mode information. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed methods.

  14. Effectivity of artrihpi irrigation for diabetic ulcer healing: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Dewi; Asmorohadi, Aries; Dahlia, Debie

    2018-02-01

    The healing process of diabetic ulcer is often impeded by inflammation, infection, and decreased immune state. High pressure irrigation (10-15 psi) may be used to control the infection level. This research was designed to identify the effectiveness of artrihpi irrigation device towards diabetic ulcers in public hospitals in the Central Java. This research is a randomized control trial with cross over design. Sixty four subjects were selected using block randomization technique, and were divided into control and intervention group. The intervention was given in 6 days along with wound healing evaluation in every 3 days. The results demonstrated that there was a significant difference decrease scoring healing after treatment, even though the difference scoring healing between both groups was not statistically significant. However, it means difference was found that in the intervention artrihpi the wound healing was better than the spuit. These results illustrates the artrihpi may be solution of using high pressure irrigation to help healing process diabetic ulcers.

  15. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of a geriatric consultation team. Compliance with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C M; Becker, P M; McVey, L J; Saltz, C; Feussner, J R; Cohen, H J

    1986-05-16

    As part of a prospective, randomized, controlled study of the effectiveness of a geriatric consultation team, we examined compliance by the house staff with recommendations made by the team. Recommendations were formulated for 185 patients, aged 75 years or older, who were randomized into intervention (n = 92) and control (n = 93) groups. In the control group, only 27.1% of the actions that would have been recommended by the team were implemented independently by the house staff. Problems commonly neglected included polypharmacy, sensory impairment, confusion, and depression. In the intervention group, overall compliance was 71.7%. Highest compliance occurred for recommendations addressing instability and falls (95.0%) and discharge planning (94.3%). We conclude that a geriatric consultation team contributes substantial additional input into the care of older patients. Furthermore, relatively high compliance can be achieved with recommendations made by a geriatric consultation team, thereby overcoming the first barrier to the establishment of such a service.

  16. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pcontrol group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pPrenatal yoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Online consumer behavior among Norwegian business students

    OpenAIRE

    Møller-Hansen, Tor Ragnar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2013 E-commerce is an ever growing phenomenon which merits further research. This study conducts a literature review in the field of online consumer behavior, focusing on online consumer purchase intention and online consumer loyalty in the context of Norwegian business students. We also conduct a survey with 196 business students in Norway, and go on to identify three important variables impacting online consumer purchase i...

  19. Quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Soltmann, Bettina; Weikert, Beate; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess (1) the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorder, (2) the potential improvement in quality of reporting over time, and (3) differences in quality of reporting between journals that endorse or do not endorse the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. A systematic literature search was done to identify all randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2008 relevant to the pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorder. The search strategy of the published National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline for management of bipolar disorders was used and adapted. All included and excluded clinical trials mentioned in the guideline and published from 2000 onward were reviewed for eligibility. For an update search from July 2004 through December 2008, an adapted search strategy was used in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Ovid, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Titles and abstracts were scanned for relevance, and full texts were ordered in case of uncertainty to maximize sensitivity. Reference lists of retrieved systematic reviews were checked. All full texts were checked for eligibility. Only relevant randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2008 were included. Abstracts, randomized controlled trials published before 2000, nonrandomized clinical studies, pooled analyses, editorials, reviews, case reports, observational studies, and unpublished reports were excluded. A checklist based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was used to assess quality of reporting of all included studies. A total of 105 randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. Of the 72 applicable checklist items, 42% were generally reported adequately and 25% inadequately. Reporting was especially poor for

  20. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  1. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Technical Student Programme draws Norwegians

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Erik Hejne, second from left, Chairman of the Technical Students Committee, and Jens Vigen, who is concerned spefically with Norwegian students at CERN, with some of the Norwegian technical students who arrived at CERN in spring 2005, together with their teachers. From mid-April, CERN's PH and IT Departments are hosting ten Norwegian students from Bergen University College, the Sør-Trøndelag University College and the University of Science and Technology in Trondheim to take part in the Laboratory's Technical Student Programme. The Technical Student Programme is open to students of universities and technical higher education establishments in the Member States who, in the course of their studies, are required to complete a period of professional training in industry or in a laboratory. Around 70 Technical Students come to work at CERN each year. Selected by a committee, they spend between six months and one year with the Organization. The programme is funded by CERN. However, once the Laboratory's quota of...

  3. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  4. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  5. Cultural and musical activity among Norwegian doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2013-06-25

    The cultural and musical activity of Norwegian doctors was studied in 1993. We wished to re-examine their cultural and musical activity, analyse the development and study the correlation with satisfaction, health and other leisure activities. In the autumn of 2010, a survey was undertaken among a representative sample of economically active Norwegian doctors. The survey asked the same questions as in 1993, and the responses were also compared to the population studies conducted by Statistics Norway. We also used a cultural index that we have developed ourselves. Altogether 1,019 doctors (70%) responded to the survey. They reported a higher level of cultural activity in 2010 than in 1993, measured in terms of reading of non-medical literature and visits to the cinema, theatre and concerts. The doctors engaged in musical activity of their own especially frequently: 58% reported to be able to play an instrument, and 21% reported to play on a regular basis, which is more than among other academic professions. We found a significant correlation between the doctors' level of cultural activity and their job satisfaction, general satisfaction, self-reported health and physical activity. The doctors who engage most frequently in cultural activities are thus most satisfied with their work and with life in general. Furthermore, they also have better self-reported health. Norwegian doctors give priority to cultural and musical activities. The assertion that doctors are particularly fond of music is more than just a myth.

  6. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  7. A critical appraisal of the reporting quality of published randomized controlled trials in the fall injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Sadeghi-Bazrgani, Homayoun; Dianat, Iman

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the quality of reporting in published randomized controlled trials (RTCs) in the field of fall injuries. The 188 RTCs published between 2001 and 2011, indexed in EMBASE and Medline databases were extracted through searching by appropriate keywords and EMTree classification terms. The evaluation trustworthiness was assured through parallel evaluations of two experts in epidemiology and biostatistics. About 40%-75% of papers had problems in reporting random allocation method, allocation concealment, random allocation implementation, blinding and similarity among groups, intention to treat and balancing benefits and harms. Moreover, at least 10% of papers inappropriately/not reported the design, protocol violations, sample size justification, subgroup/adjusted analyses, presenting flow diagram, drop outs, recruitment time, baseline data, suitable effect size on outcome, ancillary analyses, limitations and generalizability. Considering the shortcomings found and due to the importance of the RCTs for fall injury prevention programmes, their reporting quality should be improved.

  8. Calculation of dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) is requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to calculate the dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population. NFSA refers to the recent scientific opinion on acrylamide in food by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA concludes that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups.

  9. Ichthyophonus hoferi disease in the herring in Norwegian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Hjeltnes, Brit K.; Skagen, Dankert W.

    1992-01-01

    After the discovery of I. hoferi disease in Norwegian spring spawning herring in summer 1991, a program for systematic surveillance of the disease in the herring in Norwegian waters was developed. The programme, which aims primarily at monitoring the prevalence of the disease, is described. Macroscopic lesions in the heart emerged as the standard diagnostic criterium. The results so far indicate that the situation for Norwegian spring spawning herring is not alarming, ...

  10. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2014-05-01

    Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Intervention randomized controlled trials involving wrist and shoulder arthroscopy: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although arthroscopy of upper extremity joints was initially a diagnostic tool, it is increasingly used for therapeutic interventions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for assessing treatment efficacy. We aimed to review the literature for intervention RCTs involving wrist and shoulder arthroscopy. Methods We performed a systematic review for RCTs in which at least one arm was an intervention performed through wrist arthroscopy or shoulder arthroscopy. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to December 2012. Two researchers reviewed each article and recorded the condition treated, randomization method, number of randomized participants, time of randomization, outcomes measures, blinding, and description of dropouts and withdrawals. We used the modified Jadad scale that considers the randomization method, blinding, and dropouts/withdrawals; score 0 (lowest quality) to 5 (highest quality). The scores for the wrist and shoulder RCTs were compared with the Mann–Whitney test. Results The first references to both wrist and shoulder arthroscopy appeared in the late 1970s. The search found 4 wrist arthroscopy intervention RCTs (Kienböck’s disease, dorsal wrist ganglia, volar wrist ganglia, and distal radius fracture; first 3 compared arthroscopic with open surgery). The median number of participants was 45. The search found 50 shoulder arthroscopy intervention RCTs (rotator cuff tears 22, instability 14, impingement 9, and other conditions 5). Of these, 31 compared different arthroscopic treatments, 12 compared arthroscopic with open treatment, and 7 compared arthroscopic with nonoperative treatment. The median number of participants was 60. The median modified Jadad score for the wrist RCTs was 0.5 (range 0–1) and for the shoulder RCTs 3.0 (range 0–5) (p = 0.012). Conclusion Despite the increasing use of wrist arthroscopy in the treatment of various wrist disorders the efficacy of arthroscopically

  12. The Chronic Kidney Disease Water Intake Trial: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Clark

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In observational studies, drinking more water associates with a slower rate of kidney function decline; whether the same is true in a randomized controlled trial is unknown. Objective: To examine the 1-year effect of a higher vs usual water intake on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease. Design: Parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Setting: Nine centers in Ontario, Canada. Enrollment and randomization occurred between May 2013 and May 2016; follow-up for the primary outcome will continue until June 2017. Participants: Adults (n = 631 with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and microalbuminuria. Intervention: The high water intake group was coached to increase their oral water intake by 1.0 to 1.5 L/day (depending on sex and weight, over and above usual consumed beverages, for a period of 1 year. The control group was coached to maintain their usual water intake during this time. Measures: Participants provided 24-hour urine samples at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after randomization; urine samples were analyzed for volume, creatinine, osmolality, and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 3- to 6-month intervals after randomization, and analyzed for creatinine, copeptin, osmolality, and electrolytes. Other measures collected included health-related quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index, and diet. Primary outcome: The between-group change in eGFR from baseline (prerandomization to 12 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes: Change in plasma copeptin concentration, 24-hour urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, measured creatinine clearance, estimated 5-year risk of kidney failure (using the 4-variable Kidney Failure Risk Equation, and health-related quality of life. Planned analysis: The primary analysis will follow an intention-to-treat approach. The between-group change in eGFR will be compared using

  13. Garlic for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X J; Wang, P Q; Li, S J; Li, X K; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, J

    2015-03-15

    In the past decade, garlic has become one of the most popular complementary therapies for blood pressure (BP) control used by hypertensive patients. Numerous clinical studies have focused on the BP-lowering effect of garlic, but results have been inconsistent. Overall, there is a dearth of information available to guide the clinical community on the efficacy of garlic in hypertensive patients. To systematically review the medical literature to investigate the current evidence of garlic for the treatment of hypertension. PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for appropriate articles from their respective inceptions until August 2014. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing garlic vs. a placebo in patients with hypertension were considered. Papers were independently reviewed by two reviewers and were analyzed using Cochrane software Revman 5.2. A total of seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified. Compared with the placebo, this meta-analysis revealed a significant lowering effect of garlic on both systolic BP (WMD: -6.71 mmHg; 95% CI: -12.44 to -0.99; P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (WMD: -4.79 mmHg; 95% CI: -6.60 to -2.99; P garlic is an effective and safe approach for hypertension. However, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials focusing on primary endpoints with long-term follow-up are still warranted before garlic can be recommended to treat hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Upper limb robot-assisted therapy in cerebral palsy: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Renders, Anne; Dispa, Delphine; Holvoet, Dominique; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan

    2015-02-01

    Several pilot studies have evoked interest in robot-assisted therapy (RAT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). To assess the effectiveness of RAT in children with CP through a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Sixteen children with CP were randomized into 2 groups. Eight children performed 5 conventional therapy sessions per week over 8 weeks (control group). Eight children completed 3 conventional therapy sessions and 2 robot-assisted sessions per week over 8 weeks (robotic group). For both groups, each therapy session lasted 45 minutes. Throughout each RAT session, the patient attempted to reach several targets consecutively with the REAPlan. The REAPlan is a distal effector robot that allows for displacements of the upper limb in the horizontal plane. A blinded assessment was performed before and after the intervention with respect to the International Classification of Functioning framework: body structure and function (upper limb kinematics, Box and Block test, Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, strength, and spasticity), activities (Abilhand-Kids, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory), and participation (Life Habits). During each RAT session, patients performed 744 movements on average with the REAPlan. Among the variables assessed, the smoothness of movement (P robotic group than in the control group. This single-blind randomized controlled trial provides the first evidence that RAT is effective in children with CP. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects of this therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Effect of music in endoscopy procedures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Cai; Zhang, Ling Yi; Zhang, Yu Long; Zhang, Ya Wu; Xu, Xiao Dong; Zhang, You Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Endoscopies are common clinical examinations that are somewhat painful and even cause fear and anxiety for patients. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the effect of music on patients undergoing various endoscopic procedures. We searched the Cochrane Library, Issue 6, 2013, PubMed, and EMBASE databases up to July 2013. Randomized controlled trials comparing endoscopies, with and without the use of music, were included. Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine the impact of music on different types of endoscopic procedures. Twenty-one randomized controlled trials involving 2,134 patients were included. The overall effect of music on patients undergoing a variety of endoscopic procedures significantly improved pain score (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-2.53, -0.53]), anxiety (WMD = -6.04, 95% CI [-9.61, -2.48]), heart rate (P = 0.01), arterial pressure (P music group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, music had little effect for patients undergoing colposcopy and bronchoscopy in the subanalysis. Our meta-analysis suggested that music may offer benefits for patients undergoing endoscopy, except in colposcopy and bronchoscopy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Yoga for generalized anxiety disorder: design of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Curtiss, Joshua; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hoge, Elizabeth; Rosenfield, David; Bui, Eric; Keshaviah, Aparna; Simon, Naomi

    2015-09-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common disorder associated with significant distress and interference. Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be the most effective form of psychotherapy, few patients receive or have access to this intervention. Yoga therapy offers another promising, yet under-researched, intervention that is gaining increasing popularity in the general public, as an anxiety reduction intervention. The purpose of this innovative clinical trial protocol is to investigate the efficacy of a Kundalini Yoga intervention, relative to CBT and a control condition. Kundalini yoga and CBT are compared with each other in a noninferiority test and both treatments are compared to stress education training, an attention control intervention, in superiority tests. The sample will consist of 230 individuals with a primary DSM-5 diagnosis of GAD. This randomized controlled trial will compare yoga (N=95) to both CBT for GAD (N=95) and stress education (N=40), a commonly used control condition. All three treatments will be administered by two instructors in a group format over 12 weekly sessions with four to six patients per group. Groups will be randomized using permuted block randomization, which will be stratified by site. Treatment outcome will be evaluated bi-weekly and at 6month follow-up. Furthermore, potential mediators of treatment outcome will be investigated. Given the individual and economic burden associated with GAD, identifying accessible alternative behavioral treatments will have substantive public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Yektatalab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01, verbal (P=0.02 and physical (P=0.01 aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09 and impulsive anger (P=0.08 subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive stroke education program for patients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, H; Atkinson, C; Bond, S; Suddes, M; Dobson, R; Curless, R

    1999-12-01

    We report the findings of a randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary Stroke Education Program (SEP) for patients and their informal carers. Two hundred four patients admitted with acute stroke and their 176 informal carers were randomized to receive an invitation to the SEP or to receive conventional stroke unit care. The SEP consisted of one 1-hour small group educational session for inpatients followed by six 1-hour sessions after discharge. The primary outcome measure was patient- and carer-perceived health status (SF-36) at 6 months after stroke. Knowledge of stroke, satisfaction with services, emotional outcome, disability, and handicap and were secondary outcome measures. Only 51 of 108 (47%) surviving patients randomized to the SEP completed the program, as did 20 of 93 (22%) informal carers of surviving patients. Perceived health status (Short Form 36 [SF-36] health survey) scores were similar for SEP patients and controls. Informal carers in the control group scored better on the social functioning component of the SF-36 than the SEP group (P=0.04). Patients and informal carers in the SEP group scored higher on the stroke knowledge scale than controls (patients, P=0.02; carers, P=0. 01). Patients in the SEP group were more satisfied with the information that they had received about stroke (P=0.004). There were no differences in emotional or functional outcomes between groups. Although the SEP improved patient and informal carer knowledge about stroke and patient satisfaction with some components of stroke services, this was not associated with an improvement in their perceived health status. Indeed, the social functioning of informal carers randomized to the SEP was less than in the control group.

  19. Wordless intervention for epilepsy in learning disabilities (WIELD): study protocol for a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Gates, Bob; Parkes, Georgina; Zia, Asif; Friedli, Karin; Barton, Garry; Ring, Howard; Oostendorp, Linda; Wellsted, David

    2014-11-20

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological problem that affects people with learning disabilities. The high seizure frequency, resistance to treatments, associated skills deficit and co-morbidities make the management of epilepsy particularly challenging for people with learning disabilities. The Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy uses images to help people with learning disabilities manage their condition and improve quality of life. Our aim is to conduct a randomized controlled feasibility trial exploring key methodological, design and acceptability issues, in order to subsequently undertake a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy. We will use a two-arm, single-centre randomized controlled feasibility design, over a 20-month period, across five epilepsy clinics in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. We will recruit 40 eligible adults with learning disabilities and a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy and will randomize them to use either the Books Beyond Words booklet plus usual care (intervention group) or to receive routine information and services (control group). We will collect quantitative data about the number of eligible participants, number of recruited participants, demographic data, discontinuation rates, variability of the primary outcome measure (quality of life: Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life scale), seizure severity, seizure control, intervention's patterns of use, use of other epilepsy-related information, resource use and the EQ-5D-5L health questionnaire. We will also gather qualitative data about the feasibility and acceptability of the study procedures and the Books Beyond Words booklet. Ethical approval for this study was granted on 28 April 2014, by the Wales Research Ethics Committee 5. Recruitment began on 1 July 2014. The outcomes of this feasibility study will be used to inform the design and methodology of a definitive study, adequately powered to determine the impact of

  20. CR-Calculus and adaptive array theory applied to MIMO random vibration control tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, U.; Manzato, S.; Peeters, B.; Guillaume, P.

    2016-09-01

    Performing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) tests to reproduce the vibration environment in a user-defined number of control points of a unit under test is necessary in applications where a realistic environment replication has to be achieved. MIMO tests require vibration control strategies to calculate the required drive signal vector that gives an acceptable replication of the target. This target is a (complex) vector with magnitude and phase information at the control points for MIMO Sine Control tests while in MIMO Random Control tests, in the most general case, the target is a complete spectral density matrix. The idea behind this work is to tailor a MIMO random vibration control approach that can be generalized to other MIMO tests, e.g. MIMO Sine and MIMO Time Waveform Replication. In this work the approach is to use gradient-based procedures over the complex space, applying the so called CR-Calculus and the adaptive array theory. With this approach it is possible to better control the process performances allowing the step-by-step Jacobian Matrix update. The theoretical bases behind the work are followed by an application of the developed method to a two-exciter two-axis system and by performance comparisons with standard methods.

  1. Searching for control: priming randomness increases the evaluation of ritual efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Souza, André L

    2014-01-01

    Reestablishing feelings of control after experiencing uncertainty has long been considered a fundamental motive for human behavior. We propose that rituals (i.e., socially stipulated, causally opaque practices) provide a means for coping with the aversive feelings associated with randomness due to the perception of a connection between ritual action and a desired outcome. Two experiments were conducted (one in Brazil [n = 40] and another in the United States [n = 94]) to evaluate how the perceived efficacy of rituals is affected by feelings of randomness. In a between-subjects design, the Scramble Sentence Task was used as a priming procedure in three conditions (i.e., randomness, negativity, and neutral) and participants were then asked to rate the efficacy of rituals used for problem-solving purposes. The results demonstrate that priming randomness increased participants' perception of ritual efficacy relative to negativity and neutral conditions. Implications for increasing our understanding of the relationship between perceived control and ritualistic behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  3. Effectiveness of energy conservation management on fatigue and participation in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikman, Lyan Jm; van Meeteren, Jetty; Twisk, Jos Wr; de Laat, Fred Aj; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes Bj

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a frequently reported and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the effectiveness of an individual energy conservation management (ECM) intervention on fatigue and participation in persons with primary MS-related fatigue. A total of 86 severely fatigued and ambulatory adults with a definite diagnosis of MS were randomized in a single-blind, two-parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to the ECM group or the information-only control group in outpatient rehabilitation departments. Blinded assessments were carried out at baseline and at 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes were fatigue (fatigue subscale of Checklist Individual Strength - CIS20r) and participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale - IPA). Modified intention-to-treat analysis was based on 76 randomized patients (ECM, n = 36; MS nurse, n=40). No significant ECM effects were found for fatigue (overall difference CIS20r between the groups = -0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), -3.71 to 2.11) or for four out of five IPA domains. An overall unfavourable effect was found in the ECM group for the IPA domain social relations (difference between the groups = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35). The individual ECM format used in this study did not reduce MS-related fatigue and restrictions in participation more than an information-only control condition.

  4. Cultivating teacher mindfulness: Effects of a randomized controlled trial on work, home, and sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Tori L; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Roeser, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    The effects of randomization to a workplace mindfulness training (WMT) or a waitlist control condition on teachers' well-being (moods and satisfaction at work and home), quantity of sleep, quality of sleep, and sleepiness during the day were examined in 2 randomized, waitlist controlled trials (RCTs). The combined sample of the 2 RCTs, conducted in Canada and the United States, included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female). Measures were collected at baseline, postprogram, and 3-month follow-up; teachers were randomly assigned to condition after baseline assessment. Results showed that teachers randomized to WMT reported less frequent bad moods at work and home, greater satisfaction at work and home, more sleep on weekday nights, better quality sleep, and decreased insomnia symptoms and daytime sleepiness. Training-related group differences in mindfulness and rumination on work at home at postprogram partially mediated the reductions in negative moods at home and increases in sleep quality at follow-up. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The effectiveness of foot reflexology in inducing ovulation: a sham-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jane; Lord, Jonathan; Acharya, Umesh; White, Adrian; O'Neill, Nyree; Shaw, Steve; Barton, Andy

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether foot reflexology, a complementary therapy, has an effect greater than sham reflexology on induction of ovulation. Sham-controlled randomized trial with patients and statistician blinded. Infertility clinic in Plymouth, United Kingdom. Forty-eight women attending the clinic with anovulation. Women were randomized to receive eight sessions of either genuine foot reflexology or sham reflexology with gentle massage over 10 weeks. The primary outcome was ovulation detected by serum progesterone level of >30 nmol/L during the study period. Twenty-six patients were randomized to genuine reflexology and 22 to sham (one randomized patient was withdrawn). Patients remained blinded throughout the trial. The rate of ovulation during true reflexology was 11 out of 26 (42%), and during sham reflexology it was 10 out of 22 (46%). Pregnancy rates were 4 out of 26 in the true group and 2 out of 22 in the control group. Because of recruitment difficulties, the required sample size of 104 women was not achieved. Patient blinding of reflexology studies is feasible. Although this study was too small to reach a definitive conclusion on the specific effect of foot reflexology, the results suggest that any effect on ovulation would not be clinically relevant. Sham reflexology may have a beneficial general effect, which this study was not designed to detect.

  6. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    score >45. Exclusion criteria: Service related trauma within last 3 months, history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder , dementia, moderate or severe...7.7% 0.0% 8.3% 0.191 Bipolar disorder , % 7.7% 10.3% 13.9% 0.681 Substance use disorder , % 30.8% 43.6% 41.7% 0.458 Major depressive disorder ...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0576 TITLE: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in

  7. Prospective randomized controlled trial of an injectable esophageal prosthesis versus a sham procedure for endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, P.; Cohen, L.; Edmundowicz, S.A.; Binmoeller, K.; Rothstein, R.I.; Smith, D.; Lin, E.; Nickl, N.; Overholt, B.; Kahrilas, P.J.; Vakil, N.; Abdel Aziz Hassan, A.M.; Lehman, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether endoscopic implantation of an injectable esophageal prosthesis, the Gatekeeper Reflux Repair System (GK), is a safe and effective therapy for controlling gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A prospective, randomized, sham-controlled, single-blinded,

  8. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Effectiveness of Houvast: A Strengths-Based Intervention for Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenborg, Manon A. M.; Boersma, Sandra N.; van der Veld, William M.; van Hulst, Bente; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the effectiveness of Houvast: a strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 10 Dutch shelter facilities randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Homeless young adults were interviewed when entering the facility and when care ended.…

  9. Can group-based reassuring information alter low back pain behavior? A cluster-randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille; Indahl, Aage; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-01-01

    -randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Publically employed workers (n = 505) from 11 Danish municipality centers were randomized at center-level (cluster) to either intervention (two 1-hour group-based talks at the workplace) or control. The talks provided reassuring information together with a simple non...

  10. A European multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled monotherapy clinical trial of milnacipran in treatment of fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Jaime C; Zachrisson, Olof; Perrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population.......This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population....

  11. Mediating Parent Learning to Promote Social Communication for Toddlers with Autism: Effects from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Odom, Samuel L.; Baggett, Kathleen M.; Sideris, John H.

    2018-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate effects of the Joint Attention Mediated Learning (JAML) intervention. Toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) aged 16-30 months (n = 144) were randomized to intervention and community control conditions. Parents, who participated in 32 weekly home-based sessions, followed a mediated…

  12. A cluster randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of Houvast: A strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, M.A.M.; Boersma, S.N.; Veld, W.M. van der; Hulst, B. van; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the effectiveness of Houvast: a strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 10 Dutch shelter facilities randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Homeless young adults were interviewed

  13. The effectiveness of participatory ergonomics to prevent low-back and neck pain - results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to investigate the effectiveness of the Stay@ Work participatory ergonomics (PE) program to prevent low-back and neck pain. Methods A total of 37 departments were randomly allocated to either the intervention (PE) or control group (no

  14. Physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in people with chronic low back pain: results of a feasibility randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eadie, J.; van de Water, A.T.; Lonsdale, C.; Tully, M.A.; van Mechelen, W.; Boreham, C.A.; Daly, L.; McDonough, S.M.; Hurley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain (CLBP) (≥12wks). Design: Randomized controlled trial with evaluations at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Setting: Outpatient

  15. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on serum homocysteine levels in perimenopausal women : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, AE; Bak, AAA; Lindemans, J; Planellas, J; Bennink, HJTC; Hofman, A; Grobbee, DE; Witteman, JCM

    2001-01-01

    Serum homocysteine levels may be lowered by hormone replacement therapy, but randomized controlled trial data are scarce. We performed a single center randomized placebo-controlled trial to assess the 6 months effect of hormone replacement therapy compared with placebo on fasting serum homocysteine

  16. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  17. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  18. Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2018-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual art therapy. PTSD Checklist–Military Version and Beck Depression Inventory–II scores improved with treatment in both groups with no significant difference in improvement between the experimental and control groups. Art therapy in conjunction with CPT was found to improve trauma processing and veterans considered it to be an important part of their treatment as it provided healthy distancing, enhanced trauma recall, and increased access to emotions. PMID:29332989

  19. Feasibility, Safety, and Compliance in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Physical Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. McGinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both efficacy and clinical feasibility deserve consideration in translation of research outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of rehabilitation programs within the context of a large randomized controlled trial of physical therapy. Ambulant participants with Parkinson's disease (PD (n=210 were randomized into three groups: (1 progressive strength training (PST; (2 movement strategy training (MST; or (3 control (“life skills”. PST and MST included fall prevention education. Feasibility was evaluated in terms of safety, retention, adherence, and compliance measures. Time to first fall during the intervention phase did not differ across groups, and adverse effects were minimal. Retention was high; only eight participants withdrew during or after the intervention phase. Strong adherence (attendance >80% did not differ between groups (P=.435. Compliance in the therapy groups was high. All three programs proved feasible, suggesting they may be safely implemented for people with PD in community-based clinical practice.

  20. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including a p...... of such consultations initiated by the GPs. CONCLUSIONS: Medical audit had no observed effect on AIDS prevention in general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Oct......OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including....... One hundred and thirty-three GPs completed the project. The main outcome measures were the number of consultations involving AIDS prevention and the number of talks about AIDS initiated by the GP, and some elements of the content were registered on a chart. RESULTS: No statistically significant...

  1. Affective-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Woolfolk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an individually administered form of cognitive behavioral treatment for fibromyalgia. In an additive design, 76 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to either the experimental treatment (affective-cognitive behavioral therapy, 10 individual sessions, one per week administered concurrently with treatment-as-usual or to an unaugmented treatment-as-usual condition. Statistical analysis conducted at the end of treatment (3 months after the baseline assessment and at a followup (9 months after the baseline assessment indicated that the patients receiving the experimental treatment reported less pain and overall better functioning than control patients, both at posttreatment and at followup. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  2. Disintegration of a marine-based ice stream - evidence from the Norwegian Channel, north-eastern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Björn M.; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Hjelstuen, Berit O.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Schäuble, Cathrina; Borge, Marianne

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream repeatedly drained large part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet through Mid and Late Pleistocene glacial stages. During parts of Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3, glacial ice from Fennoscandia and the British Isles coalesced in the central North Sea and the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream reached the shelf edge on multiple occasions. Through the last decades a large amount of acoustic and sediment core data have been collected from the Norwegian Channel, providing a good background for studies focussing on stability- and development-controlling parameters for marine-based ice streams, the retreat rate of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, and the behaviour of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Further, this improved understanding can be used to develop more accurate numerical climate models and models which can be used to model ice-sheet behaviour of the past as well as the future. This study presents new acoustic records and data from sediment cores which contribute to a better understanding of the retreat pattern and the retreat rate of the last ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Channel. From bathymetric and TOPAS seismic data, mega-scale glacial lineations, grounding-zone wedges, and end moraines have been mapped, thereby allowing us to reconstruct the pro- and subglacial conditions at the time of the creation of these landforms. It is concluded that the whole Norwegian Channel was deglaciated in just over 1 000 years and that for most of this time the ice margin was located at positions reflected by depositional grounding-zone wedges. Further work will explore the influence of channel shape and feeding of ice from western Norwegian fjords on this retreat pattern through numerical modelling.

  3. Fuzzy control with random delays using invariant cones and its application to control of energy processes in microelectromechanical motion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.S.C. [Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Lyshevski, S. [Rochester Inst. of Technology, NY (United States)

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a class of microelectromechanical systems described by nonlinear differential equations with random delays is examined. Robust fuzzy controllers are designed to control the energy conversion processes with the ultimate objective to guarantee optimal achievable performance. The fuzzy rule base used consists of a collection of r fuzzy IF-THEN rules defined as a function of the conditional variable. The method of the theory of cones and Lyapunov functionals is used to design a class of local fuzzy control laws. A verifiably sufficient condition for stochastic stability of fuzzy stochastic microelectromechanical systems is given. As an example, we have considered the design of a fuzzy control law for an electrostatic micromotor. (author)

  4. Fuzzy control with random delays using invariant cones and its application to control of energy processes in microelectromechanical motion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.S.C.; Lyshevski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a class of microelectromechanical systems described by nonlinear differential equations with random delays is examined. Robust fuzzy controllers are designed to control the energy conversion processes with the ultimate objective to guarantee optimal achievable performance. The fuzzy rule base used consists of a collection of r fuzzy IF-THEN rules defined as a function of the conditional variable. The method of the theory of cones and Lyapunov functionals is used to design a class of local fuzzy control laws. A verifiably sufficient condition for stochastic stability of fuzzy stochastic microelectromechanical systems is given. As an example, we have considered the design of a fuzzy control law for an electrostatic micromotor

  5. A general method for handling missing binary outcome data in randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Dan; White, Ian R; Mason, Dan; Sutton, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Aims The analysis of randomized controlled trials with incomplete binary outcome data is challenging. We develop a general method for exploring the impact of missing data in such trials, with a focus on abstinence outcomes. Design We propose a sensitivity analysis where standard analyses, which could include ‘missing = smoking’ and ‘last observation carried forward’, are embedded in a wider class of models. Setting We apply our general method to data from two smoking cessation trials. Partici...

  6. Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain:Randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars L.; Persson, Roger; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While workplace physical exercise can help manage musculoskeletal disorders, less is known about psychosocial effects of such interventions. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard ...

  7. Can early intervention policies improve wellbeing? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Daly; Liam Delaney; Orla Doyle; Nick Fitzpatrick; Christine O'Farrelly

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of well-being, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal well-being in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global...

  8. Can Early Intervention Policies Improve Well-being? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla; Fitzpatrick, Nick; O'Farrelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of wellbeing, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal wellbeing in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global w...

  9. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the treatment of dry eye disease in Sjogren syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Kendrick Co; Lun, Christie Nicole; Jhanji, Vishal; Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor; Tong, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by dry eye and dry mouth. We systematically reviewed all the randomized controlled clinical trials published in the last 15 years that included ocular outcomes. We found 22 trials involving 9 topical, 10 oral, 2 intravenous and 1 subcutaneous modalities of treatment. Fluoromethalone eye drops over 8 weeks were more effective than topical cyclosporine in the treatment of dry eye symptoms and signs; similarly, indomethac...

  10. Nutrition education intervention for dependent patients: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Arija Victoria; Martín Núria; Canela Teresa; Anguera Carme; Castelao Ana I; García-Barco Montserrat; García-Campo Antoni; González-Bravo Ana I; Lucena Carme; Martínez Teresa; Fernández-Barrés Silvia; Pedret Roser; Badia Waleska; Basora Josep

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of t...

  11. Recruitment to Online Therapies for Depression: Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ray B; Goldsmith, Lesley; Hewson, Paul; Williams, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Background Raising awareness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could benefit many people with depression, but we do not know how purchasing online advertising compares to placing free links from relevant local websites in increasing uptake. Objective To pilot a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing purchase of Google AdWords with placing free website links in raising awareness of online CBT resources for depression in order to better understand research design issues....

  12. Effect of a mobile app intervention on vegetable consumption in overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummah, Sarah; Robinson, Thomas N; Mathur, Maya; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Sutton, Stephen; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-09-15

    Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials. We tested the effect of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults attempting weight loss maintenance. Overweight adults (n=135) aged 18-50 years with BMI=28-40 kg/m 2 near Stanford, CA were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial) and randomly assigned to either the stand-alone, theory-based Vegethon mobile app (enabling goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback and using "process motivators" including fun, surprise, choice, control, social comparison, and competition) or a wait-listed control condition. The primary outcome was daily vegetables servings, measured by an adapted Harvard food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) 8 weeks post-randomization. Daily vegetable servings from 24-hour dietary recalls, administered by trained, certified, and blinded interviewers 5 weeks post-randomization, was included as a secondary outcome. All analyses were conducted according to principles of intention-to-treat. Daily vegetable consumption was significantly greater in the intervention versus control condition for both measures (adjusted mean difference: 2.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.1, 3.8, p=0.04 for FFQ; and 1.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9; p=0.02 for 24-hour recalls). Baseline vegetable consumption was a significant moderator of intervention effects (p=0.002) in which effects increased as baseline consumption increased. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults. Theory-based mobile interventions may present a low-cost, scalable, and effective approach to improving dietary behaviors and preventing associated chronic diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01826591. Registered 27 March 2013.

  13. Non-surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Susan E G; Miller, Katherine; Elfar, John C; Hammert, Warren C

    2014-12-01

    Non-surgical approaches to treatment of lateral epicondylitis are numerous. The aim of this systematic review is to examine randomized, controlled trials of these treatments. Numerous databases were systematically searched from earliest records to February 2013. Search terms included "lateral epicondylitis," "lateral elbow pain," "tennis elbow," "lateral epicondylalgia," and "elbow tendinopathy" combined with "randomized controlled trial." Two reviewers examined the literature for eligibility via article abstract and full text. Fifty-eight articles met eligibility criteria: (1) a target population of patients with symptoms of lateral epicondylitis; (2) evaluation of treatment of lateral epicondylitis with the following non-surgical techniques: corticosteroid injection, injection technique, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin A injection, prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma or autologous blood injection, bracing, physical therapy, shockwave therapy, or laser therapy; and (3) a randomized controlled trial design. Lateral epicondylitis is a condition that is usually self-limited. There may be a short-term pain relief advantage found with the application of corticosteroids, but no demonstrable long-term pain relief. Injection of botulinum toxin A and prolotherapy are superior to placebo but not to corticosteroids, and botulinum toxin A is likely to produce concomitant extensor weakness. Platelet-rich plasma or autologous blood injections have been found to be both more and less effective than corticosteroid injections. Non-invasive treatment methods such as bracing, physical therapy, and extracorporeal shockwave therapy do not appear to provide definitive benefit regarding pain relief. Some studies of low-level laser therapy show superiority to placebo whereas others do not. There are multiple randomized controlled trials for non-surgical management of lateral epicondylitis, but the existing literature does not provide conclusive evidence that there is one preferred method

  14. Behavioral insights and business taxation: Evidence from two randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Nicholas; Fels, Katja; Sinning, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of two Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) that were conducted in collaboration with the Australian Taxation Office (ATO). The first trial tests the effect of changes to letters (timing, social norms, color, and provision of information about charitable donations) on response rates of businesses, the timing of payments and the amount of tax debt payments. The second trial consists of two parts. The first part aims to raise awareness of the relevance of tax deb...

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30 adolescents with ASD and anxiety symptoms of moderate or greater severity. The treatment was acceptable to families, subject adherence was hig...

  16. Structuring communication relationships for interprofessional teamwork (SCRIPT): a cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zwarenstein, Merrick; Reeves, Scott; Russell, Ann; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Miller, Karen-Lee; Lingard, Lorelei; Thorpe, Kevin E

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite a burgeoning interest in using interprofessional approaches to promote effective collaboration in health care, systematic reviews find scant evidence of benefit. This protocol describes the first cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to design and evaluate an intervention intended to improve interprofessional collaborative communication and patient-centred care. Objectives The objective is to evaluate the effects of a four-component, hospital-based staff commun...

  17. Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Pilla, Carmen; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Barreto, Michelle Flores; Vieiro, Priscila Azevedo; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia. Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval…

  18. Web-Based and Mobile Stress Management Intervention for Employees: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Heber, Elena; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Berking, Matthias; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Work-related stress is highly prevalent among employees and is associated with adverse mental health consequences. Web-based interventions offer the opportunity to deliver effective solutions on a large scale; however, the evidence is limited and the results conflicting. Objective: This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of guided Web-and mobile-based stress management training for employees. Methods: A total of 264 employees with elevated symptoms of stress (Perce...

  19. A systematic mapping review of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs in care homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Adam L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough understanding of the literature generated from research in care homes is required to support evidence-based commissioning and delivery of healthcare. So far this research has not been compiled or described. We set out to describe the extent of the evidence base derived from randomized controlled trials conducted in care homes. Methods A systematic mapping review was conducted of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs conducted in care homes. Medline was searched for “Nursing Home”, “Residential Facilities” and “Homes for the Aged”; CINAHL for “nursing homes”, “residential facilities” and “skilled nursing facilities”; AMED for “Nursing homes”, “Long term care”, “Residential facilities” and “Randomized controlled trial”; and BNI for “Nursing Homes”, “Residential Care” and “Long-term care”. Articles were classified against a keywording strategy describing: year and country of publication; randomization, stratification and blinding methodology; target of intervention; intervention and control treatments; number of subjects and/or clusters; outcome measures; and results. Results 3226 abstracts were identified and 291 articles reviewed in full. Most were recent (median age 6 years and from the United States. A wide range of targets and interventions were identified. Studies were mostly functional (44 behaviour, 20 prescribing and 20 malnutrition studies rather than disease-based. Over a quarter focussed on mental health. Conclusions This study is the first to collate data from all RCTs conducted in care homes and represents an important resource for those providing and commissioning healthcare for this sector. The evidence-base is rapidly developing. Several areas - influenza, falls, mobility, fractures, osteoporosis – are appropriate for systematic review. For other topics, researchers need to focus on outcome measures that can be compared and collated.

  20. Stress and Fatigue Management Using Balneotherapy in a Short-Time Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rapolienė, Lolita; Razbadauskas, Artūras; Sąlyga, Jonas; Martinkėnas, Arvydas

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of high-salinity geothermal mineral water on stress and fatigue. Method. 180 seamen were randomized into three groups: geothermal (65), music (50), and control (65). The geothermal group was administered 108?g/L salinity geothermal water bath for 2 weeks five times a week. Primary outcome was effect on stress and fatigue. Secondary outcomes were the effect on cognitive function, mood, and pain. Results. The improvements after balneotherapy were a reduct...

  1. Adhesive strip wound closure after thyroidectomy/parathyroidectomy: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D Peter

    2013-03-01

    Conventional collar incision closure in thyroid and parathyroid surgery involves the insertion of an epidermal layer of subcutaneous absorbable sutures that are reinforced by a deep layer of sutures. Adhesive strips offer an alternative method to close the epidermal layer. The aim of this study was to compare adhesive strip closure with absorbable sutures for collar incisions in a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

  2. Treating Rural Pediatric Obesity through Telemedicine: Baseline Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Katherine Steiger; Davis, Ann McGrath; Malone, Brett; Landrum, Yasuko; Black, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe baseline characteristics of participants in a pediatric obesity intervention tailored specifically to rural families delivered via telemedicine. Methods Randomized-control trial comparing a family-based behavioral intervention to a usual care condition. Participants Fifty-eight first through fifth graders and their parents from the rural Midwest. Measures Demographic, body mass index (BMI), Actigraph activity monitor information, 24-h dietary recalls, Child Behavior Chec...

  3. The Effectiveness of School-Based Nutritional Education Program among Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    In-Iw, Supinya; Saetae, Tridsanun; Manaboriboon, Boonying

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutri...

  4. Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Laiana Sep?lveda de Andrade; de Carvalho, Fabiana Texeira; Freire, Lara Sep?lveda de Andrade; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Z?ngaro, Renato Amaro

    2015-01-01

    Background The aging process reduces both sensory capabilities and the capabilities of the motor systems responsible for postural control, resulting in a high number of falls among the elderly. Some therapeutic interventions can directly interrupt this process, including physical exercise. This study compares and examines the effects of two exercise protocols on the balance of elderly women. Methods Elderly women who participated in a local church project (n?=?63) were randomly divided into t...

  5. Case management: a randomized controlled study comparing a neighborhood team and a centralized individual model.

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, G M; Zimmer, J G; Hall, W J; Friedman, B

    1991-01-01

    This randomized controlled study compared two types of case management for skilled nursing level patients living at home: the centralized individual model and the neighborhood team model. The team model differed from the individual model in that team case managers performed client assessments, care planning, some direct services, and reassessments; they also had much smaller caseloads and were assigned a specific catchment area. While patients in both groups incurred very high estimated healt...

  6. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy as a Treatment for Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, L.; Marks, E. M.; Hallsworth, C. A.; Schaette, R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is experienced by up to 15% of the population and can lead to significant disability and distress. There is rarely a medical or surgical target and psychological therapies are recommended. We investigated whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) could offer an effective new therapy for tinnitus. METHODS: This single-site randomized controlled trial compared MBCT to intensive relaxation training (RT) for chronic, distressing tinnitus in adults. Both treatments in...

  7. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W.; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators

  8. Effects of traditional cupping therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Andreas; Bock, Silke; Lüdtke, Rainer; Rampp, Thomas; Baecker, Marcus; Bachmann, Jürgen; Langhorst, Jost; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav J

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of cupping, a traditional method of treating musculoskeletal pain, in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in an open randomized trial. n = 52 outpatients (58.5 +/- 8.0 years) with neurologically confirmed CTS were randomly assigned to either a verum (n = 26) or a control group (n = 26). Verum patients were treated with a single application of wet cupping, and control patients with a single local application of heat within the region overlying the trapezius muscle. Patients were followed up on day 7 after treatment. The primary outcome, severity of CTS symptoms (VAS), was reduced from 61.5 +/- 20.5 to 24.6 +/- 22.7 mm at day 7 in the cupping group and from 67.1 +/- 20.2 to 51.7 +/- 23.9 mm in the control group [group difference -24.5mm (95%CI -36.1; -2.9, P cupping therapy may be effective in relieving the pain and other symptoms related to CTS. The efficacy of cupping in the long-term management of CTS and related mechanisms remains to be clarified. The results of a randomized trial on the clinical effects of traditional cupping therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome are presented. Cupping of segmentally related shoulder zones appears to alleviate the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  9. Refeeding Low Weight Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Graeme; Nicholls, Dasha; Hudson, Lee; Singhal, Atul

    2016-10-01

    Refeeding patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A lack of evidence from interventional studies has hindered refeeding practice and led to worldwide disparities in management recommendations. In the first randomized controlled trial in this area, we tested the hypothesis that refeeding adolescents with AN with a higher energy intake than what many guidelines recommend improved anthropometric outcomes without adversely affecting cardiac and biochemical markers associated with refeeding. Participants aged 10-16 years with a body mass index (BMI) refeeding at 1200 kcal/d (n = 18, intervention) or 500 kcal/d (n = 18, control). Compared with controls, adolescents randomized to high energy intake had greater weight gain (mean difference between groups after 10 days of refeeding, -1.2% mBMI; 95% confidence interval, -2.4% to 0.0%; P = .05), but randomized groups did not differ statistically in QTc interval and other outcomes. The nadir in postrefeeding phosphate concentration was significantly related to percentage mBMI at the start of refeeding (baseline; P = .04) and baseline white blood cell count (P = .005) but not to baseline energy intake (P = .08). Refeeding adolescents with AN with a higher energy intake was associated with greater weight gain but without an increase in complications associated with refeeding when compared with a more cautious refeeding protocol-thus challenging current refeeding recommendations. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Randomized controlled trial in rural Ethiopia to assess a portable water treatment device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Sophie; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Berhanu, Tsegahiwot; Gezahegn, Henock; Clasen, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the Lifestraw Personal pipe-style water treatment device among a rural population in Ethiopia. A total of 313 households (including 1516 persons) were randomly assigned either to an intervention group in which each householder received a Lifestraw Personal or a control. Households were visited fortnightly over a five-month intervention period and asked to report any episode of diarrhea during the previous week. A random sample of 160 devices was tested each month to assess the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) and residual iodine in treated water and to measure flow rate under simulated use. Members of the intervention group had 25% fewer weeks with diarrhea than those of the control group (longitudinal prevalence ratio = 0.75; 95% CI 0.60; 0.95). All 718 filtered water samples were free of TTC, were free of detectable iodine disinfectant, and showed a constant flow rate over time. After the five-month intervention period, 34% of participants reported use of device in the preceding week and 13% reported consistent use. While the device was associated with a 25% reduction in longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea, low levels of use suggest that much of this effect is likely to be attributable to reporting bias that is common in open trials with nonobjective outcomes.

  11. Interventions to improve hemodialysis adherence: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Michelle L; Russell, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Over 485,000 people in the United States have chronic kidney disease, a progressive kidney disease that may lead to hemodialysis. Hemodialysis involves a complex regimen of treatment, medication, fluid, and diet management. In 2005, over 312,000 patients were undergoing hemodialysis in the United States. Dialysis nonadherence rates range from 8.5% to 86%. Dialysis therapy treatment nonadherence, including treatment, medication, fluid, and diet nonadherence, significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review randomized-controlled trial intervention studies designed to increase treatment, medication, fluid, and diet adherence in adult hemodialysis patients. A search of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to May 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2008), PsycINFO (1806 to May 2008), and all Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews (Cochran DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, and CCTR) was conducted to identify randomized-controlled studies that tested the efficacy of interventions to improve adherence in adult hemodialysis patients. Eight randomized-controlled trials met criteria for inclusion. Six of the 8 studies found statistically significant improvement in adherence with the intervention. Of these 6 intervention studies, all studies had a cognitive component, with 3 studies utilizing cognitive/behavioral intervention strategies. Based on this systematic review, interventions utilizing a cognitive or cognitive/behavioral component appear to show the most promise for future study. © 2010 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2010 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  12. Morphological changes after pelvic floor muscle training measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekken, Ingeborg Hoff; Hoff Braekken, Ingeborg; Majida, Memona; Engh, Marie Ellström; Bø, Kari

    2010-02-01

    To investigate morphological and functional changes after pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at a university hospital and a physical therapy clinic. One hundred nine women with pelvic organ prolapse stages I, II, and III were randomly allocated by a computer-generated random number system to pelvic floor muscle training (n=59) or control (n=50). Both groups received lifestyle advice and learned to contract the pelvic floor muscles before and during increases in intraabdominal pressure. In addition the pelvic floor muscle training group did individual strength training with a physical therapist and daily home exercise for 6 months. Primary outcome measures were pelvic floor muscle (pubovisceral muscle) thickness, levator hiatus area, pubovisceral muscle length at rest and Valsalva, and resting position of bladder and rectum, measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography. Seventy-nine percent of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group adhered to at least 80% of the training protocol. Compared with women in the control group, women in the pelvic floor muscle training group increased muscle thickness (difference between groups: 1.9 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7, Ppelvic floor muscle stiffness. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training can increase muscle volume, close the levator hiatus, shorten muscle length, and elevate the resting position of the bladder and rectum. www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00271297. I.

  13. Minimally invasive versus open distal pancreatectomy (LEOPARD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Vogel, Jantien A; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; de Boer, Marieke T; Boerma, Djamila; van den Boezem, Peter B; Bonsing, Bert A; Bosscha, Koop; Coene, Peter-Paul; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Eijck, Casper H; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; Dejong, Cees H; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J; Lips, Daan J; Luyer, Misha D; Molenaar, I Quintus; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Patijn, Gijs A; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J; van der Schelling, George P; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Wijsman, Jan H; Abu Hilal, Moh'd; Busch, Olivier R; Besselink, Marc G

    2017-04-08

    Observational cohort studies have suggested that minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) is associated with better short-term outcomes compared with open distal pancreatectomy (ODP), such as less intraoperative blood loss, lower morbidity, shorter length of hospital stay, and reduced total costs. Confounding by indication has probably influenced these findings, given that case-matched studies failed to confirm the superiority of MIDP. This accentuates the need for multicenter randomized controlled trials, which are currently lacking. We hypothesize that time to functional recovery is shorter after MIDP compared with ODP even in an enhanced recovery setting. LEOPARD is a randomized controlled, parallel-group, patient-blinded, multicenter, superiority trial in all 17 centers of the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group. A total of 102 patients with symptomatic benign, premalignant or malignant disease will be randomly allocated to undergo MIDP or ODP in an enhanced recovery setting. The primary outcome is time (days) to functional recovery, defined as all of the following: independently mobile at the preoperative level, sufficient pain control with oral medication alone, ability to maintain sufficient (i.e. >50%) daily required caloric intake, no intravenous fluid administration and no signs of infection. Secondary outcomes are operative and postoperative outcomes, including clinically relevant complications, mortality, quality of life and costs. The LEOPARD trial is designed to investigate whether MIDP reduces the time to functional recovery compared with ODP in an enhanced recovery setting. Dutch Trial Register, NTR5188 . Registered on 9 April 2015.

  14. Randomized controlled trials in dentistry: common pitfalls and how to avoid them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Lynch, Christopher D; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials are used to appraise the effectiveness of clinical interventions throughout medicine and dentistry. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are established as the optimal primary design and are published with increasing frequency within the biomedical sciences, including dentistry. This review outlines common pitfalls associated with the conduct of randomized controlled trials in dentistry. Common failings in RCT design leading to various types of bias including selection, performance, detection and attrition bias are discussed in this review. Moreover, methods of minimizing and eliminating bias are presented to ensure that maximal benefit is derived from RCTs within dentistry. Well-designed RCTs have both upstream and downstream uses acting as a template for development and populating systematic reviews to permit more precise estimates of treatment efficacy and effectiveness. However, there is increasing awareness of waste in clinical research, whereby resource-intensive studies fail to provide a commensurate level of scientific evidence. Waste may stem either from inappropriate design or from inadequate reporting of RCTs; the importance of robust conduct of RCTs within dentistry is clear. Optimal reporting of randomized controlled trials within dentistry is necessary to ensure that trials are reliable and valid. Common shortcomings leading to important forms or bias are discussed and approaches to minimizing these issues are outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Vitamin E on Oxaliplatin-induced Peripheral Neuropathy Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zeinab; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most important limitations of oxaliplatin base regimen, which is the standard for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Evidence has shown that Vitamin E may be protective in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Vitamin E administration on prevention of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer. This was a prospective randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients with colorectal cancer and scheduled to receive oxaliplatin-based regimens were enrolled in this study. Enrolled patients were randomized into two groups. The first group received Vitamin E at a dose of 400 mg daily and the second group observed, until after the sixth course of the oxaliplatin regimen. For oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy assessment, we used the symptom experience diary questionnaire that completed at baseline and after the sixth course of chemotherapy. Only patients with a score of zero at baseline were eligible for this study. Thirty-two patients were randomized to the Vitamin E group and 33 to the control group. There was no difference in the mean peripheral neuropathy score changes (after - before) between two groups, after sixth course of the oxaliplatin base regimen (mean difference [after - before] of Vitamin E group = 6.37 ± 2.85, control group = 6.57 ± 2.94; P = 0.78). Peripheral neuropathy scores were significantly increased after intervention compared with a base line in each group (P peripheral neuropathy.

  16. Components of effective randomized controlled trials of hydrotherapy programs for fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Perraton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke Perraton, Zuzana Machotka, Saravana KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAim: Previous systematic reviews have found hydrotherapy to be an effective management strategy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the components of hydrotherapy programs used in randomized controlled trials.Method: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Only trials that have reported significant FMS-related outcomes were included. Data relating to the components of hydrotherapy programs (exercise type, duration, frequency and intensity, environmental factors, and service delivery were analyzed.Results: Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Overall, the quality of trials was good. Aerobic exercise featured in all 11 trials and the majority of hydrotherapy programs included either a strengthening or flexibility component. Great variability was noted in both the environmental components of hydrotherapy programs and service delivery.Conclusions: Aerobic exercise, warm up and cool-down periods and relaxation exercises are common features of hydrotherapy programs that report significant FMS-related outcomes. Treatment duration of 60 minutes, frequency of three sessions per week and an intensity equivalent to 60%–80% maximum heart rate were the most commonly reported exercise components. Exercise appears to be the most important component of an effective hydrotherapy program for FMS, particularly when considering mental health-related outcomes.Keywords: hydrotherapy, fibromyalgia syndrome, exercise, effective, components

  17. Components of effective randomized controlled trials of hydrotherapy programs for fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, Luke; Machotka, Zuzana; Kumar, Saravana

    2009-11-30

    Previous systematic reviews have found hydrotherapy to be an effective management strategy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the components of hydrotherapy programs used in randomized controlled trials. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Only trials that have reported significant FMS-related outcomes were included. Data relating to the components of hydrotherapy programs (exercise type, duration, frequency and intensity, environmental factors, and service delivery) were analyzed. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Overall, the quality of trials was good. Aerobic exercise featured in all 11 trials and the majority of hydrotherapy programs included either a strengthening or flexibility component. Great variability was noted in both the environmental components of hydrotherapy programs and service delivery. Aerobic exercise, warm up and cool-down periods and relaxation exercises are common features of hydrotherapy programs that report significant FMS-related outcomes. Treatment duration of 60 minutes, frequency of three sessions per week and an intensity equivalent to 60%-80% maximum heart rate were the most commonly reported exercise components. Exercise appears to be the most important component of an effective hydrotherapy program for FMS, particularly when considering mental health-related outcomes.

  18. Primary versus secondary closure of cutaneous abscesses in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Taira, Breena R; Chale, Stuart; Bhat, Rahul; Kennedy, David; Schmitz, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous abscesses have traditionally been treated with incision and drainage (I&D) and left to heal by secondary closure. The objective was to compare the healing rates of cutaneous abscesses following I&D after primary or secondary closure. This was a randomized, controlled, trial, balanced by center, with blocked randomization created by a random-number generator. One urban and one suburban academic emergency department (ED) participated. Subjects were randomized to primary or secondary wound closure following I&D of the abscess. Main outcome measures were the percentage of healed wounds (wound was completely closed by visual inspection; a 40% difference in wound healing was sought) and overall failure rate (need for additional intervention including suture removal, additional drainage, antibiotics, or admission within 7 days after drainage). Fifty-six adult patients with simple localized cutaneous abscesses were included; 29 were randomized to primary closure, and 27 were randomized to secondary closure. Healing rates at 7 days were similar between the primary and secondary closure groups (69.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.1% to 84.4% vs. 59.3%, 95% CI = 40.7% to 75.5%; difference 10.3%, 95% CI = -15.8% to 34.1%). Overall failure rates at 7 days were also similar between the primary and secondary closure groups (30.4%, 95% CI = 15.6% to 50.9% vs. 28.6%, 95% CI = 15.2% to 47.1%; difference 1.8%, 95% CI = -24.2% to 28.8%). The rates of wound healing and treatment failure following I&D of simple abscesses in the ED are similar after primary or secondary closure. The authors did not detect a difference of at least 40% in healing rates between primary and secondary closure. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. Randomized controlled trial comparing esophageal dilation to no dilation among adults with esophageal eosinophilia and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitt, R T; Ates, F; Slaughter, J C; Higginbotham, T; Shepherd, B D; Sumner, E L; Vaezi, M F

    2016-11-01

    The role of esophageal dilation in patients with esophageal eosinophilia with dysphagia remains unknown. The practice of dilation is currently based on center preferences and expert opinion. The aim of this study is to determine if, and to what extent, dysphagia improves in response to initial esophageal dilation followed by standard medical therapies. We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled trial evaluating adult patients with dysphagia and newly diagnosed esophageal eosinophilia from 2008 to 2013. Patients were randomized to dilation or no dilation at time of endoscopy and blinded to dilation status. Endoscopic features were graded as major and minor. Subsequent to randomization and endoscopy, all patients received fluticasone and dexlansoprazole for 2 months. The primary study outcome was reduction in overall dysphagia score, assessed at 30 and 60 days post-intervention. Patients with severe strictures (less than 7-mm esophageal diameter) were excluded from the study. Thirty-one patients were randomized and completed the protocol: 17 randomized to dilation and 14 to no dilation. Both groups were similar with regard to gender, age, eosinophil density, endoscopic score, and baseline dysphagia score. The population exhibited moderate to severe dysphagia and moderate esophageal stricturing at baseline. Overall, there was a significant (P dysphagia score at 30 and 60 days post-randomization compared with baseline in both groups. No significant difference in dysphagia scores between treatment groups after 30 (P = 0.93) or 60 (P = 0.21) days post-intervention was observed. Esophageal dilation did not result in additional improvement in dysphagia score compared with treatment with proton pump inhibitor and fluticasone alone. In patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia without severe stricture, dilation does not appear to be a necessary initial treatment strategy. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  20. Antidepressants for bipolar disorder A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingli Zhang; Huan Yang; Shichang Yang; Wei Liang; Ping Dai; Changhong Wang; Yalin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of short-term and long-term use of antidepres-sants in the treatment of bipolar disorder. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of randomized, double-blind, control ed trials published until December 2012 was performed using the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials databases. The keywords“bipolar disorder, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, cyclothymia, mixed mania and depression, rapid cycling and bipolar disorder”, AND “antidepressant agent, antidepressive agents second-generation, antidepressive agents tricyclic, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, noradrenaline uptake in-hibitor, serotonin uptake inhibitor, and tricyclic antidepressant agent” were used. The studies that were listed in the reference list of the published papers but were not retrieved in the above-mentioned databases were supplemented. STUDY SELECTION: Studies selected were double-blind randomized control ed trials assessing the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder. Al participants were aged 18 years or older, and were diagnosed as having primary bipolar disorder. Antidepressants or antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers were used in experimental interventions. Placebos, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and other antide pressants were used in the control interventions. Studies that were quasi-randomized studies, or used antidepressants in combination with antipsy-chotics in the experimental group were excluded. Al analyses were conducted using Review Man-ager 5.1 provided by the Cochrane Col aboration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was the response and switching to mania. The secondary outcomes included remission, discontinuation rate, and suicidality. RESULTS: Among 5 001 treatment studies published, 14 double-blind randomized control ed trials involving 1 244 patients were included in the meta

  1. Pregabalin and dexamethasone for postoperative pain control: a randomized controlled study in hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, O.; Jacobsen, L.S.; Holm, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Optimal pain treatment with minimal side-effects is essential for early mobility and recovery in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. We investigated the analgesic effect of pregabalin and dexamethasone in this surgical procedure. Methods. One hundred and twenty patients were...... randomly allocated to either Group A (placebo), Group B (pregabalin 300 mg), or Group C (pregabalin 300 mg+dexamethasone 8 mg). The medication and acetaminophen 1 g were given before operation. Spinal anaesthesia was performed. Postoperative pain treatment was with acetaminophen 1 g three times daily...... with the other groups. Conclusions. Pregabalin resulted in a 50% reduction in 24 h postoperative morphine requirements. This was not associated with a reduced incidence of nausea or vomiting. Pregabalin resulted in increased levels of sedation. Combining pregabalin and dexamethasone provided no additional...

  2. A randomized controlled trial of stretch-and-flow voice therapy for muscle tension dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Hamilton, Amy; Toles, Laura; Childs, Lesley; Mau, Ted

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of stretch-and-flow voice therapy on vocal function and handicap. Randomized controlled trial. Participants with primary muscle tension dysphonia were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. Experimental participants received vocal hygiene education followed by 6 weeks of stretch-and-flow voice therapy. Control participants received vocal hygiene education only. Outcome variables consisted of a measure of vocal handicap (Voice Handicap Index [VHI]), maximum phonation time, s/z ratio, and acoustic measures. All measures were obtained at baseline prior to treatment and within 2 weeks posttreatment or at the end of the control period. The pre- to posttreatment measurement change (delta Δ) was applied to statistical analyses. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant group differences in pre-to-post changes on measures of VHI, maximum phonation time, and cepstral peak prominence (CPP) in connected speech and vowels (P = 0.003, 0.013, 0.025, and 0.017 respectively), with a significant reduction of VHI (Cohen's d = 1.6), increase in maximum phonation time (Cohen's d = 1.2), increase of CPP in connected speech (Cohen's d = 1.2), and increase of CPP in vowels (Cohen's d = 1.1) in the experimental group compared to the control group. This preliminary small sample randomized controlled trial found significantly greater improvement in vocal handicap, maximum phonation time, and acoustic measures of vocal function after participants received stretch-and-flow voice therapy compared to participants receiving vocal hygiene education alone. Additional research incorporating larger samples will be needed to confirm and further investigate these findings. 1b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. A randomized controlled study of socioeconomic support to enhance tuberculosis prevention and treatment, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Marco A; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Datta, Sumona; Saunders, Matthew J; Lewis, James J; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of socioeconomic support on tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation in household contacts of tuberculosis patients and on treatment success in patients. Methods A non-blinded, household-randomized, controlled study was performed between February 2014 and June 2015 in 32 shanty towns in Peru. It included patients being treated for tuberculosis and their household contacts. Households were randomly assigned to either the standard of care provided by Peru’s national tuberculosis programme (control arm) or the same standard of care plus socioeconomic support (intervention arm). Socioeconomic support comprised conditional cash transfers up to 230 United States dollars per household, community meetings and household visits. Rates of tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation and treatment success (i.e. cure or treatment completion) were compared in intervention and control arms. Findings Overall, 282 of 312 (90%) households agreed to participate: 135 in the intervention arm and 147 in the control arm. There were 410 contacts younger than 20 years: 43% in the intervention arm initiated tuberculosis preventive therapy versus 25% in the control arm (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.1–4.1). An intention-to-treat analysis showed that treatment was successful in 64% (87/135) of patients in the intervention arm versus 53% (78/147) in the control arm (unadjusted OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.6). These improvements were equitable, being independent of household poverty. Conclusion A tuberculosis-specific, socioeconomic support intervention increased uptake of tuberculosis preventive therapy and tuberculosis treatment success and is being evaluated in the Community Randomized Evaluation of a Socioeconomic Intervention to Prevent TB (CRESIPT) project. PMID:28479622

  4. Randomized controlled trials for influenza drugs and vaccines: a review of controlled human infection studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobana Balasingam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Controlled human infection studies are an important research tool in assessing promising influenza vaccines and antivirals. These studies are performed quickly and are cost-effective and safe, with a low incidence of serious adverse events.

  5. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E [ed.

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a day in 2003, while gas

  6. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  7. The Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy on Patients Awaiting Ambulatory Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hua Ni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if aromatherapy could reduce preoperative anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients. A total of 109 preoperative patients were randomly assigned to experimental (bergamot essential oil and control (water vapor conditions and their responses to the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and vital signs were monitored. Patients were stratified by previous surgical experience, but that did not influence the results. All those exposed to bergamot essential oil aromatherapy showed a greater reduction in preoperative anxiety than those in the control groups. Aromatherapy may be a useful part of a holistic approach to reducing preoperative anxiety before ambulatory surgery.

  8. Multichannel active control of random noise in a small reverberant room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Søren; Elliott, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm for multichannel adaptive IIR (infinite impulse response) filtering is presented and applied to the active control of broadband random noise in a small reverberant room. Assuming complete knowledge of the primary noise, the theoretically optimal reductions of acoustic energy are init...... with the primary noise field generated by a panel excited by a loudspeaker in an adjoining room. These results show that far better performances are provided by IIR and FIR filters when the primary source has a lightly damped dynamic behavior which the active controller must model...

  9. Facilitating sunscreen use in women by a theory-based online intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Schüz, Natalie; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    This study compares a motivational skin cancer prevention approach with a volitional planning and self-efficacy intervention to enhance regular sunscreen use. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with 205 women (mean age 25 years) in three groups: motivational; volitional; and control. Sunscreen use, action planning, coping planning and coping self-efficacy were assessed at three points in time. The volitional intervention improved sunscreen use. Coping planning emerged as the only mediator between the intervention and sunscreen use at Time 3. Findings point to the role played by coping planning as an ingredient of sun protection interventions.

  10. Theory of Mind Training in Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Begeer, Sander; Gevers, Carolien; Clifford, Pamela; Verhoeve, Manja; Kat, Kirstin; Hoddenbach, Elske; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13 year old children with ASD and normal IQs (n = 40). The results showed that, compared to controls, the treated children with ASD improved in their conceptual ToM skills, but their elementary understan...

  11. YAG laser peripheral iridotomy for the prevention of pigment dispersion glaucoma a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Kotecha, Aachal; Bunce, Catey; Balidis, Miltos; Garway-Heath, David F; Miller, Michael H; Wormald, Richard

    2011-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) significantly reduces the incidence of conversion from pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) with ocular hypertension (OHT) to pigmentary glaucoma (PG). Prospective, randomized, controlled 3-year trial. One hundred sixteen eyes of 116 patients with PDS and OHT. Patients were assigned randomly either to Nd:YAG LPI or to a control group (no laser). The primary outcome measure was conversion to PG within 3 years, based on full-threshold visual field (VF) analysis using the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study criteria. Secondary outcome measures were whether eyes required topical antiglaucoma medications during the study period and the time to conversion or medication. Fifty-seven patients were randomized to undergo laser treatment and 59 were randomized to no laser (controls). Age, gender, spherical equivalent refraction, and intraocular pressure at baseline were similar between groups. Outcome data were available for 105 (90%) of recruited subjects, 52 in the laser treatment group and 53 in the no laser treatment group. Patients were followed up for a median of 35.9 months (range, 10-36 months) in the laser arm and 35.9 months (range, 1-36 months) in the control arm. Eight eyes (15%) in the laser group and 3 eyes (6%) in the control group converted to glaucoma in the study period. The proportion of eyes started on medical treatment was similar in the 2 groups: 8 eyes (15%) in the laser group and 9 eyes (17%) in the control group. Survival analyses showed no evidence of any difference in time to VF progression or commencement of topical therapy between the 2 groups. Cataract extraction was performed on 1 patient in the laser group and in 1 patient in the control group during the study period (laser eye at 18 months; control eye at 34 months). This study suggests that there was no benefit of Nd:YAG LPI in preventing progression from PDS with OHT to PG within 3 years of

  12. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  13. Evaluation of the Norwegian R&D Tax Credit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådne Cappelen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We find that the Norwegian R&D tax credit scheme introduced in 2002 mainly works as intended. The scheme is cost-effective and it is used by a large number of firms. It stimulates these firms to invest more in R&D, and, in particular, the effect is positive for small firms with little R&D experience. The returns on the R&D investments supported by the scheme are positive and generally not different from the returns to other R&D investments. We have found examples of what can be interpreted as tax motivated adjustments to the scheme, but to some extent this must be accepted as a cost to subsidy and support schemes intended for use by a large number of economic agents. This is particularly so when attempts are made to keep administrative expenditures and control routines at a low level.

  14. Peer characteristics associated with improved glycemic control in a randomized controlled trial of a reciprocal peer support program for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Shah, Megha; Choi, Hwajung; Heisler, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Objective In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of diabetes reciprocal peer support, we examined characteristics of peers associated with improvements in their partner's glycemic control. Methods A total of 102 adults with diabetes were randomized to the reciprocal peer support arm (vs. a nurse care management arm). The primary outcome was change in A1c over six months. Intermediate outcomes were insulin initiation and peer engagement. A number of baseline characteristics of peers were hypothesized to influence outcomes for their peer, and concordant characteristics of peer dyads were hypothesized that would influence outcomes for both peer partners. Results Improvement in A1c was associated with having a peer older than oneself ( P peers who reported poorer health at baseline had worse glycemic control at follow-up ( P peers had a more controlled self-regulation style were more likely to initiate insulin ( P peers whose partners were older and reported more diabetes distress at baseline supports the need for further research into the peer characteristics that lead to improved outcomes. This could allow for better matching and more effective partnerships.

  15. The Norwegian Assistance Program for Increased Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.; Saxeboel, G.

    2002-06-01

    For several years Norway has focused on issues related to international nuclear safety. Consequently, under the Norwegian Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety, Norwegian governmental authorities have been actively involved in bilateral co-operation efforts to improve safety at Kola Nuclear Power Plant, Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant and Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. Norway's major involvement began in 1993 at the Kola NPP, and has included projects within several different areas of nuclear safety with a total budget of 124 million NOK. In this report, the projects have been grouped as follows (UD- 1999): (1) Reliability of core cooling and emergency power supply; (2) Component reliability and primary circuit reliability; (3) Improved instrumentation and control; (4) Operational safety; (5) Safety studies. The involvement in Ignalina and Leningrad NPP started 1996 and 1997, respectively. The accumulated budget for the Norwegian efforts at Leningrad NPP is 13.8 million NOK with focus on the following two areas: (1) Training of personnel and prevention of human error; (2) Component reliability and primary circuit integrity. The Norwegian monetary contribution related to projects at lgnalina NPP is 11 million NOK, with main efforts dedicated to the following two areas: (1) Security and physical protection of the plant; (2) Fire safety. In the early phase of the projects, difficulties were encountered concerning tax exemption and indemnity for the delivery of equipment to Kola NPP. Matters improved successively, following the signing of the Norwegian-Russian Framework Agreement in 1998. Another positive change is the involvement of Russian contractors, who now contribute to the supply of considerable parts of the equipment and services and give a tighter co-operation between Russian and Western suppliers. The feedback from the beneficiaries has generally been positive throughout the project periods. (author)

  16. The Norwegian Assistance Program for Increased Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Saxeboel, G.

    2002-06-01

    For several years Norway has focused on issues related to international nuclear safety. Consequently, under the Norwegian Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety, Norwegian governmental authorities have been actively involved in bilateral co-operation efforts to improve safety at Kola Nuclear Power Plant, Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant and Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. Norway's major involvement began in 1993 at the Kola NPP, and has included projects within several different areas of nuclear safety with a total budget of 124 million NOK. In this report, the projects have been grouped as follows (UD- 1999): (1) Reliability of core cooling and emergency power supply; (2) Component reliability and primary circuit reliability; (3) Improved instrumentation and control; (4) Operational safety; (5) Safety studies. The involvement in Ignalina and Leningrad NPP started 1996 and 1997, respectively. The accumulated budget for the Norwegian efforts at Leningrad NPP is 13.8 million NOK with focus on the following two areas: (1) Training of personnel and prevention of human error; (2) Component reliability and primary circuit integrity. The Norwegian monetary contribution related to projects at lgnalina NPP is 11 million NOK, with main efforts dedicated to the following two areas: (1) Security and physical protection of the plant; (2) Fire safety. In the early phase of the projects, difficulties were encountered concerning tax exemption and indemnity for the delivery of equipment to Kola NPP. Matters improved successively, following the signing of the Norwegian-Russian Framework Agreement in 1998. Another positive change is the involvement of Russian contractors, who now contribute to the supply of considerable parts of the equipment and services and give a tighter co-operation between Russian and Western suppliers. The feedback from the beneficiaries has generally been positive throughout the project periods. (author)

  17. Effects of Natural Sounds on Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Nonpharmacologic pain management in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support in critical care units is under investigated. Natural sounds may help reduce the potentially harmful effects of anxiety and pain in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pleasant, natural sounds on self-reported pain in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support, using a pragmatic parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a general adult intensive care unit of a high-turnover teaching hospital, in Tehran, Iran. Between October 2011 and June 2012, we recruited 60 patients receiving mechanical ventilation support to the intervention (n = 30) and control arms (n = 30) of a pragmatic parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants in both arms wore headphones for 90 minutes. Those in the intervention arm heard pleasant, natural sounds, whereas those in the control arm heard nothing. Outcome measures included the self-reported visual analog scale for pain at baseline; 30, 60, and 90 minutes into the intervention; and 30 minutes post-intervention. All patients approached agreed to participate. The trial arms were similar at baseline. Pain scores in the intervention arm fell and were significantly lower than in the control arm at each time point (p natural sounds via headphones is a simple, safe, nonpharmacologic nursing intervention that may be used to allay pain for up to 120 minutes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventing patient-to-worker violence in hospitals: outcome of a randomized controlled intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Judith E.; Hamblin, Lydia; Russell, Jim; Upfal, Mark J.; Luborsky, Mark; Janisse, James; Essenmacher, Lynnette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of a randomized controlled intervention on the incidence of patient-to-worker (Type II) violence and related injury in hospitals. Methods Forty-one units across 7 hospitals were randomized into intervention (n=21) and control (n=20) groups. Intervention units received unit-level violence data to facilitate development of an action plan for violence prevention; no data were presented to control units. Main outcomes were rates of violent events and injuries across study groups over time. Results Six months post-intervention, incident rate ratios of violent events were significantly lower on intervention units compared to controls (IRR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80). At 24 months, the risk for violence-related injury was lower on intervention units, compared to controls (IRR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.83). Conclusion This data-driven, worksite-based intervention was effective in decreasing risks of patient-to-worker violence and related injury. PMID:28045793

  19. Shamba Maisha: randomized controlled trial of an agricultural and finance intervention to improve HIV health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Sheri D; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Frongillo, Edward A; Weke, Elly; Dworkin, Shari L; Pusateri, Kyle; Shiboski, Stephen; Scow, Kate; Butler, Lisa M; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-09-10

    Food insecurity and HIV/AIDS outcomes are inextricably linked in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on health and nutritional outcomes of a multisectoral agricultural intervention trial among HIV-infected adults in rural Kenya. This is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention included a human-powered water pump, a microfinance loan to purchase farm commodities, and education in sustainable farming practices and financial management. Two health facilities in Nyanza Region, Kenya were randomly assigned as intervention or control. HIV-infected adults 18 to 49 years' old who were on antiretroviral therapy and had access to surface water and land were enrolled beginning in April 2012 and followed quarterly for 1 year. Data were collected on nutritional parameters, CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, and HIV RNA. Differences in fixed-effects regression models were used to test whether patterns in health outcomes differed over time from baseline between the intervention and control arms. We enrolled 72 and 68 participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively. At 12 months follow-up, we found a statistically significant increase in CD4 cell counts (165 cells/μl, P security (3.6 scale points higher, P < 0.001) and frequency of food consumption (9.4 times per week greater frequency, P = 0.013) compared to controls. Livelihood interventions may be a promising approach to tackle the intersecting problems of food insecurity, poverty and HIV/AIDS morbidity.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Reflexology on Children With Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbulat Sahiner, Nejla; Demirgoz Bal, Meltem

    Functional constipation is a common problem in Turkey that affects up to 10% of children. Reflexologists claim that reflexology can be beneficial in the treatment of constipation. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to determine the effectiveness of reflexology in treating functional constipation in children. Thirty-seven children who were referred to a pediatrician with functional constipation as defined by the Rome III criteria were recruited to the study. After the physician's diagnosis, two groups (intervention/control) were created. The intervention and control groups comprised 17 and 20 children, respectively. Each child in the intervention group was given a foot massage for 10 minutes five times a week, and toilet/diet/motivation training was given to their parents. The test period lasted for 4 weeks. Toilet/diet/motivation training was undertaken for 30 minutes once per week (for a total of 4 weeks) in an interactive manner. The parents of children in the control group received equivalent toilet/diet/motivation training only. No significant differences in terms of feces frequency and feces consistency were noted between the intervention and control groups (p > .05). This study sample showed that only toilet/diet/motivation training had potential benefit for treating functional constipation in children. Further larger randomized trials are required to establish whether there are benefits to foot message in the treatment of functional constipation in children.