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Sample records for norwegian coastal areas

  1. On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net

  2. Diversity of Norwegian sea slugs (Nudibranchia: new species to Norwegian coastal waters and new data on distribution of rare species

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    Jussi Evertsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 5 nudibranch species are reported from the Norwegian coast for the first time (Doridoxa ingolfiana, Goniodoris castanea, Onchidoris sparsa, Eubranchus rupium and Proctonotus mucroniferus. In addition 10 species that can be considered rare in Norwegian waters are presented with new information (Lophodoris danielsseni, Onchidoris depressa, Palio nothus, Tritonia griegi, Tritonia lineata, Hero formosa, Janolus cristatus, Cumanotus beaumonti, Berghia norvegica and Calma glaucoides, in some cases with considerable changes to their distribution. These new results present an update to our previous extensive investigation of the nudibranch fauna of the Norwegian coast from 2005, which now totals 87 species. An increase in several new species to the Norwegian fauna and new records of rare species, some with considerable updates, in relatively few years results mainly from sampling effort and contributions by specialists on samples from poorly sampled areas.

  3. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L..

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    Øystein Skagseth

    Full Text Available Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  4. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted...

  5. Petroleum oil and mercury pollution from shipwrecks in Norwegian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Kuria; Beylich, Björnar A; Staalstrøm, André; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Berge, John A; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Schaanning, Morten; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2017-03-28

    Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje. The submarine is estimated to have been carrying 67t of elemental Hg, some of which has leaked on to surrounding sediment. The total Hg concentration in bottom surface sediment within a 200m radius of the wreckage decreases from 100g/kgd.w. at the wreckage hotspot to about 1mg/kgd.w. at 100m from the hotspot. The second wreck is a German WWII cargo ship (Nordvard), that lies at a depth of ca. 30m near the Norwegian harbor of Moss. Oil leakage from Nordvard has contaminated the bottom coastal sediment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The findings from this study provide useful insight to coastal administration authorities involved in assessing and remediating wreck-borne pollution from any of the tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks.

  6. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

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    Nina Sandlund

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  7. Carbonaceous aerosols in Norwegian urban areas

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    K. E. Yttri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by volatile and semivolatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan.

    Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10 or even higher (for PM2.5 than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m−3. This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM

  8. Long-term monitoring of the environmental quality in the Norwegian coastal areas. Data report 1996. Hard bottom study. (Monitoring report no. 689/97); Langtidsovervaaking av miljoekvaliteten i kystomraadene av Norge. Datarapport 1996. Hardbunnsundersoekelser. (Overvaakingsrapport nr 689/97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Are; Green, Norman W.; Moy, Frithjof; Walday, Mats

    1997-12-31

    Commissioned by the Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority, NIVA in 1990 started a programme for long-term eutrophication monitoring along the coast of Southern Norway. The programme comprises hydro-chemical and biological investigations (hard- and soft-bottom). The investigations are to be repeated annually throughout a period of 10-20 years. This report presents the data from the hard-bottom investigations of 1996. It shows the results from diving transects, registrations of seaweed and beach investigations. The work is part of the Norwegian State Pollution Monitoring Programme. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: levels, sources and fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Liping; Zheng, Gene J; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen, Liqi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W; Lam, James C W; Yang, Xulin; Lam, Paul K S; Wong, Ming H

    2009-04-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  10. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao Liping [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fijian (China); Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fujian (China); Zheng, Gene J. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen Liqi; Zhang Yuanhui [Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fijian (China); Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fujian (China); Yeung, Leo W.; Lam, James C.W. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yan, Xulin [Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fijian (China); Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fujian (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk; Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2009-04-15

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies. - High levels of PAHs and specific patterns of PBDEs were found in sediments from the remote Norwegian Arctic lakes.

  11. Improved monitoring of phytoplankton bloom dynamics in a Norwegian fjord by integrating satellite data, pigment analysis, and Ferrybox data with a coastal observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volent, Zsolt; Johnsen, Geir; Hovland, Erlend K.; Folkestad, Are; Olsen, Lasse M.; Tangen, Karl; Sørensen, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of the coastal environment is vitally important as these areas are of economic value and at the same time highly exposed to anthropogenic influence, in addition to variation of environmental variables. In this paper we show how the combination of bio-optical data from satellites, analysis of water samples, and a ship-mounted automatic flow-through sensor system (Ferrybox) can be used to detect and monitor phytoplankton blooms both spatially and temporally. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) data and turbidity from Ferrybox are combined with remotely sensed Chl a and total suspended matter from the MERIS instrument aboard the satellite ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATellite) European Space Agency. Data from phytoplankton speciation and enumeration obtained by a national coastal observation network consisting of fish farms and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority are supplemented with data on phytoplankton pigments. All the data sets are then integrated in order to describe phytoplankton bloom dynamics in a Norwegian fjord over a growth season, with particular focus on Emiliania huxleyi. The approach represents a case example of how coastal environmental monitoring can be improved with existing instrument platforms. The objectives of the paper is to present the operative phytoplankton monitoring scheme in Norway, and to present an improved model of how such a scheme can be designed for a large part of the world's coastal areas.

  12. Assessing incidental bycatch of seabirds in Norwegian coastal commercial fisheries: Empirical and methodological lessons

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    Kirstin Fangel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With diminishing seabird populations and little knowledge on incidental bycatch in fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic, this study aimed to screen seabird bycatch in Norwegian coastal fisheries in 2009. The purpose was to 1 quantify magnitude of seabird bycatch rates and estimate total bycatch from the entire fleet by different estimators 2 evaluate data from an access point survey against monitoring data from a reference fleet as methods for collecting data on bycatch mortality of seabirds and 3 give advice on further bycatch studies. The study focused on three small-vessel fisheries (11 000 birds estimated caught. The black guillemot Cepphus gryllealso stood out as a numerous victim, constituting almost two thirds of the >3000 birds estimated to have drowned in lumpfish gillnets. The two methods were both considered to hold merit and yielded approximately similar estimates of the bycatch in the coastal cod fisheries, however BPUE differs. Further studies are recommended especially on the lumpfish gillnet and Greenland halibut longline fisheries and on temporal and spatial variations in bycatch. More studies are also needed to model effects on seabirds at the population level.

  13. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

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    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  14. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  15. Absorption properties of high-latitude Norwegian coastal water: The impact of CDOM and particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Sørensen, Kai; Norli, Marit; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2016-09-01

    We present data from measurements and analyses of the spectral absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), total suspended matter (TSM), phytoplankton, and non-algal particles (NAP) in high-latitude northern Norwegian coastal water based on samples taken in spring, summer, and autumn. The Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was found to vary significantly with season, whereas regardless of season CDOM was found to be the dominant absorber for wavelengths shorter than 600 nm. The absorption spectral slope S350-500 for CDOM varied between 0.011 and 0.022 nm-1 with mean value and standard deviation given by (0.015 ± 0.002) nm-1. The absorption spectral slope was found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength interval used for fitting. On average, S280-500 was found to be 43% higher than S350-500. A linear relationship was found between the base 10 logarithm of the absorption coefficient at 440 nm [log(ag(440))] and S350-500. Regardless of season, phytoplankton were the dominant component of the TSM absorption indicating little influence from land drainage. The mean values of the Chl-a specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton aph*(λ) at 440 nm and 676 nm were 0.052 m2 mg-1 and 0.023 m2 mg-1, respectively, and aph*(λ) was found to vary with season, being higher in summer and autumn than in spring. The absorption spectral slope SNAP, which is the spectral slope of absorption spectrum for non-algal particles, was lower than that for European coastal water in general. It varied between 0.0048 and 0.022 nm-1 with mean value and standard deviation given by (0.0083-1 ± 0.003) nm-1. Comparisons of absorption coefficients measured in situ using an ac-9 instrument with those measured in the laboratory from water samples show a good agreement.

  16. Coastal and marine protected areas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Julia; Jesus, Ana

    2008-01-01

    This study on marine protected areas (MPAs) in Mexico relies on a variety of data sources as well as the authors’ longstanding field experience, particularly in the Yucatan Peninsula, to analyze the design, establishment and operation of protected areas. It discusses two case studies of MPAs in detail and summarizes the findings from four others, focusing primarily on the role played by local communities in managing coastal and marine resources. The study also draws on the perspective of key ...

  17. Metal pollution in coastal areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, S F; Botello, A V

    1998-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the earth core and can be widespread in all environments, forming part of sediments, rocks, animal and plant tissues, crude oil, hemoglobin, pigments, proteins, and enzymes. However, some of these metals, such as lead, chromium, and mercury, have been widely used in industrial and human activities, thus provoking an alteration in their geochemical balance and causing high concentrations, frequently three to four orders of magnitude higher than their natural concentrations. The aggressive industrialization and urbanization of coastal areas in Mexico have given rise to singular pollution problems in which such metals play an important role. Thus, this review identifies the main sources and quantifies the concentration levels of metals in the water, sediments, and organisms of coastal ecosystems (rivers, estuaries, coastal lagoons, Continental Shelf) in the Gulf of Mexico as well as the Mexican Pacific. The results show high concentrations of lead, chromium, and nickel in sediments and animal tissues from coastal states (Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche) in the Gulf of Mexico, especially in areas close to industrialized towns such as Tampico, Veracruz City, and Villahermosa. On the other hand, studies conducted on Mexican Pacific coasts indicate low levels of metals in sediments and organisms, an indication that the metal pollution here is closely tied to human, industrial, and oil activities.

  18. Seasonal variations in virus-host populations in Norwegian coastal waters: focusing on the cyanophage community infecting marine Synechococcus spp.

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    Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud

    2006-07-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous components of the marine ecosystem. In the current study we investigated seasonal variations in the viral community in Norwegian coastal waters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results demonstrated that the viral community was diverse, displaying dynamic seasonal variation, and that viral populations of 29 different sizes in the range from 26 to 500 kb were present. Virus populations from 260 to 500 kb and dominating autotrophic pico- and nanoeukaryotes showed similar dynamic variations. Using flow cytometry and real-time PCR, we focused in particular on one host-virus system: Synechococcus spp. and cyanophages. The two groups covaried throughout the year and were found in the highest amounts in fall with concentrations of 7.3 x 10(4) Synechococcus cells ml(-1) and 7.2 x 10(3) cyanophage ml(-1). By using primers targeting the g20 gene in PCRs on DNA extracted from PFGE bands, we demonstrated that cyanophages were found in a genomic size range of 26 to 380 kb. The genetic richness of the cyanophage community, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified g20 gene fragments, revealed seasonal shifts in the populations, with one community dominating in spring and summer and a different one dominating in fall. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences originating from PFGE and DGGE bands grouped the sequences into three groups, all with homology to cyanomyoviruses present in cultures. Our results show that the cyanophage community in Norwegian coastal waters is dynamic and genetically diverse and has a surprisingly wide genomic size range.

  19. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-03-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts.

  20. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  1. Dynamics of phytoplankton distribution and photosynthetic capacity in a western Norwegian fjord during coastal upwelling: Effects on optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erga, Svein Rune; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Aure, Jan; Strand, Øivind; Strohmeier, Tore

    2012-01-01

    Norwegian fjords, our results indicate that the alteration of coastal wind patterns due to its impact on coastal - fjord water exchanges, is probably more important than increased temperature and/or increased precipitation.

  2. Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Strzalkowska, A.; Ponczkowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Gutowska, D.; Kowalczyk, J.; Darecki, M.; Piskozub, J.

    2012-04-01

    Characterizing aerosols involves the specification of not only their spatial and temporal distributions but their multi-component composition, particle size distribution and physical properties as well. Due to their light attenuation and scattering properties, aerosols influence radiance measured by satellite for ocean color remote sensingmaking them highly relevant for the ocean color atmospheric correction. This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones, in Crete in 2006and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas. Additionally, aerosol particle direct and indirect radiative effects have been identified as key uncertainties for the prediction of the future global climate. This research has been made within the framework of the NASA/AERONET Program and Polish National Grants 1276/B/P01/2010/38, PBW 1283/B/P01/2010/38, POLAR-AOD, NN 306315536 and Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  3. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  4. FerryBox-assisted monitoring of mixed layer pH in the Norwegian Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Emanuele R.; King, Andrew L.; Norli, Marit; Jaccard, Pierre; Sørensen, Kai; Bellerby, Richard G. J.

    2016-10-01

    The evaluation of marine carbonate system variability and the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on coastal marine ecosystems increasingly rely on monitoring platforms capable of delivering near real-time in situ carbonate system observations. These observations are also used for developing models and scenarios of OA, including potential impacts on marine ecosystem structure and function. An embedded flow-through spectrophotometric pH detection system has been developed alongside an underway seawater sampling system - termed a FerryBox - operating on ships of opportunity (SOOP), and can deliver a continuous data stream of mixed layer seawater pH with an in situ uncertainty of summer periods of 2015. Spring and summertime pH was generally 0.1 higher, and up to 0.255 higher, in comparison to winter pH observations. Here we show the necessity for a regular, high density monitoring approach, and the suitability of this pH detection technique for unmanned observational platforms.

  5. Long-term monitoring of the environmental quality in the Norwegian coastal areas. Soft-bottom study. Data report 1996.(Monitoring report no. 684/97 TA-1402/1997); Langtidsovervaking av miljoekvaliteten i kystomraadene av Norge. Bleotbunn. Datarapport 1996. (Overvaakingsrapport 684/97. TA-1402/1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rygg, Brage

    1997-12-31

    Commissioned by the Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority, NIVA in 1990 started a programme for long-term eutrophication monitoring along the coast of Southern Norway. The programme comprises hydro-chemical and biological investigations (hard- and soft-bottom). The investigations are to be repeated annually throughout a period of 10-20 years. This report presents the data from the soft-bottom investigations of 1996, including the number of individuals within species, diversity and sediment parameters. Discussion of the findings can be found in the annual report for 1996. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  6. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  7. Impact of Land Reclamation on the Coastal Areas in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Selmin; Kucukakca, Emrah

    2015-04-01

    Istanbul lies on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea which is an inland sea. The city is a large metropolis having more than 15 million of population that has been subjected to heavy and unplanned urbanization due to natural growth and immigration from the Eastern regions of Turkey, in particular. This resulted in loss of green areas and gave rise to land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea in order to provide ring roads along the seaside and substitute the lost green areas by newly generated recreational areas. Therefore heavy land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea has been the major environmental concern related to the damage caused to the coastal ecosystems during the last decade. The reclaimed land on the Northern shoreline of the Marmara Sea has reached 80% as of 2014. As widely known, coastal areas are the main housbandary and spawning areas for coastal ecosystems and pelagic species. Due to inappropriate reclamation processes, significant decrease in coastal ecosystems and species has been reported in several studies, Istanbul is no exception. Coastal zones are complex systems exhibiting specific environmental and socio-economic particularities. In recent years, many organizations, governments and policy-makers have pointed out the urgent need to develop global, regional, national and local strategies to ensure the protection and sustainable use of coastal zones. A long-term sustainable development of coastal areas cannot be achieved without the preservation of natural resources on which the development relies. The dilemma is to ensure the sustainable development of natural resources which is not the case as reported in several studies. Continuous exposure of the Istanbul coastal areas to uncontrolled, unplanned and inappropriate reclamation methods from past to present and recently experienced enhanced reclamation has been a major concern that is expressed by the scientific society. However

  8. Butyltin levels in several Portuguese coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2009-12-01

    This work aimed to report present levels (2007-2008 sampling) of tri- (TBT), di- (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) in surface sediments from 11 Portuguese coastal sites and discuss the evolution of BTs contamination in the last two decades. All the samples revealed quantifiable values of TBT, DBT, and MBT with total butyltin concentrations between 1 and 565 ng/g (of Sn in dry sediment). Maximum level of TBT, 66 ng/g, was observed in Sado estuary, at Lisnave site, in the proximity of a big shipyard. MBT decreased site by site by the same order as DBT and TBT did, but its concentrations were much higher in many cases, denoting that TBT contamination was much higher in the past. A comparison with the available previous data confirmed a marked decrease of TBT contamination all over the last years, indicating that the main sources of TBT in Portuguese coastwise stopped effectively.

  9. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dijk, van H.; Bosma, R.H.; Boer, de W.F.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions

  10. COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH SINGKEP AREA, RIAU ISLANDS PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor C.D. Aryanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of coastal characteristics, such as coastal constituent lithology, oceanographic processes and the influence of human activities along the coastal area, are the factors that affect the coastal typology. The typology of coastal area can be divided into 3 types namely: (1 Sandy beaches, dominated by medium size quartz sand, gravelly sand and silt of alluvium deposits ; (2 Rocky beaches that belong to the Tanjung Buku Granite lithologic units and Persing metamorphic complex, its beach slope between 5° and 15°, and a fault structure encountered. The steep beach slopes (45°-50° trends to offshore with the maximum depth of 28 meters below the sea level at the distance of 3.5 km from the its shore line. At the depth of 20 m, there are a foot slope of 1.5 km width interpreted as the fault plane; (3 Muddy beaches is characterized by mangroves, gentle beach slopes until flats. Those sandy and muddy beaches are alluvial deposits of Quarternary sediments.

  11. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions of mangroves are maintained and shrimp farming diseases are controlled. Second, a closed system approach, where problems of disease and effluent are eliminated in closed recirculation ponds behind the intertidal zone controlled by industrial-scale producers. We use these scenarios as two ends of a spectrum of possible interactions at a range of scales between the ecological, social, and political dynamics that underlie the threat to the resilience of mangrove forested coastal ecosystems. We discuss how the analytical concepts of resilience, uncertainty, risk, and the organizing heuristic of scale can assist us to understand decision making over shrimp production, and in doing so, explore their use in the empirical research areas of coastal ecology, shrimp health management and epidemiology, livelihoods, and governance in response to the two scenarios. Our conclusion focuses on a series of questions that map out a new interdisciplinary research agenda for sustainable shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas.

  12. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  13. Seismic risk analysis of coastal area of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid A. Khan; M.Ali Shah; M.Qaisar

    2003-01-01

    Estimation of seismic hazard for the fast developing coastal area of Pakistan is carried out using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. On the basis of seismotectonics and geology, eleven faults are recognized in five seismic provinces as potential hazard sources. Maximum magnitude potential for each of these sources is calculated. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) values at the seven coastal cities due to the maximum credible earthquake on the relevant source are also obtained. Cities of Gwadar and Ormara with acceleration values of 0.21g and 0.25g respectively fall in the high seismic risk area. Cities of Turbat and Karachi lie in low seismic risk area with acceleration values of less than 0.1g. The Probabilistic PGA maps with contour interval of 0.05g for 50 and 100 years return period with 90% probability of non-exceedance are also compiled.

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Kostrena Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Linšak, Dijana; Linšak, Željko; Bešić, Denis; Vojčić, Nina; Teležar, Mirna; Čoklo, Miran; Šušnić, Saša; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22–48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (

  15. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  16. The Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) Initiative in the Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu Site, Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwandotto, B.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    A multi-institutional planning team headed by Coast Development Authority (CDA) in Kenya initiated an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) process in 1994. The pilot study site was Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu area in Mombasa. The objective was to provide a starting point for addressing urgent coastal issues facing the area and to enrich the dialogue on how to address urgent coastal management problems nationwide. The pertinent coastal issues that were profiled in a participatory and interactive...

  17. Land area change in coastal Louisiana (1932 to 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Beck, Holly; Schoolmaster, Donald; Fischer, Michelle

    2017-07-12

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands are one of the most critically threatened environments in the United States. These wetlands are in peril because Louisiana currently experiences greater coastal wetland loss than all other States in the contiguous United States combined. The analyses of landscape change presented here have utilized historical surveys, aerial, and satellite data to quantify landscape changes from 1932 to 2016. Analyses show that coastal Louisiana has experienced a net change in land area of approximately -4,833 square kilometers (modeled estimate: -5,197 +/- 443 square kilometers) from 1932 to 2016. This net change in land area amounts to a decrease of approximately 25 percent of the 1932 land area. Previous studies have presented linear rates of change over multidecadal time periods which unintentionally suggest that wetland change occurs at a constant rate, although in many cases, wetland change rates vary with time. A penalized regression spline technique was used to determine the model that best fit the data, rather than fitting the data with linear trends. Trend analyses from model fits indicate that coastwide rates of wetland change have varied from -83.5 +/- 11.8 square kilometers per year to -28.01 +/- 16.37 square kilometers per year. To put these numbers into perspective, this equates to long-term average loss rates of approximately an American football field’s worth of coastal wetlands within 34 minutes when losses are rapid to within 100 minutes at more recent, slower rates. Of note is the slowing of the rate of wetland change since its peak in the mid- 1970s. Not only have rates of wetland loss been decreasing since that time, a further rate reduction has been observed since 2010. Possible reasons for this reduction include recovery from lows affected by the hurricanes of 2005 and 2008, the lack of major storms in the past 8 years, a possible slowing of subsidence rates, the reduction in and relocation of oil and gas extraction and

  18. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided.

  19. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  20. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  1. Identification and prioritization of areas with high environmental risk in Mediterranean coastal areas: A flexible approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marignani, Michela; Bruschi, Daniele; Astiaso Garcia, Davide; Frondoni, Raffaella; Carli, Emanuela; Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cumo, Fabrizio; Gugliermetti, Franco; Saatkamp, Arne; Doxa, Aggeliki; Queller, Emi Martín; Chaieb, Mohamed; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; El Zein, Rana; El Jeitani, Sarah; Khater, Carla; Mansour, Sophie; Al-Shami, Anwar; Harik, Ghinwa; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Blasi, Carlo

    2017-07-15

    Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are the cornerstone for the future management of coastal ecosystems with many vulnerability and hazard indexes developed for this purpose, especially in the engineering literature, but with limited studies that considered ecological implications within a risk assessment. Similarly, the concept of prioritization of sites has been widely examined in biodiversity conservation studies, but only recently as an instrument for territory management. Considering coastal plant diversity at the species and community levels, and their vulnerability to three main potential hazards threatening coastal areas (oil spills, Hazardous and Noxious Substances pollution, fragmentation of natural habitats), the objective of this paper is to define an easy-to-use approach to locate and prioritize the areas more susceptible to those stressors, in order to have a practical instrument for risk management in the ordinary and extra-ordinary management of the coastline. The procedure has been applied at pilot areas in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, France, Lebanon and Tunisia). This approach can provide policy planners, decision makers and local communities an easy-to-use instrument able to facilitate the implementation of the ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) process in their territory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. COASTAL STUDY, COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  3. Eco-Geography of Coastal Areas: Sosio-Economy Dynamic of Land Ownership of Coastal Areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia constitute an archipelagic state which passesses resource of ocean, ecosystem of coast area and social economy dynamics of various maritime society. The nation of Indonesia had ever been welknown as a maritime nation which dominated Nusantara territorial waters as far as neighbour state. Fish cultivation in embankruent  system has been being known since the era of Mojopahit Kingdom and likewise boat industry was held along the north-oast of Java which was ever glorius in the beginning of Dutch Colonialism. But, up to now why a large part of Indonesian fishermen are still using simple technology and method in fishery and fish cultivation? Change in policy within Dutch era development. Which was farm land oriented and plantation had influenced the maritime tradition slip off. Opening of railway and land tract transportation in Java had changed economic ativity pattern of the oast area to hinterland. Investment and human resource were councentrated to farmland development and plantation was directed to export so that it affected the coast area slip off which was basically fishery activity. Development after independence, mainly in the era of New Order, it started from farming activity raised to industry society. Coastal area came back to develop with industrial growth in the urbans of Java north coast. Nevertheless development in fishery does not yet return to show the sign of glorious untill the end of this age. It is  hoped that, with properly judment of the islands coastal area out of Java, goverment will direct  its policy and investment to develop the new maritime society to go against the glorious in the 21st century.

  4. High-resolution wave and hydrodynamics modelling in coastal areas: operational applications for coastal planning, decision support and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Achilleas G.; Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Moreno Miquel, Adrià; Archetti, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Numerical modelling has become an essential component of today's coastal planning, decision support and risk assessment. High-resolution modelling offers an extensive range of capabilities regarding simulated conditions, works and practices and provides with a wide array of data regarding nearshore wave dynamics and hydrodynamics. In the present work, the open-source TELEMAC suite and the commercial software MIKE21 are applied to selected coastal areas of South Italy. Applications follow a scenario-based approach in order to study representative wave conditions in the coastal field; the models' results are intercompared in order to test both their performance and capabilities and are further evaluated on the basis of their operational use for coastal planning and design. A multiparametric approach for the rapid assessment of wave conditions in coastal areas is also presented and implemented in areas of the same region. The overall approach is deemed to provide useful insights on the tested models and the use of numerical models - in general - in the above context, especially considering that the design of harbours, coastal protection works and management practices in the coastal zone is based on scenario-based approaches as well.

  5. Evaluation of percolation rate of bedrock aquifer in coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hwan; Jung, Hae Ryong; Park, Joo Wan; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Cheong, Jae Yeol [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Ju [NEXGEO Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Seong Chun [GeoGreen21 Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Estimation of groundwater hydrologic cycle pattern is one of the most critical issues in sustainable management of groundwater resources in coastal area. This study estimated groundwater percolation by using the water balance methodology and hydrogeological characteristics of land use and soil. Evapotranspiration was computed by using the Thornthwaite method, and surface runoff was determined by using the SCS-CN technique. Groundwater storage change was obtained as 229 mm/a (17.8% of the average annual rainfall, 1286 mm/a), with 693 mm/a (60.1%) of evapotranspiration and 124 mm/a (9.6%) of surface runoff. Rainfall and groundwater storage change was highly correlated, comparing with the relationships between rainfall and evapotranspiration, and between rainfall and surface runoff. This result indicates that groundwater storage change responds more sensitively to precipitation than evapotranspiration and surface runoff.

  6. Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A.; Bruno, E.; Parise, M.; Pepe, M.

    2012-04-01

    Salento, the southern portion of Apulia region (SE Italy) is a narrow and elongated peninsula in carbonate rocks, with prevailing low coastlines, locally interrupted by high rock cliffs. The long stretches of low coasts are marked by typical karst landforms consisting of collapse sinkholes. These are locally designated with the dialectal term "spunnulate" (deriving from the verb "spunnare", which means to break, to sink; PARISE et al., 2003). As observed in many other karst coastal settings worldwide (FORTH et al., 1999), development of sinkholes may be particularly severe along the coast, where both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute to accelerate the dissolution of carbonate rocks and subsidence processes, influencing the coastline evolution. Following a previous study, where the main features of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione (Taranto province) were investigated and described, and a preliminary susceptibility map produced (BRUNO et al., 2008), in the present paper we perform a detailed morphometric analysis on the sample of identified sinkholes. The main morphometric parameters generally used for sinkhole characterization have been considered in this study: shape of the sinkhole, azimuth and length of major and minimum axes, depth, elongation ratio, distance from the shorelines. Each of them is described, both as individual parameter and in conjunction with the others, in the attempt to identify the main factors controlling development of sinkholes in the area, and their evolution as well. As regards this latter aspect, beside simple morphometry of the sample of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione, we also focused our attention on the likely relationships existing between distribution and shape of the sinkholes and the tectonic discontinuities. The role played by discontinuities in controlling both distribution and evolution of sinkholes has been pointed out by several authors (WHITE & WHITE, 1987; DENIZMAN, 2003; FLOREA, 2005). To investigate the matter

  7. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  8. Integrated coastal area management: The case of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    problem is related to the health of the coastal sea. Due to the buffer nature oft~esea, the marine environmental impacts will not be perceptible until the situation becomes irreversible. Dispersion of pollutants along the Indian coastal waters.... Environmental strategies are being formed to match industrial development against environmental health. A grand network for the assessment of the conditions ofthe coastal zone and the adjoining seas is in the process ofimplementation. Pennanent observing...

  9. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  10. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. Spatial effects on salinisation processes in a coastal wetland area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Eberhard, Julius; Stefan, Krause; Martin, Maier; Anett, Schibalski; Schaik Loes, van

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present the influence of environmental changes on a coastal area which is at risk of salinisation through the subsurface. The study site is located at the estuary of the river Ems at the German North Sea coast. 30 % of the pasture-dominated landscape is below sea level and requires permanent water management. The low permeable soils prevent a significant interaction with the salty perched aquifer. But through geological faults of old paleo-channels, a connection to the surface water body exists which considerably decreases water quality. Observations in those areas show a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. We expect that under climate change the area will be more affected by dry summer periods and wetter winter periods. To analyse the effect of climate change on the study site, we choose a bottom up strategy. We simulate the hydrological dynamics of the catchment with a spatially explicit model approach. The estimated soil moistures and hydraulic heads are used as boundary conditions in a second step to calculate the local effect on salinisation on the plot scale. Because of the complex geology only predictions for areas with known layering are performed. The models are calibrated and validated based on observations. Finally, the validated model setups are used to investigate different climate scenarios covering a temperature rise between 1 and 3.5 K with different meteorological and sea level time series. To take changes in land management into account, we develop different scenarios of landuse strategies to avoid inundation during winter and salinisation during summer. Therefore, different types of polder systems are investigated. One of the scenarios of landuse strategies assumes the technological level of management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level. The scenario technological level of the land management is able to prevent low lying areas from inundation. But during summer salinisation and during winter

  12. Criteria for Incorporating the Guidelines of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Territorial Land Use Planning: Study Case for the Colombian Pacific Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela López Rodrí­guez; Paula Cristina Sierra-Correa; Pilar Lozano-Rivera

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been implemented through the “National Environmental Policy of the Oceanic Spaces and Coastal and Insular Areas of Colombia-PNAOCI” (Acronyms in Spanish), whose guidelines have considered the need to include marine and coastal ecosystems in land use planning. ICZM, as a special planning approach, can contribute to territorial land use planning of the municipalities located in coastal areas, because it can provide guidelines for the co...

  13. The European Economic Area (EEA) agreement and the Norwegian energy policy; EOES-avtalen og norsk energipolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Claes, Dag Harald

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian energy policy has a long tradition of strong public management. Already in the early 1900s the state ensured the right of first refusal to any new power stations and ensured that the privately owned power plant should go without charge back to the state after 60 years. The development of the petroleum sector Since 1970 the number of the corresponding manner largely been controlled by the state through public companies and stronger regulations, which (in conjunction with Norwegian and foreign private companies) to ensure employment, skills and added value would get 'the whole nation as a whole.' The goals were national and the funding were interventionistic from the public side. EU internal market represents in turn a far more liberal ideology, and promotes neutral nation competition for the benefit of the whole of the European Economic cooperation area (EEA). In the internal market the state's role is largely limited to being regulator of economic activities undertaken by private actors. Here are the goal European and the the funds are regulatory. The two models are met through the EEA agreement, both in terms of who the policy is going to work for and how it should be exercised. On the energy policy area these two major challenges creates for Norway: firstly, as a producer and exporter of oil and gas, economic and political interests are not always in line with the EU's interests as a consumer and importer of energy, for the second we have a tradition of a stronger governance of the energy sector than the EU internal market calls for. While not exist EEA Agreement in a vacuum.The changes in the petroleum regime in 2001-2002 through partial privatization of Statoil, the first gas directive and the case against the Gas Negotiating Committee (GFU) must be seen in context. Change is due to the mature of the petroleum sector, market development,development of the infrastructure and general international liberal economic trends that EEA

  14. The European Economic Area (EEA) agreement and the Norwegian energy policy; EOES-avtalen og norsk energipolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Claes, Dag Harald

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian energy policy has a long tradition of strong public management. Already in the early 1900s the state ensured the right of first refusal to any new power stations and ensured that the privately owned power plant should go without charge back to the state after 60 years. The development of the petroleum sector Since 1970 the number of the corresponding manner largely been controlled by the state through public companies and stronger regulations, which (in conjunction with Norwegian and foreign private companies) to ensure employment, skills and added value would get 'the whole nation as a whole.' The goals were national and the funding were interventionistic from the public side. EU internal market represents in turn a far more liberal ideology, and promotes neutral nation competition for the benefit of the whole of the European Economic cooperation area (EEA). In the internal market the state's role is largely limited to being regulator of economic activities undertaken by private actors. Here are the goal European and the the funds are regulatory. The two models are met through the EEA agreement, both in terms of who the policy is going to work for and how it should be exercised. On the energy policy area these two major challenges creates for Norway: firstly, as a producer and exporter of oil and gas, economic and political interests are not always in line with the EU's interests as a consumer and importer of energy, for the second we have a tradition of a stronger governance of the energy sector than the EU internal market calls for. While not exist EEA Agreement in a vacuum.The changes in the petroleum regime in 2001-2002 through partial privatization of Statoil, the first gas directive and the case against the Gas Negotiating Committee (GFU) must be seen in context. Change is due to the mature of the petroleum sector, market development,development of the infrastructure and general international liberal economic trends that EEA

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  16. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Areas 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  17. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts.

  18. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  19. Analysis of Benefits and Pitfalls of Satellite SAR for Coastal Area Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziata, F.; Buono, A.; Mgliaccio, M.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study aims at describing the outcomes of the Dragon-3 project no. 10689. The undertaken activities deal with coastal area monitoring and they include sea pollution and coastline extraction. The key remote sensing tool is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that provides fine resolution images of the microwave reflectivity of the observed scene. However, the interpretation of SAR images is not at all straightforward and all the above-mentioned coastal area applications cannot be easily addressed using single-polarization SAR. Hence, the main outcome of this project is investigating the capability of multi-polarization SAR measurements to generate added-vale product in the frame of coastal area management.

  20. 77 FR 17037 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study AGENCY... Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management restoration study. This... the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA), Louisiana, Ecosystem Restoration Study (LCA Study). The record...

  1. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  2. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Gateway National Recreation Area (gate_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gateway National Recreation Area in New...

  3. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, CBRA, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'CBRA'. Data by this publisher are...

  4. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Gateway National Recreation Area (gate_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gateway National Recreation Area in New...

  5. Assessment of Wind Home System's Potential in Coastal Areas of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mujeebudin; Harijan, Khanji; Uqaili, Mohammad Aslam

    2007-10-01

    About 50 and 90 percent of the total population of rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene and LPG. The population density in rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces is about 100-150 and 10-50 persons per km2 respectively. Extension of existing centralized grid system to rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads is economically and technically unfeasible. In this situation, decentralized renewable electricity especially wind power appears to be one of the viable option. This paper presents the assessment of potential of wind home systems (WHS) for rural electrification in coastal areas of Pakistan using the wind speed data recorded by Pakistan Metrological Department (PMD) and power curve of a reference wind turbine. Pakistan has 1050 km long coastline, of which, 250 km is falling in Sindh and 800 km in Balochistan. A 150 Wp wind turbine could generate about 345 kWh and 250 kWh of electricity per year in coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan respectively, which would be sufficient for meeting the electricity demand of a rural household. The average theoretical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan is about 2245 and 1800 FLH respectively. The total installed capacity and technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as 63.75 MW and 135 GWh/year respectively.

  6. Shoreline Dynamics and Various Associated Processes in the Batang Coastal Area, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Mutaqin, Bachtiar; Nugraha, Henky; Puspitorukmi, Arum; Lavigne, Franck; Hartono, Hartono; Aris Marfai, Muh

    2015-04-01

    Coastal area is an area with dynamic environmental condition with both physical and non-physical processes. One of the effects of these processes is shoreline change, which may occur in short-term events due to regular wave action, tides, or winds, as well as in long-term events such as tectonic activities that cause coastal land subsidence or emergence. Shoreline change analysis, especially in Batang, Central Java, Indonesia, is needed as a reference for coastal planning in that area, such as stipulate the coastal protection method, as well as a cornerstone in the policy or development of coastal areas. Shoreline change along Batang coastal area has been analyzed using the End Point Rate (EPR) technique in Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) in ArcGIS 10. Baseline were created along the shoreline to generate general trend of shoreline. Transects with 500 m spacing were made perpendicular to the baseline towards the sea. About 385 transect with 500 meters spaces was created to measure the shoreline change. Negative and positive value were used to indicate the erosion or accretion regime. Shoreline change have been measured using multi-temporal satellite images from 2009 to 2013. The study found that shoreline in Batang is changed significantly during 2009 - 2013. Around 0,33 km2 of land has lost due to coastal erosion, two times greater than the amount of coastal accretion (0,15 km2). The high erosion area mostly found in west Port of Niaga and in the east of Sambong River estuary. Based on the result obtained with EPR technique, can be concluded that coastal erosion is mostly happened in the Batang coastal than coastal accretion. This statement also supported by research conducted by Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) in 2013 which states that the phenomenon of coastal erosion in Batang was began in 1994. The highest rate of coastal erosion had occurred between the years 1997 to 2002, including at the Sigandu beach until

  7. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes and tsunamis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    to favourable seabed morphology, which in turn is the result of the faulted basement structure. Conclusion Hazard management of coastal areas requires systematic data collection and continuous monitoring of different oceanographic processes and their impact... is another factor for some of the intraplate earthquakes in the South Indian Shield, which includes the Eastern and Western Continental Margins of India. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes...

  8. Monitoring The Land Accretion Development at Coastal Area of Blanakan, Subang Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi; Meriana, Ginna; Somantri, Lili

    2016-11-01

    A land accretion is formed by deposition in estuaries. Recently, a land development in Subang coastal area has raised an increase. Beside its potential, coastal areas are also threatened with damage including abrasion, accretion, loss of mangrove forests, and sea water intrusion. One of the coastal areas that have been arising in very extensive land is Blanakan coastal in Subang Regency. This study aims to monitor the development of a land accretion that have been arise during the period of 1990 to 2015 and also to examine the use of a land accretion and analyze the impact of a land accretion to the social and economic conditions in the Blanakan Coastal Areas. The method used in this research was descriptive quantitative method. In this research, The Landsat imageries were overlaid came from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 to determine the development of a land accretion. Based on the results of Landsat imagery overlaid over the period 1990-2015. Overall, during the period 1990-2015, accreted land formed was an area of 782.9 hectares and abrasion area of 73.3 hectares with changes in the most far reaching 1580.3 m. The use of land accretion in the Blanakan Coastal mostly used for a fishpond with a key commodity is Milkfish and Bago shrimps. The impact of land accretion to the social and economic conditions was reflected through the five indicators such as livelihoods, income, education, health, and ownership of assets.

  9. Coastal commons and codified commodities : exploring the role of intellectual property rights on genetic resources in Norwegian marine biotechnological innovation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Erlend Stien

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the extensive Norwegian marine resources has entered the era of modern biotechnology- the third strategic technology in the post-war period-with the potential to transform our future, following nuclear- and information technology. Commercial biotechnological application of novel compounds and gene expressions found through marine bioprospecting is at a novel industrial stage, whereas the established aquaculture industry calls for biotechnical solutions to further improve produ...

  10. Climate change impact chains in tropical coastal areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pramova, Emilia; Chazarin, Florie; Locatelli, Bruno; Hoppe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Policy Brief. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Bonn, Germany; Tropical coasts are highly vulnerable to climatic pressures, the future impacts of which are projected to propagate through the natural and human components of coastal systems. One single event (e.g., intense storm) or gradual changes (e.g., upland deforestation or sea-level rise) can have multiple direct and indirect impacts in coral reefs, seagrass meadows, mangroves and human settlements and can com...

  11. Norwegian Fashion Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Heggli, Karolina; Soraas, Nina Cathrine; Thorstensen, Nina Fredrikke; Thorso, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This report has been conducted in cooperation with Norwegian Fashion Institute (hereinafter NFI). NFI is a non-profit organisation that represents the participants within the Norwegian fashion Industry. It seeks to make Norwegian fashion brands recognized at home and overseas. There are 90 members in the organisation that represents the wide spectrum of Norwegian fashion. Obtaining knowledge of the market will help NFI promote Norwegian fashion brands in the UK and identify the...

  12. Norwegian Fashion Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Heggli, Karolina; Soraas, Nina Cathrine; Thorstensen, Nina Fredrikke; Thorso, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This report has been conducted in cooperation with Norwegian Fashion Institute (hereinafter NFI). NFI is a non-profit organisation that represents the participants within the Norwegian fashion Industry. It seeks to make Norwegian fashion brands recognized at home and overseas. There are 90 members in the organisation that represents the wide spectrum of Norwegian fashion. Obtaining knowledge of the market will help NFI promote Norwegian fashion brands in the UK and identify the...

  13. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Cozannet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets, simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean, notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  14. SEDIMENT HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment contamination is a major problem in many coastal areas in the U.S. and has emerged as an important ecological issue for several geographic areas. Sediment chemical and biological quality is unknown in many areas of the Gulf of Mexico. To provide some information on this ...

  15. Integrating science into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and development planning (CSDP) is no longer an option but a necessity. Current legislation devolves many fine scale planning and management functions within coastal urban centres to local authorities, including land-use and urban and economic development... into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale L CELLIERS, S TALJAARD AND R VAN BALLEGOOYEN CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: lcelliers@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND With burgeoning demand for coastal space...

  16. On the importance of coastal areas in the survival of Neanderthal populations during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the distribution of Neanderthal populations across Europe and the Middle East. Key geographical variables are used to identify major population strongholds. Four are identified: southern Iberia, Atlantic Europe, Black Sea-Aegean and coastal Italy. Neanderthal site density in each stronghold was found to correspond closely with the predicted suitability of each area. A strong correlation was found between area suitability and last Neanderthal dates and the process of population fragmentation and extinction was found to affect continental areas first and coastal ones last. Oceanic influence, inter-area connectivity and proximity to coasts were found to be key variables in the Neanderthal extinction process. The functional ecological significance of coastal areas to Neanderthals is discussed.

  17. Biology of Herbivorous Fish in the Coastal Areas of Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yagishita, Naoki; KUME, Gen

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed beds in Japanese coastal waters have significantly declined in recent years and feeding by herbivorous fish has been identified as one of the potential causes of this decline. In the western coastal areas of Kyushu, seaweed consumption by fish species such as the mottled spinefoot (Siganus fuscescens), sea chubs (Kyphosus spp.), and the Japanese parrotfish (Calotomus japonicus) has become a matter of concern. Our research group has been investigating the biology of herbivorous fish in...

  18. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  19. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  20. The Coastal Area Development Using GIS (Review of GIS Application Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastowo Sutanto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GIS, Geographical Information System, is a means that an be used to plan and to develop the coastal area because in carrying out the analysis this system combines the space data and their  attributes. The activities done among others the prototype development of algae cultivation and tourism ativities, the development of fish pond location, the reclamation of the Jakarta Bay, and the concept of development the floating “Keramba” for pearl oysters and white sea fish similar to sole. GIS analysis with heaviness and overlay mapping yields the appropriate map to plan and to develop the coastal area. The result of GIS analysis can be used to plan and to develop the coastal area.

  1. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  2. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  3. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  4. Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringfried Pflug

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed,direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas.The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditionsaffect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface aswell as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are producedby various air sea interactions. This paper presents the results of measurements taken atnumerous coastal stations between 1992 and 2006 using an FLS-12 lidar system togetherwith other supporting instrumentation. The investigations demonstrated that near-waterlayers in coastal areas differ significantly from those over open seas both in terms ofstructure and physical properties. Taking into consideration the above mentioned factors,aerosol concentrations and optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layeras a function of offshore distance and altitude at various coastal sites in two seasons. Thelidar results show that the remote sensing algorithms used currently in coastal areas needverification and are not fully reliable.

  5. Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Tymon; Pflug, Bringfried

    2007-12-19

    Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed,direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas.The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditionsaffect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface aswell as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are producedby various air sea interactions. This paper presents the results of measurements taken atnumerous coastal stations between 1992 and 2006 using an FLS-12 lidar system togetherwith other supporting instrumentation. The investigations demonstrated that near-waterlayers in coastal areas differ significantly from those over open seas both in terms ofstructure and physical properties. Taking into consideration the above mentioned factors,aerosol concentrations and optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layeras a function of offshore distance and altitude at various coastal sites in two seasons. Thelidar results show that the remote sensing algorithms used currently in coastal areas needverification and are not fully reliable.

  6. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  7. Standardizing signs on bublic information in the New Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mou Yue; Wang Lidi

    2007-01-01

    The public information signs ( The term public information signs will be abbreviated to public signs in the following text.)in the urban areas not only offer convenience for people to move around, but also reflect the level of development and progress of those areas. It is essential to the creative development and uplifting of the New Costal Area (thereafter, NCA) to have a good understanding of its present situation with regard to its public signs, to discuss the related issues in the development, to work out a system that is up to international standard and develop its own standards in the course of implementing the national strategies on standardizing public signs.

  8. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  9. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  10. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  11. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  12. Wind mapping offshore in coastal Mediterranean area using SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...... of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models and space borne...

  13. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  14. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a

  15. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal Interferometri

  16. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal

  17. SEDIMENT HABITAT ASSESSMENT FOR TARGETED NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO: A SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael A. In press. Sediment Habitat Assessment for Targeted Near-Coastal Areas of the Gulf of Mexico: A Summary. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 25 p. (ERL,GB 1201). Sediment chemical and biological quality is summarized ...

  18. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionab

  19. Coastal zones are some of the most complex “multiple-use” areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Coastal zones are some of the most complex. “multiple-use” .... which pertain to conserved marine areas are complex ..... tradeoffs, and the outcome of any analysis of such. 376 ..... DYE, A. H., BRANCH, G. M., CASTILLA, J. C. and B. A. BEN-.

  20. Species and Distribution of Mangroves in the Fujian Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文卿; 赵萌莉; 邓传远; 林鹏

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of an investigation on the mangroves in Fujian from November 1998 to January 1999, the species composition, area, distribution, artificial afforestation of mangroves and the factors restricting the development of mangroves in Fujian are discussed in the paper. Some suggestions on how to develop mangroves in Fujian have been put forward.

  1. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  2. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  3. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  4. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  5. Arsenic speciation in fish from Greek coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzi, Ioanna; Mylona, Kyriaki; Sofoulaki, Katerina; Tsapakis, Manolis; Pergantis, Spiros A

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted on fish samples (sardine and anchovy) collected from six areas along the Greek coastline, i.e. Artemisium Straits, Thermaikos Gulf, Amvrakikos Gulf, Strymonian Gulf, Thracian Sea, and Elefsina Gulf. Total arsenic levels ranging from 11.8 to 62.6mg As/kg dry weight were determined. Arsenobetaine, a non-toxic form of arsenic, was found to be the main arsenic species, present at 8.6 to 58.8mg As/kg dry weight, accounting for 67-95% of the total arsenic. Also detected in all fish samples was dimethylarsinic acid, although at considerably lower concentrations, ranging from 0.072-0.956mg As/kg dry weight. Monomethylarsonic acid was detected at low levels in all anchovy samples, and only in sardines from one area. Finally, inorganic arsenic in the form of arsenate was detected only in fish at one area, indicating the possible effect of an environmental parameter on its presence at detectable amounts. Statistical analysis revealed the environmental variables, such as salinity, total organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and pressure index, are potentially correlated to As species concentrations. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, the biological parameters, such as fish weight, lipids, protein and ash content, that are correlated to As species concentrations of fish were also identified. The interrelationship of arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations within each fish species was evaluated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  7. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Middelburg, J. J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Peña, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N. N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A. K.

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  8. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  9. Utilization and Management of Small Fishery Population Resources in Coastal and Offshore Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua LE; Xiangguo ZHANG; Yingqi ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous types of living resources in coastal and offshore areas of China. In recent years,both the population type and quantity structure have significant changes,and the stock of small fishery population resources is increasing. This population is precious protein resource. It is urgent to study how to take prompt and effective fishing and take full advantage of processing,utilization and management. Traditional utilization methods are limited by many factors. The utilization efficiency is extremely low. The feed conversion rate of some mariculture fishes with fresh small trash fishes as feeds is even as low as 0. 2. Innovative production and management organization model with aquatic enterprises as leaders greatly increases the utilization efficiency of small fish resources with the aid of marine processing mother ship. In order to further accelerate developing and utilizing small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,China should launch survey and utilization researches of small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,formulate practical and feasible laws,regulations and policies,actively encourage and support autonomous innovative management mode of enterprises,and promote effective utilization and management of coastal and offshore fishery resources.

  10. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  11. Land Area Change in Coastal Louisiana: A Multidecadal Perspective (from 1956 to 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, John A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed changes in the configuration of land and water in coastal Louisiana by using a sequential series of 14 data sets summarizing land and water areas from 1956 to 2006. The purpose of this study is to provide a spatially and temporally consistent source of quantitative information on land area across coastal Louisiana, broken into three physiographic provinces (the term 'coastal Louisiana' is used to present data on the collective area). The land-water data sets used in this study are interpreted through spatial analysis and by linear regression analysis. The spatial depictions of land area change reveal a complex and interwoven mosaic of loss and gain patterns caused by natural and human-induced processes operating at varied temporal and spatial scales, resulting in fluctuating contributions to coastal loss. The linear regression analysis provides a robust estimate of recent change trends by comparing land area over time for all data sets from 1985 to 2004 and from 1985 to 2006 by physiographic province across coastal Louisiana. The 1956 to 2006 map showing multidecadal changes, along with the linear regressions of land area change presented in this study, provide a comprehensive and concise presentation of historical trends and rates of land area change in coastal Louisiana. Taking a broad historical view provides an in-depth understanding of land area changes over time. For example, one observation provided by our historical review is that the majority of the widespread, nontransitory land gains depicted on the map over the past 50 years, with the exception of the progradation of the Atchafafalaya River and Wax Lake deltas, are primarily related to sediment placement and landward migration of barrier islands. Another point revealed by our historical approach is that recent land losses caused by hurricanes sometimes commingled with or exacerbated older losses formed during the 1956 to 1978 period. Furthermore, our analyses

  12. Extraction of shoreline changes in Selangor coastal area using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, S. N.; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Jaafar, O.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, coastal zones are facing shoreline changes that stemming from natural and anthropogenic effect. The process of erosion and accretion will affect the physical environment of the shoreline. Therefore, the study of shoreline changes is important to identify the patterns of changes over time. The rapid growth of technology nowadays has facilitated the study of shoreline changes. Geographical Information System (GIS) alongside Remote Sensing (RS) technology is a useful tool to study these changes due to its ability to generate information, monitoring, analysis and prediction of the shoreline changes. Hence, the future projection of the trend for a specific coastal area can be done effectively. This study investigates the impact of shoreline changes to the community in Selangor area which mainly focus on the physical aspects. This study presents preliminary result using satellite image from SPOT 5 to identify the shoreline changes from the year 1984 to 2013 at Selangor coastal area. Extraction of shoreline from satellite image is vital to analyze the erosion and accretion along the shoreline area. This study shows that a shoreline change for the whole area is a categorized as a medium case. The total eroded and accretion of Selangor area from 1984 to 2013 is 2558 hectares and 2583 hectares respectively. As a result, Kapar, Jugra, Telok Panglima Garang and Kelanang are categorized as high risk erosion area. Shoreline changes analysis provides essential information to determine on the shoreline changes trends. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as essential information for conservation and preservation of coastal zone management.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE COASTAL URBAN AREA OF KALLITHEA IN ATTICA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.

  14. Determination of coastal areas of recreational activities in the city of Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Özdemir Işık

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The size of the areal use in planning allows for increase in recreational diversity. When considered that recreational needs are the times that people spend to make use of their spare time, it is obvious that the decisions taken based on the user will lead the planner to more accurate planning targets. While determining the recreational planning decisions, decisions should be evaluated in an integrated approach and in accordance with the requests and demands of users. This study aimed at taking planning decisions required for the recreational connections which are on the coast and for the improvement of people's social life between the coastal city and coastal users. Within the study, the diversity of Trabzon coastal area in terms of recreational activity based on measurement and observation was revealed. In the study, subclasses determined for Trabzon coast were formed by sticking to CORINE classification system, and the coast was divided into 9 sections considering the size and clarity of the area. In CBS environment, each section was digitized according to separate layers and areas with ArcCIS program in terms of recreational area usages. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the diversity of activity was more intense in sections where areal use was more intense depending on the size of the area.

  15. Influence of Exterior Space to Linkage and Tourist Movement Pattern in Losari Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adyla Suriadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Makassar City has a strategic location because located at the crossroads of good traffic from north to south and from west to east, from these advantages so Makassar City eligible to be a tourism destination. One of the hallmarks quality tourism destination is Losari Coastal Area, which is a tourist area that became an icon of the city of Makassar and has many tourist attractions i.e. Reclamation Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Somba Opu Shopping Centre and Culinary Tourism Area. However, tourist movement patterns who concentrated only in Reclamation Losari Beach needs for development of linkage at tourist attractions based on tourist movement patterns. Research method used is descriptive qualitative method with cognitive mapping technique to identify of tourist movement patterns characteristic in visiting tourist attractions at Losari Coastal Area and influence of exterior space to linkage among tourist attractions. Results from this research is determine influence of exterior space to connectivity linkage and tourist movement patterns among tourist attractions and find local criteria of exterior space which can be applied in Losari Coastal Area.

  16. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Nel

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or1700 nests pa (index area especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area, but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality. Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  17. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  18. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  19. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes deterioration of structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include fresh water runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses; their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. However, whether the coastal environment becomes hypoxic or not, under the combination of external forcings, depends also on the nature of the ecosystem, e.g. physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences can be compression and loss of habitat, as well as change in life cycle and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in a non-linear way and has pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, hence affecting human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behaviour that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  20. Marine Habitat Mapping for the Norwegian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Noji, Thomas; Thorsnes, Terje; Fosså, Jan Helge

    2000-01-01

    An initiative is currently being taken by several Norwegian organizations to obtain funds to intensify ongoing investigations on marine sea-floor mapping off Norway. Led by the Geological Survey of Norway and Institute of Marine Research, planning during the last two years has led to the inception of a large-scale mapping project entitled “MAREANO - Marine Areal Database for the Norwegian Sea”. The investigation area covers 270 000 km2 of the shelf and deep sea off the central ...

  1. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  2. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  3. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  4. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  5. Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bringfried Pflug; Tymon Zielinski

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed, direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas. The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditions affect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface as well as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are produced by various air sea interactions. This paper presents the resul...

  6. Measurement and modelling of dew in island, coastal and alpine areas

    OpenAIRE

    Beysens, D; Muselli, M; Nikolayev, Vadim; Narhe, R; Milimouk, I

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We compare the characteristics of dew at nearly the same latitude (42 – 45jN) for the Mediterranean island of Corsica (Ajaccio, France) and two continental locations (Bordeaux, France, Atlantic coastal area; Grenoble, France, alpine valley). Dew amount was measured on a horizontal reference plate made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and placed at 1 m above the ground. Data are correlated with plate and air temperature, air relative humidity, wind speed and cloud cover...

  7. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

      Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the mai...

  8. Web Application for Coastal Area Planning through Analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzoni, Giulio; Debiasi, Alberto; Eccher, Matteo; De Amicis, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and rapid climatic changes are producing dramatic effects on coastal area of Mediterranean countries. Italian coastal areas are one of the most urbanized zones of the south western Europe and the extensive use of soil is causing a consistent impact on the hydrogeological context. Moreover, soil consumption combined with extreme meteorological events, facilitates the occurrence of hazardous landslide events. Environmental policy makers and data managers in territorial planning need to face such emergency situation with appropriate tools. We present an application service with the aim of advising user through environmental analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption impact. This service wants also to improve the sharing of environmental harmonized datasets/metadata across different organizations and the creation of a collaborative environment where the stakeholders and environmental experts can share their data and work cooperatively. We developed a set of processing services providing functionalities to assess impact of landslide on territory and impact of land take and soil sealing. Among others, the service is able to evaluate environmental impacts of landslide events on Cultural Heritage sites. We have also designed a 3D WebGL client customized to execute the processing services and visualize their outputs. It provides high usability in terms of navigation and data visualization. In this way the service provides not only a Spatial Data Infrastructure to access and visualize data but a complete Decision Support Systems for a more effective environmental planning of coastal area.

  9. NATURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALOPHYTE Salicornia bigelovii (TOR. IN COASTAL AREA OF SONORA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase knowledge about the vegetative structure and environmental conditions, two coastal areas (north and south in Sonora, Mexico, where Salicornia bigelovii develops in natural form were investigated. Based on the abundance of Salicornia, three locations were selected in the two areas. Transects in each of the three sites were developed. The sediments in the northern areas showed higher values compared with the south areas of Sonora in organic matter. Plant biomass, density, height and frequency of occurrence were higher in frequently flooded areas compared to sparsely or less often by the tides. The average total biomass ranged from 2.23 to 6.33 kg (dry weight m-2 and is composed primarily of surface components. The maximum values of biomass of Salicornia were observed in February to May in both areas. The growth of Salicornia bigelovii is influenced mainly by the frequency of flooding, duration of exposure to air during low tide, rainfall, salinity and salt content of the ambient water and sediment, respectively. The carbon content increased with plant age, while protein content decreased by 233.6%. The steady increase in human pressure on coastal areas where Salicornia and other halophytes growth, require immediate protection order to prevent vulnerabilities in their populations.

  10. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-09-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  11. Evaluation of tsunami run-up on coastal areas at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ernesto Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Gutiérrez, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment is commonly tackled by means of numerical model simulations, giving as a result, the areas that are flooded by the tsunami wave inland. To achieve this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulation are still excessive. Besides, an important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate the run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we propose an extension of these second method, including the consideration of realistic profiles and the numerical simulation of tsunami events. To get this, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, tsunami waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. The coastal parameterized coastal profiles and tsunami waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in a numerical flume formed by 2 models that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations model (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the propagation and a Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the tsunami wave. The result is a tsunami run-up database that considers real profiles shape, realistic tsunami waves, and optimized numerical

  12. Lobotomy in Norwegian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranøy, Joar; Blomberg, Wenche

    2005-03-01

    Lobotomy is still a hidden chapter in the history of Norwegian psychiatry. The main reasons, which are discussed here, may have been the role of Ørnulv Ødegård at Gaustad Hospital in Oslo and the links between health authorities and the power élite in Norwegian psychiatry.

  13. Index based regional vulnerability assessment to cyclones hazards of coastal area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Q. A.; Kervyn, M.; Khan, A. U.

    2016-12-01

    Cyclone, storm surge, coastal flooding, salinity intrusion, tornado, nor'wester, and thunderstorms are the listed natural hazards in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh was hit by devastating cyclones in 1970, 1991, 2007, 2009, and 2016. Intensity and frequency of natural hazards in the coastal area are likely to increase in future due to climate change. Risk assessment is one of the most important steps of disaster risk reduction. As a climate change victim nation, Bangladesh claims compensation from green climate fund. It also created its own climate funds. It is therefore very important to assess vulnerability of the coast of Bangladesh to natural hazards for efficient allocation of financial investment to support the national risk reduction. This study aims at identifying the spatial variations in factors contributing to vulnerability of the coastal inhabitants of Bangladesh to natural hazards. An exploratory factor analysis method has been used to assess the vulnerability at each local administrative unit. The 141 initially selected 141 socio-economic indicators were reduced to 41 by converting some of them to meaningful widely accepted indicators and removing highly correlated indicators. Principle component analysis further reduced 41 indicators to 13 dimensions which explained 79% of total variation. PCA dimensions show three types of characteristics of the people that may lead people towards vulnerability. They are (a) demographic, education and job opportunities, (b) access to basic needs and facilities, and (c) special needs people. Vulnerability maps of the study area has been prepared by weighted overlay of the dimensions. Study revealed that 29 and 8 percent of total coastal area are very high and high vulnerable to natural hazards respectively. These are distributed along sea boundary and major rivers. Comparison of this spatial distribution with the capacities to face disaster show that highly vulnerable areas are well covered by cyclone

  14. The Norwegian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Thomas S; Brandt, Ingunn; Magnus, Per; Harris, Jennifer R

    2012-12-01

    Norway has a long-standing tradition in twin research, but the data collected in several population-based twin studies were not coordinated centrally or easily accessible to the scientific community. In 2009, the Norwegian Twin Registry was established at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) in Oslo with the purpose of creating a single research resource for Norwegian twin data. As of today, the Norwegian Twin Registry contains 47,989 twins covering birth years 1895-1960 and 1967-1979; 31,440 of these twins consented to participate in health-related research. In addition, DNA from approximately 4,800 of the twins is banked at the NIPH biobank and new studies are continually adding new data to the registry. The value of the Norwegian twin data is greatly enhanced by the linkage opportunities offered by Norway's many nationwide registries, spanning a broad array of medical, demographic, and socioeconomic information.

  15. Characterization and evolution of the sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon located next to a former mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Muñoz-Vera, Ana

    2015-11-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems that are relatively enclosed water bodies under the influence of both the terrestrial and the marine environment, being vulnerable to human impacts. Human activities, such as mining extraction, are significant anthropogenic coastal stressors that can negatively affect ecosystems and communities. In light of the above, the objective of this research is to examine the influence of metal mining activities on the composition of sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon, named Mar Menor. This paper presents a comprehensive characterization for grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic matter of sediments of this coastal lagoon, investigating their variation along space and time. Sedimentation dynamics are ruling clearly the grain size predominant in each area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, determining the existence of entrainment, transport and sedimentation areas. For minerals, elements and organic matter, sedimentation dynamics are also determining their distribution.

  16. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  17. Association of TSHR gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’ disease in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor(TSHR)gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’disease(GD)in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

  18. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  19. Geoid determination in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, HongZhi

    Coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico are important for many reasons. This part of the United States provides vital coastal habitats for many marine species; the area has seen-ever increasing human settlement along the coast, ever increasing infrastructure for marine transportation of the nation's imports and exports through Gulf ports, and ever increasing recreational users of coastal resources. These important uses associated with the Gulf coast are subject to dynamic environmental and physical changes including: coastal erosion (Gulf-wide rates of 25 square miles per year), tropical storm surges, coastal subsidence, and global sea level rise. Coastal land subsidence is a major component of relative sea level rise along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. These dynamic coastal changes should be evident in changes to the geoid along the coast. The geoid is the equipotential gravity surface of the earth, which the best fits the global mean sea level. The geoid is not only been seen as the most natural shape of the Earth, but also it serves as the reference surface for most of the height systems. By using satellites (GRACE mission) scientists have been able to measure the large scale geoid for the Earth. A small scale geoid model is required to monitor local events such as flooding, for example, flooding created by storm surges from hurricanes such as Katrina (2005), Rita (2005), and Ike (2008). The overall purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the local coastal geoid. The more precise geoid will enable to improve coastal flooding predictions, and will enable more cost effective and accurate measurement of coastal topography using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The main objective of this study is to devise mathematical models and computational methods to achieve the best possible precision for evaluation of the geoid in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico. More specifically, the numerical objectives of this study are 1) to obtain a

  20. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  1. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SELF-SUPPORT STILT-HOUSES TOWARDS THE DISASTER POTENTIALITY AT THE CAMBAYA COASTAL AREA, MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfa Sastrawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-support stilt-houses at the coastal area have environment characteristics that are different from inland houses, and they have the disaster potentiality such as hurricanes, tidal waves, abrasion, earthquakes, and even tsunami. The stilt houses are very adaptable to climatic conditions and coastal disasters. The shape of the stilt houses at the coastal area must comply with aspects of safety, security, comfort, and health. This paper examines the characteristics of the stilt houses at the coastal area of Cambaya, Makassar, especially in terms of safety and security aspects. The aspects of safety and security include the resistance of the building construction towards disasters. Along with the development of the urban area, the demanding needs and limited financial-abilities, the owners of the houses at the Cambaya coastal area develop their houses by utilizing the empty space at the coastal area and the space under floor of the stilt house. The change of the building shape gives an effect on the poor quality of the building, building safety, and security. However, there are several stilt houses at Cambaya which could reduce the impacts of disasters on the safety of the residents through their local wisdom.

  3. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.

  4. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  5. Spatial variation in river runoff into a coastal area — An ecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to investigate spatial variation in terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) input to a coastal area off the Tagus river estuary. Isotopic variation in higher trophic level organisms was also examined, along the coast. This study was carried out in late summer, after a period of 3 months of low river flow. The overall aim was to determine if under such conditions the coastal area is enriched by the river plume and, particularly, if lower secondary productivity should be expected in some areas. Spatial variation was detected as a gradient of decreasing terrestrial input with increasing distance from the river. It was concluded that terrestrial carbon input was also incorporated into higher trophic levels and that organisms with lower mobility are more sensitive to the gradient in terrestrial input. Even in low flow conditions the whole fishing area remained under the influence of the river plume, which still accounted for 24% of the total POM 30 km from the river mouth. Additionally, δ 15N values indicated pollution input from the river Tagus.

  6. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  7. Local Rice Cultivars Grown on Tidal Swampland Near Coastal Area in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Purnomo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Local farmers in South Kalimantan (Banjarese farmers use to grow local rice cultivars. The local rice growing areas are varied with distance from the coastal line. Consequently, the degree of salinity also varied. To overcome the salinity problem, farmers do their last transplanting earlier than the farmers in the inland area and grow the local rice cultivars that they believe tolerant to salinity. In this study, we investigate the local rice cultivars grown by the farmers in the coastal areas. Sixty paddocks were selected in Pulantan, Aluh-Aluh, Simpang Warga and Bunipah Villages, Aluh-Aluh District, Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan. The rice yield of each paddock was estimated by sampling 3 x 5 hills in 3 replicates. The soil was collected within the 3 x 5 hills area and analysed their electric conductivity (EC and pH. We found that there were four families of local rice cultivars grown, namely, Palas, Bayar, Pandak and Siam families. Among all local rice cultivars grown, it was revealed that Pandak Putih and Siam Unus produced the highest yields. However, according to the farmers, Palas and Bayar families are the common rice tolerant to salinity. The good price of Siam family and good yield of Pandak family at other paddocks might become the considerant of growing such rice families in the study site.

  8. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

    2012-08-15

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops.

  9. Recurring features of extreme autumnall rainfall events on the Veneto coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, A.; Monai, M.; Racca, R.; Rossa, A. M.

    2012-08-01

    Recent recurring episodes of heavy flash flood-producing rainfall events on the Veneto coastal area have renewed the interest in documenting the frequency and key dynamical ingredients of such events. A climatological analysis of the precipitation in Veneto reveals that, in comparison with the rest of the region, the coastal area is characterized by fewer rain days, lower rainfall accumulations, yet more days with heavy precipitation. If set in relation to the yearly rainfall, daily accumulation can reach values as high as 40% of the yearly total rainfall, more regularly between 15% and 30%, often in periods of 12 h or less. Four such heavy rainfall events were analyzed and synthetically described to highlight key ingredients which appear instrumental in producing the high rainfall accumulations. These comprise an upper-level trough elongating or cutting off into the Western Mediterranean basin after a period of one to two weeks of anticyclonic fair weather conditions with temperatures above normal. The moisture supply over the Adriatic onto north-eastern Italy is favoured by above normal sea surface temperatures, enhanced advection by a surface low in the Gulf of Genoa, and in three of the four cases, an additional surface low over southern Italy. The air flows associated with the upper-level trough for the cases discussed were of moderate to weak intensity, and convectively conditionally unstable. The flow intensity was such that the lower tropospheric portion was blocked by and forced to flow around the Alpine barrier, i.e. manifesting as a north-easterly, low-level flow over much of the north-eastern Italian plains. This blocked flow seemed to interact with the larger-scale synoptic flow to form a distinct and persistent low-level convergence in the area of the Veneto coast. It is suggested that these low-level convergence patterns are key in releasing the convective instability present in the larger-scale flow just on the Veneto coastal area. Hereby, it is the

  10. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oorschot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionable European beach resort right next to a medieval fishing village with a Kurhaus Spa and Casino accessible to the general public. At the end of the 20th century the bathing resort lost its image and most of the fishing industry moved away leaving the coastal zone in a crisis. The municipality decided to give the coastline an economic impulse. Not only that, their ambitions were grandiose. In 2005 they got the idea to make Scheveningen the Second International Center of The Hague with impressive architecture and town planning. The beach, the old fishing village, and the fishery at the harbor were connected into a close urban ensemble by the North Sea by a splendid boulevard. However, the financial crisis in 2008 put an end to extravagant developmental plans, to the great relief of coastal residents. They especially feared the expansion of tourism into the residential areas even though tourism had brought and would continue to bring prosperity to the area. The old fishing village was kept intact while the harbor transformed quite differently than sketched and the seaside decayed, losing to its rival the First International Center: the old town of The Hague. How could this have happened to the Pearl on the Sea? Was it the crisis or the stubbornness of residents and entrepreneurs? Or was it the unworldliness of administrators?  

  11. A COMPARISON OF SUB-PIXEL MAPPING METHODS FOR COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  12. Field Survey of the 2015 Chile Tsunami with Emphasis on Coastal Wetland and Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-López, Manuel; Winckler, Patricio; Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Andaur-Álvarez, Adolfo; Cortés-Molina, Fernanda; Guerrero, Camila J.; Mizobe, Cyntia E.; Igualt, Felipe; Breuer, Wolfgang; Beyá, José F.; Vergara, Hernán; Figueroa-Sterquel, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    The September 16th 2015 Illapel M8.3 earthquake, Chile, generated a tsunami that affected a sparsely populated region, causing 15 casualties and destroying 1069 houses (USGS 2015). A maximum surface elevation of +4.5 m was observed in Coquimbo's tide gauge while in other sites of the tide network, the tsunami did not exceed +2.0 m. A post-tsunami survey team comprised by local researchers was deployed from September 17th to November 14th 2015. The survey covered approximately 80 sites along 500 km of the primary impact zone, from the northernmost site where damage was reported, Bahía Carrizalillo (29.11°S; 71.46°W), southward to El Yali National Reserve (33.75°S; 71.73°W) beyond which no tsunami damage occurred. The results of the survey in coastal towns with evident damage and isolated sites where the tsunami signature remained almost intact are summarized in this paper. A large amount of quantitative material is presented; including (1) inundation lines in five coastal sites, (2) 157 profiles including wave runup and flow depths and (3) 47 interviews to eyewitness, generally 2-3 per site. About two-thirds of the data were collected in isolated areas to guarantee spatial homogeneity along the impact zone. The type of damage in specific areas of biological interest and in coastal cities such as Concón, Tongoy and Coquimbo is also reported. A maximum runup of 13.6 m was recorded in La Cebada (30.97°S; 71.65°W). The information presented herein provides spatial completeness in places that may have not been surveyed by other teams, and redundancy in areas surveyed by others.

  13. a Comparison of Sub-Pixel Mapping Methods for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingxiang; Trinder, John; Turner, Ian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  14. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  15. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  16. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  17. Investigation of an Outbreak of Hepatitis A in a Coastal Area, Kerala, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Sandhya; Rakesh, P S; Dev, Soumya; Vijayakumar, Nithin; Prasannakumar, Prathibha

    2016-10-01

    An outbreak investigation was initiated following an unusual occurrence of hepatitis A reported among people residing in the coastal belt of Vadi to Vedikunnu area, Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. The time frame of disease occurrence, pattern of its distribution, and the incubation period of hepatitis A infection indicated the probability of occurrence of the outbreak as a result of pipe line water contamination due to mixing of sewage from a canal. The results add evidence to the epidemiology of hepatitis A in the state and warrant the establishment of an efficient water quality surveillance system.

  18. The Coastal Area Development Using GIS (Review of GIS Application Models)

    OpenAIRE

    Prastowo Sutanto

    2004-01-01

    GIS, Geographical Information System, is a means that an be used to plan and to develop the coastal area because in carrying out the analysis this system combines the space data and their  attributes. The activities done among others the prototype development of algae cultivation and tourism ativities, the development of fish pond location, the reclamation of the Jakarta Bay, and the concept of development the floating “Keramba” for pearl oysters and white sea fish similar to sole. GIS analys...

  19. Norwegian Petroleum Policy; Norsk petroleumspolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeiland, Ranveig

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the environment, the petroleum fortune and future generations, licence policy, and regional issues. A principal aim for the Norwegian government is to combine the role as a major energy producer with the desire to be a leading country in environmental issues. Norway is now a major oil and gas producer that produces effectively, profitably and more environmentally friendly than other petroleum countries. The MILJOESOK process was started to strengthen the cooperation between Norwegian authorities and the industry in the environmental sector. The emissions of greenhouse gases per unit produced have been reduced. The emissions to sea of oil and chemicals are also being reduced. Another principle aim is that the oil and gas resources should give the highest possible value creation and secure welfare and employment. With the present production level the reserves of oil will last for 15 years and the reserves of gas for 110 years. The state income generated by the petroleum production is expected to peak around the turn of the millennium, then to decline gradually toward 2050. The petroleum fund is established to be a buffer till long into the future. In 2010, the yield from this fund is expected to be twice the amount of oil money used over the state budget today. Compared with the UK, Norway has chosen to exploit the resources in a step by step fashion at a moderate rate. This policy can be seen in the granting of concession. New concessions will be granted at a rate suitable for smoothing out the activity level and strengthening onshore employment. The North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are quite different as to mapping and maturity and hence require different concession policies. The new deep-sea fields in the Norwegian Sea offer technological challenges and it is important that offshore activities in this area create opportunities for regional development on land

  20. Prediction of Ozone Concentrations over the Sea of Japan Coastal Area Using WRF/Chem Model

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    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model is used to simulate air quality over the Sea of Japan coastal area. Anthropogenic surface emissions database used as input for this model are mainly based on Global hourly emissions data (dust, sea salt, biomass burning, RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition, GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity and POET (Precursors of ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere. Climatologic concentrations of particulate matters derived from Regional acid Deposition Model (RADM2 chemical mechanism and Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM with aqueous reaction were used to deduce the corresponding aerosols fluxes for input to the WRF/Chem. The model was firstly integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 00:00 UTC of 14 March 2008 to evaluate ozone concentrations and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. WPS meteorological data were used for the simulation of WRF/Chem model in this study. Despite the low resolution of the area global emissions and the weak density of the local point emissions, it has been found that WRF/Chem simulates quite well with the diurnal variation of the chemical species concentrations over the Sea of Japan coastal area. The simulations conducted in this study showed that due to the geographical and climatologically characteristics, it is still environmentally friendly by the transported pollutants in this region.

  1. Genotypic Characterization of Enterococci Collected from a Coastal Area Using PFGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    Development of microbial source tracking (MST) is crucial to ensure public health and bacteriological safety in coastal areas. In this study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) , utilized for pollution source tracking of hospital infections, was applied to the aquatic environment as a MST method. Enterococcus faecium and Entecococcus faecalis, fecal indicator bacterias, were isolated and identified from a port area, and the genotype was analyzed by PFGE. A total of 230 enterococcal strains were isolated by PFGE, and forty strains were identified as E. faecium using both PCR and the Api 20 Strep test. Dendrogram analysis of the PFGE types revealed that all the 40 E. faecium strains can be classified separately into 7 different groups at a 0.7 similarity level. The genotypic characterization of E. faecium from the coastal port area revealed diverse types. It is suggested that PFGE can be used to differentiate and characterize fecal pollution indicating bacteria by applying it to the aquatic environment, as well as provide detailed information to specify the pollution source.

  2. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  3. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

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    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  4. Enrichment and vertical profiles of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite areas of coastal Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Prakash, V

    2010-06-01

    A study on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka has revealed the presence of low-level monazite deposit in the Ullal beach area. The paper presents systematic studies on the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of (210)Po and (210)Pb, important daughter products of (238)U, in Ombattu Kere, Summer Sand and the Bhagavathi Temple region of the Ullal beach area of coastal Karnataka. Sand samples collected at different depths from these locations were analyzed for (210)Po and (210)Pb activities to understand the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of these radionuclides in monazite area. The activity of (210)Po in the Ullal region is found to vary from 1.7 to 43.2 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 11.2 Bq kg(-1) and that of (210)Pb varies from 1.0 to 66.7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 19.1 Bq kg(-1). The mean (210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was observed to be 0.6. The absorbed gamma dose rate in the region varies in the range 39-460 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 193 nGy h(-1).

  5. Tributyltin contamination of bivalves in coastal areas around northern Kyushu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Suguru; Abe, Shin-ichiro; Oshima, Yuji; Kai, Norihisa; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2006-06-01

    We determined tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in bivalve samples of blue mussel (Myitlus edulis), Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and pen shell (Atrina pectinata) collected from coastal areas around northern Kyushu in 1998 and 2001. TBT was detected in all bivalve samples collected, ranging in concentration from 0.008 to 0.135 microg/g wet wt. In Hakata Port, which is an industrial area, high TBT concentrations were detected in bivalves (blue mussel, maximum concentration of 0.135 microg/g wet wt). In the Ariake Sea, which is an important bivalve habitat, TBT concentrations in Manila clams ranged from 0.062 to 0.125 microg/g wet wt in 1998 and from 0.008 to 0.033 microg/g wet wt in 2001. In addition, concentrations of TBT in pen shells collected from the Ariake Sea in 2001 ranged from 0.009 to 0.095 microg/g wet wt. These results clearly demonstrate that, despite the regulation of TBT usage since 1990 in Japan, contamination of bivalves by TBT has persisted in coastal areas around northern Kyushu. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Quality and Type of Chemical of Groundwater at Coastal Areas of Semarang

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    Setyawan Purnama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two objectives of this researh. First, to identify and analyze the condition of ground water quality in the research area, and second to determined the chemial types of groundwater. To ahieve these objectives 59 groundwater samples were taken stratifiedly, base on the different of electrical conductance value. As a result, it is identified that most groundwater in the research area is not suitable for drinking water sources, because has high concentration of electrical conductance, turbidity, hardness, chloride, manganese, and salinity. Thiis conclusion is also supported by stiff diagram analysis. The result of Stuyfzand analysis shhows that the chemical types of groundwater is very variative. Groundwater in coastal areas has higher suply of saline water than fresh water.

  7. Modeling coastal aquifers in a Mediterranean area: the example of Taranto gulf (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    Water resources stored in coastal aquifers are of strategic relevance for several regions throughout the world and in particular in the Mediterranean basin. They are extremely important in areas characterized by heavy urbanization, active industrial or touristic systems, where the need for fresh water is very acute and, sometimes, they are the only water resources available. This in turn can lead to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion because of aquifer overexploitation to satisfy the demand of an increasing population in coastal plains. Furthermore, karstic aquifers are well known for their specific vulnerability to natural and human-induced contamination, due to their particular characteristics such as thin soils, point recharge in dolines and swallow holes and increased hydraulic conductivity. Within this framework, the Taranto gulf is an example of paramount importance. In fact the presence of a wide industrial area close to the city of Taranto and the numerous maritime and military activities in the harbor area favored the increase of population density in the XX century. Moreover, they constitute factors of great concern for the protection of groundwater quality and quantity, in particular for the presence of the highly-vulnerable basins of Mar Piccolo and Mar Grande. In this area, groundwater resources are stored in a karst multilayered aquifer, which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphic point of view. Furthermore, the presence of highly water-demanding activities makes the seawater intrusion phenomenon very serious, especially along the coastline. In order to characterize the groundwater dynamic in the study area, we discuss the hydraulic relationships between the different hydrostratigraphic units and between the sea and the aquifer system by developing a numerical groundwater model to test and refine the preliminary conceptual model and estimate the most uncertain hydraulic parameters. To achieve these objectives, we used different data-sets to

  8. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

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    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  9. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  10. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  11. Statistical and dynamical downscaling to transfer wave climate to coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Paula; Mendez, Fernando J.; Izaguirre, Cristina; Reguero, Borja G.; Medina, Raul

    2010-05-01

    The term "wave climate" usually refers to the statistical distribution of several oceanographic geophysical variables at a particular site. Components of the wave climate are variables such as wind velocity, wind direction, significant wave height, peak period, and mean wave direction. In the last decade, long-term wave reanalysis (hindcast) data bases from numerical models have been developed improving the knowledge of deep water wave climate, especially at locations where instrumental data are not available. The reanalysis data present the advantages of having enough spatial (say 0.1 to 1°) and temporal resolution (more than 400.000 sea states) to characterize deep-water wave climate. This huge amount of information needs to be dealt with statistical downscaling techniques that enable an easy analysis of the multi-dimensionality of wave climate. Besides, coastal wave climate requires a more detailed spatial resolution (say, 100 m) in order to correctly evaluate different coastal processes. This specific problem of dynamical downscaling, enhancing the spatial resolution and defining in detail shallow water areas, is called "wave propagation" and usually requires numerical models that consider the wave propagation processes such as refraction, shoaling, diffraction and dissipation by wave breaking. In this work, a combination of statistical and dynamical downscaling is presented. The statistical downscaling includes the use of classification (Self-organizing maps) and selection algorithms (Max-Diss). The dynamical downscaling is carried out using different nested state-of-the-art wave propagation models, increasing the spatial resolution near the coast. A multidimensional interpolation scheme based on Radial Basis Functions is used to obtain quantitatively valid time series of wave climate at coastal areas, which are validated using instrumental data.

  12. Dissolved zinc and its speciation in the coastal hydrothermal area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, H.; Kim, T.; Gamo, T.; Takeda, S.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for marine bacteria and phytoplankton. Previous studies indicated that organic complexes of dissolved zinc in surface waters account for about 98% of the total dissolved zinc in the open ocean (e.g., Bruland, 1989; Ellwood and van den Berg, 2000). However, distributions of dissolved Zn and its speciation were not clarified yet in the coastal areas. In this study, we have investigated dissolved Zn distribution and its speciation in the Tachibana Bay (Japan), where an active hydrothermal activity was reported at the coastal areas. Seawater samples were collected from surface to near bottom (D=36 m) in the Tachibana Bay, Nagasaki Prefecture, by using acid-cleaned samplers in May 2012 and 2013. Total dissolved Zn was determined by using CSV after UV-digestion. For the Zn speciation, ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants were obtained from a titration using competitive ligand equilibrium / adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (van den Berg, 1985). In the Tachibana Bay, total dissolved Zn (D-Zn) ranged from 0.33 to 3.1 nM, which were similar concentration levels to those in the open ocean. D-Zn was sharply decreased toward the bottom. High sulfide concentration (94 nM) in coastal bottom waters was observed, reflecting active hydrothermal system near the bottom of Tachibana Bay coast. Zn is seemingly removed as Zn-sulfides from the water column. Also, relatively high total ligand concentration was calculated near the bottom. The biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the Tachibana Bay is considerably affected by hydrothermal system.

  13. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  14. Phosphorus speciation, transformation, and preservation in the coastal area of Rushan Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zang, Jiaye; Zhao, Chenying; Yu, Zhigang; Xu, Bochao; Li, Jingxi; Ran, Xiangbin

    2016-09-15

    Phosphorus (P) speciation, burial, and transformation are poorly constrained under low-oxygen conditions. Sequential chemical extraction techniques, in-situ incubation, and laboratory incubation were employed to explore P cycling in the low-oxygen area of coastal Rushan. The study determined that the total P concentrations in the coastal area of Rushan Bay were higher than those of other China shelf seas, and largely affected by anthropogenic activities. The phosphate (DRP) fluxes in the study area calculated using an incubation method (0-1960μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) and measured based on pore water gradients (1.5-50.4μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) were both highly correlated with oxygen conditions. Sediment incubations showed that DRP diffusion from the sediment mainly originates from Fe-P and Auth-P dissolution and that Org-P recycling contributed only a small portion of the total released P pool. The benthic phosphate flux can be 60 times higher under low bottom-water oxygen levels of 63-150μmolL(-1) than under oxygen levels exceeding 150μmolL(-1) in the study area. The P accumulation rates and burial efficiencies in this study area ranged from 16.5-33.3μmolcm(-2)year(-1) and 81.1-83.4%, respectively, and were regulated by the oxygen level and diffusive DRP flux. This study indicates that low oxygen levels between 63 and 150μmol significantly govern P transformation and preservation in the sediment and P pools in the water column.

  15. Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas with the use of remote techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemysław; Strzałkowska, Agata; Ponczkowska, Agnieszka; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Chourdakis, Georgius; Georgoussis, George; Kratzer, Susanne

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones in Crete in 2006 and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas where depending on air mass advection directions and altitudes the influence of fine or coarse mode (in this case possibly sea-salt) particles on the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties is an important issue to consider.

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

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    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  17. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  18. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS: a new tool to analyse the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

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    S. Bonamano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena, as expected by Marine Strategy Directive, which is focused on the achievement of Good Environmental Status (GES by all Member States by 2020. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia, where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS, implemented in the current configuration, includes various modules that provide integrated information to be used in different fields of the environmental research. The long term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated by in situ surveys, periodically carried out for the monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column and marine sediments, as well as of the benthic biota. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM, are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow analyses and forecasting of the dynamics of conservative and non-conservative particles under different conditions. As examples of C-CEMS applications, two case studies are reported in this work: (1 the analysis of faecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment and, (2 the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulations results are combined with Posidonia oceanica distribution and bathing areas presence in order to resolve the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities and sensitivity areas management.

  19. Disconnects Between Audiences, Resources, and Initiatives: Key Findings of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Gilbes, F.; Trotz, M.; McKayle, C.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Meisels, G.; Peterson, M.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership focused on defining a plan for effective education on climate change and its salient issues in coastal communities Florida and the US Caribbean territories. The approach included assessing perceptions and needs of stakeholders, evaluating the nature of available educational and information resources, and establishing a partnership that includes the public and professional organizations most relevant in planning and in addressing the resiliency of coastal communities. Information gathering activities included surveys among K-12 educators and students on climate change perceptions and current classroom activities in both Florida and the Caribbean territories; surveys of professional urban and land-use planners across Florida regarding their understanding of related in their professional practice; and conducting an inventory of relevant educational materials and information resources. Survey results showed a range of misperceptions about climate change, its causes and its likely impacts. At present, students and teachers in high and middle schools show poor understanding of climate science, and minimal time is spent in instruction on climate change in science courses in Florida and Puerto Rico schools. Also, there has to be professional development efforts and access to rich instructional content in a continuum spanning schools and professional communities including planners (which we surveyed). Architects and engineers are communities that also need to be surveyed and included in future efforts. A major obstacle to efforts at providing continuing education for planners and municipal officials is the lack of consensus on and access to regionally-specific scientific data regarding climate impacts and the relevant instructional content. It is difficult for professionals to prepare for climate change if they cannot define impacts in the Florida-Caribbean region and its coastal urban areas. Across over 1000

  20. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  1. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

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    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment. Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  2. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  3. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

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    S. Manjusha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia were tested from the sampling site with highest antibiotic resistance. Of the total 119 Vibrio isolates, 16. 8% were susceptible to all antibiotics. Of the resistant (83.19% Vibrio strains, 30.3% were resistant against three antibiotics, 55.5% were resistant against 4-10 antibiotics, 14.14% were resistant against more than 10 antibiotics and 54% have shown multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR. Antibiotic resistance index was higher in Coastal 3, 6, Aqua farm 2 in isolates from water samples and all the tissues tested. Interestingly, incidence of antibiotic resistance in isolates from water samples was comparatively lower in aquaculture farms than that observed in coastal areas. Highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was evident against Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Carbencillin and Cefuroxime followed by Rifampicin and Streptomycin and lowest against Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Furazolidone, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin Sulphafurazole, Trimethoprim, Neomycin and Amikacin irrespective of the sampling sites. Results from various tissue samples collected from the sites of highest antibiotic resistance indicated that antibiotic resistance Vibrio spp. collected from fish and tissue samples were higher than that of water samples. Overall results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against diseases in human beings and other life forms may pollute the aquatic system and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant Vibrio spp. may be a serious threat in addition to the use of

  4. EMERGING TRENDS IN THYROID DISEASES IN TSUNAMI HIT COASTAL AREAS OF PUDUCHERRY AND CUDDALORE, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanappa Shiroorkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyroid diseases are major global health problem but the incidence and prevalence of this varies from place to place. The government of India has started universal iodization of salt owing to the huge burd en of thyroid diseases in the country. In 2004, the coastal regions of Puducherry and Cuddalore wer e flooded by tsunami. AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid diseases in coastal regions of Puducherry and Cuddalore. We also studied the trends in prevale nce of thyroid diseases after tsunami. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the patients undergoing thyroidectomy in a terti ary care teaching hospital in South India were included in ou r study. Histopathological examination of thyroidectomy specimens was performed. RESULTS: A total of 342 thyroidectomy specimens were studied. Of the 342 cases, 30 were males and 3 12 were females with a ratio of 1: 10.4. Out of 342 cases, 169 (49.42 % were non neoplastic lesi ons, 173 (50.58% were neoplastic. Of the 342 cases, 118 (34.5% cases were simple goiter, 98 (28.66% were adenoma, 70 (20.47% were papillary carcinoma, 42 (12.28% were thyroiditi s, 9 (2.63% were toxic goiter and 5 (1.46% were follicular carcinoma. We observed an i ncreasing trend in the prevalence of papillary carcinoma and thyroiditis after tsunami in 2004. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to establish quality assurance system to monit or iodine content in the soil, food, water and salt in the tsunami affected coastal areas. It is a lso necessary to study the other possible causes for papillary carcinoma and take measures to prevent i t.

  5. Are styrene oligomers in coastal sediments of an industrial area aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Changkeun; Yoon, Seo Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-06-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed to identify the major aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in sediments collected from a highly industrialized area (Lake Shihwa, Korea). Great AhR-mediated potencies were found in fractions containing aromatic compounds with log Kow values of 5-8, and relatively great concentrations of styrene oligomers (SOs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in those fractions. Until now, there was little information on occurrences and toxic relative potencies (RePs) of SOs in coastal environments. In the present study; i) distributions and compositions, ii) AhR binding affinities, and iii) contributions of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were determined in coastal sediments. Elevated concentrations of 10 SOs were detected in sediments of inland creeks ranging from 61 to 740 ng g(-1) dry mass (dm), while lesser concentrations were found in inner (mean = 33 ng g(-1) dm) and outer regions (mean = 25 ng g(-1) dm) of the lake. Concentrations of PAHs in sediments were comparable to those of SOs. 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene (SD3) was the predominant SO analogue in sediments. SOs and PAHs were accumulated in sediments near sources, and could not be transported to remote regions due to their hydrophobicity. RePs of 3 SOs could be derived, which were 1000- to 10,000-fold less than that of one representative potent AhR active PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. Although concentrations of SOs in sediments were comparable to those of PAHs, the collective contribution of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were rather small (coastal environment.

  6. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  7. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  8. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  9. Traditional ethno-botanical uses of medicinal plants from coastal areas of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Qasim; Zainul Abideen; Muhammad Yousuf Adnan; Raziuddin Ansari; Bilquees Gul; Muhammad Ajmal Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the traditional uses of wild plants as medicine by the villagers along the coastal highway from Karachi to Uthal. Methods: Information presented in this research was gathered from the local people using an integrated approach of floral collections, discussions with the elderly people and traditional medicinal practitioners using semi-structured questionnaire.Results:27 families in the targeted area. Majority of the plants (54%) from this coastal plant diversity were xerophytes followed by halophytes/xero-halophytes (40%) and glycophytes (6%). The most important uses included gastrointestinal diseases, pain killer, arthritis, skin and sexual disorders, asthma and expectorant. The above-ground parts of plants i.e. leaf, stem and fruit/seed as decoction are used most commonly to cure 23 ailments but root was also used in some cases.Conclusions:Ethno-medicinal surveys indicated the medicinal importance of 54 plant species from phyto-medicinal claim and it is hoped that it will lead to detailed chemical and pharmacological evaluations. This may also lead to a discovery of novel bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical industries. This study helps in documenting therapeutic uses of herbal remedies with new pevhayltou-amtioendsic. iTnhali sc lmaiamy aanldso i tl iesa hdo tpoe da tdhiastc iot vweirlyl loeaf dn otov edle tbaiioleadc tcihveem ciocmalp aonudn pdhs afromr afcoooldog aicnadl pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Bryde's whale (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae occurrence and movements in coastal areas of southeastern Brazil

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    Liliane Lodi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryde's whales, Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879, were observed on 17 occasions (N = 21 surveys in the coastal waters off Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil during austral summer through autumn 2014. Five whales were individually identified using photo-identification techniques. The mean interval between resightings for all individuals was 12.8 days, with a minimum of one day and a maximum of 48 days. The comparison between the catalogs of Bryde's whales off Rio de Janeiro and the Cabo Frio region revealed matches for three individuals. The resightings show movements of up to 149.6 km along the coastal waters off the state of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the observations consisted of solitary individuals (82.3% of sightings. Feeding was the predominant behavior observed (47%, followed by milling (35.3% and travelling (17.6% in waters up to 48 m deep. Direct observations resulted in the addition of new prey, such as snubnose anchovy, Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther, 1868 and white snake mackerel, Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832, to the known diet of the Bryde's whale. A long time series of photo-identification efforts in the Rio de Janeiro, the Cabo Frio region and other areas can elucidate fundamental aspects of spatial and temporal site fidelity knowledge of Bryde's whales in southeastern Brazil.

  11. Illegal Fishing Activity ‒ A New Threat in Mannar Island Coastal Area (Sri Lanka

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    Sosai Augustin Siluvaithasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Illegal fishing net use is one of the most serious threats to the health of the world’s fisheries and for the secure employment of fishers. Illegal modes of fishing adversely affect the fishing industry according to the Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Ministry of Sri Lanka which is the regulatory body of the fisheries industry. In Sri Lanka, usage of illegal fishing methods has increased in recent years. There is an urgent need to identify prohibited or illegal fishing activities and the use of dangerous or harmful substances in fishing. The present study was carried out in the Mannar coastal area from June 2013 until the latter part of June 2014, to identify illegal, prohibited and dangerous fishing activities, and to understand the major threats and impacts on the fishing community and the socio, economic, biological and ecological impacts through field surveys and library methods. The study aims to outline appropriate planning and solutions to minimize illegal fishing and to save the coastal biodiversity and fishing community.

  12. Impact Analysis of Coastal Engineering Projects on Mangrove Wetland Area Change with Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, two large scale coastal engineering projects have been carried out in the Deep Bay surrounded by Shenzhen City and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. One project is Shenzhen River channel regulation and the other is the sea reclamation along the seashore on the Shenzhen side. The two projects are very close to the two national nature reserves, specifically Futian in Shenzhen and Mai Po in Hong Kong, which are important wetland ecosystems worldwide. This paper aims to identify and monitor the mangrove wetland changes with time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images pre and post to the two engineering projects being launched. Coupled analysis of the image interpretation results and tidal data acquired at the same time in the context of the two works reveals that the mangrove wetland area has increased from year 1989 to 1994, and has changed little from year 1994 to 2002. Binary coding is applied to reveal the distribution image of mangrove at each phase, and the coding image shows that the construction of the two coastal engineering projects has caused frequent changes in mangrove spatial distribution. The study also shows that the change is not significant regarding to the precision of the method and the natural evolution of mangrove wetland, and the projects do not cause apparently influences upon the two national mangrove conservation zones at least for the research time period.

  13. Traditional ethno-botanical uses of medicinal plants from coastal areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document the traditional uses of wild plants as medicine by the villagers along the coastal highway from Karachi to Uthal. Methods: Information presented in this research was gathered from the local people using an integrated approach of floral collections, discussions with the elderly people and traditional medicinal practitioners using semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Ethno-medicinal surveys indicated the medicinal importance of 54 plant species from 27 families in the targeted area. Majority of the plants (54% from this coastal plant diversity were xerophytes followed by halophytes/xero-halophytes (40% and glycophytes (6%. The most important uses included gastrointestinal diseases, pain killer, arthritis, skin and sexual disorders, asthma and expectorant. The above-ground parts of plants i.e. leaf, stem and fruit/seed as decoction are used most commonly to cure 23 ailments but root was also used in some cases. Conclusions: This study helps in documenting therapeutic uses of herbal remedies with new phyto-medicinal claim and it is hoped that it will lead to detailed chemical and pharmacological evaluations. This may also lead to a discovery of novel bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Social Capital and Public Participation on Planning in Coastal Area Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Gunawan; Syaifurridzal, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is one country to the world that rich with natural resources, especially on marine and coastal resources. But, the condition of rural inhabitants in coastal area still low in economic condition and public facilities and others not suitable for good living environment. The goal of this paper is to integrate the concept of social capital and public participation in the community activities. Social capital, which is interpreted with the term of the trust, networks and norm as governing human behavior is significant to motivate and coordinate collective action towards collaboration. Collective action or collaboration among people in the communities could solve the problem together. In the Grootaert research, with the title “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Indonesia” (1999) found that active participation in decision making and memberships in heterogeneous organizations further reduce the likelihood to be poor. In this research, we found the same from Grootaert finding, that social capital (trust) has positive impact to community activities (path point 0.56) in this research location.

  15. Density,Storage and Distribution of Carbon in Mangrove Ecosystem in Guangdong’s Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; LI; Pimao; CHEN; Chuanxin; QIN

    2015-01-01

    Using the mangrove plants and sediment of the typical mangrove areas in Guangdong’s coastal areas,P. R. China as the research object,the density,storage and spatial distribution of carbon are studied. The study method is the combination of the wild field analysis and laboratory testing method. The results show that the carbon density of the sediment will gradually decrease because of the increased depth,and has nothing to do with the difference of the area and tree species. The average carbon density of 50 cm sediment is 0. 007 g C / g. The carbon density is obviously different in different components of different mangrove species in different regions. The total carbon storage in different regions is in the following order: Zhuhai > Gaoqiao > Shenzhen > Shuidong Bay > Guanghai Bay > Raoping > Daya Bay > Chenghai. The carbon density and carbon storage are obviously higher in mangrove covered area than blank area. It shows that mangroves have very strong carbon sink function.

  16. Optical properties of algal blooms in an eutrophicated coastal area and its relevance to remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astoreca, Rosa; Rousseau, Veronique; Ruddick, Kevin; Van Mol, Barbara; Parent, Jean-Yves; Lancelot, Christiane

    2005-08-01

    The Southern Bight of the North Sea is characterised by a large influence of river inputs, which results in eutrophication of the area. High concentrations of plankton biomass and suspended matter have been reported for this area, in relation with blooms of different species and resuspension of bottom sediments. In spring the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa blooms throughout the area reaching up to 30 mg Chlorophyll m-3 or more nearshore. This event is followed in June by red tides of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans. These blooms are concurrent with different species of diatoms. The strong optical signature of these blooms is clear to human observers making them potentially detectable in satellite imagery. As a first step in this direction, sampling has been carried out in the area, during Phaeocystis and Noctiluca blooms in 2003 and 2004. Phytoplankton pigments and inherent optical properties (particle, detrital and phytoplankton absorption) have been measured spectrophotometrically, and in situ using an ac-9 for total absorption and particle scattering. Field data were compared with optical properties of pure species obtained in laboratory. In parallel, water-leaving reflectance has been also measured. In this paper we characterise the optical signatures of diatoms, Phaeocystis and Noctiluca and their contribution to total absorption. The impact on water-leaving reflectance spectra is evaluated; in order to assess the conditions in which remote sensing can provide information for monitoring the timing, extent and magnitude of blooms in this coastal area.

  17. Nutrient flows and related impacts between a Mediterranean river and the associated coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markogianni, Vassiliki; Varkitzi, Ioanna; Pagou, Kalliopi; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Taking into consideration the Water Framework Directive's requirements, water samples were collected monthly and/or bimonthly between 2014 and 2015 from Spercheios River, its estuary and the adjacent Maliakos Gulf in order to assess the quality of these water bodies. A study on dissolved nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations was carried out, to investigate the impact between the river and the associated coastal area and assess the nutrient loads based on water flows from Spercheios River into the marine system.Furthermore a seasonal distribution of nutrient concentrations have been studied, dividing the sampling period into dry and wet season according to the river's discharges. Correlation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis among the available chemical data were conducted in order to enhance the detection of the two systems' interaction. Nutrients' concentrations increased from upstream to downstream sampling stations, particularly in areas where human-induced activities are detected. Marine samples were characterized by lower nutrient concentrations than the river ones, and the ecological quality of Maliakos Gulf, based on chlorophyll-a values, is characterized as moderate, except for the stations close to the river, which constantly presented poor quality. Chemical analyses and statistical analysis indicated high nutrient flows and a strong impact between the freshwater and marine systems, accompanied by the profound effect of the adjacent aquafarming areas and the wastewater treatment plant of Lamia city. The highest nutrients' and chlorophyll-a values of the coastal stations were detected close to the river mouth and they were decreasing towards the outer Maliakos Gulf.

  18. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  19. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  20. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  1. Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time

  2. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  3. Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

    2008-12-01

    Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively

  4. Optimal design of a lagrangian observing system for hydrodynamic surveys in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Maicu, Francesco; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of ocean observing systems is a pressing need for scientific research. In particular, the improvement of ocean short-term observing networks is achievable by reducing the cost-benefit ratio of the field campaigns and by increasing the quality of measurements. Numerical modeling is a powerful tool for determining the appropriateness of a specific observing system and for optimizing the sampling design. This is particularly true when observations are carried out in coastal areas and lagoons where, the use satellites is prohibitive due to the water shallowness. For such areas, numerical models are the most efficient tool both to provide a preliminary assess of the local physical environment and to make short -term predictions above its change. In this context, a test case experiment was carried out within an enclosed shallow water areas, the Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). The aim of the experiment was to explore the optimal design for a field survey based on the use of coastal lagrangian buoys. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the finite element method (SHYFEM3D, Umgiesser et al., 2004) was implemented to simulate the lagoon water circulation. The model domain extent to the whole Cabras lagoon and to the whole Oristano Gulf, including the surrounding coastal area. Lateral open boundary conditions were provided by the operational ocean model system WMED and only wind forcing, provided by SKIRON atmospheric model (Kallos et al., 1997), was considered as surface boundary conditions. The model was applied to provide a number of ad hoc scenarios and to explore the efficiency of the short-term hydrodynamic survey. A first field campaign was carried out to investigate the lagrangian circulation inside the lagoon under the main wind forcing condition (Mistral wind from North-West). The trajectories followed by the lagrangian buoys and the estimated lagrangian velocities were used to calibrate the model parameters and to validate the

  5. Reproduction of a whiptail lizard (Ameivula ocellifera, Teiidae from a coastal area in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJAN ZANCHI-SILVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive ecology of Ameivula ocellifera was studied from September 2009 to August 2010 in a coastal area of the state of Ceará, Brazil. Females reproduced continuously throughout the year, with a peak at the end of the rainy season. Even though there was a predominance of pre-reproductive individuals in the sample, gonadal activity of males peaked synchronously to female reproduction. Mean clutch size was 1.98 ± 0.56 and positively associated with female body size, while mean egg volume was 510.54 ± 84.29 mm3 and unrelated to female body size. We did not find any association between clutch size and average egg volume.

  6. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Compean, Pedro

    2017-09-12

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm−2 and 160piecesm−2) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region.

  7. The role of satellite altimetry in gravity field modelling in coastal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    During recent years altimetry from the two geodetic missions of GEOSAT and ERS-1 has enabled the derivation of high resolution near global gravity field from altimetry [Andersen and Knudsen, 1995, 1996; Sandwell and Smith, 1997]. Altimetric gravity fields are unique in the sense that they provide...... global uniform gravity information with very high resolution, and these global marine gravity fields are registered on a two by two minute grid corresponding to 4 by 4 kilometres at the equator. In this presentation several coastal complications in deriving the marine gravity field from satellite...... altimetry will be investigated using the KMS98 gravity field. Comparison with other sources of gravity field information like airborne and marine gravity observations will be carried out and two fundamentally different test areas (Azores and Skagerak) will be studied to investigated the different role...

  8. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  9. Application of Social Vulnerability Indicators to Climate Change for the Southwest Coastal Areas of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Cheng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the coastal zones of Taiwan not only affects the marine environment, ecology, and human communities whose economies rely heavily on marine activities, but also the sustainable development of national economics. The southwest coast is known as the area most vulnerable to climate change; therefore, this study aims to develop indicators to assess social vulnerability in this area of Taiwan using the three dimensions of susceptibility, resistance, and resilience. The modified Delphi method was used to develop nine criteria and 26 indexes in the evaluation, and the analytic hierarchy process method was employed to evaluate the weight of each indicator based on the perspectives of experts collected through questionnaire surveys. The results provide important information pertaining to the vulnerability of the most susceptive regions, the lowest-resistance areas, and the least resilient townships on the southwest coast. The most socially vulnerable areas are plotted based on the present analysis. Experts can consider the vulnerability map provided here when developing adaptation policies. It should be kept in mind that improving the capacities of resistance and resilience is more important than reducing susceptibility in Taiwan.

  10. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  11. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m-2 d-1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m-2 d-1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m-2 d-1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L-1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  12. Biodiversity and Ecological Structure of Mangrove Mature in Coastal Area of Dumai District - Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKO PRIANTO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This research in coastal area of Dumai has been completed in September untill Desember 2003. The aim of this research was to collect basic data of mangrove ecosystem which covered inventory of biodiversity and ecology structure by using primary and secondary data. Primary data of mangrove forest ecosystem has been collected by line transect method while secondary data was collected by study literature and previous study report. The result showed that there were 17 types of primary mangrove and 18 types of secondary mangrove. The main value indeks in every study area indicated that in the study area I and IV, Xylocarpus granatum had high value as 104,53 and 104,22 subsequently. In the study area II, III and V, Rhizophora apiculata had the high value which subsequently were 114,39, 108,81 and 110,19. There were two main extinct spesies of mangrove, which are Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceae (Cingam/Perepat Lanang and Sonneratia ovata (Kedabu, in which exceptional management is needed for sustainability of these species.

  13. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  14. Development of a 3D Coupled Physical-Biogeochemical Model for the Marseille Coastal Area (NW Mediterranean Sea): What Complexity Is Required in the Coastal Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Faure, Vincent Martin; Fuchs, Rosalie; Lazzari, Paolo; Raimbault, Patrick; Pairaud, Ivane

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial inputs (natural and anthropogenic) from rivers, the atmosphere and physical processes strongly impact the functioning of coastal pelagic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a tool for the examination of these impacts on the Marseille coastal area, which experiences inputs from the Rhone River and high rates of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a new 3D coupled physical/biogeochemical model was developed. Two versions of the biogeochemical model were tested, one model considering only the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and a second model that also considers the phosphorus (P) cycle. Realistic simulations were performed for a period of 5 years (2007–2011). The model accuracy assessment showed that both versions of the model were able of capturing the seasonal changes and spatial characteristics of the ecosystem. The model also reproduced upwelling events and the intrusion of Rhone River water into the Bay of Marseille well. Those processes appeared to greatly impact this coastal oligotrophic area because they induced strong increases in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the surface layer. The model with the C, N and P cycles better reproduced the chlorophyll-a concentrations at the surface than did the model without the P cycle, especially for the Rhone River water. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll-a concentrations at depth were better represented by the model without the P cycle. Therefore, the complexity of the biogeochemical model introduced errors into the model results, but it also improved model results during specific events. Finally, this study suggested that in coastal oligotrophic areas, improvements in the description and quantification of the hydrodynamics and the terrestrial inputs should be preferred over increasing the complexity of the biogeochemical model. PMID:24324589

  15. Dynamics of surfactants in the field of edge and internal waves in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, L.; Kurkina, O.; Kurkin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Edge waves are topographically trapped waves, which can be considered as an important factor impacting upon coastline and nearshore bottom relief, beaches and coastal constructions. Large amplitude nonlinear edge waves are possible due to the action of different mechanisms. Their dynamics can be described by nonlinear Shrodinger equation, and the signs of its coefficients correspond to modulation instability of wave packets. The mechanisms of possible anomalous edge wave appearance are dispersion enhancement and self-modulation; they can lead to forming of abnormal edge wave. In the present paper we consider processes of edge wave propagation and amplification along a cylindrical shelf taking into account horizontal alongshore flow and Earth rotation. Internal waves exist in stratified coastal areas, and for them extreme regimes are also well-known, including propagation of such energetic events as solitary waves and breathers. The existence of waves of both type lead to formation of wave-induced currents, which can be quite strong and can significantly affect the surrounding environment. In particular, these currents can influence upon pollutants, admixtures and films on the surface of the sea causing their redistribution according to zones of convergence and divergence of the velocity fields. These specific pictures on the surface can be used in the interpretation of remote sensing data and diagnostics and identification of underlying wave processes. In the present study we demonstrate dynamics of surfactants in the field of edge and internal waves in coastal areas. Numerical modeling is based on the balance equation of the surface concentration. Film dynamics was considered in the advection - diffusion - relaxation model. We show a number of unsteady effects in the edge and internal waves and their manifestation in the surfactants. For edge waves we considered the passage of linear traveling and standing waves, the wave amplitude changes due to slow longshore

  16. High Resolution Mapping of the Gravity Field in Coastal Areas: a New Airborne Planar Gradiometer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douch, K.; Panet, I.; Foulon, B.; Christophe, B.; Diament, M.; Métivier-Pajot, G.

    2013-12-01

    Recent space missions such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE have contributed to considerably improve the accuracy of global gravity field models down to a resolution of 90 km. Albeit the use of these new data has been very beneficial to many fields of geosciences, many geodetic and geophysical issues require higher resolution models. This is all the more true in coastal areas where the gravity field is poorly covered by current measurement systems. Here we put forward airborne gravity gradiometry as a convenient way to address these limitations. In this respect, we present a new airborne acceleration gradiometer, GREMLIT, which permits along with ancillary measurements to determine the horizontal gradients of the horizontal components of the gravitational field in the instrumental frame. GREMLIT is composed of a compact assembly of 4 planar electrostatic accelerometers based on ONERA recognized expertise in the field of inertial sensors. The 4 accelerometers are mounted on a controlled platform. With an expected accuracy below 1E for the acceleration gradients, we discuss the possibility to recover the local geoid in coastal areas with a precision better than 1cm. For that, our approach follows 2 steps. First we theoretically determine the necessary conditions to fulfill in order to meet the objective. Conversely, assuming that the latter conditions are met, we test in a second phase if the use of GREMLIT in an airborne survey enables to determine a 1cm accuracy geoid. To do so, we design numerical simulations in 2 case studies and compute the total error budget on the gravity gradients in the instrumental frame. Solutions to increase the signal to noise ratio are presented.

  17. Climatic patterns and extreme rainfalls on coastal areas in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, M. C.; Tarragoni, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the extreme values analysis to estimate the rainfall return levels for some Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastal areas in central Italy. Two approaches are mainly considered: the first one is based on the maximum annual daily rainfall series (1-day, 2-day and 3-day) for which suitable probability distributions are fitted, whereas the second one is based on the series of peaks over annual thresholds (POT) for which the best fitting Generalized Pareto distribution is identified. Spectral analysis and appropriate tests for stationarity and homogeneity are run in order to verify the hypothesis under which the analysis performed is valid. From the density plots and the parameter estimates of the fitted distributions to the various annual maximum rainfall series we can conclude that there is a different pattern in the occurrence of extreme events for the western coast with respect to the eastern coast. Specifically, on the Tyrrhenian side extreme rainfalls are more likely to happen in correspondence of longer time spans (i.e. 3-day series) as the effect of cumulated stable rainfalls over time. On the opposite, for the Adriatic coast extremes are more frequent in shorter time spans (1-day). A vector autoregressive model is then estimated and through a causal ordering the identifying restrictions are set. The impulse response analysis shows a lag in the transmission of rainfall shocks of the central Adriatic coast to the Tyrrhenian one. This paper is prepared as a background paper to the SECOA N1.2 Report: Assessment of frequency-magnitude of extreme rainfall events and flooding. Project SECOA (Solutions for Environmental contrast in Coastal Areas) is funded by the EU Commission within the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013).

  18. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  19. Norwegian Deepwater Programme; Norwegian deepwater program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melling, Kristian [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    This presentation describes in some detail the Norwegian Deepwater Programme (NDP), its use as a cooperation model, current projects and plans, and further perspectives. The conclusions are: (1) On cost-effectiveness: double work avoided, coordinated and joint operations substantially save cost; (2) On the dialog between parties: a high degree of openness and transfer of experience, good relations between colleges and cooperation with external institutions; (3) On participating companies and personnel: increased competence and knowledge, improved communication between the companies involved, personal relations; (4) On participating licenses: very useful database for further work, reduced working load and costs.

  20. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  1. The potential consequences of climate variability and change on coastal areas and marine resources: report of the Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team, U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, U.S. Global Change Research Program

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Coastal and marine ecosystems support diverse and important fisheries throughout the nation’s waters, hold vast storehouses of biological diversity, and provide unparalleled recreational opportunities. Some 53% of the total U.S. population live on the 17% of land in the coastal zone, and these areas become more crowded every year. Demands on coastal and marine resources are rapidly increasing, and as coastal areas become more developed, the vulnerability of human settlements to hurricanes,...

  2. Heavy metal deposition fluxes affecting an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío

    2013-10-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of industrial emissions and harbour activities on total atmospheric deposition in an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Three large industrial estates and a busy harbour have a notable influence on air quality in the city of Huelva and the surrounding area. The study is based on a geochemical characterization of trace elements deposited (soluble and insoluble fractions) in samples collected at a rate of 15 days/sample from June 2008 to May 2011 in three sampling sites, one in the principal industrial belt, another in the city of Huelva, and the last, 56 km outside Huelva city in an area of high ecological interest. The industrial emissions emitted by the Huelva industrial belt exert a notable influence on atmospheric deposition. Major deposition fluxes were registered for Fe, Cu, V, Ni, P, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Se and Bi, principally in the insoluble fraction, derived from industrial funnel emissions and from harbour activities. Metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, and elements such as P also have a significant presence in the soluble fraction converting them into potentially bio-available nutrients for the living organism in the ocean. A principal component analysis certifies three common emissions sources in the area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals mixed with certain anthropogenic species (Mg, K, Sr, Na, Al, Ba, LREE, Li, Mn, HREE, Ti, Fe, Se, V, SO-, Ni, Ca and P); 2) an industrial factor composed of the same trace elements in the three areas (Sb, Mo, Bi, As, Pb, Sn and Cd) thus confirming the impact of the emissions from the Huelva industrial belt on remote areas; and 3) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg and SO.

  3. Origin and characteristics of brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Al Temamy, A. M.; Salah, Mohamed K.; Kassab, M.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity investigations were carried out to assess the origin and characteristics of a brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area. Twenty six surface water, shallow and deep groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various ionic concentrations as well as oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic contents. In addition, a total of 20 vertical electrical sounding sites were conducted to investigate layers' thicknesses, resistivities, and to detect the water-bearing layers. Then, 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) along two profiles in the study area was conducted to get information about the surface water effect on recharge. The stable isotopic composition and the chloride concentrations strongly suggest that the deep groundwater in Abu Madi area is dominated by inland freshwater with a minor seawater component. This groundwater was recharged during the first and the third Holocene humid climatic cycles where the sea surface was about 125 and 25 m below the current sea level, respectively. The brackish nature and higher piezometric surface of the groundwater, as well as the occurrence of vertical low-salinity seawater zone in front of the study area, support the possibility of submarine groundwater discharge. The geoelectrical resistivity surveying, on the other hand, revealed a number of geoelectrical groundwater-bearing layers. The main water-bearing layer in the study area is represented by the sixth geoelectrical layer, which has relatively high resistivity and a considerable thickness being consistent with the hydrogeochemical observations. ERT results point to the presence of shallow water-bearing layers recharged from the surface water drains with low resistivity and surface rain water of moderate resistivity. Results from the hydrogeochemical analyses and the different hydrogeological data are consistent with the high resistivity values of this geoelectrical layer. However, the overall high specific

  4. Hearths in the coastal areas of northernmost Sweden, from the period AD 800 to 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Liedgren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the chronological setting of hearths registered in FMIS (digital register containing records of all known ancient monuments in Sweden in the provinces of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, Northern Sweden. A total of c. 1500 hearths are known in the area, mainly situated north of the river Skellefteälven. Within a study area of 107 x 94 km, 32 hearths were randomly selected for excavation, each site embracing 1-14 hearths. The sites were scanned using a metal detector and nearly all artifacts found were from the period AD 1600-1900. 14C-datings of charcoal and burned bones corroborated that most hearths were used during this period, with a large number dating to the 19th and 20th centuries. Many hearths contained bones from mature reindeer, indicating that the hearths were related to reindeer herding. We suggest that most hearths are related to nomadic Sami reindeer herders using coastal areas for winter pasture, possibly resulting from the breakdown of the “lappskatteland” (taxation lands system and an increase in reindeer numbers.

  5. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atillah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011, focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  6. A new methodology for flooding risk assessment in coastal areas. Application to Ebro Delta (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayol, Juan Manuel; Marcos, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Global sea level rise projections for the XXI century may be translated in that, by 2100, it will be approximately 50% more deltaic areas in risk of flooding. Contingency, protection and adaptation measures will depend strongly on the regional wealth, but an accurate estimation of future flooding levels is the first thing stakeholders need before taking any decision. In light of this, a new workflow to better evaluate flood hazards in coastal areas has been developed. We have accounted for the combined effect of mean sea level rise, storm surge and waves extremes under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios. The methodology consists of three basic steps: a) mean sea level rise and variability is obtained from a combination of observations and regional/global ocean models; b) joint probability of storm surge and waves is retrieved from regional ocean models and observations; c) previous a) and b) estimated sea levels are projected onshore by computing the wave run-up. Ultimately, flooding risk maps with the associated uncertainty are given for return periods and scenarios of interest. The proposed methodology is applied to the Ebro Delta, a muddy dominated delta located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea with a subaerial area of 320 km squares. It is considered an ideal laboratory because of its growing vulnerability, with common threats and an intensive anthropic influence directly translatable to other world's deltas.

  7. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  8. Influence of Wind and Waves On Whitecap Coverage In A Mediterranean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, C.; Piazzola, J.; Forget, P.; Despiau, S.

    Knowledge of the whitecap coverage behavior is needed to understand the aerosol generation through breaking wave processes. In the open ocean, it has been shown that the whitecap coverage depends strongly on the wind speed, under steady wind and waves conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated the influence of the wave characteristics on the whitecap coverage. In coastal areas a dependance of the white- cap coverage on fetch is expected. In order to specify wind, waves and whitecap relationships for fetch-limited condi- tions, we carried out an experimental campaign during one month in autumn 2001. The experimental site was located on the West of Porquerolles island on the French Mediterranean coast. This area is suitable to study fetch-limited conditions under Mis- tral events. Mistral is a typical continental wind in this area. Wave parameters were measured from a datawell buoy, while Meteorological param- eters (wind, temperature, pressure, humidity) were recorded on a mast on the island. In addition, aerosol concentrations were measured, for subsequent studies, using an optical counter, i.e. Royco 5250A, located at 26 meters height above the sea surface. Whitecap coverage percentages were determined using photographs of the sea surface taken regularly during the Mistral events. An original specific image processing tech- nique was used for this purpose. We present the results of the experiments in terms of wind, wave, and whitecap cov- erage relationships during steady and unsteady sea state conditions.

  9. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  10. Marine geo-hazard in the Campi Flegrei coastal area (Eastern Tyrrhenian sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, C.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; di Fiore, V.; Esposito, E.; Molisso, F.; Porfido, S.; Sacchi, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei (i.e. "burning plains") are located on the eastern Tyrrhenian margin, an area characterized by active tectonics and volcanism since the Pleistocene. It is a densely urbanized coastal zone, including the bay of Pozzuoli, Procida and Ischia islands, where documented human activities have been developing for more than two thousand years. In the Pozzuoli area two major periods of eruptive volcanic activity occurred from 10.0 to 8.0 ky B.P and 4.5 to 3.7 ky B.P. These periods were followed by the September 1538 Monte Nuovo eruption. Numerous monogenic volcanoes formed close to the shoreline and volcanic debris interpreted as submarine counterpart of subaerial flow and surge, has been detected offshore. The most recent volcanic activity on Ischia island starts around 10.0 ky B.P. to which associates several eruptive centres mostly located in the western sector. The last eruption dates back to Arso flow in 1302. Nevertheless the landscape of Ischia is dominated by Mount Epomeo in the central part of the island, which is the highest peak (788 m). It is a volcano-tectonic structure that raised above sea level between 33 and 28 ka BP, due to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. In the Campi Flegrei, magma-related activity is testified by extensive hydrothermalism, and recent episodes (1883 on Ischia, and 1970-71 and 1982-84 on Pozzuoli coast) of shallow seismicity and ground deformation, exceeding rates of 100 cm/year in the years 1983-1984. Volcanic and volcano-tectonic activity mainly associate with inferred resurgent calderas whose uplift have caused mass wasting phenomena, faulting and erosional activity both on land and at sea. Major geohazard features resulting from marine geophysical and sedimentological investigations include (1) extensive landslide deposits and associated hummocky topographies off Ischia volcanic island, (2) seafloor instabilities in the form of creep/slump, channelled sediment flow and deep sedimentary fan, (3) superficial

  11. Environmental variation and macrofauna response in a coastal area influenced by land runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianaki, Ioanna; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    2013-11-01

    Macrofauna community interactions with environmental variables in the water column (salinity, temperature, turbidity, transparency, suspended particulate matter, particulate organic matter, choloroplastic pigments) and in the sediment (granulometric variables, organic carbon and pigments) were investigated in a coastal area with high land runoff due to riverine and temporary stream discharges (Greece, Aegean Sea, Maliakos Gulf). Samples were taken along a distance-depositional gradient from the river mouth to the open sea at eight stations, at times of different precipitation regime from August 2000 to May 2001. The physical variables, such as transparency and median grain size, generally increased seawards, and parallelled the depositional gradient as opposed to measures of food inputs and hydrodynamic regime. High environmental heterogeneity was observed during peak precipitation. The total number of species increased seawards and from August (122 species) to May (170 species). Maximum abundance also increased from August (4953 m-2) to May (10,220 individuals m-2), irrespective of distance from river mouth. Species belonging to different functional groups, as to recolonization, feeding, motility and substrate preferences, coexisted at all times indicating high functional diversity. Non-parametric multivariate regression showed that at times of low, rising and falling precipitation 78-81% of community variation was explained by environmental variables, indicating that macrofauna distribution and species composition respond to food inputs and sediment characteristics. During peak land runoff the community-environment relationship weakened (57% of the variability explained). The diversity of functional traits of the most abundant species indicates that the macrofauna community can absorb the impact of increased turbidity, sedimentation and current-driven dispersion. The study offers baseline information for the integrated coastal zone management in microtidal areas

  12. Environment 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    How much of the total Norwegian emissions to air comes from the petroleum sector? What is the Norwegian petroleum industry's contribution to the discharges to sea? How do the Norwegian authorities manage the environmental aspects relating to the petroleum industry? What does nmVOC mean? In co-operation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy issues this publication to answer questions such as these. We furthermore wish to provide comprehensive information about the environmental aspects relating to the Norwegian oil and gas operations. It is also important to demonstrate that the efforts to improve environmental efficiency in this industry is a continuous process and that measures have already been implemented to this effect. Each year we take a closer look at one topic which is of concern to the petroleum industry. In light of the new protocol under the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, we wish to focus on the offshore sectors emission of NO{sub x} in this issue and on the possibilities and challenges we face in this context. This publication also contains a section containing factual data, which i.a. describes the status of discharges and emissions, environmental effects and measures to reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, nmVOC and the discharge of oil and chemicals. We hope that a publication like this will increase the public's general knowledge of how the petroleum industry addresses environmental issues. An important task of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy is to help formulate general guidelines and measures in areas where energy policy and environmental policy interact. It is furthermore our aim to help Norway combine her role as a major oil producer of energy with the role of being a leader in the protection of the environment.

  13. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  14. The Albufera Initiative for Biodiversity: a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in coastal protected area management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riddiford, N.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Férriz, I.; Owens, N.W.; Royo, L.; Honey, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a multi-disciplinary field project, set up in 1989 at the Parc Natural de s’Albufera in Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, as an example of a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in a coastal protected area. Outcomes include the provision

  15. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  16. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  17. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  18. Prediction of China's Submerged Coastal Areas by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; YANG Yiqiu; ZHANG Jianli; CHEN Meixiang; XU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the simulation with the Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model CCSM and Ocean Model POP under the greenhouse gas emission scenario of the IPCC SRES A2 (IPCC,2001),and on the earth crust subsidence and glacier melting data,the relative sea level change is obtained along the coast of China in the 21 st century.Using the SRTM elevation data the submergence of coastal low land is calculated under the extreme water level with a 100-year return period.The total flooding areas are 98.3× 103 and 104.9× 103 km2 for 2050 and 2080,respectively.For the three regions most vulnerable to extreme sea level rise,i.e.,the coast of Bohai Bay,the Yangtze River Delta together with neighboring Jiangsu Province and northern Zhejiang Province,and the Pearl River Delta,the flooded areas are 5.0 × 103,64.1 × 103 and 15.3 × 103 km2 in 2050 and 5.2 × 103,67.8 × 103 and 17.2 × 103 km2 in 2080,respectively.

  19. Assessing the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for risk analyses in coastal areas: a stochastic storm surge model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wahl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodology to stochastically simulate a large number of storm surge scenarios (here: 10 million. The applied model is very cheap in computation time and will contribute to improve the overall results from integrated risk analyses in coastal areas. Initially, the observed storm surge events from the tide gauges of Cuxhaven (located in the Elbe estuary and Hörnum (located in the southeast of Sylt Island are parameterised by taking into account 25 parameters (19 sea level parameters and 6 time parameters. Throughout the paper, the total water levels are considered. The astronomical tides are semidiurnal in the investigation area with a tidal range >2 m. The second step of the stochastic simulation consists in fitting parametric distribution functions to the data sets resulting from the parameterisation. The distribution functions are then used to run Monte-Carlo-Simulations. Based on the simulation results, a large number of storm surge scenarios are reconstructed. Parameter interdependencies are considered and different filter functions are applied to avoid inconsistencies. Storm surge scenarios, which are of interest for risk analyses, can easily be extracted from the results.

  20. Hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation of the coastal shallow aquifers in El-Omayed area, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwia, M G; Masoud, A A

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring and assessment of the coastal aquifers are becoming a worldwide concern for the need of additional and sustainable water resources to satisfy demographic growth and economic development. A hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation was conducted in the El-Omayed area in the northwestern coast of Egypt. The aim of the study was to delineate different water-bearing formations, provide a general evaluation of groundwater quality, and identify the recharge sources in aquifers. Thirty-seven water samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. Fifteen profiles of vertical electrical soundings (VESs) were obtained in the oolitic limestone aquifer to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The groundwater reserves in the El-Omayed area are mainly contained in sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. The aquifer of sand dune accumulations contains freshwater of low salinity (average total dissolved solids (TDS) = 974 mg/l). Groundwater of oolitic limestone aquifer is slightly brackish (average TDS = 1,486 mg/l). Groundwater of these aquifers can be used for irrigation under special management for salinity control, and regular leaching as indicated by electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio. Results of VES interpretation classified the subsurface sequence of oolitic limestone aquifer into four geoelectric zones, with increasing depth, calcareous loam, gypsum, oolitic limestone, and sandy limestone. Oolitic limestone constitutes the main aquifer and has a thickness of 12-32 m.

  1. Research on Dynamic Parameters of Soil Site in the Tianjin Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yanju; Lv Yuejun; Qian Haitao

    2011-01-01

    The Tianjin coastal area is a typical soft soil region, where the soil is a marine deposit of the late Quaternary. The soil dynamic parameters from seismic risk assessment reports are collected, and drilling of 15 holes was carried out to sample the soils and measure their dynamic characteristics. The data was divided into 7 types based on lithology, namely, muddy clay, muddy silty clay, silt, silty clay, clay, silty sand and fine sand. Statistics of the dynamic parameters of these soils are collected to obtain the mean values of dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio at different depths. Then, two typical drill holes are selected to establish the soil dynamic models to investigate the seismic response in different cases. The dynamic seismic responses of soil are calculated using the statistical values of this paper, and the values of Code (1994) and those recommended by Yuan Xiaoming et al. (2000), respectively. The applicability and pertinence of the statistical value obtained in this paper are demonstrated by the response spectrum shape, peak ground acceleration and response spectral characteristics. The results can be taken as a reference of the soil dynamic value in this area and can be used in the seismic risk assessment of engineering projects.

  2. Biomineralization process occurring in iron mud of coastal seepase area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZiJun; JIA Nan; YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang

    2008-01-01

    The biomineralization process of iron oxidizing bacteria and its influence on accumulation of metals were investigated by modern biological observation techniques (i.e., SEM and TEM) and geochemical methods, in coastal area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang province where a thick ancient wood layers were buried, Results show that the iron mud samples mainly contain Leptothrix-like sheaths and Gal-lionella-like stalks, which are known as neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. These two bacteria are present as obviously different abundance in two sampling sites, which may be regulated by the geo-chemistry of seepage water. The biomineralization product of iron oxidizing bacteria is ferrihydrite, a poorly ordered iron oxide, and formation of amorphous mineral is affected by the factors of bacteria, minor Si and temperature preventing any further transformation into more crystalline phases. Organic functional groups, extracellular polymers and surface charges can provide favorable nucleation sites or template for formation of iron precipitates on the bacterial surface. The mineralization process of the iron oxidizing bacteria is divided into different stages,i.e., extracellular mineralization, intracellular mineralization and the whole cell mineralization. Furthermore, due to BIOS containing the bacterial organic matter, the accumulation capacity of metals specially Fe and Co is highly increased, suggest-ing that BIOS exert a degree of controlling in the cycling of metal elements in seepage area.

  3. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern.

  4. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  5. Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Mauro; Freni, Gabriele; Napoli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rivers, lakes and the sea were the natural receivers of raw urban waste and storm waters for a long time but the low sustainability of such practice, the increase of population and a renewed environmental sensibility increased researcher interest in the analysis and mitigation of the impact of urban waters on receiving water bodies (RWB). In Europe, the integrated modelling of drainage systems and RWB has been promoted as a promising approach for implementing the Water Framework Directive. A particular interest is given to the fate of pathogens and especially of Escherichia coli, in all the cases in which an interaction between population and the RWB is foreseen. The present paper aims to propose an integrated water quality model involving the analysis of several sewer systems (SS) discharging their polluting overflows on the coast in a sensitive marine environment. From a modelling point of view, the proposed application integrated one-dimensional drainage system models with a complex three-dimensional model analysing the propagation in space and time of E. coli in the coastal marine area. The integrated approach was tested in a real case study (the Acicastello bay in Italy) where data were available both for SS model and for RWB propagation model calibration. The analysis shows a good agreement between the model and monitored data. The integrated model was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for investigating the pollutant propagation and to highlight the most impacted areas.

  6. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-02-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  7. Effects of Rainfall on Water Quality of Aquaculture along the Coastal Areas of Jiangsu Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to decrease the effects of rainfall on water quality of aquaculture along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province and improve the yield and quality of aquatic products.[Method] We firstly designed the methods to calculate average pH of different rainfalls,total precipitation,as well as the changes of pH and salinity in the studied pond and coastal culture zone,then analyzed the dynamic variation of precipitation,pH and salinity caused by rainfall to discuss the effects of rainfall ...

  8. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  9. Provenance analysis of surface sediments in the Holocene mud area of the southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaobo; BI Shipu; ZHANG Yong; YANG Yuan; LIU Shanshan; KONG Xianghuai; LI Xiaoyue; CHU Hongxian

    2016-01-01

    The sedimentary record of mud areas is an important carrier of information on the Holocene evolution of marine environments. Based on fine interpretations of the shallow stratigraphic section data, a small mud deposit area has been found in the southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula. This mud area is mainly distributed in coastal waters north of Laoshantou to the vicinity of Rushan Estuary. Overall, it is parallel to the coastline and spreads in a banded pattern, gradually thinning from offshore to the sea. The isopach map of depth distribution is parallel with the shoreline, and the depocenter lies in coastal waters of the Aoshan Bay where the maximum thickness is up to 22.5 m. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)14C dating shows that the mud area was formed in the Holocene. The test data of surface sediments from the mud area, including particle size, mineral characteristics, and rare earth element contents, are used in comparisons with the composition of materials from the major surrounding medium and small rivers flowing into the sea and the Huanghe (Yellow) River. In this paper, the sedimentary characteristics and provenance of the mud deposit area are discussed. The results show that the formation of this mud area resulted from the joint action of the Huanghe River and surrounding rivers flowing into the sea.

  10. Spatial Variability of Land-Sea Carbon Exchange at a Coastal Area in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, H.; Oechel, W.; Hastings, S.

    2007-12-01

    Relatively cold and low salinity sea water of the Arctic Ocean was considered to be a sink for atmospheric CO2 (Takahashi et al., 1997) because the solubility of CO2 in seawater increases as temperature decreases, and the arctic sea water transports CO2 to greater depths. However, carbon exchange in the Arctic sea is not well evaluated yet, because available data is very limited (Semiletov et al., 2007). Also, terrestrial inflows, such as thawing permafrost and coastal erosion, also affect oceanic air-sea CO2 exchange especially in the Arctic (ACIA., 2004) creating a variety of regional carbon cycles (Semiletov et al., 2007). Our aim is to quantify an air-sea CO2 exchange of a spatially wide coastal sea area, in Barrow, Alaska and to extrapolate the future carbon cycle in response to climate change. Boat cruises for pCO2 measurements operated from July 29 to August 5, 2007. The surveyed area was mainly divided into three parts: Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Elson Lagoon. Conductivity of sea surface (CS) and sea surface temperature (SST) were also measured together with pCO2. The result showed distinct differences in pCO2 among three areas. Average delta pCO2 (dpCO2) (a difference between an atmospheric CO2 and pCO2), CS, and SST were -114.9 ppm, 47.0 mScm-1, and 8.0 C at Chukchi Sea, -53.1 ppm, 43.5 mScm-1, and 8.9 C at Beaufort Sea, and 43.7 ppm, 41.1 mScm-1, and 9.5 C at Elson Lagoon. Relatively high dpCO2 value in the Beaufort Sea implies a large terrestrial input from Elson Lagoon where dpCO2 value is positive. This is supported by lower CS in the Beaufort Sea and Elson Laggon than in the Chukchi Sea. Sea currents from Pacific Ocean, which continuously flow through the Chukchi Sea, are thought to carry warmer water. However, SST was lower in the Chukchi Sea than in the Beaufort Sea. This may be because a prevailing wind from north east creates Ekman transport causing an upwelling along the Chukchi Sea coast and this upwelling carries deep cold water to the

  11. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.Z.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.J.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P.M.S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W.M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Van der Plas, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia i

  12. Gerisa - Using Foss in Environmental Risk Management for the Coastal Areas of w- Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewner, R.; Elbchari, F.; Theilen-Willige, B.; Ait Malek, H.; Ayt Ougougdal, M.; Chaibi, M.; Charif, A.; Nakhcha, C.; Ridaoui, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pilot region of the GeRiSa project (Gestion des risques de l'environnement dans la région de Safi) is the Sahel of Abda (Morocco) located on the Atlantic coast of western Morocco between the lagoon of Oualidia and the Tensift river basin. It belongs to the Coastal Meseta and forms an erosional platform covered by accumulations of various Meso-cenozoic sediments. Firstly, the study area is characterized by a variety of geomorphological units (depressions, plateaus, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, etc.) and shows a considerable natural richness. Secondly, it illustrates its importance for the national economy by intensive social and economic activities. During the last century, this region has been affected by intensive changes from urban growth, tourism, industrial and commercial development, inducing a considerable vulnerability to natural hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, flooding, Tsunamis and seismicity. In order to give solutions to these problems, the three-year GeRiSa project with the support of the bilateral Moroccan-German Programme of Scientific Research (PMARS) promoted by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), will implement a knowledge pool and a risk management centre for natural hazards at the Polydisciplinary Faculty of the Cadi Ayyad University of Safi (Morocco). GeRiSa addresses fundamental scientific, environmental and anthropological problems of national importance and social relevance. The aim is a regional real-time geoinformation system with worldwide access via Internet and interdisciplinary dynamic content, enabling the communication between universities, local authorities and public organisation. In this sense, this multidisciplinary project focuses on a synthesis of various works, approaches and collaborations in-progress, previous completed projects and already existing data combining it with new research results. One of the main research targets within this project is the

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  14. Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal reclamation areas in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianmin; Huang, Runqiu; Jiao, Jiu J.; Chen, Kouping

    2007-09-01

    Coastal reclamation has been carried out along the coastal areas near Shenzhen, China in a large scale since 1980s by dumping fill materials over the marine mud at the sea bottom. Usually the area to be reclaimed is drained first and some of the mud is air-dried for a few weeks before it is buried by fill. After reclamation, the terrestrial groundwater, which is relatively acidic and with high dissolved oxygen, gradually displaces the seawater, which is alkaline with high salinity. The changes in the burial conditions of mud and the properties of the pore water in the mud may induce the release of some heavy metals into the mud. Field survey confirms that the pH and salinity of the groundwater in the reclamation site are much lower than the seawater. Chemical analyses of mud and groundwater samples collected from the reclamation sites reclaimed in different years indicate that most of the heavy metals in the mud decrease gradually with time, but the heavy metals in the groundwater are increased. The release of heavy metals into pore water due to reactivation of heavy metals in the mud is of environmental concern. To understand why some of the heavy metals can be released from the mud more easily than others, a sequential extraction method was used to study the operationally determined chemical forms of five heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in the mud samples. Heavy metals can be presented in five chemical forms: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual. Ni and Pb were mainly associated with the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and carbonate fraction; Zn was mainly associated with organic fraction and Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Cu and Cd were associated with organic fraction and carbonate fraction, respectively. If the residual fraction can be considered as an inert phase of the metal that cannot be mobilized, it is the other four forms of heavy metal that cause the noticeable changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the mud. On the basis of the

  15. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  16. Investigation into the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils of Caspian Sea Coastal Area in Mangystau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Syrlybekkyzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of investigation into physico-chemical properties of coastal soils in the areas of oil fields. it has been established that the considered soils are characterized with low content of organics, alkaline reaction of soil solutions, high salinity and weak resistance against anthropogenic impacts. The obtained data can be applied for further studies and monitoring of environment in oil field areas.

  17. Analysis of the Escherichia coli dynamics in Civitavecchia bathing areas using the multi-platform coastal observing system C-CEMS (Civitavecchia-Coastal Environment Monitoring System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Madonia, Alice; Borsellino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Caruso, Gabriella; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are strongly affected by episodes of fecal contamination due to polluted water inflows from inadequately treated sewages that can cause a loss of resilience of the coastal ecosystems and also an alteration of their functioning. With the aim to provide an useful tool to assess the effects of such phenomena a big effort has been undertaken to the realization of a multi-platform monitoring observing system C-CEMS (Civitavecchia-Coastal Environment Monitoring System) in the coastal zone of Civitavecchia (Northern Latium, Italy), which collect a large amount of data by fixed stations, periodic in-situ samplings and remote observations and use them to feed the mathematical models in order to forecast the paths of the polluted substances in the marine environment. This work is focused on the analysis of the dispersion of Escherichia coli in Civitavecchia bathing areas during the summer 2012. Four daily field surveys under different meteomarine conditions were performed to detect the E. coli concentration at the discharge points and the control stations located in the bathing areas. The collected samples were analysed through the Culture-Based technique (CB) and the Fluorescent Antibody (FA) method in order to estimate both the viable culturable cells and the total E.coli population. The comparison between bacterial concentrations obtained by the two methods shows that the quantitative discrepancy between the culture and microscopical counts increases as the distance to the discharge point grows, underlining the occurrence of a high percentage of non viable cells, which are detected by FA only, at the control stations. Microbiological datasets integrated with C-CEMS measures were used to feed and validate the hydrodynamical (Delft3d-Flow and Swan) and bacterial dispersion (Delft3d-Waq) models. In order to analyze the contribute of physical (transport induced by marine currents) and biological processes (cells decay connected to solar radiation, temperature

  18. Experience from practice: compound storm surge and high precipitation in a coastal area in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; van den Hurk, Bart; van Heeringen, Klaas Jan; Gooijer, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In Januari 2012 a near-flooding occurred in Northern Netherlands by compound occurrence of a high soil moisture saturation degree due to past long term precipitation, a strong 1/10 year precipitation event and a coinciding storm surge that prevented the area to drain water to the Northsea for 5 days. The situation was nearly critical: reserved floodplains were used to reduce the water level in the populated areas, and evacuation plans were standby. After 5 days, the end of the storm surge allowed to discharge large water volumes, restoring the situation to normal conditions. The event has triggered the awareness in both the arenas of water management and science. Are the current standards adequate when these compound events occur more frequently than expected from random correlation? And do weather and climate modellers pay adequate attention to the output of their models that is truly meaningful to society, like combinations of strong winds over sea and high precipitation volumes in land? Preliminary analyses with observed records show that safety standards are sensitive to the assumed correlation between storm surge and local precipitation. Output from high resolution climate model projections for future conditions (with increased winter time precipitation and increased sea level) has been analysed particularly for climate induced chnages in the probability of simultaneous occurrence of these relevant events. Sea level rise is shown to give a pronounced contribution to an increased occurrence of adverse conditions, while increases in precipitation intensity weakly enhance this occurrence. The paper is concluded by a summary of required model experiments and analyses needed to address the influence of current and future compound events on safety standards in the coastal areas in the Netherlands.

  19. Microbial impact of small tributaries on water and shellfish quality in shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, P; Le Saux, J C; Dumas, F; Caprais, M P; Le Guyader, S F; Pommepuy, M

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of small tributaries on seawater and shellfish quality in coastal area subjected to brief episodes leading to fecal contamination. Escherichia coli and F-RNA-specific bacteriophages were selected as fecal indicators and astroviruses were chosen as being representative of pathogens in the human population during winter viral epidemics. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was built to simulate the current and dispersion in the model domain, which includes areas uncovered at low tide. The model also includes decay rates to simulate microorganism behavior and assess the influence of fecal input on shellfish quality. The originality lies in the fact that specific features of the study area were considered. Modeling results indicate limited particle movements and long flushing times at the back of the bay, where shellfish are farmed. Computational results showed that under normal conditions, i.e. 94% of the time, when rainfall was less than 10 mm per day, the sector shows acceptable water quality. These results are in agreement with shellfish concentration measured in the field. Under high flow conditions, high concentrations of fecal indicators and astrovirus were measured in the river and tributaries. The corresponding fluxes were over 50 times higher than under normal weather conditions. The location of the shellfish beds near the coast makes them vulnerable and fecal indicators and viruses were detected in shellfish after short rainfall events. Our modeling approach makes a contribution to shellfish management and consumer protection, by indicating the "risk period" as defined by EU regulations. Molecular development such as viral quantification in conjunction with model developments will help to prevent shellfish contamination and thus provide safer products to consumers and an effective tool for shellfish producers.

  20. Effect of the river discharge implementation in an operational model for the West Iberia coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Francisco; Brito, David; Juliano, Manuela; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, most of the largest rivers discharge on the Atlantic coast draining almost two thirds of the territory. It is an important source of nutrients and sediments to these coastal areas. Rivers discharges in the Atlantic area when compared with the ones in the Mediterranean side present the particularity that their water before is released into the ocean is previously mixed in their estuaries in a different ratio depending of the estuarine residence time and the discharged flow. In order to evaluate the relative importance of the inland waters in the circulation patterns of Western Iberia, the rivers discharges were implemented in the PCOMS model application (Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System). To reproduce the water continuum including the different spatial and temporal scales, a methodology consisting in a system of integrated models using the Mohid model was designed. At the watershed level, the Mohid Land model calculated operationally water flow and properties, including nutrients, for the main river catchments of Western Iberian with a 2 km horizontal resolution. Downstream, several operational hydrodynamic and biological estuarine applications used those outcomes as model inputs, filling the gaps in the observation network. From the estuarine models, the tidally modulated water and properties fluxes to the coast were obtained. These fluxes were finally imposed in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS), a fully 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and ecological regional model that covers the Iberian Atlantic front. The fate of the rivers discharges were analysed by integrating model results in boxes, comparing the climatologies obtained with and without rivers and the rivers area of influence was obtained by lagrangian tracers simulations.

  1. Uranium chemistry in stack solutions and leachates of phosphogypsum disposed at a coastal area in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysandrou, M; Pashalidis, I

    2008-02-01

    The effect of the matrix composition (main constituents) on the concentration and chemical behavior of uranium in phosphogypsum stack solutions and leachates has been investigated. Solid and aqueous samples were taken from three different sub-areas of a phosphogypsum stack at a coastal area in Vasilikos (Cyprus). The sub-areas are characterized whether by their acidity (e.g. "aged" and "non-aged" phosphogypsum) or by their salt content, originating from pulping water during wet stacking or (after deposition) from the adjacent sea. Measurements in stack solutions and leachates showed that phosphogypsum characteristics affect both, the concentration and the chemical behavior of uranium in solution. Uranium concentration in solutions of increased salinity is up to three orders of magnitude higher than in solutions of low salinity and this is attributed to the effect of ionic strength on the solubility of phosphogypsum. Modelling showed that uranium in stack solutions is predominantly present in the form of uranium(VI) phosphate complexes (e.g. UO(2)(H(2)PO(4))(2), UO(2)HPO(4)), whereas in leachates uranium(VI) fluoro complexes (e.g. UO(2)F(2), UO(2)F(3)(-)) are predominant in solution. The latter indicates that elution of uranium from phosphogypsum takes places most probably in the form of fluoro complexes. Both, effective elution by saline water and direct migration of uranium to the sea, where it forms very stable uranium(VI) carbonato complexes, indicate that the adjacent sea will be the final receptor of uranium released from Vasilikos phosphogypsum.

  2. Trophic ecology of bottom fishes assemblage along coastal areas of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisamae, Sukree

    2009-04-01

    Food preferences, feeding attributes, trophic guilds, and ontogenetic changes in diet compositions of 45 fish species collected along coastal waters in the southern areas of the South China Sea, Thailand were examined. Most species had high food intake and fed on specific ranges of food types. Shrimp was the most important food (31.7%), followed by calanoid copepod (16.8%), fish (12.7%) and gammarid amphipod (8.3%). These fishes can be categorized into six different trophic guilds and further divided into four categories namely; piscivore, zooplanktivore, zoobenthivore and miscellaneous/opportunist. Numbers of feeding guilds at each depth vary between four and five. Four of these are consistently found throughout the year at all zones; shrimp predator, piscivore, calanoid copepod feeder and a combination of polychaete and other food feeders. Ontogenetic studies indicate that fishes are more likely to group according to species rather than size. This scientific information is important when examining the complex association between fishes and identifying groups of species using similar resources.

  3. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  4. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Becker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas – if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world – could capture 17–25 tonnes of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (averaged over 20 yr. Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to reduce significantly the current upward trend in atmospheric CO2 levels.

    In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42–63 € per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS. In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level.

  5. Numerical simulation of the effect of groundwater salinity on artificial freezing wall in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Liu, Quan

    2017-04-01

    During the engineering projects with artificial ground freezing (AFG) techniques in coastal area, the freezing effect is affected by groundwater salinity. Based on the theories of artificially frozen soil and heat transfer in porous material, and with the assumption that only the variations of total dissolved solids (TDS) impact on freezing point and thermal conductivity, a numerical model of an AFG project in a saline aquifer was established and validated by comparing the simulated temperature field with the calculated temperature based on the analytic solution of rupak (reference) for single-pipe freezing temperature field T. The formation and development of freezing wall were simulated with various TDS. The results showed that the variety of TDS caused the larger temperature difference near the frozen front. With increasing TDS in the saline aquifer (1 35g/L), the average thickness of freezing wall decreased linearly and the total formation time of the freezing wall increased linearly. Compared with of the scenario of fresh-water (Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007, 112: 1-13. Lukas U.Arenson, Dave C.Sego. The effect of salinity on the freezing of coarse- grained sand[J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2006, 43: 325-337. Hui Bing, Wei Ma. Laboratory investigation of the freezing point of saline soil[J]. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2011, 67: 79-88.

  6. Integrated tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; García-Aguilar, O.; Medina, R.; González, M.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.

    2014-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow for the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents a tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment for the case study of El Salvador, the applied methodology dealing with the complexity and variability of coastal zones by means of (i) an integral approach to cover the entire risk-related process from the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessments to the final risk management; (ii) an integrated approach to combine and aggregate the information stemming from the different dimensions of coupled human and natural systems; and (iii) a dynamic and scale-dependent approach to integrate the spatiotemporal variability considerations. This work also aims at establishing a clear connection to translate the vulnerability and risk assessment results into adequate target-oriented risk reduction measures, trying to bridge the gap between science and management for the tsunami hazard. The approach is applicable to other types of hazards, having been successfully applied to climate-change-related flooding hazard.

  7. Assessment of centralized grid connected wind power cost in coastal area of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Uqaili, Mohammad A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Mirza, Umar K. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    This work presents an assessment of per unit cost of electricity generated from 15 MW wind farm at 40 locations in the coastal areas of Pakistan using the method of net present value analysis. The Nordex N43/600 wind turbine has been selected and used as reference wind turbine. Wind duration curves were developed and utilized to calculate per unit cost of electricity generated from chosen wind turbine. In Sindh province, the minimum cost of electricity generated was found to be 4.2 cents /kWh at Jamshoro, while the corresponding maximum was 7.4 cents /kWh at Kadhan site. In Balochistan, the minimum cost of electricity generated was found to be 6.3 cents /kWh at Aghore, while the corresponding maximum was 21.0 cents /kWh at Mand site. The study concludes that at most of the locations especially in Sindh province, wind power is competitive to conventional grid connected thermal power even without considering the externalities. (author)

  8. Monsoon influences distribution of surfactants at different coastal areas into atmospheric aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharom, Suhana; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Md Firoz

    2016-11-01

    Global climate change can be influenced by surfactants because of its characteristics due to reduce surface tension. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosol. Fine aerosol sample diameter size (<1.5 µM) were collected using High Volume Air Sampler (HVAS) for 24 hrs with flow rate of 1.13m3min-1 at different coastal areas. Colorimetric method was undertaken to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as dimethyl blue active substances (DBAS) using a UV spectrometer. The results indicated that the concentration of anionic surfactants was higher than concentration of cationic surfactants. Therefore, the concentrations of surfactants in Port Dickson was 103.97 pmolm-3 for MBAS and 62.57 pmolm-3 for DBAS and was higher than Bachok during southwest monsoon and meanwhile concentrations of surfactants was higher in Bachok 102.74 pmolm-3 for MBAS and DBAS 68.56 pmolm-3 during northeast monsoon.

  9. Conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem in coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (i species diversity of mangrove plats, (ii the conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem, and (iii restoration efford of mangrove ecosystem at coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java. This was descriptive research that was done qualitatively, in July until December 2003, at 3 sites of mangrove habitat in Rembang Regency, namely Pecangakan, Pasar Banggi, and Lasem. The data was collected in field surveys, in-depth interview to local people and/or local government, and examination of topographic maps of Java (1963-1965 and digital satellite image of Landsat 7 TM (July-September 2001. The result indicated that northern coast of Rembang had 27 mangrove species, i.e. 12 species of major mangrove, 2 species of minor mangrove, and 13 species of associated plants. Rhizophora had been dominated mangrove ecosystem in Lasem and Pasar Bangi; while Avicennia had been dominated in Pecangakan. The most degrading factors of mangrove ecosysrems were aquaculture and salt pond, timber logging, land reclamation and soil sedimentation, and environmental pollution. Mangrove restoration by Rhizophora in coast of Pasar Bangi had been successfully, because community based management.

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  11. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  12. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  13. Optimum segmentation of simple objects in high-resolution remote sensing imagery in coastal areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianyu; PAN Delu; MAO Zhihua

    2006-01-01

    The optimum segmentation of ground objects in a landscape is essential for interpretation of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery and detection of objects; and it is also a technical foundation to efficiently use spatial information in remote sensing imagery. Landscapes are complex system composed of a large number of heterogeneous components. There are many explicit homogeneous image objects that have similar spectral character and yet differ from surrounding objects in high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Thereby, a new concept of Distinctive Feature of fractal is put forward and used in deriving Distinctive Feature curve of fractal evolution in multiscale segmentation.Through distinguishing the extremum condition of Distinctive Feature curve and the inclusion relationship of fractals in multiscale representation the Scalar Order is built. This can help to determinate the optimum scale in image segmentation for simple-objects, and the potential meaningful image-object fitting the intrinsic scale of the dominant landscape object can be obtained. Based on the application in high-resolution remote sensing imagery in coastal areas, a satisfactory result was acquired.

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of aquifers salinization in coastal area of Yunlin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.-C.; Tan, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    In the past, time and space characteristics often discussed separately. This study adopts regionalized variables theory, and describes the water quality in terms of its structure in time and space to assess the situation of Yunlin. This study applied the Quantum Bayesian Maximum Entropy Toolbox (QtBME), which is a spatiotemporal statistics function, can be applied to estimate and map a non-stationary and non-homogeneous spatiotemporal process under the platform of Quantum GIS (QGIS) software. Kernel smoothing method is used to divide the original process into a deterministic trend and a stationary and homogeneous spatiotemporal process, assuming that a spatiotemporal process can be divided into high and low frequency. The covariance model of the process of high frequency is selected objectively by particle swarm optimization (PSO) method and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Bayesian maximum entropy method is then applied to spatiotemporal mapping of the variable of interest. In this study, QtBME estimated the situation of aquifers salinization at Yunlin coastal area in 1992 to 2010. Finally, one investigated the rainfall and aquifers salinization on the degree of impact.

  15. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  16. Achieving Success under Pressure in the Conservation of Intensely Used Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how biological conservation and socioeconomic development can be harmonized in social-ecological systems is at the core of sustainability science. We present the case of a Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA, the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA, that exhibits high ecological performance under intense pressure from fishing, tourism, and coastal development. This case study illustrates how socioeconomic development and significant conservation benefits can coexist, even in a challenging context. Based on this case study, we present a framework for what elements and interactions have determined the high ecological performance of this MPA, and highlight the key leverages that have enabled ecosystem recovery. In particular, the most critical elements underlying high performance were sufficient leadership and knowledge to identify a conservation vision and to catalyze some key actors in the implementation of this vision. Thus, success was ultimately determined by the ability of the leadership of the MPA to devise and implement an effective strategy, with the support and participation of key actors that were external to the MPA organization. The insights from this case study may be applicable to improving MPA management in other systems with similar characteristics, including high human pressures and the presence of an MPA authority.

  17. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll and Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea - A basin-scale habitat comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Bagøien, Espen

    2012-09-01

    Seasonal patterns for mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll, and Calanus finmarchicus in different water masses between 62 and 70°N of the Norwegian Sea were compared using spatiotemporally aggregated basin-scale data. Norwegian Coastal Water was stratified throughout the year due to a low-salinity upper layer. The winter mixed layer depth was typically about 50-60m, and the spring phytoplankton bloom peaked in late April. In Atlantic and Arctic Waters the winter mixed layer depths were much greater, typically about 175-250m. Due to the requirement for thermal stratification, the phytoplankton build-ups there were slower and the peaks were delayed until late May. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrient consumption and chlorophyll was similar for the Atlantic and Arctic areas. Young Calanus copepodites of the first new generation in Coastal Water peaked in early May, preceding the peak in Atlantic Water by about 2weeks, and that in Arctic Water by about 6weeks. While the young G 1 cohorts in Coastal and Atlantic waters coincided rather well in time with the phytoplankton blooms, the timing of the cohort in Arctic Water was delayed compared to the phytoplankton. Two or more Calanus generations in Coastal Water, and two generations in Atlantic Water were observed. Only one generation was found in Arctic Water, where scarce autumn data precludes evaluation of a possible second generation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ecological Security and Ecosystem Services in Response to Land Use Change in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyao Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, and the resulting land use/cover change, is a primary cause of the degradation of coastal wetland ecosystems. Reclamation projects are seen as a way to strike a balance between socioeconomic development and maintenance of coastal ecosystems. Our aim was to understand the ecological changes to Jiangsu’s coastal wetland resulting from land use change since 1977 by using remote sensing and spatial analyses. The results indicate that: (1 The area of artificial land use expanded while natural land use was reduced, which emphasized an increase in production-orientated land uses at the expense of ecologically important wetlands; (2 It took 34 years for landscape ecological security and 39 years for ecosystem services to regain equilibrium. The coastal reclamation area would recover ecological equilibrium only after a minimum of 30 years; (3 The total ecosystem service value decreased significantly from $2.98 billion per year to $2.31 billion per year from 1977 to 2014. Food production was the only one ecosystem service function that consistently increased, mainly because of government policy; (4 The relationship between landscape ecological security and ecosystem services is complicated, mainly because of the scale effect of landscape ecology. Spatial analysis of changing gravity centers showed that landscape ecological security and ecosystem service quality became better in the north than the south over the study period.

  19. Characterization of mechanisms and processes of groundwater salinization in irrigated coastal area using statistics, GIS, and hydrogeochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzourra, Hazar; Bouhlila, Rachida; Elango, L; Slama, Fairouz; Ouslati, Naceur

    2015-02-01

    Coastal aquifers are at threat of salinization in most parts of the world. This study was carried out in coastal shallow aquifers of Aousja-Ghar El Melh and Kalâat el Andalous, northeastern of Tunisia with an objective to identify sources and processes of groundwater salinization. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 shallow dug wells during July and September 2007. Chemical parameters such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), Br(-), and F(-) were analyzed. The combination of hydrogeochemical, statistical, and GIS approaches was used to understand and to identify the main sources of salinization and contamination of these shallow coastal aquifers as follows: (i) water-rock interaction, (ii) evapotranspiration, (iii) saltwater is started to intrude before 1972 and it is still intruding continuously, (iv) irrigation return flow, (v) sea aerosol spray, and finally, (vi) agricultural fertilizers. During 2005/2006, the overexploitation of the renewable water resources of aquifers caused saline water intrusion. In 2007, the freshening of a brackish-saline groundwater occurred under natural recharge conditions by Ca-HCO3 meteoric freshwater. The cationic exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. The sulfate reduction process and the neo-formation of clays minerals characterize the hypersaline coastal Sebkha environments. Evaporation tends to increase the concentrations of solutes in groundwater from the recharge areas to the discharge areas and leads to precipitate carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  20. Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the

  1. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been reported as an important food safety hazard. The aim of this study was to obtain information about C. botulinum distribution in north areas sediments of Iran in order to ascertain the risks associated with consumption and processing of fish from these waters. Two hundred and seventy samples of sediments from coastal areas of "Gilan" and "Mazandaran" provinas of Iran were collected and analyzed. The supernatants were inoculated into cooked meat media and then , grown specimens were stained and cheked microscopically. After centrifuge ,the supernatants were divided into three (untreated ,heated , and tripsinised and toxicity of them were tested by mouse bioassay. All mice controlled for 4 days for symptoms of botulism. Monovalent standard antitoxins were used for detection of toxin type. The present study revealed that the prevalence of C. botulinum (types A, B and E in sediments from different areas of Gillan and Mazandaran was 3.6% and 4.6% respectively, Mean prevalence of C. botulinum in sediments from north regions of Iran was 4.1%. It is also demonstrated that C. botulinum type E is predominant type seen in aquatic environments of the coastal areas of Iran. This is the first report of C. botulinum distribution in the sediments coastal areas of Iran. Introduction *Corresponding author: +98 21 4811483

  2. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  3. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  4. Reproduction of wild boar in a cropland and coastal wetland area: implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosell, C.,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive parameters of a wild boar population located in a coastal landscape with a mosaic of cropland and wetland habitats were analysed and compared with those observed in wild boar populations living in other habitats. A total of 296 reproductive tracts of females captured year round at the Aiguamolls de l’Empordà Natural Park were collected and analysed from 2000 to 2010. The foetuses were counted, sexed and aged and the mating and birth periods were determined. The weight and age of each female were also recorded. In accordance with the pattern observed in most European populations, a marked main mating season from October to January was observed. Within this season, there was a peak during November and December, in which 64% of the conception dates were recorded. The proportion of breeding females, ovulation rate and litter size increased with the weight of the reproductive females. A mean litter size of 5.01 ± 1.33 (range from two to eight foetuses was recorded. This value is the highest known litter size recorded in wild Iberian populations and is similar to values observed in central Europe. Furthermore, it is not in accordance with the pattern reported for other European populations in which a positive correlation between litter size and latitude was observed. The most likely explanation for the high reproductive output in the study area is the availability of food year round, and especially the high consumption of crops such as maize and sunflower. Our results suggest that colonisation of cropland and wetland areas is contributing to the rise in the wild boar population density. Control strategies should consider not only reducing numbers of adult females but also applying measures to reduce food resources available to wild boar.

  5. Contribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services to Natural Capital in the coastal area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Madonia, Alice; Tofani, Anna; Molino, Chiara; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital evaluation is emerging as a fundamental tool to support the management of natural resources. Indeed, the achievement of the compatibility among their multiple uses, often in conflict in coastal areas, is a priority to avoid the increasing undesirable effects which threat both ecosystems and human health and well-being. It represents the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. Furthermore the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (called by Kofi Annan in 2000), assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and in particular, the analysis method has been centered on the linkages between "ecosystem services" and human well-being. This "Ecosystem Approach" allows to evaluate the consequences of ecosystems changes on human well-being through the assessment of the Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems". These include provisioning services (food, water, timber, etc.), regulating services (climate, floods, disease, etc.); cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits) and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, etc.) Also the reference guidelines for European Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56 / EC - MSFD; Maritime Spatial Planning Directive 2014/89 / EC - MSP) are based on the principle of the Ecosystem Approach to define the monitoring criteria of marine and maritime space management ecosystems. The assessment of ES provided by Natural Capital cannot overlook the integration of ecological data with economic and socio-cultural ones, since they are considered as the direct and indirect contributions to human well-being provided by ecosystems. Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES), often omitted in the cost-benefit impact studies, has been receiving increasing interest from the scientific community in order

  6. Modelling of upwelling in the coastal area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carbonel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1 1/2 reduced-gravity model is proposed to study the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic features of the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. The vertical structure of the model is described by an active layer overlaying a deep inert layer where the pressure gradient is set to zero. For the upper layer, the model includes the turbulent version of the momentum. continuity and heat equations. The conservation of heat is represented by a transport equation to describe the thermodynamic changes of the sea surface temperature (SST. The solution domain includes open boundaries in which weakly-retlective conditions are prescribed. Solutions are found numerically on a uniform grid and the fundamental equations are approximated by the finite difference method. Numerical experiments are performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the coastal area of Cabo Frio forced by uniform and non-uniform wind fields. The solutions differ considerably depending on the orientation of the winds. East and northeast winds correlate with colder waters in the zonal coastline of this area and the presence of tlows toward Cabo Frio correlates with north wind components. The proposed model is validated with the numerical simulation of an observed event of upwelling, where a time­-dependent and non-uniform wind ficld develops a SST pattern similar as the observations, particularly the extension of the cool water plume in south-west direction and the rapid time variation of the SST.Um modelo de gravidade reduzida de 1 1/2 camada é proposto para estudar as características hidrodinmicas e termodinmicas da área costeira de Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro ­Brasil. A estrutura vertical do modelo é descrita por uma camada ativa sobre uma camada profunda sem movimento onde o gradicnte de pressão é zero. Para a camada superior. o modelo incluí a versão turbulenta das equações de momentum, continuidade e calor. A conservação do calor é representada por uma

  7. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ronne Ice Shelf area, Antarctica, 1974-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, K.M.; Swithinbank, C.; Williams, R.S.; Dalide, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), on the basis of analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance, whereas Rignot and others (in press) infer even larger negative mass balance for glaciers flowing northward into the Amundsen Sea, a trend suggested by Swithinbank and others (2003a,b, 2004). The mass balance of the East Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Pro-grams. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geo-logical Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner

  8. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Larsen Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica, 1940-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a

  9. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of the two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting rise in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying

  10. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  11. Propagation Mechanisms of Incident Tsunami Wave in Jiangsu Coastal Area, Caused by Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春光; 王义刚; 黄惠明; 陈橙; 陈大可

    2016-01-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force’s impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  12. Localised residency and inter-annual fidelity to coastal foraging areas may place sea bass at risk to local depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas K.; Haberlin, Damien; Clohessy, Jim; Bennison, Ashley; Jessopp, Mark

    2017-04-01

    For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds. We used acoustic telemetry to track the summer movements and seasonal migrations of individual sea bass in a large tidally and estuarine influenced coastal environment. We found that the vast majority of tagged sea bass displayed long-term residency (mean, 167 days) and inter-annual fidelity (93% return rate) to specific areas. We describe individual fish home ranges of 3 km or less, and while fish clearly had core resident areas, there was movement of fish between closely located receivers. The combination of inter-annual fidelity to localised foraging areas makes sea bass very susceptible to local depletion; however, the designation of protected areas for sea bass may go a long way to ensuring the sustainability of this species.

  13. Distribution and characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Alaa R.; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.; Al-Alimi, Abdel Kawi A.; Barakat, Assem O.

    2009-08-01

    To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen, 17 surface sediment samples were collected in March-April 2005 and analyzed for PAHs with 2-6 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments were in the range of 2.2-604 ng g - 1 (average value: 82.4 ng g - 1 ). PAHs contamination is highest in proximity to harbour activities, near Al-Dhabah petroleum terminal and urban areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary PAH concentrations ranked PAH contamination in Hadhramout coastal sediments as low to moderate. Assessment of PAH sources in Hadhramout coastal sediments suggested that they originated largely from petrogenic sources. PAHs of pyrolytic origin were found in sediments from urbanized areas. Adverse effects on benthic communities are not expected at the levels of PAHs contamination observed from harbour and industrial areas.

  14. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  15. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  16. Mapping and quantifying habitat fragmentation in small coastal areas: a case study of three protected wetlands in Apulia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Valeria; Tenerelli, Patrizia; Sciandrello, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean Region, habitat loss and fragmentation severely affect coastal wetlands, due to the rapid expansion of anthropogenic activities that has occurred in the last decades. Landscape metrics are commonly used to define landscape patterns and to evaluate fragmentation processes. This investigation focuses on the performance of a set of landscape pattern indices within landscapes characterized by coastal environments and extent below 1,000 ha. The aim is to assess the degree of habitat fragmentation for the monitoring of protected areas and to learn whether values of landscape metrics can characterize fine-resolution landscape patterns. The study areas are three coastal wetlands belonging to the Natura 2000 network and sited on the Adriatic side of Apulia (Southern Italy). The Habitat Maps were derived from the Vegetation Maps generated integrating phytosociological relevés and Earth Observation data. In the three sites, a total of 16 habitat types were detected. A selected set of landscape metrics was applied in order to investigate their performance in assessing fragmentation and spatial patterns of habitats. The final results showed that the most significant landscape patterns are related to highly specialized habitat types closely linked to coastal environments. In interpreting the landscape patterns of these highly specialized habitats, some specific ecological factors were taken into account. The shape indices were the most useful in assessing the degree of fragmentation of habitat types that usually have elongated morphology along the shoreline or the coastal lagoons. In all the cases, to be meaningful, data obtained from the application of the selected indices were jointly assessed, especially at the class level.

  17. Screening of Rhizosphere Bacteria From Rice Fields in The Coastal Area as Acc-Deaminase and Auxin Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisyia Zarina Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and drought stress results in the production of ethylene. Rhizosphere bacterial activity suppresses the production of ethylene through the activity of 1-aminocycopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. In this study,a sampel of rhizosphere bacteria from coastal rice plant area was tested. The method used was acc deaminase activity test performed on Dworkin - Foster (DF media and PCR acdS gene using specific primers of ACC and a quantitative analysis of the production of auxin (IAA. Of 47 isolatees obtained, 8 were positively have acdS activity. The positive result was indicated by the presence of 1080 bp amplicon. Quantitative analysisshowed the highest yield of 10.6 ppm of auxin. The results prove that there are some bacteria originated from coastal rice plant area which have acc deaminase activity.

  18. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health.

  19. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord....... The mussel lines contributed with nutrients, primarily ammonium, to the pool of nutrients in the water column and the contribution increased as the biomass of mussels in the farm increased. The sedimentation of biodeposits was only slightly higher at the farm (51–86 %) compared with a reference site...

  20. Investigation of Metal Uptake and Translocation in Wetland Plants from Urban Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Zhang, W.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Yu, L.; Jones, K. W.; Liu, C.; Tappero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly focused on the use of synchrotron micro XRF technique to study the mechanisms of metal uptake by plants in conjunction with other measurements to provide insight metal concentrations and distributions in the rhizosphere root system. Many urban-industrial areas exhibit environmental degradation. One of the most common issues is sediment metal contamination resulting from past industrial land uses. The wetland ecosystem in urban coastal areas, such as New Jersey, USA, and Shanghai, China, is a unique laboratory for investigating sediment remediation and wetland ecological rehabilitations. Understanding the natural processes that control the mobility of metals in wetland plants is important to understand the metal biochemical cycle. Wetland plants can uptake metals from rhizosphere soils through their root system and store these metals within the plant biomass. The accumulation of metals in wetland plants provides a potential approach for brownfield remediation and wetland restoration. In the rhizosphere, the role of Fe plaque, which forms on the surface of wetland plant roots, has been an issue of debate in controlling metal biogeochemical cycle. It was reported that due to the large specific surface area of iron-oxides for metal sequestration, Fe plaque can provide a reactive substrate to scavenge metals. Several early studies suggest that the Fe plaque serves as a barrier preventing heavy metals from entering plant roots. However, others suggest that Fe plaque is not the main barrier. Therefore, investigation of the natural processes that control the mobility of metals from sediment to wetland plants is a critical step in understanding metal translocation and geochemical cycling in wetlands. In this study we found that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross section from the epidermis to the vascular cylinder were apparently different. Two clusters of metal distributions were seen with Fe and Pb mainly distributed in the

  1. Vertical profiles and enrichment pattern of natural radionuclides in monazite areas of coastal Kerala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, P.K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore, Karnataka 574199 (India); Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore, Karnataka 574199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore, Karnataka 574199 (India)

    2006-07-01

    Detailed studies on radionuclides concentration in different environmental matrices of high background areas were undertaken in the coastal areas of Karunagapalli, Chavara, Neendakara and Kollam to study the distribution and enrichment of the radionuclides in the region. The sand samples collected at different distances from sea waterline and at different depths, were analysed for primordial radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The activity of primordial radionuclides was determined for the different size fractions of sand to study the enrichment pattern. The highest activity was found confined in 125-63 {mu}m particle size fraction in sand. The minimum {sup 232}Th activity was 9.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, found in Kollam at a depth of 10-20 cm, 40 m away from waterline in 500-250 {mu}m particle size fraction and maximum activity of 136,811.2 Bq kg{sup -1} was observed in Chavara in grains of size 125-63 {mu}m at a depth of 0-10 cm for a sample collected 20 m away from waterline. The lowest {sup 226}Ra activity observed was 29.6 Bq kg{sup -1} at Kollam beach for a sample 40 m away from waterline in grains of size 1000-500 {mu}m and at a depth of 20-30 cm and the highest activity observed was 10,309 Bq kg{sup -1} in grains of size 125-63 {mu}m for a sample collected at a distance 20 m away from waterline and at a depth of 0-10 cm. The activity of {sup 4}K was below detectable level in most of the samples collected from the high background monazite area. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra activities decrease with depth for the samples collected 20 m away from the waterline and increase with depth for the samples collected 40 m away from the waterline at Chavara and Kollam beaches. No definite correlation was found between variation of the concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra with depth at Karunagapalli and Neendakara beach sands. There exists a strong correlation between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activities in the region. The results of these investigations are presented

  2. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  3. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  4. Early pictures of global climate change impact to the coastal area (North West of Demak Central Java Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Heri; Pradipta, Dhota; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sarsito, Dina A.

    2017-07-01

    In the last several decades we have been realized for the Global Climate Change situation. Some indicators are worldwide increasing temperature, decreasing volume of ice in Antarctica, and the sea level rise. Relating to the decreased of ice volume and the sea level rise, this situation has been predicted to endanger the living at the coastal area in the future. Prediction models have shown some coastal cities area would suffer flood by tidal inundation and even permanent flooding. Coincidently, today in the North West of Demak District Central Java Indonesia we literally can see the early picture of Global Climate Change impact to the coastal areas as mention. The occurrence of tidal inundation in this area was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier, and in the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide, and in fact some of this area are obviously sinking to the sea through times. This early picture is truly showing a disaster. Adaptation has been made in facing the disaster such as increasing the house and infrastructures, and built dyke. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from digital media and also using remotely time series of high resolution satellite image data to mapping the tidal inundation in this area. We noted people increased their house and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since the sea level keep rising worsening by the land subsidence significantly.

  5. Wood Litter Consumption by three Species of Nasutitermes Termites in an Area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura,Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this specie...

  6. Land-Cover Phenologies and Their Relation to Climatic Variables in an Anthropogenically Impacted Mediterranean Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Encarni I.; Magaly Koch; Ignacio Gómez; Jose Navarro-Pedreño; Ignacio Melendez-Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean coastal areas are experiencing rapid land cover change caused by human-induced land degradation and extreme climatic events. Vegetation index time series provide a useful way to monitor vegetation phenological variations. This study quantitatively describes Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) temporal changes for Mediterranean land-covers from the perspective of vegetation phenology and its relation with climate. A time series from 2001 to 2007 of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index...

  7. Ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in sediments of coastal areas of northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Hu, Wenyou; Jiao, Wentao; Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Distributions of arsenic and metals in surface sediments collected from the coastal and estuarine areas of the northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China, were investigated. An ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in the sediments was evaluated by three approaches: the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the degree of contamination, and two sets of SQGs indices. Sediments from the estuaries of the Wuli and Yalu Rivers contain...

  8. Trace metal content of live tissues in Halimione portulacoides from coastal areas of the Sado estuary, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboredo, F.H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Large differences were noted in Al, Cu, Fe and Zn levels in live tissues of Halimione portulacoides from the coastal areas of the Sado estuary. The highest levels of Al, Cu and Fe were always found in roots, while the lowest levels were always observed in stems. Copper and iron levels were highly correlated in all tissues, especially Cu, while for Al and Zn high correlations were noted between the leaf and the stem. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  9. Lagrangian transport in a microtidal coastal area: the Bay of Palma, island of Mallorca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hernández-Carrasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal transport in the Bay of Palma, a small region in the island of Mallorca, Spain, is characterized in terms of Lagrangian descriptors. The data sets used for this study are the output for two months (one in autumn and one in summer of a high resolution numerical model, ROMS (Regional Ocean Model System, forced atmospherically and with a spatial resolution of 300 m. The two months were selected because of their different wind regime, which is the main driver of the sea dynamics in this area. Finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FSLEs were used to locate semi-persistent Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS and to understand the different flow regimes in the bay. The different wind directions and regularity in the two months have a clear impact on the surface bay dynamics, whereas only topographic features appear clearly in the bottom structures. The fluid interchange between the bay and the open ocean was studied by computing particle trajectories and residence time (RT maps. The escape rate of particles out of the bay is qualitatively different, with a 32% greater escape rate of particles to the ocean in October than in July, owing to the different geometric characteristics of the flow. We show that LCSs separate regions with different transport properties by displaying spatial distributions of residence times on synoptic Lagrangian maps together with the location of the LCSs. Correlations between the time-dependent behavior of FSLE and RT are also investigated, showing a negative dependence when the stirring characterized by FSLE values moves particles in the direction of escape.

  10. Early Childhood Environmental Education in Tropical and Coastal Areas: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, D. R.

    2017-02-01

    Early childhood years are the period of the greatest and most significant developments in ones’ life, and are generally regarded as the basis upon which the rest of their life is constructed. However, these early years are those that traditionally have received the least attention from environmental education. This paper was aimed to summarize several day-to-day activities that can be conducted to educate children in their early years about environment. Environmental education is an educational process that deals with the human interrelationships with the environment, and that uses an interdisciplinary problem solving approach with value clarification. Environmental education is aimed at producing a community that is knowledgeable about the biophysical environment and its associated problems, aware of how to solve these problems, and enthusiastic to work toward their solution. It highlights the progress of knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, and commitment for environmental problems and considerations. Further, environmental education can help children expand their ecological worldview, promote active care to the environment, and explain the relationship between modern life style and current environmental problems. Several types of environmental education have been identified from the literature, such as outdoor activities in natural outdoor setting, school gardening, play-based learning, and drawing activities. Each of these activities has its own characteristics and effects on children’s environmental-related attitudes and behaviors. Through these activities, the unique characteristics of tropical and coastal areas can potentially be used to facilitate children to learn about nature and environment. Recommendations for childhood education practitioners and future researchers are discussed.

  11. New Intelligent Method of Forecasting Control for Fishing Boat Security in the Coastal Area of Fujian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the fishing boat security in the coastal area of Fujian, it is imperative to develop efficient forecasting control system to manage the boats operation in a safe and orderly process. The core issue of establishing the forecasting control system is to predict the relationship of the real time traffic flow and the boat security condition. However, literature review shows that limited reports have addressed on this problem. Hence, a new intelligent forecasting control method base on the Chaos-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN is proposed for the short time traffic flow prediction in this paper. The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD was first used to denoise the original ship traffic flow observation and then the Chaos-PSO-FNN was applied to the forecasting of the ship traffic flow and hence established the relationship of the real time traffic flow and the boat security condition. The advantage of the proposed approach is that the Chaos-PSO is employed to optimize the FNN parameters to overcome the premature problem of the FNN. As a result, the forecasting control performance is enhanced greatly. In the experiment analysis, the fishing boat traffic information provided by the Fujian marine bureau has been used to evaluate the newly proposed method. The analysis results demonstrate that the proposed Chaos-PSO-FNN method can extract distinct features of the traffic data and the prediction rate is beyond 93.7%. In addition, it found that the fishing boats is supposed to be safe when their travel time avoids the rush time of the traffic flow. This result agrees well with the real data. Thus, the new intelligent forecasting control method for fishing boat security can be used in practice.

  12. Diel peroxy radicals in a semi-industrial coastal area: nighttime formation of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured by a PeRCA (Peroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier instrument in the boundary layer during the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides campaign at a coastal, forested site influenced by urban-industrial emissions in southern Spain in late autumn. Total peroxy radicals (RO2* = HO2 + ΣRO2 generally showed a daylight maximum between 10 and 50 pptv at 13:00 UTC, with an average of 18 pptv over the 15 days of measurements. Emissions from the industrial area of Huelva often impacted the measurement site at night during the campaign. The processing of significant levels of anthropogenic organics leads to an intense nocturnal radical chemistry accompanied by formation of organic peroxy radicals at comparable levels to those of summer photochemical conditions with peak events up to 60–80 pptv. The RO2 production initiated by reactions of NO3 with organic trace gases was estimated to be significant, but not sufficient to account for the concentrations of RO2* observed in air masses carrying high pollutant loading. The nocturnal production of peroxy radicals in those periods seems therefore to be dominated by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, in particular alkenes of industrial petrochemical origin. RO2* diurnal variations were consistent with HO2 measurements available at the site. HO2/RO2* ratios generally varied between 0.3 and 0.6, though on some occasions this ratio was likely to have been affected by instrumental artifacts (overestimated HO2 associated with high RO2 loads.

  13. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    The lake of Massaciuccoli (7 km2 wide and about 2 m deep) and its palustrine nearby areas (about 13 km2 wide) constitute a residual coastal lacustrine and marshy area largerly drained by 1930. In terms of hydrological boundaries, the lake watershed is bordered by carbonate to arenaceous reliefs on the east, by a sandy coastal shallow aquifer on the west (preventing groundwater salinisation), while south and north by the Serchio River and the Burlamacca-Gora di Stiava channels alignment respectively. Since reclamation of the peaty soils started, subsidence began (2 to 3 m in 70 years), leaving the lake perched and central respect the low drained area, now 0 to -3 m below m.s.l., and requiring 16 km embankment construction. During the dry summer season, the lake undergoes a severe water stress, that, along with nutrients input, causes the continuous ecosystem degradation resulting in water salinisation and eutrophication. Water stress results in a head decrease below m.s.l., causing seawater intrusion along the main outlet, and reaching its highest point at the end of the summer season (common head values between -0.40 and -0.5 a.m.s.l.). The water budget for an average dry season lasting about 100 days was computed, considering a 10% error, in order to understand and evaluate all the components leading to the above mentioned water stress by means of several multidisciplinary activities during the years 2008-2009. They started with a thoroughly literature review, continued with hydrological, hydrogeochemical monitoring and testing (both for surface water and the shallow aquifer) and agronomical investigations (to characterize cropping systems, evapotranspiration rates and irrigation schemes). All the collected data were then processed by means of statistical methods, time series analysis, numerical modelling of the shallow aquifer and hydrological modelling. The results demonstrate the presence of two interrelated hydrological sub-systems: the lake and the reclaimed

  14. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  15. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  16. A comparative study on mesozooplankton abundance and diversity between a protected and an unprotected coastal area of Andaman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Honey U K; Jayalakshmy, K V; Biju, A; Jayalakshmi, K J; Paulinose, V T; Devi, C B L; Nair, V R; Revichandran, C; Menon, N R; Achuthankutty, C T; Panampunnayil, S U

    2014-06-01

    The study was carried out to understand the variability in phytoplankton production (Chlorophyll a) and mesozooplankton diversity from two different shallow coastal regions of south Andaman viz. Port Blair Bay (PBB), the only real urban area among the islands and Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, a Marine Protected Area (MPA) at Wandoor. Seasonal sampling was carried out during the Northeast monsoon (NEM--November 2005), Intermonsoon (IM--April 2006), and Southwest monsoon (SWM--August 2006). Significant (P < 0.05) seasonal variation was observed in the environmental variables at both the regions. Higher average chlorophyll a (Chl. a) and mesozooplankton standing stock were observed at PBB compared to MPA, but the seasonal variation observed was marginal at both the study areas. Chl. a showed a steep increasing gradient from outer to the inner regions of the PBB. The number of zooplankton taxa recorded at both areas was quite similar, but marked differences were noticed in their relative contribution to the total abundance. Eventhough the Copepoda dominated at both the areas, the non-copepod taxa differed significantly between the regions. Dominance of carnivores such as siphonophores and chaetognaths were noticed at PBB, while filter feeders such as appendicularians and decapod larvae were more abundant at MPA. A total of 20 and 21 copepod families was recorded from PBB and MPA, respectively. Eleven species of chaetognaths were observed as common at both areas. Larval decapods were found to be predominant at MPA with 20 families; whereas, at PBB, only 12 families were recorded. In the light of the recent reports on various changes occurring in the coastal waters of the Andaman Islands, it is suspected that the difference in Chl. a as well as the mesozooplankton standing stock and community structure observed between the two study areas may be related to the various anthropogenic events influencing the coastal waters.

  17. Coastal Monitoring Using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Data - Some Case Studies in Asian Delta Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal geomorphology is highly variable as it is affected by sea-level changes and other naturally- and human-induced fluctuations. To effectively assess and monitor geomorphological changes in various time scales is thus critical for coastal management. Asian mega deltas are vulnerable to a sea-level rise due to its low-lying delta plain, and are dynamic region given a large amount of sediment supply. However, limited data availability and accessibility in the deltas have prevented establishment of systematic coastal monitoring. A variety of remote sensing systems can be used to monitor geomorphological changes in coastal areas as it has wide spatial coverage and high temporal repeatability. Especially, analysis using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. We will present some case studies of Asian coastal regions using L-band SAR data, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) and JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1) SAR data. One example is that time-series of radar amplitude images can be used to delineate changes quantitatively of the areal extent of river-mouth bars in distributaries of the Mekong River delta. It shows that the estimated areas of river mouthbars gradually increase on an annual time scale, and seasonal variations of areas were also recognized. Another example is that differential SAR interferometry is applied to the coast of the Yellow River delta in China. It shows very high subsidence rates, likely due to groundwater pumping. A further example is that we apply a SAR interferometry time series analysis to monitor ground deformations in the lower Chao Phraya delta plain, Thailand. A single reference time series interferogram from the stacking of unwrapped phases were applied. The subsidence and uplift pattern observed using the SAR interferometry time series analysis highlights the spatial complexity

  18. Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high-resolution remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Silvania; Tokarczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas offer great recreational and economic opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover information provides a rapid and cost-effective means for monitoring and planning coastal area development. This study quantitatively describes spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover over the last four decades in a coastal area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Historical aerial photographs from 1976 and satellite images from 1990 and 2012 were classified and analyzed. We used supervised classification and machine learning techniques to classify the images. An accuracy assessment of results was performed. Land use change statistics for the period indicate that urban areas have increased to the detriment of dense vegetation, salines, and bare soil. The analysis provides a basis for better control of anthropogenic impacts and geoconservation activities in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro.

  19. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  20. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  1. Reconstruction of hazard-related geomorphic events from mixed-volcanoclastic sequences in the Campanian coastal area (Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Crescenzo; Esposito, Eliana; Molisso, Flavia; Porfido, Sabina; Sacchi, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Sudden emplacement of large amount of pyroclastic material from explosive eruptions represents a significant interference with the geomorphic system, both for inland and coastal areas. Large volcanocalstic activity can induce sediment overburden and consequent return to the equilibrium profile by means of land degradation and erosional processes. Volcaniclastic resedimentation and generation of mass flows and floods are common phenomena affecting wide areas near the volcanic vents, occurring either soon after volcanic eruptions and during inter-eruption periods. In volcanic coastal areas volcanic debris can enter the sea in the form of avalanche deposits, hyper-concentrated flows or as the underwater continuation of subaerial flows and surges. Rapid accumulation at sea of tephra deposits from explosive eruptions can led to seafloor failure or act as weak layers for successive gravity deformations. Yet, part of volcaniclastic material can be stored in the catchments and be available for erosion a long time after an eruption. In the study area sediment availability strictly relate to massive and intermittent volcaniclastic delivery, largely responsible for aggradation/progradation of the coastal area during the Quaternary. The discussed hazard-related sedimentary features include large aprons of avalanche deposits off volcanic structures, steep sedimentary progradations at mouth of bedrock streams and small rivers, sediment re-mobilization in pro-delta areas, and shallow slides. Marine geophysical surveys and sea-land correlations led to associate such features with volcanic processes including the Mt. Epomeo uplift at Ischia island, the collapse of the Somma-Vesuvius caldera and the emplacement of pyroclastics from Phlegrean Fields and Somma-Vesuvius.

  2. Patterns of use of the Mar Chiquita lagoon (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and adjacent coastal area by fish early life stages.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Daniel O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Mar Chiquita lagoon and its adjacent coastal area as nursery ground for fish larvae and juveniles and the factors which regulate their recruitment process, was evaluated. To do so, we analyzed the fish early life stages composition and spatio-temporal variation over the marine-estuarine gradient of the lagoon and its relationship with environmental factors; the diel variation of these stages in the immediate area at the mouth of the lagoon; and the source of the organic carbon...

  3. Applied Analytical Methods for Solving Some Problems of Wave Propagation in the Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagoshidze, Shalva; Kodua, Manoni

    2016-04-01

    Analytical methods, easy for application, are proposed for the solution of the following four classical problems of coastline hydro mechanics: 1. Refraction of waves on coast slopes of arbitrary steepness; 2. Wave propagation in tapering water areas; 3. Longitudinal waves in open channels; 4. Long waves on uniform and non-uniform flows of water. The first three of these problems are solved by the direct Galerkin-Kantorovich method with a choice , of basic functions which completely satisfy all boundary conditions. This approach leads to obtaining new evolutionary equations which can be asymptotically solved by the WKB method. The WKB solution of the first problem enables us to easily determine the three-dimensional field of velocities and to construct the refraction picture of the wave surface near the coast having an arbitrary angle of slope to the horizon varying from 0° to 180°. This solution, in particular for a vertical cliff, fully agrees with Stoker's particular but difficult solution. Moreover, it is shown for the first time that our Schrödinger type evolutionary equation leads to the formation of the so-called "potential wells" if the angle of coast slope to the horizon exceeds 45°, while the angle given at infinity (i.e. at a large distance from the shore) between the wave crests and the coastline exceeds 75°. This theoretical result expressed in terms of elementary functions is well consistent with the experimental observations and with lot of aerial photographs of waves in the coastal zones of the oceans [1,2]. For the second problem we introduce the notions of "wide" and "narrow" water areas. It is shown that Green's law on the wave height growth holds only for the narrow part of the water area, whereas in the wide part the tapering of the water area leads to an insignificant decrease of the wave height. For the third problem, the bank slopes of trapezoidal channels are assumed to have an arbitrary angle of steepness. So far we have known the

  4. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts.

  5. Seasonal dynamics in the relative density of aquatic flora along some coastal areas of the Red Sea, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Ansari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the producers of all autotrophic ecosystems’ and are the base of the food chain taking energy from the sun and converting it into food for all other organisms through photosynthesis. Plants grow in certain places and seasons when the environmental factors are suitable for their germination, growth and developments that influence their diversity. Environmental factors can include abiotic factors such as temperature, light, moisture, soil nutrients; or biotic factors like competition from other plants or grazing by animals. Anthropogenic perturbations can also influence distribution patterns. Monitoring of ecological habitats and diversity of some aquatic flora along some coastal areas of Red Sea has been done to understand the dynamics of aquatic plants influenced by prevailing environmental and anthropogenic perturbations The results of this research showed that the summer season is the most suitable period for the study of aquatic plant diversity along the coastal sites of Red Sea. The aquatic flora had high relative density and diversity in April, May, June and July and these four months of the summer season are best for collection of aquatic plants from the selected coastal areas of Red Sea for medicinal purposes and ecological studies.

  6. Riverine Inputs of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen to Norwegian Coastal Areas%挪威沿岸区域河流输入的有机碳和氮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aud Helland; Gjertrud Holtan; Per J(φ)rgensen

    2003-01-01

    在1990~1998年,监测了挪威境内10条河流所传输的有机和无机物质.有机物在河流悬浮物中占40%~80%,其中的主要成分为C/N摩尔比值大于25的溶解有机碳.对于以森林为主的集水流域的河流,有机物的C/N比随流量的增加而增加,而对于以山地为主的集水流域的河流,有机物的C/N比并不受流量的影响.室内实验表明,当盐度增加到30时,仍有超过90%的溶解有机碳处于溶液中.在凝絮和固着物中有机物的含量低于5%,C/N比值介于6.7~12.4,与种植土壤和沿岸海洋沉积物的C/N比相似.从而证实了被河流携带入海的有机物中只有一少部分沉积在海岸带.

  7. Benthic Foraminifera as bio-indicators of anthropogenic impacts in coastal environments: Acqua dei Corsari area case study (Palermo, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Marianna; Cuttitta, Angela; Bicchi, Erica; Quinci, Enza Maria; Sprovieri, Mario; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Traina, Anna; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gherardi, Serena; Mercurio, Pietro; Siragusa, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2017-04-15

    This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TSstd). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station. Diversity and density of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were not affected by the presence of pollutants, while tolerant species increased with organic (TOC and PAHs) or chemical (As and Pb) concentrations. Moreover, the calibration of the %TSstd formula to >125μm foraminiferal assemblage, gives a detailed description of environmental quality along the transect, representing a good and sensitive tool to evaluate marine coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-bo; Ip, Carman C M; Zhang, Gan; Jiang, Gui-bin; Li, Xiang-dong

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201ng/g, with an average of 54.4ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the (210)Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades.

  9. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

    results of 7 years of experimental work which allowed us to understand better the capacity of A. tonsa to produce resting eggs. A.tonsa has a double resting strategy, part of it is due to the capacity of the subitaneous eggs to switch to quiescence under unfavorable environmental conditions which allows......  Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the main...... the eggs to wait partially optimum conditions to hatch. Also some population of A. tonsa are capable of producing real diapauses eggs (or delayed hatching eggs) which are developed as a single winter based strategy and have to endure a refractory phase before hatching. Our recent findings show that food...

  10. Norwegian actors in the fields of energy and climate change in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen

    2008-02-15

    Written for and funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and StatoilHydro, this report is a descriptive inventory of Norwegian involvement and Sino-Norwegian cooperation in the fields of energy and climate change-related issues in China. Part 1 is a brief, general introduction to the relevant topics, providing both typical and atypical examples of Norwegian involvement and cooperation and partnerships between actors from the two countries. Many valuable cooperative relationships in science and business have been established. The report also comments on areas in which Norwegian involvement is falling behind the other Nordic countries. Parts 2, 3 and 4 consist of lists of the relevant Norwegian governmental bodies, research institutions and private businesses including descriptions of their partnerships, projects and expertise. (author). 57 refs

  11. Extent Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two layers that depict the extent of the 2003 digital orthophoto mosaic for the coastal and nearshore areas of Bering Land Bridge...

  12. Index Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from Approximately 1980 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two index map layers for 57 frames of orthorectified aerial photography from approximately 1980 for the coastal and nearshore areas...

  13. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Cape Krusenstern. These shoreline...

  14. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge. These shoreline...

  15. Index Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from Approximately 1980 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two index map layers for 57 frames of orthorectified aerial photography from approximately 1980 for the coastal and nearshore areas...

  16. Monitoring of PCDDs, PCDFs, DLPCBs and PAHs in marine organisms from the coastal areas of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.B.; Choi, H.G.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, S.S.; Choi, M. [National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan (Korea); Ok, G. [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of toxic organic contaminants is the fundamental work to study ecotoxicology. Bioaccumulative monitoring essentially can provide comprehensive information on the average variation in time and space of the concentrations of contaminants in the marine aquatic environments, assessing the extents and toxic effects of persistent organic chemicals for the coastal marine ecosystems. A large variety of organic chemicals, primarily anthropogenic pollutants, are transported into coastal marine ecosystems through various routes. Marine organisms may be exposed to toxic organic contaminants by contact with contaminated seawater and sediments, either on the seabed or through suspended sediments, or by ingestion of contaminated prey. Due to low water soulubility and high octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow) in seawater, these chemicals can retain and concentrate in fatty tissues of these marine organisms such as migrate into fish, shellfish and invertebrates. In aquatic systems, the highly lipophilic and hydrophobic organic pollutants tend to bioconcentrate from water to aquatic animal and then biomagnify up through the multistep food chain. Hence, these organisms reflect the pollution extent of persistent toxic organic pollutants and some species are used as bio-indicators at different environmental conditions and foodweb. Although several toxic microcontaminants have previously been determined in some locations for marine organisms from the Korean coastal environments, there are few reported data on levels of PCDDs/DFs, DLPCBs and PAHs in marine organisms, particularly shellfish, from the Korean coastal ecosystems. In this study, we planned to monitor the dioxins and dioxin-like contaminants pollution in marine environment of Korea.

  17. Vulnerability of coastal areas to sea-level rise: some global results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, F.M.J.; Marchand, M.; Pennekamp, H.; Misdorp, R.; Bijlsma, L.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of the various resources of the world's coastal zones to an acceleration of sea-level rise (ASLR) and related climate change effects requires detailed global information on the distribution, density and state of the resources and on the impacting hazardous events. For

  18. Landslides hazard mapping integrating remote sensing and geo-morphological data in the Sorrentina Peninsula coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    spinetti, claudia; bisson, marina; tolomei, cristiano; colini, laura; galvani, alessandro; moro, marco; saroli, michele; sepe, vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The densely inhabited Campania region (Southern Italy) is affected by numerous and dangerous landslides. In particular, the coastal area of Sorrentina Peninsula is one of the zones most subjected to two types of landslides: volcanoclastic debris flows and rock fall. The first type occurs during intensive or persistent precipitations and on significant hillslopes where carbonatic bedrock is covered by pyroclastic deposits related to the Somma-Vesuvius and Phlegrean Fields explosive activity. The second type could be triggered by seismic events and occurs in areas where outcropping bedrock with steep slopes (e.g. the cliffs) is subjected to coastal erosion generating cliff instability. In order to improve the landslides hazard zonation in the Sorrentina Peninsula coastal area, we show a multidisciplinary approach to identify the areas more prone to generate such types of landslide. Our approach involves the analyses of ERS (temporal span between 1992-2000), Envisat (2003-2010), and COSMO-SkyMed (2013-2015) SAR data elaborated applying multi-temporal InSAR techniques to obtain the ground displacement maps and the relative displacement time series, integrated by means of GPS data. These maps were used to identify the instability areas and subsequently investigated by field survey, airborne photogeological interpretation and morphometric elaborations derived from airborne Lidar information. In addition, the land cover mapping was obtained using satellite high-medium resolution data. The analysis was performed in a GIS environment allowing to identify the main parameters that influence the slope instability and to obtain the landslide hazard map. finally, the comparison with the landslides historical database provides the different landslides susceptibility degrees classes.

  19. Integrating Remote Sensing and Proximal Sensors for the Detection of Soil Moisture and Salinity Variability in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan; SHI Zhou; ZHOU Lian-qing; JIN Xi; TIAN Yan-feng; TENG Hong-fen

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture and salinity are two crucial coastal saline soil variables, which influence the soil quality and agricultural productivity in the reclaimed coastal region. Accurately characterizing the spatial variability of these soil parameters is critical for the rational development and utilization of tideland resources. In the present study, the spatial variability of soil moisture and salinity in the reclaimed area of Hangzhou gulf, Shangyu City, Zhejiang Province, China, was detected using the data acquired from radar image and the proximal sensor EM38. Soil moisture closely correlates radar scattering coefficient, and a simplified inversion model was built based on a backscattering coefficient extracted from multi-polarization data of ALOS/PALSAR and in situ soil moisture measured by a time domain reflectometer to detect soil moisture variations. The result indicated a higher accuracy of soil moisture inversion by the HH polarization mode than those by the HV mode. Soil salinity is reflected by soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa). Further, ECa can be rapidly detected by EM38 equipment in situ linked with GPS for characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity. Based on the strong spatial variability and interactions of soil moisture and salinity, a cokriging interpolation method with auxiliary variable of backscattering coefficient was adopted to map the spatial variability of ECa. When compared with a map of ECa interpolated by the ordinary kriging method, detail was revealed and the accuracy was increased by 15.3%. The results conclude that the integrating active remote sensing and proximal sensors EM38 are effective and acceptable approaches for rapidly and accurately detecting soil moisture and salinity variability in coastal areas, especially in the subtropical coastal zones of China with frequent heavy cloud cover.

  20. Sediment dynamics in the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar during an interglacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater that reach the sea bottom from below may bind to fine grained particles. When a nuclide binds to an immovable particle in the sea sediment, further transport may cease; however, if the nuclide binds to a moveable particle it may be repeatedly suspended, transported, and re-deposited. Whether the nuclide binds to a moveable or immovable particle determines the type of biota it encounters. Therefore, it is of great value to understand how bottom types are spread in the sea close to a proposed repository and how the distribution of these bottoms have changed over time, in order to predict what may happen if a nuclide leaks from a repository. In the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar, the sediment dynamics have been modelled for the period between 9500 BC and 9500 AD. The model is based on a wave model (STWAVE) included in the program package from SMS (Surface Water Modelling System). A sediment resuspension module was developed and is presented in this report. The model inputs are weather data (wind direction and wind speed) and bathymetry. The bathymetry is in a regular grid structure. The wave model is separated into two steps. The first is an outer model with coarse resolution (1000 m) that represents the whole Baltic Sea. This outer model gives border conditions to an inner model with higher resolution (100 m) that represents the coastal areas close to Forsmark and Laxemar. The outputs from the wave model are wave height, wave period and water depth for each cell in the model domains. A new program module, written in VisualBasic, reads the results from the wave module and calculates the maximum wave generated water velocity close to the sea bottom, and the maximum resuspendable grain size at that water velocity based on a semi-empirical relationship. The model is run with a time step of 500 years. Since the bathymetry is changing over time due to the positive shore displacement, a sub-model for the Baltic Sea evolution has

  1. Late Quaternary delta evolution on an uplifted coastal area (Wadi Haida Sultanate of Oman, Arabian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, K. Al; Balushi, N. Al; Roepert, A.; Rupprechter, M.; Hoffmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is situated in the Northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The coastal morphology allows delineating areas of subsidence and uplift. The study area is located on the eastern shoreline facing the Indian Ocean. The coast is characterized by 6-7 wave cut terraces which are situated up to 400 m above present sea level. Whereas the higher - and therefore older - terraces are mainly erosional, the lower ones are depositional in style. We aim at quantifying the differential land movement along the coast (Rupprechter et al. 2012, Hoffmann et al. 2012 ). The study presented here aims at revealing the processes that resulted in the formation of the depositional terraces. Relevant processes are: (a) ongoing land uplift; (b) sea-level oscillations; (c) faulting. Historic evidence gave rise to the speculation of recent earthquake activity: the city of Qalhat, situated 7 km south of the study site was probably destroyed by an earthquake at the end of the 15th century (Musson 2009). The delta under investigation here formed at the mouth of the 15 km long Wadi Haida that drains the adjacent Selma Plateau (up to 2000 m high). The apex is situated 1.6 km from the present shoreline and the delta is some 2 km across. The delta sediments make up the lowermost terrace and are exposed along a cliff section. In the central part the cliff is 12 m high and cliff heights are lower to the North and South, reflecting the convex shape of the delta. The Quaternary delta deposits were deposited on top of an Eocene limestone. This formation is only observed in the northern part of the study area. In the southern part the formation is located below beach level, due to normal faulting. The lowermost unit related to the delta formation is a mudstone with in-situ coral reefs. The maximum thickness observed is 3 m. The coral reefs are capped by a 1.5 m thick layer of unconsolidated gravel. The sorting is very poor, individual boulders are up to 70 cm in diameter and angular

  2. Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misund, Ole Arve; Heggland, Kristin; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Falck, Eva; Gjøsæter, Harald; Sundet, Jan; Watne, Jens; Lønne, Ole Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    The Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic is influenced by cold Arctic water masses from the north-east and the warm West Spitsbergen Current flowing northwards along its western coast. The eastern waters and the fjords are normally frozen during the winter months, while the coastal waters west of the archipelago remain open. Norwegian fishers have been harvesting from Svalbard waters for decades and detailed records of catches exists from 1980 onwards. We analyze the catch records from the Svalbard zone (approximately ICES area IIb). The large fishery for capelin in summer yielding annual catches up to 737 000 tons was closed by a Norwegian fishery regulation in the mid nineteen nineties. Demersal fisheries have been continuous, and the results clearly indicate a northward trend in landings of Northeast Arctic cod, haddock, ling and Atlantic halibut. Fisheries of Northern shrimp have been more variable and shown no clear geographic trends. A "gold rush" fishery for scallops north of Svalbard lasted for about 10 years (1986-1995) only, and ended due to low profitably. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of further northward extension of fisheries subjected to climate change.

  3. A multi-method approach for benthic habitat mapping of shallow coastal areas with high-resolution multibeam data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Le Bas, Timothy P.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Blondel, Philippe; Hühnerbach, Veit; Deidun, Alan

    2012-05-01

    The coastal waters of the Maltese Islands, central Mediterranean Sea, sustain a diversity of marine habitats and support a wide range of human activities. The islands' shallow waters are characterised by a paucity of hydrographic and marine geo-environmental data, which is problematic in view of the requirements of the Maltese Islands to assess the state of their coastal waters by 2012 as part of the EU Marine Strategy Directive. Multibeam echosounder (MBES) systems are today recognised as one of the most effective tools to map the seafloor, although the quantitative characterisation of MBES data for seafloor and habitat mapping is still an underdeveloped field. The purpose of this study is to outline a semi-automated, Geographic Information System-based methodology to map the distribution of habitats in shallow coastal waters using high-resolution MBES data. What distinguishes our methodology from those proposed in previous studies is the combination of a suite of geomorphometric and textural analytical techniques to map specific types of seafloor morphologies and compositions; the selection of the techniques is based on identifying which geophysical parameter would be influenced by the seabed type under consideration. We tested our approach in a 28 km2 area of Maltese coastal waters. Three data sets were collected from this study area: (i) MBES bathymetry and backscatter data; (ii) Remotely Operated Vehicle imagery and (iii) photographs and sediment samples from dive surveys. The seabed was classified into five elementary morphological zones and features - flat and sloping zones, crests, depressions and breaks of slope - using morphometric derivatives, the Bathymetric Position Index and geomorphometric mapping. Segmentation of the study area into seagrass-covered and unvegetated seafloor was based on roughness estimation. Further subdivision of these classes into the four predominant types of composition - medium sand, maërl associated with sand and gravel

  4. Wildfires and post-fire erosion risk in a coastal area under severe anthropic pressure associated with the touristic fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Bachisio; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Valeriano Pintus, Gian; Ferrara, Roberto; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades a rapid and intense development of the tourism industry led to an increasing of anthropic pressure on several coastal areas of Sardinia. This fact not only modified the coastal aesthetics, but has also generated an increase of risk for the environment. This phenomenon affected also the ancient structure of the landscape with a negative impact mainly caused by the following factors: land abandonment, wildfire occurrence, post-fire erosion, urbanization. These regional changes can be analyzed in detail by considering the geo-diachronic dynamics. The main objectives of this work were i) to perform a diachronic analysis of land use and land cover dynamics, ii) to analyse the recent dynamics of wildfires, and iii) to predict the soil erosion risk in relation to land use change occurred between the 1950s and the 2000s. The study was realized in a coastal area located in North-East Sardinia where the geo-historical processes were summarized and organized in a geographic information system that has been employed to examine the landscape variations at three different time steps: 1954, 1977 and 2000. In addition, different scenarios of wildfire propagation were simulated by FlamMap in order to estimate the spatial pattern of fire danger factors in the study area. Afterwards, maps of post-fire soil erosion were produced to identify the temporal and spatial variations of the erosion risk. The results show how the changes in land use and the significant and rapid increase of the residential areas affect the risk of both wildfires and post-fire soil erosion. The study reveals the capabilities of this type of approach and can be used by management agencies and policy makers e in sustainable landscape management planning. This approach can be extended to other regions of the Mediterranean basin characterized by complex interactions among landscape and anthropic factors affecting the environmental risk.

  5. 'The Finn line' - a historical curiosity or a juridicial rality? The Sami reindeer herders' land rights in southern Sami areas evaluated from land consolidation practice (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Ravna

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards the land rights of Sami reindeer herders have changed considerably during the last 100 years. So, too, has consideration of how such rights should be treated by Land Consolidation Courts. This paper reviews changes in attitudes to the Sami land rights with respect to how these are considered in Land Con¬solidation Courts in southern Sami areas in Norway. The review also considers changing attitudes regarding the competence of Land Consolidation Courts to deal with such matters. There were several cases in the 20th Century in which Land Consolidation Courts treated Sami land rights in a restricted and unfortunate manner. Legal practice, however, was not always like that, evidenced by the so-called 'Finn line' (Norwegian: 'finnelinja' -'Finn' is an archaic name for Sami. This boundary was established during a land consolidation case in 1873 and was confirmed in 1883. At that time, Sami land rights were evidently accepted as appurtenant right in privately owned mountain pasture and the Sami were treated in the same way as others who enjoyed rights of usufruct on it. The regulation of 1883 included rules governing compensation for grazing damage on farming land. In particular, responsibility for grazing damage was divided between owners and the reindeer herders, providing these looked after their animals properly, 'The Finn line' subsequently achieved wider importance. The case of 1873¬1883 has been referred to several times as a valuable and valid precedent for a way in which to organize grazing conflicts in other Sami areas. It was used in 1964 as evidence of the special rights of Sami reindeer people in the Brekken common land case. The Sami won this case in 1968 and, in its judgement, the Norwegian Supreme Court of Justice emphasised the importance of the line (Rt. 1968, p. 394. Although, owing to changes in land use practices, the 'Finn line' no longer has any practical significance, its juridical significance remains

  6. Benthic community response to habitat variation: A case of study from a natural protected area, the Celestun coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Daniel; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis; Hernández-Guevara, Norma A.

    2007-12-01

    Little information currently exists on spatial and temporal benthic community variations in tropical coastal lagoons. Here, the benthic community response to habitat variation in the Celestun coastal lagoon, northwest Yucatan peninsula, was seasonally examined during the 1994-1995 climatic cycle into a grid of 12 sampling sites distributed along the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Habitat variation was assessed through physical factors associated both to the water column (e.g. salinity) and the bottom sediment (e.g. sand, silt and clay fractions). The benthic community response was assessed through species diversity measures and abundance. Under the influence of climatic seasonality, variations in habitat conditions followed by changes in the benthic community characteristics were expected. Results from two-way ANOVAs showed that for the period of study, Celestun lagoon was more heterogeneous along the spatial axis of variability than along the temporal one. Multiple regression analysis showed that salinity was spatially the main factor influencing the benthic community characteristics. Temporally, the sediment characteristics were observed to exert significant effects on the species diversity characteristics but not on abundance. Other variables assessed (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and water column transparency) exhibited no significant covariance with species diversity and abundance. Since generated from historical data, these results have the potential to be useful as a benchmark to the establishment of monitoring programs in the light of the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the natural resources of the lagoon and surrounding coastal area.

  7. Steps Towards the Implementation of a Tsunami Detection, Warning, Mitigation and Preparedness Program for Southwestern Coastal Areas of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farreras, Salvador; Ortiz, Modesto; Gonzalez, Juan I.

    2007-03-01

    The highly vulnerable Pacific southwest coast of Mexico has been repeatedly affected by local, regional and remote source tsunamis. Mexico presently has no national tsunami warning system in operation. The implementation of key elements of a National Program on Tsunami Detection, Monitoring, Warning and Mitigation is in progress. For local and regional events detection and monitoring, a prototype of a robust and low cost high frequency sea-level tsunami gauge, sampling every minute and equipped with 24 hours real time transmission to the Internet, was developed and is currently in operation. Statistics allow identification of low, medium and extreme hazard categories of arriving tsunamis. These categories are used as prototypes for computer simulations of coastal flooding. A finite-difference numerical model with linear wave theory for the deep ocean propagation, and shallow water nonlinear one for the near shore and interaction with the coast, and non-fixed boundaries for flooding and recession at the coast, is used. For prevention purposes, tsunami inundation maps for several coastal communities, are being produced in this way. The case of the heavily industrialized port of Lázaro Cárdenas, located on the sand shoals of a river delta, is illustrated; including a detailed vulnerability assessment study. For public education on preparedness and awareness, printed material for children and adults has been developed and published. It is intended to extend future coverage of this program to the Mexican Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas.

  8. Multi-tracer characterisation of saline groundwater bodies in coastal areas and implications for paleo-hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, V.; Cook, P. G.; Banks, E.

    2014-12-01

    In coastal aquifers a wedge of intruded seawater extends inland from the coastline and is separated from the freshwater part of the aquifer by a sloping transition zone. Few studies have provided a detailed characterisation of the chemical composition and the age of groundwater within the wedge. This paper presents the results of a field study from South Australia in which a series of multi-level observation wells were installed in a semi-confined aquifer along a transect that extends 1 km inland from the coast. An unexpected finding was that, apart from intruded seawater, a second saltwater type was present in the form of hypersaline groundwater residing in the bottom part of the aquifer. Using the conservative tracers chloride and the stable isotopes of water, a three-end member mixing model was developed. Age tracers, in particular 14C, revealed that the hypersaline end member is older than the intruded seawater by at least tens of thousands of years. It is postulated that the hypersaline water formed as a result of strong evaporation during a time with dryer climatic conditions than the present, and that the seawater intruded over the hypersaline body when sea level rose during the Holocene. The results of this study testify that the hydrological evolution of coastal areas often lead to much more complex salinity distributions than those based on the classical conception of a coastal aquifer in a steady equilibrium with the present sea level and coastline position.

  9. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  10. The effects of the accuracy of the atmospheric forcings on the prediction of the sea surface transport in coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Satta, Andrea; Antognarelli, Fabio; della Valle, Antonio; De Biasio, Francesco; Cadau, Enrico; Zecchetto, Stefano; Umgiesser, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the Italian flagship project RITMARE (http://www.ritmare.it/en/) an Operational Oceanography Systems (OOS hereafter) based on high resolution 3D hydrodynamic model has been developed for the Oristano Gulf (Sardinia, Italy), with the aim of making short term predictions of water currents and pollutant transport. Atmospheric data provided by the SKIRON meteorological model system (http://forecast.uoa.gr/) were used to make the predictions. In order to asses the quality of the wind field adopted to force the hydrodynamic model, a coastal wind measuring system (WMS hereafter) was developed. The WMS is composed by five three-components anemometers located along the Gulf coasts, which provide hourly and operationally wind measurements. These data are then used operationally to derive high resolution wind fields over the entire Gulf and surrounding coastal areas. The modelled wind data have been compared with the measured ones and the meteorological model accuracy estimated. A set of lagrangian buoys were deployed within the Gulf to measure the sea surface transport due to the main local wind regimes. The OOS were used to reproduce the paths followed by each lagrangian buoy using as forcing conditions both the wind fields measured by the local WMS and the predicted ones. Therefore the effects of the atmospheric forcing quality on predicting the surface hydrodynamics at coastal scale were determined.

  11. Genetic diversity and distribution of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae in coastal areas of Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP: one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006-2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8-D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU r

  12. Application of State of Art Modeling Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for an Exposed Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure in the coastal zone from storm surge and coincidental waves. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation standard for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and results of 2012 FIRM mapping are presented for Charlestown, RI; a coastal community located along the exposed, southern shoreline of the state. Concerns with the methods used in the 2012 analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling and data analysis methods to address the concerns in the NRC review. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. The approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers (USACE, North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS 2015. Revised flood maps are presented and compared with the 2012 FIRM map to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of offshore surge dynamics and its coupling to waves, dune erosion based on local observations, and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional wave transformation models.

  13. Climate Change Impact Chains in Coastal Areas (ICCA): Final study report

    OpenAIRE

    Pramova, Emilia; Chazarin, Florie; Locatelli, Bruno; Hoppe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The study “Climate Change Impact Chains in Coastal Areas”, produced by the Center for International Forestry Research, CIFOR, was commissioned by the Inventory of Methods for Adaptation to Climate Change (IMACC) project, a global project by the Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, and funded through the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). The project aims at user-driven a...

  14. High prevalence of cattle fascioliasis in coastal areas of Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGUYEN, Nga Thi; LE, Thinh Cong; VO, Minh Duc Co; VAN CAO, Hoang; NGUYEN, Ly Thi; HO, Khanh Thi; NGUYEN, Quyet Ngoc; TRAN, Vui Quang; MATSUMOTO, Yasunobu

    2017-01-01

    In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014–2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m2) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam. PMID:28458272

  15. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  16. Mapping the gravity field in coastal areas: feasibility and interest of a new airborne planar gradiometer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douch, Karim; Panet, Isabelle; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Pajot-Métivier, Gwendoline; Diament, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Satellite missions such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE have led to an unprecedented improvement of global gravity field models during the past decade. However, for many applications these global models are not sufficiently accurate when dealing with wavelengths shorter than 100 km. This is all the more true in areas where gravity data are scarce and uneven as for instance in the poorly covered land-sea transition area. We suggest here, in line with spatial gravity gradiometry, airborne gravity gradiometry as a convenient way to amplify the sensitivity to short wavelengths and to cover homogeneously coastal region. Moreover, the directionality of the gravity gradients gives new information on the geometry of the gravity field and therefore of the causative bodies. In this respect, we analyze here the performances of a new airborne electrostatic acceleration gradiometer, GREMLIT, which permits along with ancillary measurements to determine the horizontal gradients of the horizontal components of the gravitational field in the instrumental frame. GREMLIT is composed of a compact assembly of 4 planar electrostatic accelerometers inheriting from technologies developed by ONERA for spatial accelerometers. After an overview of the functionals of the gravity field that are of interest for coastal oceanography, passive navigation and hydrocarbon exploration, we present the corresponding required precision and resolution. Then, we investigate the influence of the different parameters of the survey, such as altitude or cross-track distance, on the resolution and precision of the final measurements. To do so, we design numerical simulations of airborne survey performed with GREMLIT and compute the total error budget on the gravity gradients. Based on this error analysis, we infer by a method of error propagation the uncertainty on the different functionals of the gravity potential used for each application. This finally enables us to conclude on the requirements for a high

  17. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E) in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

    OpenAIRE

    HR Tavakoli; V Razavilar

    2003-01-01

    Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E) in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been rep...

  18. Overall-effective Measures for Sustainable Water Resources Management in the Coastal Areas of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoxiang; W. F. Geiger; S. Kaden; R. Kutzner; WANG Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    In the coastal catchments of Shandong Province the water scarcity is aggravated due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. Such a situation calls for sustainable integrated water resources management (Ⅰ-WRM). The idea for the objectives and implementation of the IWRM are explained in this paper. The general objective of the planned project disscussed in the present study is to bring together German traditional expertise in water resources management and newer developments in the context of the European Water Framework Directive; the research efforts aim to relieve the desperate water scarcity situation in the costal area of Shandong Province.

  19. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  20. Long-term analysis of turbidity patterns in Danube Delta coastal area based on MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Sorin; Constantinescu, Ștefan; Doxaran, David

    2017-06-01

    The monitoring of coastal areas is becoming an urgent necessity in the context of increased pressure over these ecosystems due to climate change and human activities. Long term evaluation of specific parameters regarding water quality can now be achieved, thanks to the increased number of archived Earth Observation satellite data, now covering decades. Within this study, 12 years of MODIS information were used to compute surface water turbidity products that were further temporal binned into composite datasets (e.g. monthly, annual). A regional algorithm, based on local in situ measurements, was used in order to inverse remote sensing reflectance values into turbidity units. The interpretation of the final maps revealed important characteristics of the processes that play a major role in the regional turbidity dynamics. Observations were made regarding the relation between surface water turbidity and Danube River's discharge rates, winds, currents and also the bottom sedimentary characteristics of the shelf area. We discuss how different regions are affected by various external factors, depending on their geographical location, and we reinforce the idea that the river solid input is not the only parameter controlling water clarity in the Danube Delta coastal area, resuspension processes playing also an important role.

  1. Wood litter consumption by three species of Nasutitermes termites in an area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m(2). The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain.

  2. Enrichment and vertical profiles of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in monazite areas of coastal Karnataka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574199 (India)], E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Prakash, V. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574199 (India)

    2010-06-15

    A study on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka has revealed the presence of low-level monazite deposit in the Ullal beach area. The paper presents systematic studies on the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, important daughter products of {sup 238}U, in Ombattu Kere, Summer Sand and the Bhagavathi Temple region of the Ullal beach area of coastal Karnataka. Sand samples collected at different depths from these locations were analyzed for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities to understand the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of these radionuclides in monazite area. The activity of {sup 210}Po in the Ullal region is found to vary from 1.7 to 43.2 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 11.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and that of {sup 210}Pb varies from 1.0 to 66.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 19.1 Bq kg{sup -1}. The mean {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratio was observed to be 0.6. The absorbed gamma dose rate in the region varies in the range 39-460 nGy h{sup -1} with a mean value of 193 nGy h{sup -1}.

  3. Effects of Sand Dune and Vegetation in the Coastal Area of Sri Lanka at the Indian Ocean Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Norio; Sasaki, Yasushi; Mowjood, M. I. M.

    This study explored the effects of coastal vegetation and sand dune on tsunami protection based on field observations carried out after the Indian Ocean tsunami on December 26, 2004. The representative vegetation was classified into six types according to their habitat and the stand structures of the trees. The impact of vegetation structure on drag forces was analyzed using the observed characteristics of the tree species. The drag coefficient, including the vertical stand structures of the trees, Cd-all, and the vegetation thickness in a unit area, dNu (d: reference diameter of trees, Nu: number of trees per unit area), varied greatly with the species classification. Based on the field survey and data analysis, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophora apiculata-type), kinds of mangroves, and Pandanus odoratissimus, representative tree that grows in beach sand, were found to be especially effective in providing protection from tsunami-damage due to their complex aerial root structures. The breaking moment of the trees was investigated through a pulling test for the representative trees. The threshold value for breaking moment was compared to the drag-force moment acting on the trees located at the tsunami-damaged site. The breaking moment equation represents well the limitation of the representative species with the tsunami height. It arrives at a hypothesis about which species could better withstand the effects of a tsunami wave. Sand dune and lagoon is a typical landscape in most part of the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. The combination of the sand dune followed by vegetation toward landside played an important role in retarding tsunami. Two layers of forest in the vertical direction with P. odoratissimus and Casuarina equisetifolia and a horizontal forest structure of small and large diameter trees were also important for increasing drag, trapping floating objects, broken branches, houses, and people. These information should be considered in

  4. A New Method for Reclamation Planning in Coastal Areas Based on Vulnerability Assessment to Typhoon Storm Surge Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid urban expansion in mega-cities (cities with populations over 10 million) leads to increased land demand and vulnerability to hazards as often significant numbers of people are economically and social disadvantaged. An effective way to create new flat land for further development is land reclamation and this has reached 511.71 km2 in the period of 1990 - 2009 along the Shanghai coast. This, in turn, leads to a potential increase in the vulnerability of the new coastal area to natural hazards. This is typically represented by typhoon storms that have the potential to be the most destructive natural hazard and therefore pose a significant threat to both infrastructure and livelihood in Shanghai. Due to insufficient knowledge of vulnerability of land use to typhoon storms and current planning, the reclaimed land is becoming one of the most vulnerable parts of the coastal low-land. While it is tempting to claim there is an increasing vulnerability to typhoon-inundation in Shanghai, this must be weighed against the socio-political response, where it is likely that city authorities will undertake rational land use planning to protect the reclamation from the inundation, sea level rise, and ground subsidence. Therefore, this research present a new method for reclamation planning based on vulnerability assessment to typhoon- inundation. First, MIKE21 was used to simulate the inundation scenario of two typhoon events in 1997 and 2007 respectively. Then, the vulnerability of 7 land use types with a set of hazard-proxies to these two typhoon inundations was assessed and verified by a new stage-damage curve system. Based on the above vulnerability assessment, this research will provide a planning tool for reclamation along Shanghai coastal area. This work is part of a larger study on the response of vulnerability to land use and land cover change.

  5. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  6. Land subsidence of coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, China: historical review and present situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Q. Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface faults related to land subsidence have been observed in coastal cities, such as Nantong, Yancheng, and Lian Yungang, in Jiangsu Province (CAJS since the early 1970s. Nowadays, increases flooding and rising sea levels are attributed to subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. In this work we present a brief description of land subsidence in CAJS, we examine the mechanisms of land subsidence induced mainly by groundwater pumping and its evolution and economic implications as well as the implemented measures by the local government to prevent new damage.

  7. Pollution monitoring of coastal and estuarine areas: 1. Bacterial indicators along the south Gujarat Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Nair, S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    for recreation as well as aquaculture; the latter also is sensitive to pathogenic microorganisms and toxic compounds. Moreover, occasional pollution by effluents containing human pathogens may result in the prohibition of sale of shellfish causing economic loss... and variations of different groups of bacteria in water and sediment are presented in Table 1. Heterotrophs were well represented at all stations. The total viable count of the coastal waters ranged from 0.1 to 3.32 x 106 l-1 . Maximum total viable population...

  8. Mangrove coservation in coastal areas Samas beach lagoon for controlling sea water abrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati, A.P.; Siwi, B.R.F. Raka; Muzoffar, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lagoon is a puddle of water (like a lake/pond) near the beach that was once a part of the (united with) the sea, but because of geological events, apart from the sea and coastal wetland ecosystems forming new ones. Samas beach lagoon is one of the lagoons are located in Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. From the perspective of the Environment, lagoon is a unique ecosystem that consists of a body of water (lagoon) is brackish, mangrove forests and land affected low tide. Ecosyste...

  9. Quantification of risks to coastal areas and development: wave run-up and erosion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the Coelho et al. (2006) method is to assess the degree of exposure and vulnerability to coastal processes using the following nine indicators as the basis: foreshore elevation; distance (e.g. infrastructure) to shore; tidal range; wave.... However, flooding/inundation vulnerability is already accounted for in the elevation and distance to shore. Thus, only the Bruun erosion potential needs to be assessed: for a specific amount of sea level rise, the erosion is directly related to inshore...

  10. Hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Mediterranean sea (Gulf of Fos area, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, Gilbert; Asia, Laurence; Guiliano, Michel; Malleret, Laure; Doumenq, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively in 11 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Fos (French Mediterranean coast). Hydrocarbon levels ranged from 10 to 260 mg kg(-1) sed. dry weight. A new parameter "NAR" (Natural n-alkane ratio) is proposed to evaluate the contribution of terrestrial inputs of hydrocarbons in the sediments. The origins of hydrocarbons are multiple: terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic (industry emissions mainly steel and iron industries, ship and road traffic). Generally, the main source of contamination is not petroleum. Several ratios between parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show that the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments are generally much more pyrolytic than petrogenic.

  11. Radioactive contamination in Norwegian fish and seafood 1960-2013: time trends and geographical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Svaeren, Ingrid; Liebig, Penny Lee [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Brungot, Anne Lene; Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Barents Sea in 2012). However, time trends and geographical trends are clearly evident in the datasets. For example, the impact of fallout from the Chernobyl accident could be observed, particularly in samples collected in coastal areas and the Kattegat/Skagerrak and the North Sea. In recent decades there has been a slow decrease in the activity concentrations of most anthropogenic radionuclides in fish and seafood as a result of decreasing discharges from European reprocessing plants for spent nuclear fuel and the reduced impact of fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In the case of {sup 99}Tc however, activity concentrations in seawater and certain biota increased to peak values around 2000 as a result of increased discharges from Sellafield (UK) in the 1990's. In open sea areas, the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood have been highest in the Skagerrak and the North Sea due to the proximity to the reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Cap la Hague (France) and outflowing Chernobyl-contaminated seawater from the Baltic Sea. Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood collected in fjords in mid-Norway are up to an order of magnitude higher than in the open sea areas due to terrestrial run-off from Chernobyl fallout in Norway. (authors)

  12. Large networks of artificial radar reflectors to monitor land subsidence in natural lowlying coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luigi; Strozzi, Tazio; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Deltas, lagoons, estuaries are generally much prone to land subsidence. They are also very sensitive to land lowering due to their small elevation with respect to the mean sea level, also in view of the expected eustatic sea rise due to climate changes. Land subsidence can be presently monitored with an impressive accuracy by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) on the large megacities that are often located on lowlying coastlands, e.g., Shanghai (China) on the Yangtze River delta, Dhaka (Bangladesh) on the Gange River delta, New Orleans (Louisiana) on the Mississippi river delta. Conversely, the land movements of the portions of these transitional coastlands where natural environments still persist are very challenging to be measured. The lack of anthropogenic structures strongly limits the use of PSI and the difficult accessibility caused by the presence of marshlands, tidal marshes, channels, and ponds yield traditional methodologies, such as levelling and GPS, both time-consuming and costly. In this contribution we present a unique experimental study aimed at using a large network of artificial radar reflectors to measure land subsidence in natural coastal areas. The test site is the 60-km long, 10-15 km wide lagoon of Venice, Italy, where previous PSI investigations revealed the lack of radar reflectors in large portions of the northern and southern lagoon basins (e.g., Teatini et al., 2011). A network of 57 trihedral corner reflectors (TCRs) were established between the end of 2006 and the beginning of 2007 and monitored by ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X acquisitions covering the time period from 2007 to 2011 (Strozzi et al., 2012). The application has provided general important insights on the possibility of controlling land subsidence using this approach. For example: (i) relatively small-size (from 0.5 to 1.0 m edge length) and cheap (few hundred euros) TCRs suffice to be clearly detectable from the radar sensors because of the low backscattering

  13. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic

  14. MODEL SPASIAL DINAMIK GENANGAN AKIBAT KENAIKAN MUKA AIR LAUT DI PESISIR SEMARANG (Spatial Dynamic Model of Inundated area due to Sea Level rise at Semarang coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifan R Suhelmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kota Semarang merupakan kota pesisir di Provinsi Jawa Tengah yang memiliki topografi datar pada wilayah laut yang biasa disebut dengan kota bawah dan bergunung pada bagian atasnya yang biasa disebut dengan kota atas. Kota bawah memiliki kerentanan yang tinggi terhadap genangan akibat kenaikan muka air laut, hal ini disebabkan olehkondisi topografi yang datar. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memberikan gambaran secara dinamik distribusi genangan akibat berbagai skenario kenaikan muka air laut. Model spasial dinamik menggunakan Flash yang berfungsi memberikan gambaran secara interaktif dan real time pada berbagai skenario kenaikan muka air laut. Skenario kenaikan muka air laut menggunakan skenario IPCC hingga tahun 2100. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa terjadi kenaikan jumlah genangan dari 599,4 ha pada tahun 2020 menjadi 4.235,4 ha pada tahun 2100.   ABSTRACT Semarang is one of coastal city located at Central Java Province. It has flatten topography at coastal area called “downside town” and hilly topography at upper area called “topside town”.  Ownside town was highly vulnerable to sea level rise caused by it’s topographic condition and the land subsidence phenomena. This research conducted to mapeed the inundated area due to sea level rise at many scenarios of sea level rise. The dynamic spatialmodel of sea level rise represented using flash techmology to showed distributed area inundated by sea level rise. The scenario of sea level rise by IPCC prediction was used at this study. The stuty showed that the inundated area increased from 599.4 ha at year 2020 to 4,235.4 ha at 2100.

  15. Climate Change Impact: The Experience of the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh Affected by Cyclones Sidr and Aila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Russell; Khan, Hafiz T A; Ball, Emma; Caldwell, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is considered one of the countries most at risk to the effects of climate change and its coastal area is most vulnerable. This study tries to explore the experiences of cyclones Sidr and Aila affected people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. This study was conducted in the cyclone Sidr affected Amtali Upazila of Barguna District and in the cyclone Aila affected Koyra Upazila of Khulna District. Primary data collection was done using Focus Group Interview and then a thematic analysis approach was used for analysis. Three core themes emerged from the analysis and they are, firstly, impacts of climate change on the socioeconomic condition of the people, secondly, the impact on the health status of the population, and finally the impact on vulnerable people. Findings show that the effects of climate change have serious consequences on the livelihood patterns of the affected population and on their overall health status. As a result, the unfavorable health condition of these affected people makes them more vulnerable to various emerging diseases.

  16. Climate Change Impact: The Experience of the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh Affected by Cyclones Sidr and Aila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Kabir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is considered one of the countries most at risk to the effects of climate change and its coastal area is most vulnerable. This study tries to explore the experiences of cyclones Sidr and Aila affected people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. This study was conducted in the cyclone Sidr affected Amtali Upazila of Barguna District and in the cyclone Aila affected Koyra Upazila of Khulna District. Primary data collection was done using Focus Group Interview and then a thematic analysis approach was used for analysis. Three core themes emerged from the analysis and they are, firstly, impacts of climate change on the socioeconomic condition of the people, secondly, the impact on the health status of the population, and finally the impact on vulnerable people. Findings show that the effects of climate change have serious consequences on the livelihood patterns of the affected population and on their overall health status. As a result, the unfavorable health condition of these affected people makes them more vulnerable to various emerging diseases.

  17. Comparison of the trace metal concentration of drinking water supply options in southwest coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Atikul; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Higuchi, Takaya; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Masahiko

    2014-06-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as the fresh water aquifers at reasonable depths are not available and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-fed pond water for drinking purposes. To ascertain the water quality for human consumption, chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, chromium, cadmium, nickel and arsenic were evaluated in the alternative drinking water supply options employed in the southwest coastal areas of Bangladesh. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy was used for determination of trace metal concentrations. pH and conductivity were measured using HANNA Instrument. The mean iron and manganese concentrations for rain-fed pond and PSF water were much higher than harvested rainwater. The iron concentrations for 41 % of the pond water samples were higher than the Bangladesh guideline value. Iron and manganese removal by PSFs was found to be 74 and 51 %, respectively. Scarcity of calcium and magnesium were found in harvested rainwater. Furthermore, one pond water sample showed arsenic concentration above the 10 μg/l WHO drinking water guideline. The presence of an elevated iron and manganese and low calcium and magnesium concentrations in the drinking water could be a matter of public health concern.

  18. Water quality decline in coastal aquifers under anthropic pressure: the case of a suburban area of Dakar (Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Viviana; Cissé Faye, Seynabou; Faye, Abdoulaye; Faye, Serigne; Gaye, Cheikh Becaye; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the unregulated increase of the population in coastal areas of developing countries has become source of concern for both water supply and quality control. In the region of Dakar (Senegal), approximately 80% of water resources come from groundwater reservoirs, which are increasingly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The identification of the main sources of pollution, and thus the aquifer vulnerability, is essential to provide a sound basis for the implementation of long-term geochemically based water management plans in this sub-Saharan area. With this aim, a hydrochemical and isotopic survey on 26 wells was performed in the so-called Peninsula of Cap-Vert. Results show that seawater intrusion represents the main process affecting groundwater chemical characteristics. Nitrates often exceed the World Health Organization drinking water limits: stable isotopes of dissolved nitrate (δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O) indicate urban sewage and fertilizers as a major source of contamination. Results depict a complex situation in which groundwater is affected by direct and indirect infiltration of effluents, mixing with seawater and freshening processes from below. Besides the relevance of the investigation at a regional level, it represents a basis for decision-making processes in an integrated water resources management and in the planning of similar monitoring strategies for other urban coastal regions.

  19. Sustainable and integrated water resources management for the coastal areas of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Zhang, B; Kaden, S; Geiger, W F

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are severe problems in the Northern part of China, strongly affecting socio-economic development and standards of living and environment. The Shandong province is specifically plagued by water scarcity. In the coastal catchments of the Shandong province the water scarcity is even increased due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. The pressing water problems in the costal catchments in the Shandong province and resulting socio-economic troubles forced the Chinese authorities to implement a variety of measures to relieve water scarcity and abate saltwater intrusion. But not much has been achieved so far as the measures are not coordinated in their effects and cost-benefit relations have not been considered sufficiently. Such a situation calls for good, which means integrated, sustainable water management. The assessment of this situation in the project "Flood Control and Groundwater Recharge in Coastal Catchments" financed by the German Ministry of Research and Education is presented. Further objectives and first ideas for an IWRM-concept are explained. These ideas are based on concepts developed in Germany in the context of the fulfilment of the European Water Framework Directive.

  20. Ecotoxicologically based marine acute water quality criteria for metals intended for protection of coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, I; Beiras, R

    2013-10-01

    Acute water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of coastal ecosystems are developed on the basis of short-term ecotoxicological data using the most sensitive life stages of representative species from the main taxa of marine water column organisms. A probabilistic approach based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves has been chosen and compared to the WQC obtained applying an assessment factor to the critical toxicity values, i.e. the 'deterministic' approach. The criteria obtained from HC5 values (5th percentile of the SSD) were 1.01 μg/l for Hg, 1.39 μg/l for Cu, 3.83 μg/l for Cd, 25.3 μg/l for Pb and 8.24 μg/l for Zn. Using sensitive early life stages and very sensitive endpoints allowed calculation of WQC for marine coastal ecosystems. These probabilistic WQC, intended to protect 95% of the species in 95% of the cases, were calculated on the basis of a limited ecotoxicological dataset, avoiding the use of large and uncertain assessment factors.

  1. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  3. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Hirata, R.; Pauwels, H.; Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Chatton, E.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Martins, V.; Montenegro, S.; Batista, J.; Aurouet, A.; Santos, J.; Bertolo, R.; Picot, G.; Franzen, M.; Hochreutener, R.; Braibant, G.

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30 m and up to 70 m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000 μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ11B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70 mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65 mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91 mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  4. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  5. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  6. An integrated approach for wind fields assessment in coastal areas, based on bioindicators, CFD modeling, and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Bruno M.; Lopes, António

    2017-04-01

    Wind-deformed trees can be good bioindicators of the mean wind speed and prevailing wind directions. The current research used bioindicators, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and linear models to assess the wind fields in the windy coastal area of Cascais/Portugal. The main objectives of this research are to assess mean speed and directions of winds by using bioindicators and modeling techniques and to correlate both results in order to assess the best methods. The results obtained with the bioindicators showed that carpeting, the most severe deformation, was observed near the shoreline showing that the highest wind speeds are felt in this sector. Inland, where the winds have lower mean speeds, flagging forms are more frequent. When correlated with the bioindicators, the linear model gave better results than CFD models. We can conclude that in areas with good wind potential, the use of bioindicators can be a good alternative in the absence of wind data.

  7. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  8. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  9. Evaluation of the Benefit of Flood Reduction by Artificial Groundwater Recharge Lake Operation in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Nuo; Tsai, Chih-Heng

    2017-04-01

    Inundation disasters often occur in the southwestern coastal plains of Taiwan. The coastal plains suffers mostly from land-subsidence, surface water is difficult to be drained during the typhoon period, leading to more severe flood disasters. Global climate warming has become more significant, which in turn has resulted in the increase in amplitude and frequency of climate change related disasters. In addition, climate change also induces a rise in sea water level year by year. The rise in sea water level does not only weakens the function of existing drainage system but also increases tidal levels and storm tide levels, which increases the probability and amount of inundation disasters. The serious land subsidence area at Linbian river basin was selected as the study area. An artificial groundwater recharge lake has been set up in Linbian river basin by Pingtung government. The development area of this lake is 58 hectare and the storage volume is 2.1 million cubic meters (210 × 104m3). The surface water from Linbian basin during a wet season is led into the artificial groundwater recharge lake by water diversion project, and then employ special hydro-geological conditions of the area for groundwater recharge, increase groundwater supply and decrease land subsidence rate, and incidentally some of the flood diversion, detention, reduce flooding. In this study, a Real-time Interactive Inundation Model is applied to simulate different flooding storage volume and gate operations to estimate the benefits of flood mitigation. According to the simulation results, the hydrograph shape, peak-flow reduction and time lag to peak of the flood reduction hydrograph into the lake are apparently different for each case of different gate operation at the same storage volume. Therefore, the effect of flood control and disaster mitigation is different. The flood control and disaster mitigation benefits are evaluated by different operation modes, which provide decision makers to

  10. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  11. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  12. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies.

  13. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  14. Ways of Fishery Local Life: Processes of Participation in Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Areas of the Upper Gulf of Eastern Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulak Sa-Ngiamlak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Local fishery was an inherited occupation for a long time. The objective of this research were to study: (1 the local fishery lifestyle of community in local fishery on upper area in Gulf of Thailand, (2 the appropriate participation process in natural resource management on upper part in Gulf of Thailand of people and organization and (3 the guidelines in natural resource management on the coastal area in upper part on Gulf of Thailand as relevant to local fishery lifestyle. Approach: The research area consisted of the shore of upper area in Gulf of Thailand including: Chachoengsao, Samutprakan, Samutsakon, Samutsongkram, Pechburi, Chonburi, Ra-yong, Chantaburi and Trad provinces. The samples as informants were 100 persons. The instruments using for data collection included the Survey, Interview Form, Observation Form, Record Form of Focus Group Discussion and Record Form of Participatory Workshop. The obtained data were classified into groups and investigated by using Triangulation Technique. Qualitative data were analyzed based on specified objectives. Results: The study of local fishery lifestyle found that there was location as in the present area owing to the fertility of area next to the sea. So, they could earn their living by fishery on coastal area. The local fishermen’s lifestyle was simple. Their living places were wooden houses with high space under a Thai house. For relationship of relative groups, they still helped each other among community people. They had belief in guardian spirit of a ship or boat and Kromluang Choomponke dudomsak. They did traditional fishery. Most of their instruments were made by themselves and adapted based on appropriateness. The wisdoms were transferred within their family, (2 the participation process in appropriate natural resource management, found that based on problem situations of natural resource on coastal area in upper area on Gulf of Thailand, being destroyed. Consequently

  15. Marine and Coastal Morphology: medium term and long-term area modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn

    are grouped into shoreline models and models used to develop local features on the coastal profile such as alongshore migration of a bar front or redistribution of a shoreface nourishment. The implementations are tested on a variety of problems (idealised cases and case studies at specific locations....... The 5 papers are enclosed as separate chapters of this thesis. The overall conclusions to each of the model implementations are given as follows. 1D shoreline model Implementing the hybrid morphological modelling concept with a 1D morphological model is a strong engineering tool. The model is robust...... and computationally efficient and it may be adapted to real engineering problems. The results of the 1D shoreline model are however greatly affected by the imposed freedom of the model, and exaggerated alongshore smoothing of the calculated shoreline may occur if the 1D model is applied to problems in which the true...

  16. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. PMID:25551518

  17. Development of an ensemble prediction system for ocean surface waves in a coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Arno

    2015-04-01

    An ensemble prediction system for ocean surface waves has been developed and applied on a local scale to the German Bight and the western Baltic Sea. U10-wind fields generated by the COSMO-DE-EPS upstream forecast chain of the German Met Service (DWD: Deutscher Wetterdienst) have been used as the driving force for the third-generation spectral wave model WAM. The atmospheric chain includes four different global models that provide boundary values for four regional COSMO-EU realisations. Each of those drive five COSMO-DE members, respectively, with different sets of physical parameterisations, so that finally 20 members are available to run 20 corresponding wave ensemble members of the coastal wave model CWAM (Coastal WAve Model) for the German Bight and the western Baltic Sea. It is the first time that in an ensemble prediction system for ocean waves, an atmospheric model of such a fine spatial resolution of 2.8 km has been combined with a wave model running on a model grid with a mesh size of 900 m only. Test runs with the wave ensemble prediction system have been executed for two entire months (April 2013 and June 2014) and for an 8-day storm case (Xaver) in December 2013 in order to check whether such a system could be a reasonable step to improve the future operational wave forecasts of the DWD. The results computed by the different wave model members agree fairly well with available buoy data. The differences between the results for the integrated wave parameters of the individual members are small only, but more pronounced in extreme storm situations. Finally, the statistical analysis of the comparisons with measurements show without exception slightly improved values for the ensemble mean of the wave ensemble members compared with the usual deterministic routine control run.

  18. Influence of Particle Shape on Drag Coefficient for Commonly Occuring Sandy Particles in Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Arora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A well defined relationship connecting settling velocity with sediment geometry and ambient properties is an essential pre-requisite for coastal and hydraulic engineering studies. An established relationship for settling velocity of sandy particles assuming spherical shape geometry is available in the literature. In reality, the sediment particles need not be spherical at all times, which influences settling velocity that is strongly biased to the drag coefficient. Based on quantitative comparison with measured data collected at Oahu Islands located in the Hawaiian archipelago, USA this work provides a relationship between drag coefficient and particle shape factor for sand grains viz; sand, sandy loam and fine sandy loam typically found in coastal environment (typical size ranges from 0.05 to 2.0 mm. The particle Reynolds number and shape factor are evaluated for each grain. The drag coefficient evaluated as function of nominal diameter and Reynolds number show a positive correlation over a wide range of shape factors used in this study. A comprehensive correlation has been developed of the drag coefficient for non-spherical particles as a function of Reynolds number and particle shape. Further a regression analysis was performed on the functional dependence of drag coefficient on particle shape. Based on this study, it could be advocated the validity of Krumbien shape factor holds well for the above characterized grain size and various particle shapes considered. Hence, the settling velocity of particles has a functional dependence on estimated drag coefficient with important implications for modeling sediment transport and swash zone hydrodynamics.

  19. Geology, geochemistry, and tectonostratigraphic relations of the crystalline basement beneath the coastal plain of New Jersey and contiguous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala; Sugarman, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal plain sediments are underlain by pre-Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The inner coastal plain is underlain by schist that is correlated with the Potomac Terrane, as well as by mafic rocks probably equivalent to the Wilmington or Bel Air-Rising Sun terranes. The northern and central outer coastal plain is underlain by metasedimentary rocks similar to the Brompton-Cameron Terrane. Rocks beneath the southern coastal plain probably correlate with those of the Chopawamsic and Roanoke Rapids terranes.

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for special management areas, nature preserves, state/regional parks, and wildlife refuges in New Hampshire. Vector...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for critical habitats, fishery areas, management areas, marine sanctuaries, national forests, national parks, The...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  3. Innovative GOCI algorithm to derive turbidity in highly turbid waters: a case study in the Zhejiang coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Deyong; Wang, Shengqiang; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-21

    An innovative algorithm is developed and validated to estimate the turbidity in Zhejiang coastal area (highly turbid waters) using data from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). First, satellite-ground synchronous data (n = 850) was collected from 2014 to 2015 using 11 buoys equipped with a Yellow Spring Instrument (YSI) multi-parameter sonde capable of taking hourly turbidity measurements. The GOCI data-derived Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (R(rc)) was used in place of the widely used remote sensing reflectance (R(rs)) to model turbidity. Various band characteristics, including single band, band ratio, band subtraction, and selected band combinations, were analyzed to identify correlations with turbidity. The results indicated that band 6 had the closest relationship to turbidity; however, the combined bands 3 and 6 model simulated turbidity most accurately (R(2) = 0.821, pshore to offshore and from morning to afternoon. Overall, the findings of this study provide a simple and practical method, based on GOCI data, to estimate turbidity in highly turbid coastal waters at high temporal resolutions.

  4. Estimation of residence times of coastal basins in the Laxemar- Simpevarp area between 3000 BC and 9000 AD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (AandI Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The assignment has consisted of computation of the morpho- and bathymetry of the coastal area of Laxemar-Simpevarp for the time period 3000 BC through 9000 AD, in order to estimate the residence times as yearly means of volume-averaged specific age (Average Age, AvA) for water in coastal basins. These basins have been selected as belonging to earlier defined biosphere objects, containing anticipated exit points from possible radionuclides leaking from a hypothetical underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. This endeavor starts with partitioning of the coast into appropriate sub-basins interconnected by straits in an as objective manner as possible. This has been performed in cooperation with Umeaa Univ. followed by the transformation of these hypsographical data to a form that can serve as input data to the employed numerical CouBa-model. This model has been developed to simulate the water exchange of straits between densimetrically stably stratified basins with a free sea level including advection and mixing of water-borne conservative scalar properties, e.g. salinity, heat and specific age. The forcing of the model consists of run-off, wind-induced stress, thermal surface dynamics (heating/cooling) and density fluctuations at the open boundary toward the coastal zone, relative by which the specific water age is calculated For these ambient forcing factors there do not exist sufficiently precise climate data other than for contemporary times. For all other time periods the measured and/or model-computed forcing data regarding 2004 have been used. Estimated AvA-values for the different time periods are thus an expression of sub-basin configuration and hypsographical differences. An overriding directive has been to rather overestimate than underestimate the residence times, as to avoid underestimation of the subsequent dose calculations. The results of these AvA computations, presented as volume averages of yearly means of the sixteen biosphere object

  5. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  6. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  7. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  8. Nested high resolution models for the coastal areas of the North Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Fred; Shapiro, Georgy

    2017-04-01

    Oceanographic processes at coastal scales require much higher horizontal resolution from both ocean models and observations as compared to deep water oceanography. Aside from a few exceptions such as land-locked seas, the hydrodynamics of coastal shallow waters is strongly influenced by the tides, which in turn control the mixing, formation of temperature fronts and other phenomena. The numerical modelling of the coastal domains requires good knowledge of the lateral boundary conditions. The application of lateral boundary conditions to ocean models is a notoriously tricky task, but can only be avoided with global ocean models. Smaller scale regional ocean models are typically nested within global models, and even smaller-scale coastal models may be nested within regional models, creating a nesting chain. However a direct nesting of a very high resolution coastal model into a coarse resolution global model results in degrading of the accuracy of the outputs due to the large difference between the model resolutions. This is why a nesting chain has to be applied, so that every increase in resolution is kept within a reasonable minimum (typically by a factor of 3 to 5 at each step). Global models are traditionally non-tidal, so at some stage of the nesting chain the tides need to be introduced. This is typically done by calculating the tidal constituents from a dedicated tidal model (e.g. TPXO) for all boundary points of a nested model. The tidal elevation at each boundary location can then be calculated from the harmonics at every model time step and the added to the parent model non-tidal SSH. This combination of harmonics-derived tidal SSH and non-tidal parent model SSH is typically applied to the nested domain using the Flather condition, together with the baroclinic velocities from the parent model. The harmonics-derived SSH cannot be added to an SSH signal that is already tidal, so the parent model SSH has to be either detided or taken from a non-tidal model

  9. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability.

  10. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  11. PENGELOLAAN KAWASAN PESISIR KABUPATEN BULELENG MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MINA WISATA BAHARI (Management of Buleleng Coastal Areas Through the Marine Fisheries Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ari Yudasmara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kawasan pesisir Kabupaten Buleleng saat ini telah dimanfaatkan dengan berbagai kegiatan kepariwisataan, akan tetapi kegiatan tersebut masih belum memberikan manfaat yang optimal bagi masyarakat dan memiliki kecenderungan mengalami kejenuhan. Untuk itu, diperlukan suatu pengembangan wisata alternatif yang sesuai dengan kondisi dan potensi sumber daya alam yang ada serta saling bersinergi dengan aktivitas wisata lainnya, seperti contohnya pengembangan mina wisata. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menganalisis kondisi dan potensi sumberdaya alam pesisir dan laut, tingkat kesesuaian kawasan pesisir Buleleng dalam menunjang pengembangan mina wisata dan menghasilkan model aktivitas mina wisata di kawasan pesisir Buleleng yang terpadu dan berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kesesuaian kawasan dengan rancangan penelitiannya berupa survei lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pesisir Kabupaten Buleleng apabila dilihat dari kondisi dan potensi sumberdaya alamnya masih mampu untuk mendukung aktivitas mina wisata dengan tingkat kesesuaian kawasan berdasarkan indeks kesesuaian wisata, yaitu pesisir Buleleng timur terkategori cukup sesuai (76,92, pesisir Buleleng tengah terkategori cukup sesuai (61,53 dan pesisir Buleleng barat terkategori sangat sesuai (87,17. Rencana model mina wisata yang dapat dikembangkan antara lain pesisir Buleleng timur adalah mina wisata budidaya laut (ikan hias dan karang dan mina wisata perikanan tangkap (pemancingan dan spearfishing adventures, pesisir Buleleng tengah adalah mina wisata budidaya laut (rumput laut dan mina wisata perikanan tangkap (pemancingan dan spearfishing adventures, dan pesisir Buleleng barat adalah mina wisata budidaya laut (rumput laut, Bandeng, Kerapu, Mutiara, ikan hias dan karang dan mina wisata perikanan tangkap (pemancingan dan spearfishing adventures.    ABSTRACT Buleleng coastal area has been used for various tourism activities, however, the activities

  12. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  13. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  14. Biomarker responses in mudskipper (Periophthalmus waltoni) from the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf with oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Mehrnoosh; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    A suite of 5 different biomarker responses were selected and measured in 3 different phases of detoxification process in mudskipper Periophthalmus waltoni from 3 different stations including Soltani Inlet, Shif Island and Ameri Port in Bushehr coastal area of the Persian Gulf. The selected biomarkers were 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), DNA damage using the Comet assay and micronucleus (MN). Spatial variations in biomarker responses were observed in different sites. EROD, GST, FACs, DNA damage and MN were significantly elevated in mudskippers in the most oil impacted site (Soltani inlet). Based on the assessments, bile metabolites, EROD and GST induction appear to be sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and can be considered as complementary biomarkers; therefore P. waltoni has the potential to be used as a bioindicator in these types of ecosystems.

  15. The impact of two oil spill events on the water quality along coastal area of Kenting National Park, southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Chi; Tew, Kwee Siong; Ho, Ping-Ho; Hsieh, Hung-Yen; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2017-02-18

    In 2009, the container ship Colombo Queen and the oil tanker W-O BUDMO grounded off Jialeshui and Houwan, respectively, in southern Taiwan. Water quality was monitored at each site to evaluate the environmental impact caused by the resulting oil spills. The results show that the PAHs, turbidity, and other nutrients increased shortly after oil spill, however levels of these parameters eventually returned to baseline levels. On the other hand, DO saturation, pH and chl. a decreased initially, reached maxima after 10days, and returned to the baseline levels after 14days. The chl. a concentration, pH and DO saturation fluctuated in a similar pattern at both sites during the oil spills, likely driven by algal blooms. In this study, we documented a full environmental recovery at coastal areas before, during and after the oil spills.

  16. THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAMAT MUSIC AS A PROTOTYPE OF BANDAR ART IN THE WEST SUMATERA COASTAL AREA (PESISIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martarosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, the city of Padang has been dubbed the metropolis of the island of Sumatera. This is because the population of the Europeans who live there is relatively higher than other cities in Sumatera. An influence of this condition appears to be the phenomenon of Western-style music which was introduced to the indigenous peoples (Bandar natives. The appropriation of this musical style from various cultures such as of Portuguese (European, Malay and Minangkabau eventually became known as Gamat. Nowadays, the well-known Gamat is part of the identity of the culture, especially for Minangkabau in the West Sumatera coastal area.

  17. Occurrences and distribution of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in the Yangtze River Estuary and nearby coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Yuan, Ke; Liang, Ximei; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Zongshan; Yang, Ying; Zou, Shichun; Luan, Tiangang; Chen, Baowei

    2015-11-15

    The role of highly impacted estuaries needs to be examined with respect to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. In the present study, sulfonamide resistance (sul), tetracycline resistance (tet) and class I integron (int1) genes were ubiquitous in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary (YE) and nearby coastal area, and exhibited a declining trend from the inner estuary to the coast. Good relationships were only observed between int1 and sul1 genes, implying that int1 gene is essential to the proliferation of sul1 gene. A non-significant correlation between int1 and 16S rRNA genes indicated that the int1 gene came from pollution sources of ARGs instead of being intrinsic in environmental bacterial populations. Sulfonamides were rarely detected in the sediments of this region, so could not result in the production of sul genes in the local environment.

  18. Ziyuan-3 Multi-Spectral and Panchromatic Images Fusion Quality Assessment: Applied to Jiangsu Coastal Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruijuan; He, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive fusion quality assessment was proposed, which based on cross entropy and structure similarity with weighted value, it was used to evaluate the fusion effort of Chinese Ziyuan-3 multi-spectral and panchromatic images from coastal areas, Jiangsu province, China. Fusion algorithms were used, Hue-Intensity-Saturation (HIS), àtrous Wavelet Transformation (AWT), NonsubSampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT), and combined NSCT with HIS. According to visual interpretation, the quality of fused imaged based on combined NSCT with HIS is better than another fusion methods, fusion quality results exploring our proposed image fusion quality assessment also illustrated that fused image of combined NSCT with HIS is the best, which is consistent with human- being subjective interpretation.

  19. Ziyuan-2 Multi-Spectral and Panchromatic Images Fusion Quality Assessment: Applied to Jiangsu Coastal Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruijuan; He, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive fusion quality assessment was proposed, which based on cross entropy and structure similarity with weighted value, it was used to evaluate the fusion effort of Chinese Ziyuan-3 multi-spectral and panchromatic images from coastal areas, Jiangsu province, China. Fusion algorithms were used, Hue-Intensity-Saturation (HIS), à trous Wavelet Transformation (AWT), Nonsub Sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT), and combined NSCT with HIS. According to visual interpretation, the quality of fused imaged based on combined NSCT with HIS is better than another fusion methods, fusion quality results exploring our proposed image fusion quality assessment also illustrated that fused image of combined NSCT with HIS is the best, which is consistent with human-being subjective interpretation.

  20. Trace metal content of live tissues of Halimione portulacoides from the coastal areas of the Sado Estuary, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboredo, F.H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable differences were noted in the Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn levels in live tissues of Halimione portulacoides from the coastal areas of the Sado estuary. The highest levels of Al, Cu, and Fe were always found in roots, while the lowest levels were always observed in stems. The highest values for Zn were found in the leaves in two cases, a possible metabolic requirement. The root system, however, accumulates large amounts of trace metals, but only a small part is carried to tissues above the ground. Copper iron levels were highly correlated in all tissues, specially Cu while for Al and Zn high correlations were noted between the leaf and the stem (P > 0.05).

  1. Constraints to the implementation of effective environmental management in coastal areas of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de L.R. Wagener

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the limitations the scarcity of reliable scientific information poses to the implementation of effective and sustainable coastal management programmes in developing countries. Alternatives to the current monitoring approaches are suggested as to improve information level on the state of the environment and to decrease data gap on past conditions. The paper aims at encouraging the redesign of monitoring practices in developing countries as to be ground on the best actual scientific knowledge.O presente texto trata das limitações, impostas pela escassez de informação científica confiável, à implementação de programas eficazes e sustentáveis de gestão costeira em paises em desenvolvimento. São sugeridas alternativas às abordagens correntes de monitoramento, as quais visam aprimorar o nível de conhecimento sobre o estado do meio ambiente e decrescer a carência de dados sobre suas condições pretéritas. As discussões apresentadas pretendem encorajar o redesenho das práticas de monitoramento em países em desenvolvimento de forma que passem a se fundamentar no melhor conhecimento científico atual.

  2. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  3. Bioprospecting marine actinomycetes for multidrug-resistant pathogen control from Rameswaram coastal area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaab, Femina; Subramaniam, Kalidass

    2017-08-07

    A potent Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 was isolated for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 131 actinomycetes were isolated from the Rameswaram coastal region, Tamil Nadu, India. Among 131 actinomycetes, maximum number of actinomycetes (55%) isolated at the distance of 3-6 m from seashore. Out of 131 actinomycetes, 85% of the actinomycetes exhibited different degree of antagonistic activity against test pathogens. The antagonistic activity evaluated using actinomycetes direct culture filtrate and culture filtrate extracts. Among these culture filtrate, extracts had supreme antagonistic activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and the solvent ethyl acetate was the best for extracting secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. In HPTLC analysis, the presence of macrolides, terpenoids, and quinolones was identified in RAM25C4 extract. In GC-MS analysis, various potent compounds such as phenolic compound-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, alkaloid compound-1H, 5H, pyrrolo (1' 2':3, 4) imidazo, and quinolone compound-1,4-benzenediol, 2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) were identified in the ethyl acetate extract of RAM25C4. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence of RAM25C4 isolate was deposited in NCBI with name Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 and accession number KM513543.

  4. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  5. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-11-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  6. Dioxin and dioxin-like activity in sediments of the Belgian coastal area (Southern North Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctorum, Hermes; Windal, Isabelle; Hanot, Vincent; Goeyens, Leo; Baeyens, Willy

    2007-04-01

    Dioxin and dioxin-like activity in sediments of the North Sea, along the Belgian coast, was assessed with the bioassay CALUX (Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression). Crude extracts of the samples as well as the dioxin fraction (PCDD/Fs) obtained after a thorough clean-up procedure were analyzed with the CALUX method. When analyzing the cleaned extract, a general low contamination level is observed (around 0.1 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment), except at the mouth of the two main rivers-the Yser and the Scheldt-where concentrations measured are about 100 times higher (10-42 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment). Much higher potencies are measured for the crude extracts compared to the cleaned ones. In the crude extracts, the highest dioxin-like activities were again observed at the mouth and outflow of the two rivers (600-7200 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment). These activities are at least two orders of magnitude higher than the ones found at the coastal and sea stations (1.3-45 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment). The difference in activity between cleaned and crude sediment extracts is due to the presence of dioxin-like compounds such as, for example, non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated dioxins, but also to PAHs. The percentage of five major PAHs in the crude samples at the river mouths, when using the average activities in those samples, varies between 25% and 50%.

  7. Long-Term Profiles of Wind and Weibull Distribution Parameters up to 600 m in a Rural Coastal and an Inland Suburban Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    by the root-mean-square error was about 10 % lower for the analysis compared to the forecast simulations. At the rural coastal site, the observed mean wind speeds above 60 m were underestimated by both the analysis and forecast model runs. For the inland suburban area, the mean wind speed is overestimated...... at a flat rural coastal site in western Denmark and at an inland suburban area near Hamburg in Germany. Simulations with the weather research and forecasting numerical model were carried out in both forecast and analysis configurations. The scatter between measured and modelled wind speeds expressed...

  8. MAPPING OF MARINE PLANTS DISTRIBUTIONS IN NORTH COASTAL AREA OF SUMBAWA REGENCY USING ALOS/AVNIR-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and management of water resource be more beneficial, if preceded by study which includes biological aspect besides physics and chemical parameter of waters. The biological aspects study can be conducted by monitoring the change of ecosystem (biomonitoring. One of study that entangles biomonitoring is the research concerning change of marine plants. Marine plants consists of seagrasses and seaweeds. Using ALOS/AVNIR-2 data in this research because it has 3 visible bands (blue, green, and red with 10 meter spacial resolutions can penetrate into water column. Aims of research were (1 to know combinations of bands in ALOS/AVNIR-2 data was better in Lyzenga method applying to mapping marine plants, (2 to know the general species of marine plants in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency. Lyzenga method was used in image processing process to know the combination of bands which have better for mapping marine plants. Preliminary steps of image processing were image cropping, geometric correction and radiometric correction. Water column effect was reduced by Lyzenga algorithm. Six classes were determined by multispectral classification process i.e. seagrass, seaweeds, coral, hard sand and rubble of coral, and substratum. Field surveys has done to identify the accuracy level. The accuracy method by Lillesand and Kiefer (1990 was used in this research.The result of accuracy test show for image band 1 and band 2 combination given better visual object benthic than another combinations of bands, with overall accuracy was 86.67%. Seagrass found in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency consist of four species there were Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Halophila ovalis with width equal to 835.37 ha, while seaweeds were found equal to five species there were Euchema cottoni, Euchema cottoni ssp sakul, Halimeda sp, Padina sp, and Sargasum duplicatum with width equal to 269,16 ha.

  9. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  10. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  11. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  12. Delineation and Prediction Uncertainty of Areas Contributing Recharge to Selected Well Fields in Wetland and Coastal Settings, Southern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesz, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Areas contributing recharge to four well fields in two study sites in southern Rhode Island were delineated on the basis of steady-state groundwater-flow models representing average hydrologic conditions. The wells are screened in sand and gravel deposits in wetland and coastal settings. The groundwater-flow models were calibrated by inverse modeling using nonlinear regression. Summary statistics from nonlinear regression were used to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predicted areas contributing recharge to the well fields. In South Kingstown, two United Water Rhode Island well fields are in Mink Brook watershed and near Worden Pond and extensive wetlands. Wetland deposits of peat near the well fields generally range in thickness from 5 to 8 feet. Analysis of water-level drawdowns in a piezometer screened beneath the peat during a 20-day pumping period indicated vertical leakage and a vertical hydraulic conductivity for the peat of roughly 0.01 ft/d. The simulated area contributing recharge for average withdrawals of 2,138 gallons per minute during 2003-07 extended to groundwater divides in mostly till and morainal deposits, and it encompassed 2.30 square miles. Most of a sand and gravel mining operation between the well fields was in the simulated contributing area. For the maximum pumping capacity (5,100 gallons per minute), the simulated area contributing recharge expanded to 5.54 square miles. The well fields intercepted most of the precipitation recharge in Mink Brook watershed and in an adjacent small watershed, and simulated streams ceased to flow. The simulated contributing area to the well fields included an area beneath Worden Pond and a remote, isolated area in upland till on the opposite side of Worden Pond from the well fields. About 12 percent of the pumped water was derived from Worden Pond. In Charlestown, the Central Beach Fire District and the East Beach Water Association well fields are on a small (0.85 square mile) peninsula in a

  13. How quickly do High Arctic coastal environments respond to rapid deglaciation and the paraglacial transformation of proglacial areas? - Answers from Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Matt; Long, Antony; Lloyd, Jerry; Zagórski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The coastal zone is one of the most important storage systems for sediments that are eroded and transported by rivers, wind and slope processes from deglacierised valleys and proglacial areas before reaching their final sediment sink (fjords or the open sea. The Svalbard archipelago provides an excellent location to quantify how High Arctic coasts are responding to climate warming and the associated paraglacial landscape transformations. In this paper we summarize the results of several coastal surveys carried out by our research teams along the paraglacial coasts of Spitsbergen during the last decade. We reconstruct the post-Little Ice Age development of selected coastlines in Spitsbergen to illustrate the variable coastal response to paraglacial and periglacial processes activated following the recent retreat of glaciers. Our surveys use aerial photogrammetric and GIS analyses, sedimentological classification of coastal deposits and field-based geomorphological mapping in Kongsfjorden, Billefjorden, Bellsund, Hornsund and Sørkappland. Our results document dramatic changes in sediment flux and coastal response under intervals characterized by a warming climate, retreating local ice masses, a shortened winter sea-ice season and thawing permafrost. The study highlights the need for a greater understanding of the controls on High Arctic coastal geomorphology, especially given the potential for future accelerated warming and sea-level rise.

  14. Trace metals in Norwegian lakes. Preliminary results for 473 lakes; Sporeelementer i norske innsjoeer. Foreloepig resultat for 473 sjoeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelkvaale, B.L.; Henriksen, A.; Vadset, M.; Roeyset, O. [Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning, Kjeller (Norway)

    1996-04-15

    In the autumn of 1995, a regional investigation of 1500 Norwegian lakes was performed as part of a programme on monitoring long-range transfrontier pollution and fallout deposits. This report presents the levels and regional distributions of about 50 trace metals in 473 statistically selected lakes. The concentrations of some of the metals fall off markedly from south to north. The high concentration in the south is probably due to long-range pollution. Some metals have high local concentrations, ascribed to point sources or local rock minerals. Acidification may lead to increased mobilization of certain metals. Lakes in coastal areas often have important quantities of trace metals from sea water, such as B and Sr. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 table

  15. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  16. Recovery and validation of historical sediment quality data from coastal and estuarine areas: An integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Mecray, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental parameters has been compiled for Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay. This work illustrates methodologies for rescuing and validating sediment data from heterogeneous historical sources. It greatly expands spatial and temporal data coverage of estuarine and coastal sediments. The database contains about 3500 samples containing inorganic chemical, organic, texture and other environmental data dating from 1955 to 1994. Cooperation with local and federal agencies as well as universities was essential in locating and screening documents for the database. More than 80% of references utilized came from sources with limited distribution (gray literature). Task sharing was facilitated by a comprehensive and clearly defined data dictionary for sediments. It also served as a data entry template and flat file format for data processing and as a basis for interpretation and graphical illustration. Standard QA/QC protocols are usually inapplicable to historical sediment data. In this work outliers and data quality problems were identified by batch screening techniques that also provide visualizations of data relationships and geochemical affinities. No data were excluded, but qualifying comments warn users of problem data. For Boston Harbor, the proportion of irreparable or seriously questioned data was remarkably small (organic contaminants spanned 3 orders of magnitude for many elements or compounds. Data from the historical database provide alternatives to dated cores for measuring changes in surficial sediment contamination level with time. The data indicate that spatial inhomogeneity in harbor environments can be large with respect to sediment-hosted contaminants. Boston Inner Harbor surficial sediments showed decreases in concentrations of Cu, Hg, and Zn of 40 to 60% over a 17-year period.A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental parameters has been compiled for Boston Harbor and

  17. High-frequency atmospherically-induced oscillations in the middle Adriatic coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vilibić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial characteristics of the resonant coupling between travelling air pressure disturbances and the middle Adriatic coastal waters are examined using a barotropic numerical model for a one year period (July 2000–July 2001. The model is forced by the travelling air pressure disturbances reconstructed from the 2-min resolution air pressure series measured at Split. Six experiments for the studied period are performed, in order to analyse the influence of the speed and disturbance direction on the resonant coupling. The first group of three experiments uses variable disturbance direction, whereas in the second three, a constant direction is employed during the whole experiment. Disturbance direction for the first group of experiments is computed from the 500-mb geopotential data provided by European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF, as it is found that all of the past extreme events are correlated with them. Each experiment, with variable and constant disturbance direction, is repeated with three different constant values of 10, 20 and 30 m/s for the disturbance speed. The model verification on the Split sea level data reveals that the model reproduces most of the events but also overestimates/underestimates some of them and creates some false events due to the rigid assumption of a constant disturbance speed. The best agreement with data is obtained in the model runs assuming a disturbance speed of 20 m/s. A number of trapped and edge waves have been modelled at the constrictions and along the coast, in particular on a shoal that lies off Split perpendicular to the channel axis. The importance of the disturbance direction to the energy content is highlighted, particularly close to the shore, where the difference may be significant at 2–3 times on average, up to 30 cm in maximum amplitude.

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, Management Areas, National Forests, National Park Service properties, Parks, and...

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery--Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore was produced from...

  20. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of managed properties including: Critical Habitats, Management Areas, Marine Sanctuaries, National Parks, Nature Conservancy lands,...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for artificial reefs, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Management Areas, National Wildlife Refuges, and...

  3. Multi-Frequency and Multi-Polarization Scattering Analysis for Model-Based Coastal Areas Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, A.; Nunziata, F.; Migliaccio, M.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Shen, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Yellow River (in Chinese, Huang He) is the most sediment-filled river and the sixth-longest one in the world. The Yellow River is of paramount importance for safe navigation, local economy and environment due to the presence of floods, farms, aquacultures and pollution. Nonetheless, its delta area it is characterized by of several physical phenomena due to both natural and anthropogenic processes: sedimentation, erosion, floods, pollution, etc.In this study, actual partially overlapped L-/C-band FP SAR data collected from Radarsat-2 and ALOS PalSAR-2, respectively, are used to investigate the scattering properties of the Yellow River delta, whose very challenging area is characterized by different scenarios as recorded by ground truth data acquired during an in-situ campaign. 10 different classes have been codified: sea, river, forest, pond, swamp, tide-land, sand, saline soil, rural and industrial urban areas. However, no ground truth data is available in some codified areas.

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography--Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey and New York, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of a portion of the Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey and New York was...

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery--Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore was produced from...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...

  8. EAARL Coastal Topography--Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey and New York, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of a portion of the Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey and New York was...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of Coast Guard facilities; management areas; marinas; marine sanctuaries; national forests; national, regional, and state parks;...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for designated critical habitats, essential habitats, management areas, marine sanctuaries, National Park Service properties,...

  11. Numerical Analysis of the Soil Deformation Caused by Tunneling under Vehicle Loads in the Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of tunneling induced soil deformation is an important issue in the design of tunnels constructed in the densely populated urban areas. In this paper, commercial FEM software 3D ABAQUS is adopted to simulate the behavior of soil caused by tunneling under vehicle loads in the coastal reclamation area. A field case study was also carried out to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. A good agreement was achieved. It is also found from the studies that the areas affected by soil deformation can be classified into four zones: the key disturbed zone, the secondary disturbed zone, the general disturbed zone, and minor-disturbed zone. The maximum soil deformation occurs on side of the longitudinal medial axis of the tunnel. The shape of the settlement curve is almost the same as that of the normal distribution curve. The soil deformation in the action zone of vehicle load is greater than that of the nonaction zone of vehicle load.

  12. Fish assemblages in a coastal bay adjacent to a network of marine protected areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pereira Cattani

    Full Text Available Abstract Baía Norte (North Bay in Santa Catarina State is considered a typical coastal bay and is surrounded by a network of Marine Protected Areas. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition of the demersal fish assemblage, identify seasonal and spatial structures on a fine scale and evaluate the role of habitat descriptors and abiotic variables affecting the fish assemblage structure. Seasonal samplings were conducted in 2005, using bottom trawls in six pre-established areas in Baía Norte in summer, fall, winter and spring. Simultaneously with each trawl, environmental data were collected with a multiparameter probe. Temporal and spatial differences in fish abundance were tested by a PERMANOVA. To illustratethe differences detected graphically we ran a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. The influence of environmental variables on the fish fauna was evaluated using a Distant Based Linear Model (DistLM with Akaike's information criterion (AIC. A total of 9,888 specimens, distributed in 27 families and 62 species, were collected. Citharichthys spilopterus was the most abundant species. PERMANOVA detected differences for abundance between seasons, areas and interaction among all the factors. The DISTLM selected temperature and pH. The results highlight seasonality as an important factor in the structuring of fish fauna of the study place.

  13. The Evaluation of Facilitation Process in Building Community Capacity about OVOP Concept in Kenjeran Coastal Area, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayeni, K. D. M. E.; Santoso, E. B.; Siswanto, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    The concept of One Village One Product (OVOP) is an approach to the development potential of the area in the region to produce products that can compete in the global market, while still having unique characteristics of the area. Bulak District is one of the Kenjeran coastal area in Surabaya, Indonesia. Bulak District has had a great potential of marine products, but still contribute greatly in improving the people's welfare. Total activities of SMEs in the District of Bulak quite a lot, but the resulting product unknown to the wider community and the global marketplace. Activity of facilitation for SMEs society do to build community capacity in the implementation of the concept of OVOP. Based on the results of the evaluation assistance through Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test result an increased understanding of the community regarding to the five subjects related OVOP concept. There are six factors to note in mentoring activities that need to be considered for the sustainability of community capacity building programs on OVOP.

  14. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  15. Spatial Analysis of Potentially Preventable Pneumonia and Asthma Hospitalizations for Children in the Texas Coastal Bend Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na

    Pneumonia and asthma, two common Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs), were two top reasons for the admission of children to the hospitals and emergency rooms in the United States in 2011. Pneumonia and asthma are potentially preventable if the child's environment is properly managed. Underlying vulnerabilities such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and proximity to air pollution play an important role in ACSCs hospitalization. Pneumonia and asthma are two common reasons for hospitalizations among children and missed school days in Texas Coastal Bend Area. This thesis examines the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, meteorological conditions and children ACSCs hospitalization, including pneumonia and asthma among children age 0-17 in this area. Hospital discharge data from 2007 to 2009 based on Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) were examined along with American Community Survey (ACS) data, air pollution data from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and temperature data from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Hotspot and Local Moran's I analyses were applied to identify the concentrations of the illnesses. Two regressions (OLS and GWR) were applied to identify factors that contribute the most to ACSCs hospitalization. Pearson's correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between meteorological condition and child hospitalization for asthma and pneumonia. A human subject survey was conducted to examine the relationships between neighborhood environment and children asthma cases. The main finding was that children from families with health insurance, children from single father families and children from poor families were more likely to visit hospital for ACSCs and pneumonia care. "Hispanic families" and especially "Hispanic families with father but no mother" also contributed most to child hospitalization for ACSCs and pneumonia, suggesting that family preventative health care education is needed for Hispanic

  16. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  17. Seasonal and spatial variability of appendicularian density and taxonomic composition in the Caravelas Estuary (Northeastern Brazil and adjacent coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Freitas de Carvalho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the seasonal and spatial variations of the appendicularians in the Caravelas River estuary and the adjacent coastal area. Samples were taken during 12 campaigns over five years (2001 and 2003-2006. Ten species were identified; the most abundant were Oikopleura dioica, Oikopleura rufescens, and Oikopleura longicauda. These species represented more than 95% of the total numbers of appendicularians. The remaining species were less frequent and occurred in low densities. The mean density of appendicularians found at the coastal stations (804 ind.m-3. was higher than in the estuary (66 ind.m-3. However, the differences observed between the estuary and coastal stations were not significant (p=0.54. The samples taken during the dry season showed a higher mean density (587 ind.m-3 than in the rainy season (376 ind.m-3, and the differences between the seasons were statistically significant (p=0.004.Esse trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e avaliar as variações espaciais e sazonais das apendiculárias no estuário do rio Caravelas e área costeira adjacente (17º35' - 18º22' S e 39º8' - 39º55'W. As coletas foram realizadas em 12 campanhas durante cinco anos (2001 e 2003 - 2006. Foram identificadas dez espécies, sendo que Oikopleura dioica, O. rufescens e O. longicauda foram as mais abundantes. Estas três espécies representaram mais de 95% do total de apendiculárias coletadas. As outras espécies foram menos freqüentes e ocorreram em baixas densidades. A densidade média de apendiculárias encontrada nas estações e costeiras (804 ind.m-3 foi maior que na de estuário (158 ind.m-3. As diferenças encontradas entre as estações de estuário e costeiras não foram significativas (p=0,73. As campanhas realizadas durante o período seco apresentaram densidade média (587 ind.m-3 maior que do período chuvoso (376 ind.m-3. As diferenças entre os períodos chuvoso e seco foram estatisticamente

  18. Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green

  19. Assessing coastal flooding hazard in urban areas: the case of estuarian villages in the city of Hyères-les-Palmiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roy Sylvestre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted on the city of Hyéres-les-Palmiers (French Riviera to guide the future land use planning, aimed to evaluate how sea level rise could modify coastal flooding hazards in urban areas located near small estuaries in a microtidal context. A joint probability approach allowed establishing typical storm parameters for specific return periods (30, 50 and 100 years, integrating offshore conditions (sea level and significant wave height and the river level. Storm scenarios have been established from these parameters and the chronology of the most impacting recent storm. Sea level rise has been integrated (20 cm for year 2030 and 60 cm for year 2100, and the coastal flooding has been simulated with a non-hydrostatic non-linear shallow-water model (SWASH. The calculations have been realized on high resolution DEM (1 to 5 m mesh size, integrating buildings and coastal protections. The approach has been validated by reproducing a recent flooding event. Obtained results show the importance of wave overtopping in current coastal flooding hazard in this area. Nevertheless, if Hyéres-les-Palmiers is currently little exposed to coastal flooding, these simulations highlight an increasing role of overflowing due to sea level rise, leading to significant flooding in 2100, even for quite frequent events.

  20. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

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    S. J. Siebert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  1. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  2. Trace metal contamination in commercial fish and crustaceans collected from coastal area of Bangladesh and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tokumura, Masahiro; Sekine, Makoto; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    Trace metals contamination in commercial fish and crustaceans have become a great problem in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to determine seven trace metals concentration (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in some commercial fishes and crustaceans collected from coastal areas of Bangladesh. Trace metals in fish samples were in the range of Cr (0.15 - 2.2), Ni (0.1 - 0.56), Cu (1.3 - 1.4), Zn (31 - 138), As (0.76 - 13), Cd (0.033 - 0.075), and Pb (0.07 - 0.63 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), respectively. Arsenic (13 mg/kg ww) and Zn (138 mg/kg ww) concentrations were remarkably high in fish of Cox's Bazar due to the interference of uncontrolled huge hatcheries and industrial activities. The elevated concentrations of Cu (400), Zn (1480), and As (53 mg/kg ww) were also observed in crabs of Cox's Bazar which was considered as an absolutely discrepant aquatic species with totally different bioaccumulation pattern. Some metals in fish and crustaceans exceeded the international quality guidelines. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and target cancer risk (TR) revealed high dietary intake of As and Pb, which was obviously a matter of severe public health issue of Bangladeshi coastal people which should not be ignored and concentrate our views to solve this problem with an integrated approaches. Thus, continuous monitoring of these toxic trace elements in seafood and immediate control measure is recommended.

  3. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein.