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Sample records for norwegian arctic levels

  1. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Liping; Zheng, Gene J.; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen Liqi; Zhang Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W.; Lam, James C.W.; Yan, Xulin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Wong, Ming H.

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies. - High levels of PAHs and specific patterns of PBDEs were found in sediments from the remote Norwegian Arctic lakes

  2. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea-level...

  3. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  4. Vertical distribution of microphysical properties of Arctic springtime low-level mixed-phase clouds over the Greenland and Norwegian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioche, Guillaume; Jourdan, Olivier; Delanoë, Julien; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Dupuy, Régis; Monier, Marie; Szczap, Frédéric; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Gayet, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets within low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds (MPCs). We compiled and analyzed cloud in situ measurements from four airborne spring campaigns (representing 18 flights and 71 vertical profiles in MPCs) over the Greenland and Norwegian seas mainly in the vicinity of the Svalbard archipelago. Cloud phase discrimination and representative vertical profiles of the number, size, mass and shape of ice crystals and liquid droplets are established. The results show that the liquid phase dominates the upper part of the MPCs. High concentrations (120 cm-3 on average) of small droplets (mean values of 15 µm), with an averaged liquid water content (LWC) of 0.2 g m-3 are measured at cloud top. The ice phase dominates the microphysical properties in the lower part of the cloud and beneath it in the precipitation region (mean values of 100 µm, 3 L-1 and 0.025 g m-3 for diameter, particle concentration and ice water content (IWC), respectively). The analysis of the ice crystal morphology shows that the majority of ice particles are irregularly shaped or rimed particles; the prevailing regular habits found are stellars and plates. We hypothesize that riming and diffusional growth processes, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) mechanism, are the main growth mechanisms involved in the observed MPCs. The impact of larger-scale meteorological conditions on the vertical profiles of MPC properties was also investigated. Large values of LWC and high concentration of smaller droplets are possibly linked to polluted situations and air mass origins from the south, which can lead to very low values of ice crystal size and IWC. On the contrary, clean situations with low temperatures exhibit larger values of ice crystal size and IWC. Several parameterizations relevant for remote sensing or modeling studies are also determined, such as IWC (and LWC) - extinction

  5. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forseth, T.; Ugedal, O.; Jonsson, B.; Langeland, A.; Njaastad, O.

    1991-01-01

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  6. Soft Law, Solid Implementation? The Influence of Precision, Monitoring and Stakeholder Involvement on Norwegian Implementation of Arctic Council Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Folkestad Soltvedt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Council has been criticized for its lack of legal status and, consequently, the supposedly low level of implementation among member states. Studying Norwegian implementation of six Arctic Council recommendations, this article challenges that view. I start by assuming that international law is not binary, that soft law is not a uniform phenomenon, and that soft law recommendations may entail certain characteristics—precision, monitoring, and stakeholder involvement—that can enhance their implementation nationally. Additionally, malignancy—an important barrier to national implementation—is taken into account. The Norwegian authorities have implemented several of the recommendations studied, and the characteristics are found to have a bearing on the outcomes. However, the absence of malignancy stands out as the most significant condition for achieving national implementation.

  7. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Bech, Claus; Letcher, Robert J.; Ropstad, Erik; Dahl, Ellen; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of ΣPCB, ΣDDT and particularly Σchlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. - Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively associated with plasma organochlorine concentrations, but not with circulating thyroid hormone levels

  8. Norwegian Arctic climate. Climate influencing emissions, scenarios and mitigation options at Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestreng, Vigdis; Kallenborn, Roland; Oekstad, Elin

    2010-07-01

    literature. Marine transportation contributes substantially (90%) to emissions of particulate matter (BC, OC) and NO{sub x} in 2007, and is the second largest source of CO{sub 2} (40%). Energy production is the largest source of CO{sub 2} (50%) and SO{sub 2} (90%), while nearly all methane is released in relation to coal mining. The high contribution of climate influencing emissions from cruise traffic is one of the main findings in this study. 20% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007 and 40% of NO{sub x} and particulate matter originates from cruise ships. Local emissions of BC contributes significantly (20%) to the total deposition at Svalbard. Black carbon is important for global warming both as a compound that heats the atmosphere, and as a contributor to accelerated melting when deposited on snow and ice. Preventing snow and ice melting at Svalbard and in the rest of the Arctic region is a key factor to ensure a sustainable future. A qualitative uncertainty analysis has been performed. The results indicate that the data quality is best for recent years. A key uncertainty is related to the lack of reliable measurements and consumption figures from the coal fired power plant in Barentsburg. Measurements of emissions related to marine transport and the diesel based power production in Svea would also be beneficial to raise the confidence in emission estimates further. According to our results, a steep increase in emissions of climate related compounds both in the short- and in the long-term can be expected for the coming years if steps are not taken in order to reduce the emissions. Emissions of climate influencing pollutants will continue to grow by about 30% towards 2012 even if the current plans to reduce the Norwegian coal production to half the 2007 level are realized. The emission increase is caused by the assumed growth in activities related mainly to tourism and research. In the long-term, it is shown how developments particularly in the mining and tourist

  9. FRAM-2012: Norwegians return to the High Arctic with a Hovercraft for Marine Geophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Brekke, H.; Hope, G.

    2012-12-01

    After four years of testing methods, craft reliability, and innovative equipment, the R/H SABVABAA has embarked on its first FRAM-201x expedition to the highest Arctic. Named after the Inupiaq word for 'flows swiftly over it', the 12m by 6m hovercraft has been home-based in Longyearbyen, Svalbard since June 2008. In this, its fifth summer of work on the ice pack north of 81N, the craft is supported by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) via the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in Bergen, and the Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research. FRAM-2012 represents renewed Norwegian interest in returning to the highest Arctic some 116 years after the 1893-96 drift of Fridtjof Nansen's ship FRAM, the first serious scientific investigation of the Arctic. When replenished by air or icebreaker, the hovercraft Sabvabaa offers a hospitable scientific platform with crew of two, capable of marine geophysical, geological and oceanographic observations over long periods with relative mobility on the ice pack. FRAM-2012 is the first step towards this goal, accompanying the Swedish icebreaker ODEN to the Lomonosov Ridge, north of Greenland, as part of the LOMROG III expedition. The science plan called for an initial drive from the ice edge to Gakkel Ridge at 85N where micro-earthquakes would be monitored, and then to continue north to a geological sampling area on the Lomonosov Ridge at about 88N, 65W. The micro-earthquake monitoring is part of Gaute Hope's MSc thesis and entails five hydrophones in a WiFi-connected hydrophone array deployed over the Gakkel Rift Valley, drifting with the ice at up to 0.4 knots. On August 3 the hovercraft was refueled from icebreaker ODEN at 84-21'N and both vessels proceeded north. The progress of the hovercraft was hampered by insufficient visibility for safe driving and time consuming maneuvering in and around larger fields of rubble ice impassable by the hovercraft, but of little concern to the icebreaker. It

  10. Recent Arctic sea level variations from satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Ole Baltazar Andersen; Gaia ePiccioni

    2016-01-01

    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher...

  11. Flame retardants and methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two Norwegian Arctic top predators: glaucous gulls and polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Chu, Shaogang; Muir, Derek C G; Andersen, Magnus; Hamaed, Ahmad; Letcher, Robert J

    2005-08-15

    The brominated flame retardants have been subject of a particular environmental focus in the Arctic. The present study investigated the congener patterns and levels of total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as methoxylated (MeO) and hydroxylated (OH) PBDEs in plasma samples of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Norwegian Arctic. The analyses revealed the presence of total HBCD (0.07-1.24 ng/g wet wt) and brominated biphenyl 101 (polar bears. Sum (sigma) concentrations of the 12 PBDEs monitored in glaucous gulls (range: 8.23-67.5 ng/g wet wt) surpassed largely those of polar bears (range: 2.65-9.72 ng/g wet wt). Two higher brominated PBDEs, BDE183 and BDE209, were detected, and thus bioaccumulated to a limited degree, in glaucous gulls with concentrations ranging from polar bear plasma, BDE183 was polar bears (sigmaMeO-PBDE up to 0.17 ng/g wet wt), followed by 4'-MeO-BDE49 and 6-MeO-BDE47. The 3-OH-BDE47, 4'-OH-BDE49, and 6-OH-BDE47 congeners were also detected in glaucous gulls (sigmaOH-PBDE up to 1.05 ng/g wet wt), although in polar bears 4'-OH-BDE49 was the only congener quantifiable in 13% of the samples. The presence of MeO- and OH-PBDEs in plasma of both species suggests possible dietary uptake from naturally occurring sources (e.g., marine sponges and green algae), but also metabolically derived biotransformation of PBDEs such as BDE47 could be a contributing factor. Our findings suggest that there are dissimilar biochemical mechanisms involved in PCB and PBDE metabolism and accumulation/elimination and/or OH-PBDE accumulation and retention in glaucous gulls and polar bears.

  12. Recent Arctic Sea Level Variations from Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Piccioni, Gaia

    2016-01-01

    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish...... Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher accuracy in sea level trend determination. The record shows a sea level trend of 2.2 ± 1.1 mm....../y for the region between 66°N and 82°N. In particular, a local increase of 15 mm/y is found in correspondence to the Beaufort Gyre. An early estimate of the mean sea level trend budget closure in the Arctic for the period 2005–2015 was derived by using the Equivalent Water Heights obtained from GRACE Tellus...

  13. Levels and trends of contaminants in humans of the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer; Adlard, Bryan; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is one of the six working groups established under the Arctic Council. AMAP is tasked with monitoring the levels of contaminants present in the Arctic environment and people as well as assessing their effects on a continuous basis, and reporting these results regularly. Most of the presented data have been collected over the last 20 years and are from all eight Arctic countries. Levels of contaminants appear to be declining in some of the monitored Arctic populations, but it is not consistent across the Arctic. Most Arctic populations continue to experience elevated levels of these contaminants compared to other populations monitored globally. There are certain contaminants, such as perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, which are still increasing in Arctic populations. These contaminants require more investigation to find out the predominant and important sources of exposure, and whether they are being transported to the Arctic through long-range transport in the environment.

  14. Using satellite telemetry to define spatial population structure in polar bears in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritzen, Mette; Derocher, Andrew E.; Wiig, Øystein; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    1. Animal populations, defined by geographical areas within a species’ distribution where population dynamics are largely regulated by births and deaths rather than by migration from surrounding areas, may be the correct unit for wildlife management. However, in heterogeneous landscapes varying habitat quality may yield subpopulations with distinct patterns in resource use and demography significant to the dynamics of populations.2. To define the spatial population structure of polar bears Ursus maritimus in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic, and to assess the existence of a shared population between the two countries, we analysed satellite telemetry data obtained from 105 female polar bears over 12 years.3. Using both cluster analyses and home-range estimation methods, we identified five population units inhabiting areas with different sea-ice characteristics and prey availability.4. The continuous distribution of polar bear positions indicated that the different subpopulations formed one continuous polar bear population in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic. Hence, Norway and Russia have a shared management responsibility.5. The spatial population structure identified will provide a guide for evaluating geographical patterns in polar bear ecology, the dynamics of polar bear–seal relationships and the effects of habitat alteration due to climate change. The work illustrates the importance of defining population borders and subpopulation structure in understanding the dynamics and management of larger animals.

  15. Observed Sea-Level Changes along the Norwegian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Breili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Norway’s national sea level observing system consists of an extensive array of tide gauges, permanent GNSS stations, and lines of repeated levelling. Here, we make use of this observation system to calculate relative sea-level rates and rates corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA along the Norwegian coast for three different periods, i.e., 1960 to 2010, 1984 to 2014, and 1993 to 2016. For all periods, the relative sea-level rates show considerable spatial variations that are largely due to differences in vertical land motion due to GIA. The variation is reduced by applying corrections for vertical land motion and associated gravitational effects on sea level. For 1960 to 2010 and 1984 to 2014, the coastal average GIA-corrected rates for Norway are 2.0 ± 0.6 mm/year and 2.2 ± 0.6 mm/year, respectively. This is close to the rate of global sea-level rise for the same periods. For the most recent period, 1993 to 2016, the GIA-corrected coastal average is 3.5 ± 0.6 mm/year and 3.2 ± 0.6 mm/year with and without inverse barometer (IB corrections, respectively, which is significantly higher than for the two earlier periods. For 1993 to 2016, the coastal average IB-corrected rates show broad agreement with two independent sets of altimetry. This suggests that there is no systematic error in the vertical land motion corrections applied to the tide-gauge data. At the same time, altimetry does not capture the spatial variation identified in the tide-gauge records. This could be an effect of using altimetry observations off the coast instead of directly at each tide gauge. Finally, we note that, owing to natural variability in the climate system, our estimates are highly sensitive to the selected study period. For example, using a 30-year moving window, we find that the estimated rates may change by up to 1 mm/year when shifting the start epoch by only one year.

  16. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, E; Bernhoft, A; Riget, F; Belikov, S E; Boltunov, A N; Derocher, A E; Garner, G W; Wiig, Ø; Skaare, J U

    2003-05-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of alpha- and beta-HCH. The lowest alpha-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, summation operator HCHs was dominated by beta-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p'-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research.

  17. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Riget, F.; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Derocher, A.E.; Garner, G.W.; Wiig, O.; Skaare, J.U.

    2003-01-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, ??-HCH, ??-HCH and p,p???-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of ??- and ??-HCH. The lowest ??-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, ???HCHs was dominated by ??-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p???-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Activity and Diversity of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria along a Norwegian sub-Arctic Glacier Forefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Rivera, Alejandro; Øvreås, Lise; Wilson, Bryan; Yde, Jacob C; Finster, Kai W

    2018-03-29

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and identification of its sources and sinks is crucial for the reliability of climate model outputs. Although CH4 production and consumption rates have been reported from a broad spectrum of environments, data obtained from glacier forefields are restricted to a few locations. We report the activities of methanotrophic communities and their diversity along a chronosequence in front of a sub-Arctic glacier using high-throughput sequencing and gas flux measurements. CH4 oxidation rates were measured in the field throughout the growing season during three sampling times at eight different sampling points in combination with laboratory incubation experiments. The overall results showed that the methanotrophic community had similar trends of increased CH4 consumption and increased abundance as a function of soil development and time of year. Sequencing results revealed that the methanotrophic community was dominated by a few OTUs and that a short-term increase in CH4 concentration, as performed in the field measurements, altered slightly the relative abundance of the OTUs.

  19. Arctic sea-level reconstruction analysis using recent satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2014-01-01

    We present a sea-level reconstruction for the Arctic Ocean using recent satellite altimetry data. The model, forced by historical tide gauge data, is based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) from a calibration period; for this purpose, newly retracked satellite altimetry from ERS-1 and -2...... to reconstruct known data. The relationship between the reconstruction and climatic variables, such as atmospheric pressure, and climate oscillations, including the Arctic Oscillation (AO), is examined....

  20. Arctic Sea Level During the Satellite Altimetry Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carret, A.; Johannessen, J. A.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2017-01-01

    Results of the sea-level budget in the high latitudes (up to 80°N) and the Arctic Ocean during the satellite altimetry era. We investigate the closure of the sea-level budget since 2002 using two altimetry sea-level datasets based on the Envisat waveform retracking: temperature and salinity data....... However, in terms of regional average over the region ranging from 66°N to 80°N, the steric component contributes little to the observed sea-level trend, suggesting a dominant mass contribution in the Arctic region. This is confirmed by GRACE-based ocean mass time series that agree well with the altimetry...

  1. Physical Fitness Levels Do Not Affect Stress Levels in a Sample of Norwegian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Østerås

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity, low physical fitness, and perceived stress during adolescence are presumed to be risk factors for various disorders and subjective health complaints. On the other hand, physical activity and physical fitness, as well as mindfulness qualities, are regarded as prerequisites for health and well-being in children and adolescent, possibly by moderating the negative effects of stress and protecting against stress-related health complaints. Previous studies have suggested gender differences in the relationship between physical activity/physical fitness and psychological variables. The main objective in this study was to evaluate how physical fitness, along with mindfulness qualities (MAAS-A, pain, and BMI, relate to stress (PSQ in adolescents. Secondary objectives were to explore the relationship between physical fitness, mindfulness (MAAS-A, and BMI more explicitly in the study sample, as well as to evaluate possible gender differences. The cross-sectional sample included 102 Norwegian pupils in 10th grade (15 or 16 years. Study measurements were four items from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF, the Norwegian version of the four-factor Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, the Norwegian version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale-Adolescent (MAAS-A, and BMI (recorded in terms of self-reported height and weight. Additionally, pain was measured in terms of localization, number of pain sites, duration, and intensity (Visual analogue scale; VAS. According to the regression analyses, physical fitness could not explain any variation in stress among the adolescents. Nevertheless, there were some negative associations between one stress factor (lack of joy and components of physical fitness at a group level, possibly influenced by conditions not measured in this study. As opposed to physical fitness, mindfulness qualities, and to some degree gender, seemed to explain variation in stress among the adolescents. None of the physical

  2. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains ∼650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Productivity, trophic levels and size spectra of zooplankton in northern Norwegian shelf regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Tande, Kurt S.; Zhu, Yiwu; Basedow, Sünnje

    2009-10-01

    Many studies have been conducted in northern Norwegian shelf regions to assess distributions and abundances of zooplankton in the last decade using towed Scanfish-conductivity, temperature and depth sensors (CTD)-optical plankton counter (OPC), and plankton nets. Significant progresses have been made in understanding dominant species, life histories and behavior, and in using size-structured data to identify dominant species in a certain size range. Using these Scanfish-CTD-OPC data, the analysis of zooplankton community size structures, compositions and their relationships with water types is made along the shelf region from Lofoten, North Cape to Varangerfjorden. From the relationships between the water types and zooplankton communities, the transports and exchanges of zooplankton communities between the Norwegian Coastal and Norwegian Atlantic Waters in regions near Malangsgrunnen and Nordvestbanken are examined. The biovolume (biomass) spectra are further analyzed for the productivity, trophic levels and seasonality of communities in these regions, indicating a steeper slope of the biovolume spectrum for a community dominated by herbivorous species in spring and a flatter slope for a community dominated by carnivorous-omnivorous species in winter. The comparison with the zooplankton biovolume spectra obtained in areas west of Antarctic Peninsula is made to examine and understand the differences in the zooplankton biovolume spectra, their trophic dynamics and potential human impacts between different regions.

  4. Improving sea level record in arctic using ENVISAT altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Pierre; Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Hoang, Duc; Quartly, Graham; Kurekin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is an important component of the climate system whose exact influence on ocean circulation is still poorly understood today. This region is also very sensitive to global warming and some direct consequences like melting ice are particularly visible. In this context, extending the knowledge of the sea level variability as far as possible in the Arctic Ocean is a valuable contribution to the understanding of rapid changes occurring in this region. Due to a particularly complex and unstable environment, ocean observation is challenging considering that sea level measurements can be widely corrupted by the presence of sea ice in the altimeter footprint. In the framework of the ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative project, new algorithms have been developed and implemented to process 10 years of ENVISAT altimeter data over the Arctic Ocean and to improve the sea level measurement in this region. The new processing chain contains three main steps. The first task consists in identifying altimetric returns for which a standard proven estimation processing may be used, and in flagging those requiring more sophisticated processing. This will include introducing a novel approach that uses the relationship with neighbouring waveforms to aid in the identification of key reflecting surfaces. The second task consists in applying estimators that performs better in situations where sea-ice covers partially or totally the observed surface. The last task consists in investigating the transition zones to make sure that no artificial discontinuities are introduced by the different processing and to reduce these discontinuities. We propose in this talk, to explain and illustrate the different steps of this study and to show important figures of improvement regarding the estimation of sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  6. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  7. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  8. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2013-09-01

    Dispersal of (137)Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal (137)Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of (137)Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the (137)Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, (137)Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ response of Nostoc commune s.l. colonies to desiccation in Central Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Elster, Josef; Šimek, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 87-97 ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk LA341; GA MŠk LC06066; GA AV ČR IAA600660605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : desiccation * cyanobacteria * Arctic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.327, year: 2011

  10. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    Indoor radon levels in 1618 Norwegian dwellings located in different geological settings were compared with geological information in order to determine potential correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway and to establish whether geological information is useful in radon risk analysis. In two geographically limited areas, Kinsarvik and Fen, detailed geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in order to explain their elevated natural radiation environment. Significant correlations between geology and indoor radon concentrations in Norway are found when the properties of both the bedrock and the overburden are taken into account. Areas of high radon risk in Norway include 1) exposed bedrock with elevated levels of radium (mainly alum shale and granites) and b) highly permeable unconsolidated sediments derived from all rock types (mainly glaciofluvial and fluvial deposits) and moderately permeable sediments containing radium rich rock fragments (mainly basal till). More than 20 % of Norwegian dwellings located in the high-risk areas can be expected to contain radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. The elevated radon risk related to penneable building grounds is illustrated in Kinsarvik where the highly permeable sediments and the large vadose zone underlying the Huse residential area enable the transport of radon from large volumes into the dwellings resulting in enhanced indoor radon concentrations. Subterranean air flows caused by temperature/pressure differences between soil air and atmospheric air and elevations differences within the Huse area are shown to strongly affect the annual variations in indoor radon concentrations. The marked contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds are clearly illustrated in the Fen area where outcrops of the radium rich Fen carbonatites represent areas of high radon risk while only low levels of both indoor radon concentrations and indoor gamma

  11. Multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence as a predictor of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood: The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, C; Straume, B; Kvernmo, S

    2017-11-01

    Pain in adolescence is associated with mental health problems, the main reason for work disability in young adults. This study explores the relationship between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and later medical (sickness and medical rehabilitation benefits) and social welfare benefits, adjusted for sociodemographic, adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. Data were obtained by linkage between the National Insurance Registry (2003-11) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey in North Norway (2003-05), accepted by 3987 fifteen- to sixteen-year-olds (68% of the total population). The start of the follow-up time was July 1st of the corresponding year the participants responded to the health study. Musculoskeletal pain was measured by the number of musculoskeletal pain sites. We found a positive linear relationship between adolescent musculoskeletal pain sites and the occurrence of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood (p ≤ 0.001). Adolescent musculoskeletal pain was a significant predictor of sickness (p adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. The most important adolescent psychosocial predictors were externalizing problems, less parental involvement and adverse life events. Adolescent multisite musculoskeletal pain was found to be an important predictor of later sickness and social welfare benefit receipt from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescents with multisite musculoskeletal pain are at substantially increased risk of health and social difficulties into young adulthood. Identification and interventions for these adolescent problems could alleviate this risk and be a sound socioeconomic investment. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  12. Modern Perspectives for Tactical Level Operations in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    the Arctic region. The benefits of an analysis of current Russian capabilities will be important for future military leaders of the U.S. in confronting ...capabilities will be important for future military leaders in confronting problems in conducting combat operations in the Arctic environment. By...during Soviet times. These principles are: “high importance of the ideological component and pedagogical training of petty officers, the personnel

  13. Monitoring and modeling of contaminant loads and levels in Norwegian sea 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Norman W.; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Maage, Amund; Aas, Wenche; Graefert, Torbjoern; Schrum, Corinna; Boitsov, Stepan; Breivik, Knut; Iosjpe, Mikhail; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Skogen, Morten; Hoegaasen, Tore; Eckhardt, Sabine; Christiansen, Anne Bjoerkenes; Daae, Kjersti L.; Durand, Dominique; Ledang, Anna Birgitta; Jaccard, Pierre Francois

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the calculation of the supply of oil, hazardous chemicals and radioactive substances from seven sources of seven regions in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian Sea. The data from the various sources used to calculate the concentrations of pollutants in the water column throughout the defined area of the Norwegian Sea (3 dimensions) and calculate the transport of Hg, PCB153 and BaP in and out of each of the seven regions. This transport flux is huge compared with inputs and will alternately be a net source or net sink of each region. The main feature is that the supply is dominated by the fallout from the atmosphere is balanced by decomposition and sedimentation in the water column plus exports / imports from adjacent waters. It is relatively small supply of hazardous substances. With few exceptions, for the supply of air the biggest contribution of mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, PCBs (PCB-153) and PAH (benzo [a] pyrene) to all regions. Exception contributions of land for chromium in mid-Norway and contributions from seabed for lead and chromium from more central parts of the Norwegian Sea. Ship traffic dominates regard. supply of oil. Supply air from the major contribution of radionuclides plutonium-239 240 and strontium-90 in the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea. Otherwise, Sellafield is the dominant source. Contaminants in sediment and cod were largely of low to moderate concentrations. The concentration of radioactive substances in water, sediment and cod were low and comparable with results from other studies in the Norwegian Sea. There are still large gaps in knowledge and uncertainties in both the data and the estimates of supplies. It is especially important to improved figures for inflows into the oceans via air and enhancement of the marine transport and dispersion models.(eb)

  14. An Improved 20-Year Arctic Ocean Altimetric Sea Level Data Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    For ocean and climate research, it is essential to get long-term altimetric sea level data that is as accurate as possible. However, the accuracy of the altimetric data is frequently degraded in the interior of the Arctic Ocean due to the presence of seasonal or permanent sea ice. We have...... reprocessed ERS-1/2/Envisat satellite altimetry to develop an improved 20-year sea level dataset for the Arctic Ocean. We have developed both an along-track dataset and three-day gridded sea level anomaly (SLA) maps from September 1992 to April 2012. A major improvement in data coverage was gained...... estimation of sea level changes from satellite altimetry in the Arctic Ocean. The reprocessed dataset exhibit a mean sea level trend of 2.1 +/- 1.3mm/year (without Glacial Isostatic Adjustment correction) covering the Arctic Ocean between 66 degrees N and 82 degrees N with significant higher spatial...

  15. Phthalate metabolites in Norwegian mothers and children: Levels, diurnal variation and use of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been associated with reproductive and developmental toxicity. Data on levels of these compounds in the Norwegian population is limited. In this study, urine samples were collected from 48 mothers and their children in two counties in Norway. Eleven different phthalate metabolites originating from six commonly used phthalates in consumer products were determined. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in children compared to mothers except for mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). The mothers provided several urine samples during 24hours (h) and diurnal variation showed that the concentrations in the morning urine samples (24-8h) were significantly higher than at other time-periods for most of the phthalate metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 24-hour time-period were in the range of 0.49-0.81. These moderate to high ICCs indicate that one spot urine sample can be used to estimate the exposure to phthalates. Since a significant effect of time of day was observed, it is still advisable to standardize the collection time point to reduce the variation. For the mothers, the use of personal care products (PCPs) were less associated with morning urine samples than early day (8-12h) and evening (16-24h) urine samples. The use of perfume and hair products were positively associated with the urinary concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates. Use of shower soap and shampoo were positively associated with urinary concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. For children, face cream use was positively associated with phthalate metabolites in the morning samples, and hand soap use was negatively associated with concentration of urinary DEHP metabolites in afternoon/evening samples. Since different PCPs were associated with the urinary phthalate metabolites in different time-periods during a day, more than one spot urine sample might be required to study associations between urinary

  16. Response of Arctic sea level and hydrography to hydrological regime change over boreal catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourian, Mohammad J.; Sneeuw, Nico; Losch, Martin; Rabe, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Changes in freshwater influx into the Arctic Ocean are a key driver of regional dynamics and sea level change in the Arctic waters. Low-salinity surface waters maintain a strong stratification in the Arctic. This halocline largely shields the cool polar surface water and sea ice from the warmer waters of Atlantic origin below and, hence, inhibits vertical heat fluxes of heat, salt and nutrients. Recently observed changes in the freshwater content of the upper Arctic Ocean raise the question of the effect of these changes on the region. Changes in the freshwater budget affect regional steric sea level, but also the modified ocean dynamics may change sea level through mass transports within the Arctic. One component of the freshwater budget is continental runoff. The hydrological regime of river runoff appears to be non-stationary. There is both interannual variability and a significantly positive trend since the 1970s. The decreasing Arctic sea-ice cover may be a possible reason for the non-stationary behavior of runoff, especially in coastal and marginal seas. The decrease of sea ice due to global warming would lead to cloud formation and, indeed, increased precipitation. During the warmer season, increased precipitation would lead to more discharge of freshwater to the Arctic shelves and basins. The observational record of discharge into the Arctic Ocean, however, is still too sparse to address important science questions about the long-term behavior and development of Arctic sea level and climate. Given the insufficient monitoring from in situ gauge networks, and without any outlook of improvement, spaceborne approaches are currently being investigated. In this contribution we assess the long-term behavior of monthly runoff time series obtained from hydro-geodetic approaches and explore the effects of interannual runoff variability and long term trends on ocean model simulations.

  17. A new Arctic 25-year Altimetric Sea-level Record (1992-2016) and Initial look at Arctic Sea Level Budget Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen O.B., Passaro M., Benveniste J., Piccioni G.

    2016-01-01

    A new initiative within the ESA Sea Level Climate Change initiative (SL-cci) framework to improve the Arctic sea level record has been initiated as a combined effort to reprocess and retrack past altimetry to create a 25-year combined sea level record for sea level research studies. One of the objectives is to retracked ERS-2 dataset for the high latitudes based on the ALES retracking algorithm through adapting the ALES retracker for retracking of specular surfaces (leads). Secondly a reproce...

  18. A new 25 years Arctic Sea level record from ESA satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Knudsen, Per

    The Arctic is an extremely challenging region for the use of remote sensing for ocean studies. One is the fact that despite 25 years of altimetry only very limited sea level observations exists in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation is changing...... the ESA GOCE mission we are now able to derive a mean dynamic topography of the Arctic Ocean with unprecedented accuracy to constrain the ocean circulation. We present both a new estimation of the mean ocean circulation and new estimates of large scale sea level changes based on satellite data and perform...... and through development of tailored retrackers dealing with presence of sea ice within the radar footprint, we can now develop sea surface height and its variation in most of the Arctic Ocean. We have processed 5 years of Cryosat-2 data quantified as either Lead or Ocean data within the Cryosat-2 SAR mask...

  19. R&D and productivity: A firm level investigation of the Norwegian manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Martin Styrmoe; Burchardt, Stine Marguerite

    2010-01-01

    This publication is originally a master thesis submitted to BI Norwegian Business School 2009. For centuries researchers have grappled with the question: What drives technological progress which in turn powers the all important aggregated growth of the economy? We argue that this question is interesting because it lies at the centre of the endogenous growth theory, which stresses the role of the R&D investments rate as the foremost determinant for productivity growth rates. By utilis...

  20. Arctic sea level change over the past 2 decades from GRACE gradiometry and multi-mission satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, O. B.; Stenseng, L.; Sørensen, C. S.; Cheng, Y.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic is still an extremely challenging region for theuse of remote sensing for sea level studies. Despite the availability of 20 years of altimetry, only very limited sea level observations exist in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation is changing and through development of tailored retrackers dealing with presence of sea ice within the radar footprint, we can now develop sea surface height and its variation in most of the Arctic Ocean. W...

  1. Arctic sea level change over the past 2 decades from GRACE gradiometry and multi-mission satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. B.; Stenseng, L.; Sørensen, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic is still an extremely challenging region for theuse of remote sensing for sea level studies. Despite the availability of 20 years of altimetry, only very limited sea level observations exist in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation...... gradiometer observations from the ESA GOCE mission, we are now able to derive a mean dynamic topography of the Arctic Ocean with unprecedented accuracy to constrain the Arctic Ocean circulation controlling sea level variations in the Arctic. We present both a new estimation of the mean ocean circulation...... is changing and through development of tailored retrackers dealing with presence of sea ice within the radar footprint, we can now develop sea surface height and its variation in most of the Arctic Ocean. We have processed 3 years of Cryosat-2 data quantified as either Lead or Ocean data within the Cryosat-2...

  2. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  3. Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Craig M; Berger, Urs; Bossi, Rossana; Tomy, Gregg T

    2010-07-01

    Poly- and perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous in the Arctic environment. Several modeling studies have been conducted in attempt to resolve the dominant transport pathway of PFCs to the arctic-atmospheric transport of precursors versus direct transport via ocean currents. These studies are generally limited by their focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) fluxes to arctic seawater and thus far have only used fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamide alcohols as inputs for volatile precursors. There have been many monitoring studies from the North American and European Arctic, however, almost nothing is known about PFC levels from the Russian Arctic. In general, there are very few measurements of PFCs from the abiotic environment. Atmospheric measurements show the widespread occurrence of PFC precursors, FTOHs and perfluorinated sulfonamide alcohols. Further, PFCAs and PFSAs have been detected on atmospheric particles. The detection of PFCAs and PFSAs in snow deposition is consistent with the volatile precursor transport hypothesis. There are very limited measurements of PFCs in seawater. PFOA is generally detected in the greatest concentrations. Additional seawater measurements are needed to validate existing model predications. The bulk of the monitoring efforts in biological samples have focused on the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs), although there are very few measurements of PFC precursors. The marine food web has been well studied, particularly the top predators. In contrast, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems have been poorly studied. Studies show that in wildlife perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is generally measured in the highest concentration, followed by either perfluorononanoate (PFNA) or perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA). However, some whale species show relatively high levels of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) and seabirds are typically characterized by high proportions of the C(11)-C(15) PFCAs. PFOA is

  4. Stable reconstruction of Arctic sea level for the 1950-2010 period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is generally difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of both tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. Here a strategy to achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from 1950 to today is presented. This work is based......, a datum-fit of each tide gauges is used and the method takes into account the entirety of each tide gauge record. This makes the Arctic sea level reconstruction much less prone to drifting.From our reconstruction, we found that the Arctic mean sea level trend is around 1.5 mm +/- 0.3 mm/y for the period...... on the combination of tide gauge records and a new 20-year reprocessed satellite altimetry derived sea level pattern. Hence the study is limited to the area covered by satellite altimetry (68ºN and 82ºN). It is found that timestep cumulative reconstruction as suggested by Church and White (2000) may yield widely...

  5. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T.N.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Falk-Petersen, S.

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  7. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  8. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Silyakova, A.; Granskog, M.A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Engel, A.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2′N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived

  9. 60-year Nordic and arctic sea level reconstruction based on a reprocessed two decade altimetric sea level record and tide gauges

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Due to the sparsity and often poor quality of data, reconstructing Arctic sea level is highly challenging. We present a reconstruction of Arctic sea level covering 1950 to 2010, using the approaches from Church et al. (2004) and Ray and Douglas (2011). This involves decomposition of an altimetry calibration record into EOFs, and fitting these patterns to a historical tide gauge record.

  10. 60-year Nordic and arctic sea level reconstruction based on a reprocessed two decade altimetric sea level record and tide gauges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Due to the sparsity and often poor quality of data, reconstructing Arctic sea level is highly challenging. We present a reconstruction of Arctic sea level covering 1950 to 2010, using the approaches from Church et al. (2004) and Ray and Douglas (2011). This involves decomposition of an altimetry ...... calibration record into EOFs, and fitting these patterns to a historical tide gauge record....

  11. Arctic shrub growth trajectories differ across soil moisture levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Daniel; Griffin, Daniel; Hobbie, Sarah E; Finlay, Jacques C

    2017-10-01

    The circumpolar expansion of woody deciduous shrubs in arctic tundra alters key ecosystem properties including carbon balance and hydrology. However, landscape-scale patterns and drivers of shrub expansion remain poorly understood, inhibiting accurate incorporation of shrub effects into climate models. Here, we use dendroecology to elucidate the role of soil moisture in modifying the relationship between climate and growth for a dominant deciduous shrub, Salix pulchra, on the North Slope of Alaska, USA. We improve upon previous modeling approaches by using ecological theory to guide model selection for the relationship between climate and shrub growth. Finally, we present novel dendroecology-based estimates of shrub biomass change under a future climate regime, made possible by recently developed shrub allometry models. We find that S. pulchra growth has responded positively to mean June temperature over the past 2.5 decades at both a dry upland tundra site and an adjacent mesic riparian site. For the upland site, including a negative second-order term in the climate-growth model significantly improved explanatory power, matching theoretical predictions of diminishing growth returns to increasing temperature. A first-order linear model fit best at the riparian site, indicating consistent growth increases in response to sustained warming, possibly due to lack of temperature-induced moisture limitation in mesic habitats. These contrasting results indicate that S. pulchra in mesic habitats may respond positively to a wider range of temperature increase than S. pulchra in dry habitats. Lastly, we estimate that a 2°C increase in current mean June temperature will yield a 19% increase in aboveground S. pulchra biomass at the upland site and a 36% increase at the riparian site. Our method of biomass estimation provides an important link toward incorporating dendroecology data into coupled vegetation and climate models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Arctic Sea Level Change over the altimetry era and reconstructed over the last 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    The Arctic Ocean process severe limitations on the use of altimetry and tide gauge data for sea level studies and prediction due to the presence of seasonal or permanent sea ice. In order to overcome this issue we reprocessed all altimetry data with editing tailored to Arctic conditions, hereby...... on this together with tide gauge information. From our reconstruction, we found that the Arctic mean sea level trend is around 1.5 mm +/- 0.3 mm/y for the period 1950 to 2010, between 68ºN and 82ºN. This value is in good agreement with the global mean trend of 1.8 +/- 0.3 mm/y over the same period as found....... Good altimetric data is seen to crucial for sea level studies and profoundly for sea level reconstruction where we present a 60 years sea level reconstruction based on this new data set. We here present a new multi-decade altimetric dataset and a 60 year reconstruction of sea level based...

  13. Statistical selection of tide gauges for Arctic sea-level reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we seek an appropriate selection of tide gauges for Arctic Ocean sea-level reconstruction based on a combination of empirical criteria and statistical properties (leverages). Tide gauges provide the only in situ observations of sea level prior to the altimetry era. However, tide...... for the period 1950-2010 for the Arctic Ocean, constrained by tide gauge records, using the basic approach of Church et al. (2004). A major challenge is the sparsity of both satellite and tide gauge data beyond what can be covered with interpolation, necessitating a time-variable selection of tide gauges...... and the use of an ocean circulation model to provide gridded time series of sea level. As a surrogate for satellite altimetry, we have used the Drakkar ocean model to yield the EOFs. We initially evaluate the tide gauges through empirical criteria to reject obvious outlier gauges. Subsequently, we evaluate...

  14. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig A. Sæther, Nils P. Aspvik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October. The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered, reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1. Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814. However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001. Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level.

  15. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-01-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006–2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Highlights: • We examined temporal trends of Hg in Arctic seabirds and major zooplankton species. • We investigated the role of underlying ecological drivers in seabird contamination. • Hg contamination of the East Greenland marine food web increased over the last decade. • Hg levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in the food-chain contamination. • Little auks are bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Temporal increase of seabird exposure to Hg reflects changes in Arctic environmental contamination.

  16. Sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean observed by satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Prandi, P.; Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Picot, N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from observations. Variability estimates are derived both at the basin scale and on smaller local spatial scales. The periods of the signals studied vary from high frequency (intra-annual) to long term trends. We also investigate the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Different data types are used, the main one being a recent reprocessing of satellite altimetry data...

  17. A study of the teaching and learning of expository and persuasive writing in English in Norwegian upper secondary level elective English classes.

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosch, Melissa Livingstone

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Literacy This qualitative case study investigates the teaching and learning of writing in English in Norwegian upper secondary level elective English classes, namely International English, Social Studies English and English Literature and Culture, with a focus on expository and persuasive writing. According to a report by Lødding and Aamodt (2015), university students in Norway struggle to write academic texts. The aim was to find out to what extent and how expository an...

  18. Monitoring and modeling of contaminant loads and levels in Norwegian sea 2011; Tilfoerselsprogrammet 2011. Overvaakingav tilfoersler og miljoetilstand i Norskehavet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Norman W.; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Maage, Amund; Aas, Wenche; Graefert, Torbjoern; Schrum, Corinna; Boitsov, Stepan; Breivik, Knut; Iosjpe, Mikhail; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Skogen, Morten; Hoegaasen, Tore; Eckhardt, Sabine; Christiansen, Anne Bjoerkenes; Daae, Kjersti L.; Durand, Dominique; Ledang, Anna Birgitta; Jaccard, Pierre Francois

    2012-07-01

    This report describes the calculation of the supply of oil, hazardous chemicals and radioactive substances from seven sources of seven regions in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian Sea. The data from the various sources used to calculate the concentrations of pollutants in the water column throughout the defined area of the Norwegian Sea (3 dimensions) and calculate the transport of Hg, PCB153 and BaP in and out of each of the seven regions. This transport flux is huge compared with inputs and will alternately be a net source or net sink of each region. The main feature is that the supply is dominated by the fallout from the atmosphere is balanced by decomposition and sedimentation in the water column plus exports / imports from adjacent waters. It is relatively small supply of hazardous substances. With few exceptions, for the supply of air the biggest contribution of mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, PCBs (PCB-153) and PAH (benzo [a] pyrene) to all regions. Exception contributions of land for chromium in mid-Norway and contributions from seabed for lead and chromium from more central parts of the Norwegian Sea. Ship traffic dominates regard. supply of oil. Supply air from the major contribution of radionuclides plutonium-239 240 and strontium-90 in the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea. Otherwise, Sellafield is the dominant source. Contaminants in sediment and cod were largely of low to moderate concentrations. The concentration of radioactive substances in water, sediment and cod were low and comparable with results from other studies in the Norwegian Sea. There are still large gaps in knowledge and uncertainties in both the data and the estimates of supplies. It is especially important to improved figures for inflows into the oceans via air and enhancement of the marine transport and dispersion models.(eb)

  19. Covariance between Arctic sea ice and clouds within atmospheric state regimes at the satellite footprint level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming

    2015-12-27

    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and midtropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500 m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  20. Covariance Between Arctic Sea Ice and Clouds Within Atmospheric State Regimes at the Satellite Footprint Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  1. Levels and patterns of persistent organochlorines in minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) stocks from the North Atlantic and European Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, K.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Born, E.W.; Dietz, R.; Haug, T.; Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Oien, N

    2003-02-01

    Minke whales appear to be quite mobile and have multiple feeding areas in the NE Atlantic Ocean. - Regional variation in PCBs and organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations was examined using the blubber of 155 minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) sampled in seven regions in the North Atlantic and European Arctic, including western and southeastern Greenland, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and the Barents Sea. The levels and relative proportions of OCs were also used to examine the boundaries for North Atlantic minke whale stocks previously defined by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Concentrations of major OC groups ({sigma}PCB, 89.1-22 800 ng/g lipid; {sigma}DDT, 65.3-6280 ng/g lipid; {sigma}CHL, 33.3-2110 ng/g lipid) generally increased from west to east, while HCH concentrations ({sigma}HCH, <1-497 ng/g lipid) showed the opposite trend. Statistical comparison between six regions using sex-adjusted least squared mean concentrations showed that minke whales from the Barents Sea had significantly higher concentrations of {sigma}PCBs than those from the Vestfjorden/Lofoten, the North Sea, and west Svalbard, as well as significantly higher {sigma}DDT concentrations compared to west Greenland animals. The differences in concentrations suggest that west and southeast Greenland minkes may represent one group of whales, which are distinct from both the Jan Mayen minkes and those from other IWC defined stocks in northern European waters. Principal components analysis using proportions of 71 PCB congeners and 20 OC pesticides (of total OCs) did not reveal any major differences among groups although minkes from the North Sea were distinguished from those from Greenland waters by higher loadings of more highly chlorinated PCBs and recalcitrant OC pesticides. The general similarity in mean levels of {sigma}PCBs, {sigma}DDT and {sigma}CHL, as well as mean principal components analysis scores, among minkes sampled at Jan Mayen, Svalbard, Vestfjorden

  2. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena

    2009-01-01

    activity assessments that met all inclusion criteria. General linear models were used to assess the changes in physical activity between 1999-2000 and 2005. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean physical activity level and physical activity during weekends was observed between the two study periods (P...... = 0.02 and physical activity and SES. Although the mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo...

  3. Plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D level and blood gene expression profiles: a cross-sectional study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-genome Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standahl Olsen, K; Rylander, C; Brustad, M; Aksnes, L; Lund, E

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of developing several diseases, but much is unknown about the molecular effects involved. Gene expression technology is increasingly being used to elucidate molecular mechanisms related to nutritional factors, and in this study of free-living, middle-aged Norwegian women, we aimed at identifying gene expression pathways in the blood associated with vitamin D status. Blood samples and questionnaires were collected as a part of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-genome Cohort (500 invited subjects, 218 included). Plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, and we compared groups with sufficient versus deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D >50 nmol/l (n=66) versus genome microarrays. In a targeted pathway-level analysis, several immunological processes, immune cell functions and major signaling pathways were differentially regulated according to vitamin D status (Pnutritional factors.

  4. Tsunami in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    The severity of the climate and sparsely populated coastal regions are the reason why the Russian part of the Arctic Ocean belongs to the least studied areas of the World Ocean. In the same time intensive economic development of the Arctic region, specifically oil and gas industry, require studies of potential thread natural disasters that can cause environmental and technical damage of the coastal and maritime infrastructure of energy industry complex (FEC). Despite the fact that the seismic activity in the Arctic can be attributed to a moderate level, we cannot exclude the occurrence of destructive tsunami waves, directly threatening the FEC. According to the IAEA requirements, in the construction of nuclear power plants it is necessary to take into account the impact of all natural disasters with frequency more than 10-5 per year. Planned accommodation in the polar regions of the Russian floating nuclear power plants certainly requires an adequate risk assessment of the tsunami hazard in the areas of their location. Develop the concept of tsunami hazard assessment would be based on the numerical simulation of different scenarios in which reproduced the hypothetical seismic sources and generated tsunamis. The analysis of available geological, geophysical and seismological data for the period of instrumental observations (1918-2015) shows that the highest earthquake potential within the Arctic region is associated with the underwater Mid-Arctic zone of ocean bottom spreading (interplate boundary between Eurasia and North American plates) as well as with some areas of continental slope within the marginal seas. For the Arctic coast of Russia and the adjacent shelf area, the greatest tsunami danger of seismotectonic origin comes from the earthquakes occurring in the underwater Gakkel Ridge zone, the north-eastern part of the Mid-Arctic zone. In this area, one may expect earthquakes of magnitude Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0 at a rate of 10-2 per year and of magnitude Mw ˜ 7.5 at a

  5. Comparative analysis of military security policy of Norway and Denmark in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Doroshenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of Western countries in the Arctic region is growing with each new statement about the sharp climate change and the melting of the Arctic Ocean’s glaciers. In addition to the threats related to the environmental situation in the Arctic zone, the desire to participate in shelf research and development, the potential of using the sea routes of the region by both the Arctic and non-Arctic states creates threats to the security of the Nordic countries.The coastal states, which in case of the escalation of tensions will be in the midst of a regional conflict in the Arctic, are Norway and Denmark. Therefore, the analysis of a level of Norwegian and Danish military security against a backdrop of increasing confrontation between Russia and West and changing climate situation in the region is urgent ., Nevertheless, to ensure a necessary level of defence capability as well as security of borders and zones of exceptional economic interests in the conditions of low temperatures is not so easy. This article examines the Norwegian and Danish approaches to the new military security challenges in the Arctic region. The paper contains examination of the doctrinal basis of military security along with the main documents that form the security concepts of the two countries in the Arctic region, and the reports of the defense ministries and scientific institutions surveys of military activities in the Arctic.Three directions of coastal countries’ policy making in the issues of military security were chosen for comparison. Firstly, the relationships with the USA, the leader of the North Atlantic alliance, which allow us to determine the significance of Norway and Denmark in building NATO security in the north. Secondly, the relationships with the EU and separately with the Nordic countries are considered. This case shows the level of involvement of the European community in the issue of ensuring the Arctic security . Thirdly, the relationships with

  6. Disciplining the Disciplines? How Qualification Schemes Are Written up at Study Program Level in Norwegian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Philipp E.; Prøitz, Tine S.; Stensaker, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Qualification frameworks are spreading rapidly, not least in Europe following the introduction of the European Qualification Framework. The impact of such frameworks are contested, and the article contributes to this debate by analyzing how a selected group of different study programs in Norwegian higher education is adapting to the newly launched…

  7. Phthalate levels in Norwegian indoor air related to particle size fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkestad, Kirsten Eline; Dye, Christian Jarle; Yttri, Karl Espen; Holme, Jørn Andreas; Hongslo, Jan Kenneth; Schwarze, Per Everhard; Becher, Rune

    2007-12-01

    Phthalates are found in numerous consumer products, including interior materials like polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Several studies have identified phthalates in indoor air. A recent case-control study demonstrated associations between allergic symptoms in children and the concentration of phthalates in dust collected from their homes. Here we have analyzed the content of selected phthalates in particulate matter (PM): PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples collected in 14 different indoor environments. The results showed the presence of the phthalates di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the samples. The dominating phthalate in both PM(10) and PM(2.5) samples from all locations was DBP. More than a 10-fold variation in the mean concentration of total phthalates between sampling sites was observed. The highest levels of total phthalates were detected in one children's room, one kindergarten, in two primary schools, and in a computer room. The relative contribution of total phthalates in PM(10) and PM(2.5) was 1.1 +/- 0.3% for both size fractions. The contribution of total phthalates in PM(2.5) to total phthalates in PM(10) ranged from 23-81%, suggesting different sources. Of the phthalates that were analyzed in the PM material, DBP was found to be the major phthalate in rubber from car tyres. However, our analyses indicate that tyre wear was of minor importance for indoor levels of both DBP as well as total phthalates. Overall, these results support the notion that inhalation of indoor PM contributes to the total phthalate exposure.

  8. Pragmatic competence in English at the VG1 level: To what extent are Norwegian EFL students able to adapt to contextual demands when making requests in English?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Brubæk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents an investigation of Norwegian students of English as a foreign language (EFL and their pragmatic competence in English. The importance of developing such a competence receives a strong focus in the English subject curriculum. However, very few studies have been conducted in the field of pragmatics in Norway, and even fewer Norwegian studies have focused on students’ pragmatic competence in a second language. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether Norwegian EFL students would be familiar with and show awareness of English politeness norms and pragmatic conventions when having to communicate in English. Would they be able to adapt their language, choice of strategy and level of formality to the contextual demands when making requests in the second language (L2? Forty students answered a simplified version of a discourse completion test (DCT consisting of four different situations in which the students had to make requests. The results, which were analysed by means of Brown and Levinson’s theory of face threatening acts, indicated that most of the students were at one of the beginning stages of English pragmatic development. Their language use was characterized by first language (L1 transfer and overuse of familiar and informal expressions. When faced with more formal and demanding situations, they fell short and clearly lacked the knowledge and competence that would allow them to communicate successfully. It can be argued that these findings might indicate a lack of focus in Norwegian schools when it comes to developing students’ pragmatic competence. If this is true, an important part of the subject curriculum is being neglected.

  9. Sea-Level Change in the Russian Arctic Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Baranskaya, A.; Khan, N.; Romanenko, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    Relative sea-level (RSL) databases that span the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present have been used to infer changes in climate, regional ice sheet variations, the rate and geographic source of meltwater influx, and the rheological structure of the solid Earth. Here, we have produced a quality-controlled RSL database for the Russian Arctic since the LGM. The database contains 394 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space, and 244 limiting points, which constrain the minimum or maximum limit of former sea level. In the western part of the Russian Arctic (Barents and White seas,) RSL was driven by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) due to deglaciation of the Scandinavian ice sheet, which covered the Baltic crystalline shield at the LGM. RSL data from isolation basins show rapid RSL from 80-100 m at 11-12 ka BP to 15-25 m at 4-5 ka BP. In the Arctic Islands of Franz-Joseph Land and Novaya Zemlya, RSL data from dated driftwood in raised beaches show a gradual fall from 25-35 m at 9-10 ka BP to 5-10 m at 3 ka BP. In the Russian plain, situated at the margins of the formerly glaciated Baltic crystalline shield, RSL data from raised beaches and isolation basins show an early Holocene rise from less than -20 m at 9-11 ka BP before falling in the late Holocene, illustrating the complex interplay between ice-equivalent meltwater input and GIA. The Western Siberian Arctic (Yamal and Gydan Peninsulas, Beliy Island and islands of the Kara Sea) was not glaciated at the LGM. Sea-level data from marine and salt-marsh deposits show RSL rise at the beginning of the Holocene to a mid-Holocene highstand of 1-5 m at 5-1 ka BP. A similar, but more complex RSL pattern is shown for Eastern Siberia. RSL data from the Laptev Sea shelf show RSL at -40- -45 m and 11-14 ka BP. RSL data from the Lena Delta and Tiksi region have a highstand from 5 to 1 ka BP. The research is supported by RSF project 17-77-10130

  10. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  12. Analysis of sea-level reconstruction techniques for the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Sea-level reconstructions spanning several decades have been examined in numerous studies for most of the world's ocean areas, where satellite missions such as TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 and -2 have provided much-improved knowledge of variability and long-term changes in sea level. However...... a reasonable amount of tide gauge data available, we focus on a reconstruction timespan of the last five decades, and the implementation of the model is validated by applying it to global sea-level data. We examine the influence of the individual tide gauges on the resulting solution and the ability......, these dedicated oceanographic missions are limited in coverage to between ±66° latitude, and satellite altimeter data at higher latitudes is of a substantially worse quality. Following the approach of Church et al. (2004), we apply a model based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) to the Arctic Ocean...

  13. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Rune, E-mail: rdi@dmu.dk [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Aarhus University, Roskilde (Denmark); Outridge, Peter M. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Hobson, Keith A. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2009-12-01

    Background: Because of concern about the recently increasing levels of biological Hg in some areas of the Arctic, we examined the literature concerning the long-term changes of Hg in humans and selected Arctic marine mammals and birds of prey since pre-industrial times (i.e. before 1800 A.D.), to determine the anthropogenic contribution to present-day Hg concentrations and the historical timing of any changes. Methods: Mercury data from published articles were extracted on historical and pre-industrial concentrations as percentages of the recent maximum, as well as the man-made contribution was calculated and depicted in a uniform manner to provide an overview of the development over time. Results and discussion: Trends of [Hg] in hard tissues such as teeth, hair and feathers consistently showed that there had been an order-of-magnitude increase of [Hg] in Arctic marine foodweb-based animals that began in the mid- to late-19th Century and accelerated in the 20th Century. The median man-made contribution to present-day Hg concentrations was 92.4% ranging from 74.2 to 94.4%. Confidence in our data was increased by accompanying data in some studies on stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N), which allowed us to normalize where necessary for changes in animal trophic position and feeding location over time, and by careful attention to the possibility of sample chemical diagenesis (Hg contamination or loss) which can alter the Hg content of ancient hard tissues. Conclusions: Wildlife hard tissue matrices provide consistent information with respect to the steep onset of Hg exposure of Arctic wildlife beginning in the latter half of the 19th Century. Today the man-made contribution was found to be above 92%. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to normalize for possible changes in diet over time, and are highly relevant to include when interpreting temporal trends, baseline concentrations as well as man-made anthropogenic contribution of Hg.

  14. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Rune; Outridge, Peter M.; Hobson, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because of concern about the recently increasing levels of biological Hg in some areas of the Arctic, we examined the literature concerning the long-term changes of Hg in humans and selected Arctic marine mammals and birds of prey since pre-industrial times (i.e. before 1800 A.D.), to determine the anthropogenic contribution to present-day Hg concentrations and the historical timing of any changes. Methods: Mercury data from published articles were extracted on historical and pre-industrial concentrations as percentages of the recent maximum, as well as the man-made contribution was calculated and depicted in a uniform manner to provide an overview of the development over time. Results and discussion: Trends of [Hg] in hard tissues such as teeth, hair and feathers consistently showed that there had been an order-of-magnitude increase of [Hg] in Arctic marine foodweb-based animals that began in the mid- to late-19th Century and accelerated in the 20th Century. The median man-made contribution to present-day Hg concentrations was 92.4% ranging from 74.2 to 94.4%. Confidence in our data was increased by accompanying data in some studies on stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 15 N), which allowed us to normalize where necessary for changes in animal trophic position and feeding location over time, and by careful attention to the possibility of sample chemical diagenesis (Hg contamination or loss) which can alter the Hg content of ancient hard tissues. Conclusions: Wildlife hard tissue matrices provide consistent information with respect to the steep onset of Hg exposure of Arctic wildlife beginning in the latter half of the 19th Century. Today the man-made contribution was found to be above 92%. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to normalize for possible changes in diet over time, and are highly relevant to include when interpreting temporal trends, baseline concentrations as well as man-made anthropogenic contribution of Hg.

  15. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  16. Towards a unified estimate of arctic glaciers contribution to sea level rise since 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehecq, A.; Gardner, A. S.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers retreat contributed to about 1/3 of the observed sea level rise since 1971 (IPCC). However, long term estimates of glaciers volume changes rely on sparse field observations and region-wide satellite observations are available mostly after 2000. The recently declassified images from the reconnaissance satellite series Hexagon (KH9), that acquired 6 m resolution stereoscopic images from 1971 to 1986, open new possibilities for glaciers observation. But the film-printed images represent a processing challenge. Here we present an automatic workflow developed to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) at 24 m resolution from the raw scanned KH9 images. It includes a preprocessing step to detect fiducial marks and to correct distortions of the film caused by the 40-year storage. An estimate of the unknown satellite position is obtained from a crude geolocation of the images. Each stereo image pair/triplet is then processed using the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline to derive an unscaled DEM using standard photogrammetric techniques. This DEM is finally aligned to a reference topography, to account for errors in translation, rotation and scaling. In a second part, we present DEMs generated over glaciers in the Canadian Arctic and analyze glaciers volume changes from 1970 to the more recent WorldView ArcticDEM.

  17. Sea-level and salinity fluctuations during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum in Arctic Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ian C.; Charles, Adam J.; Marshall, John E. A.; Pälike, Heiko; Roberts, Andrew P.; Wilson, Paul A.; Jarvis, Edward; Thorne, Robert; Morris, Emily; Moremon, Rebecca; Pearce, Richard B.; Akbari, Shir

    2011-02-01

    Palaeoenvironmental manifestations of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM; ~ 56 Ma) are relatively well documented in low- to mid-latitude settings and at high southern latitudes, but no documented high northern latitude sites record the entire hyperthermal event. We present high-resolution multi-proxy records from a PETM succession on Spitsbergen in the high Arctic (palaeolatitude ~ 75 °N). By comparing our results with those from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site 302-4A, we document regional palaeoenvironmental variations in the expression of the PETM, with evidence for major differences in basin-margin vegetation and water column oxygen depletion. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical data demonstrate a pre-PETM sea level rise in Spitsbergen before the - 4‰ δ 13C TOC excursion, which culminated in maximum flooding during the peak of the event. The appearance of the dinoflagellate cyst Apectodinium before the onset of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) corroborates that environmental change in the Arctic had begun prior to the CIE. Sedimentological and palynological evidence indicate that elevated terrestrial runoff resulted in water column stratification, providing further evidence for an intensification of the hydrological cycle during the PETM.

  18. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean

  20. Photosynthesis of two Arctic macroalgae under different ambient radiation levels and their sensitivity to enhanced UV radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, P.E.M.; Bischof, K.; Hanelt, D.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The change in optimal quantum efficiency (F-v/F-m) of the Arctic species Laminaria saccharina and Palmaria palmata was investigated in a long-term experiment in situ under different radiation levels during the summer of 1997 in the Kongsfjord (Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen, Norway, 78 degrees 55.5'N, 11

  1. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at 330 and 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

  2. Arctic climate and its interaction with lower latitudes under different levels of anthropogenic warming in a global coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

    2017-07-01

    Three quasi-equilibrium simulations using constant greenhouse gas forcing corresponding to years 2000, 2015 and 2030 have been performed with the global coupled model EC-Earth in order to analyze the Arctic climate and interactions with lower latitudes under different levels of anthropogenic warming. The model simulations indicate an accelerated warming and ice extent reduction in the Arctic between the year-2030 and year-2015 simulations compared to the change between the year-2015 and year-2000 simulations. Both Arctic warming and sea ice reduction are closely linked to the increase of ocean heat transport into the Arctic, particularly through the Barents Sea Opening. Decadal variations of Arctic sea ice extent and ice volume are of the same order of magnitude as the observed ice extent reductions in the last 30 years and are dominated by the variability of the ocean heat transports through the Barents Sea Opening and the Bering Strait. Despite a general warming of mid and high northern latitudes, a substantial cooling is found in the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic under year-2015 and year-2030 conditions. This cooling is related to a strong reduction in the AMOC, itself due to reduced deep water formation in the Labrador Sea. The observed trend towards a more negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the observed linkage between autumn Arctic ice variations and NAO are reproduced in our model simulations for selected 30-year periods but are not robust over longer time periods. This indicates that the observed linkages between ice and NAO might not be robust in reality either, and that the observational time period is still too short to reliably separate the trend from the natural variability.

  3. Arctic smoke – record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3 and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing – black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin – and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the

  4. Postglacial sea-level rise and its impact on the circum-arctic Holocene climate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Henning; Abramova, Ekaterina; Alenius, Teija; Saarnisto, Matti

    2016-04-01

    The global sea-level rise after the last glaciation not only affected the surface properties (circulation, T-S, sea ice seasonality) of the Arctic Ocean and nearby seas it also had a strong impact on the Holocene development of the shallow North Siberian shelf systems and the environmental evolution of the adjacent hinterland areas. In this region sea level reconstructions indicate the postglacial highstand occurred some time in the middle Holocene, between 6 to 5 ka (Klemann et al., 2015). After that time the sedimentary regime of the shelf seas stabilized as noted in a drastic decrease in sedimentation rates observed in all sediment cores taken from middle to outer shelf water depths of the Laptev Sea (Bauch et al. 2001). But, at water depths lower than 30 meters - i.e., in the inner shelf and nearer to the coasts - sedimentation continued at relatively higher rates, presumably due to input of terrigenous material from river runoff as well as coastal erosion. In relation to the latter process, the huge Lena Delta should comprise a region of sediment catchment where aggradation wins over erosion. However, little is known about the detailed history of this delta during the second half of the Holocene. We therefore have investigated three islands within the Lena Delta. All of these are comprised of massive peat of several meters in thickness. Picking discrete specimens of water mosses (Sphagnum) only, we have carefully dated these peat sections. The depth/age relation of the sampled profiles reflect the growth rate of peat, and thus, the islands. It shows that the islands' history above the present-day delta sea level is about 4000 yrs. old. Moreover, a significant change in peat growth is noted after 2500 yrs BP in both, accumulation and composition, and allows the conclusion of a major shift in Arctic environmental conditions since then. Thus, our results add further information also for other coastal studies, as the ongoing degradation of the rather vulnerable

  5. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.

  6. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  7. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  8. Reorganization increases long-term sickness absence at all levels of hospital staff: panel data analysis of employees of Norwegian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelsrud, Mari H

    2014-09-19

    The Norwegian specialist health service has undergone many processes of reorganization during the last three decades. Changes are mainly initiated to increase the efficiency and quality of health care serving an ageing population under the condition of a diminishing labour supply. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of reorganization on long-term sickness absence among different levels of hospital staff. The study draws on panel data on employees of Norwegian public hospitals in 2005 and 2007 (N = 106,715). National register data on individual employees' days of medically certified long-term (>16 days) sickness absence were linked with survey measures of actual reorganization executed at each hospital in each year. The surveys, answered by hospital administration staff, measured five types of reorganization: merging units, splitting up units, creating new units, shutting down units and reallocation of employees. The variation in sickness absence days was analysed using random and fixed effects Poisson regression with level of reorganization as the main explanatory variable. The fixed effects analysis shows that increasing the degree of organizational change at a hospital from a low to a moderate or high degree leads to an increase in the number of days of long-term sickness absence of respectively 9% (95% CI: 1.03-1.15) and 8% (95% CI: 1.02-1.15). There are few significant differences between employees in different education categories. Only physicians have a significantly higher relative increase in days of long-term sickness absence than the control group with lower tertiary education. Increased long-term sickness absence is a risk following reorganization. This risk affects all levels of hospital staff.

  9. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples....... For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  10. Hormone replacement therapy use and plasma levels of sex hormones in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Postgenome Cohort – a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Karina S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hormone replacement therapy use (HRT is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our primary objective was to explore hormone levels in plasma according to HRT use, body mass index (BMI and menopausal status. A secondary objective was to validate self-reported questionnaire information on menstruation and HRT use in the Norwegian Women and Cancer postgenome cohort (NOWAC. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of sex hormone levels among 445 women aged 48–62 who answered an eight-page questionnaire in 2004 and agreed to donate a blood sample. The samples were drawn at the women's local general physician's offices in the spring of 2005 and sent by mail to NOWAC, Tromsø, together with a two-page questionnaire. Plasma levels of sex hormones and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG were measured by immunometry. 20 samples were excluded, leaving 425 hormone measurements. Results 20% of postmenopausal women were HRT users. The plasma levels of estradiol (E2 increased with an increased E2 dose, and use of systemic E2-containing HRT suppressed the level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH. SHBG levels increased mainly among users of oral E2 preparations. Vaginal E2 application did not influence hormone levels. There was no difference in BMI between HRT users and non-users. Increased BMI was associated with increased E2 and decreased FSH and SHBG levels among non-users. Menopausal status defined by the two-page questionnaire showed 92% sensitivity (95% CI 89–96% and 73% specificity (95% CI 64–82%, while the eight-page questionnaire showed 88% sensitivity (95% CI 84–92% and 87% specificity (95% CI 80–94%. Current HRT use showed 100% specificity and 88% of the HRT-users had plasma E2 levels above the 95% CI of non-users. Conclusion Users of systemic E2-containing HRT preparations have plasma E2 and FSH levels comparable to premenopausal women. BMI has an influence on hormone levels among non-users. NOWAC

  11. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  12. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: hronn.o.jorundsdottir@matis.is [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  13. Improved sea level determination in the Arctic regions through development of tolerant altimetry retracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Maulik

    segments. The first segment deals with the development of an improved and customized empirical retracker for the sea icecovered regions in the Arctic. The improved retrackers which are termed as primary peak empiricalretrackers work on just the primary peak of the waveform rather than the complete waveform......This PhD project involves the development of a suitable retracking strategy for processing ofCryosat-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) altimetry waveforms in the Arctic Ocean. The Cryosat-2SAR altimetry waveforms are processed for precise and accurate SSH determination. Precise and accurate...... knowledge of SSH has various applications like gravity field determination, climate prediction, weather forecasting and studies of ocean currents and circulations.Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry waveforms in the Arctic can have a variety of shapes because of the superposition of the echoes from the water...

  14. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  15. Modeling CO2 emissions from Arctic lakes: Model development and site-level study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Biasi, Christina; Eugster, Werner; Walter Anthony, Katey

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies indicated that Arctic lakes play an important role in receiving, processing, and storing organic carbon exported from terrestrial ecosystems. To quantify the contribution of Arctic lakes to the global carbon cycle, we developed a one-dimensional process-based Arctic Lake Biogeochemistry Model (ALBM) that explicitly simulates the dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in Arctic lakes. By realistically modeling water mixing, carbon biogeochemistry, and permafrost carbon loading, the model can reproduce the seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from the study Arctic lakes. The simulated area-weighted CO2 fluxes from yedoma thermokarst lakes, nonyedoma thermokarst lakes, and glacial lakes are 29.5, 13.0, and 21.4 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively, close to the observed values (31.2, 17.2, and 16.5 ± 7.7 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively). The simulations show that the high CO2 fluxes from yedoma thermokarst lakes are stimulated by the biomineralization of mobilized labile organic carbon from thawing yedoma permafrost. The simulations also imply that the relative contribution of glacial lakes to the global carbon cycle could be the largest because of their much larger surface area and high biomineralization and carbon loading. According to the model, sunlight-induced organic carbon degradation is more important for shallow nonyedoma thermokarst lakes but its overall contribution to the global carbon cycle could be limited. Overall, the ALBM can simulate the whole-lake carbon balance of Arctic lakes, a difficult task for field and laboratory experiments and other biogeochemistry models.

  16. Norwegian Gas in International Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Scarcity of oil and gas will continue to characterize international energy markets, either in an economic, physical or political sense, over shorter or longer time. With a constantly increasing Norwegian petroleum production, it is likely that the international community closely will observe petroleum developments in Norway. Apart from security policy, petroleum issues may be the most central single factor in Norwegian foreign policy, simply because the outside world defines it so. The size of the natural gas exports makes Norway a strategic player in a market of vital interest for the energy supplies to Europe. The economic development and national security of the receiving countries depend on secure supplies of energy at stable prices on an acceptable level. Norwegian gas strategy must be conscious that the USA, the EU and great European purchasing countries like Germany, France, the UK and Italy, as well as competitors Russia, Algeria and others, will be interested in its content. As an example of how Norwegian petroleum policy may be influenced from the outside world, the author analyzes the case when Norwegian energy policy first became an explicit element in a larger political game. In order to prevent Western European countries from completing a notable gas contract with the Soviet Union in 1982, the U.S. introduced a ban on all American exports to firms supporting the project. Also the U.S. boycotted European firms supplying equipment. The Americans claimed that if Western Europe became too dependent on Soviet gas, one might come under pressure in a future political crisis if the Soviets turned off the taps to stop the energy supply. The U. S. urged Norway to increase her gas exports as a substitute for Soviet gas. Norway, on the other hand, maintained that gas production could not be increased as quickly as desired. The Norwegians also wanted, in case a development should be accelerated, a ''price premium'' to justify an act that otherwise would have been

  17. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Norwegian Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Designator NIS Norwegian Intelligence Service NRI Networked Readiness Index NSM Norwegian National Security Authority NTSB The National...implementing information and communication technology. Sweden ranked first on the worldwide Networked Readiness Index ( NRI ). Finland was third followed by...Denmark as fourth, and Norway achieved the seventh place putting the four Nordic countries into the top ten on the NRI .126 Many states and

  19. Modeling of observed mineral dust aerosols in the arctic and the impact on winter season low-level clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Song-Miao

    2013-10-01

    Mineral dust aerosol is the main ice nucleus (IN) in the Arctic. Observed dust concentrations at Alert, Canada, are lowest in winter and summer and highest in spring and autumn. In this study, we simulate transport and deposition of dust in a global chemical transport model. The model predicts the spring maximum caused by natural dust from desert sources in Asia and Sahara but underestimates the observations in autumn. Both natural and pollution sources contribute to the wintertime dust burden, as suggested by previous measurements of elemental compositions. Cloud parcel model simulations were carried out to study the impact of dust aerosol on the formation of mixed-phase and ice clouds in the Arctic lower troposphere. The liquid water path of low-level cloud is most sensitive to dust aerosol concentration from winter to early spring when air temperature is at its lowest in the annual cycle. The global and parcel models together suggest that low concentrations and acid coating of dust particles are favorable conditions for occurrence of mixed-phase clouds and that anthropogenic pollution can cause significant perturbations to Arctic IN and clouds in winter.

  20. Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevail, A.M.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Kuhn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution is of worldwide concern; however, increases in international commercial activity in the Arctic are occurring without the knowledge of the existing threat posed to the local marine environment by plastic litter. Here, we quantify plastic ingestion by northern fulmars, Fulmarus

  1. Effect of concentrate supplementation levels on growth and slaughter characteristics of SEA and SEA × Norwegian goats under on-farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozza, William A; Kifaro, George C; Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of goat genotypes and different concentrate levels on growth and slaughter characteristics of Small East African × Norwegian crossbred (SEA × N) and Small East African (SEA) goats. The three concentrate levels were T0 (no access to concentrate), T66 (66 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance) and T100 (100 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance). Twenty-four castrated goats of each genotype (18 months old with an average weight of 16.7 ± 0.54 kg) were randomly allotted into T0, T66 and T100 treatments. Daily feed intake and fortnight body weight measurements were recorded for the whole 84-day experimental period, after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/day, which was 183 g/day higher than that of the T66 group. Supplemented goats (T66 and T100) had significantly (P conversion efficiency and dressing percentage than T0 goats. The SEA goats had higher (P goats, the cost of a 1-kg gain under T66 was Tshs 213/= cheaper than T100 (US$1 ≈ Tshs 1,500). It is concluded that goats should be grazed and supplemented with 353 g concentrate/day for satisfactory fattening performance and higher economic return on investment.

  2. Norwegian Petroleum Policy; Norsk petroleumspolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeiland, Ranveig

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the environment, the petroleum fortune and future generations, licence policy, and regional issues. A principal aim for the Norwegian government is to combine the role as a major energy producer with the desire to be a leading country in environmental issues. Norway is now a major oil and gas producer that produces effectively, profitably and more environmentally friendly than other petroleum countries. The MILJOESOK process was started to strengthen the cooperation between Norwegian authorities and the industry in the environmental sector. The emissions of greenhouse gases per unit produced have been reduced. The emissions to sea of oil and chemicals are also being reduced. Another principle aim is that the oil and gas resources should give the highest possible value creation and secure welfare and employment. With the present production level the reserves of oil will last for 15 years and the reserves of gas for 110 years. The state income generated by the petroleum production is expected to peak around the turn of the millennium, then to decline gradually toward 2050. The petroleum fund is established to be a buffer till long into the future. In 2010, the yield from this fund is expected to be twice the amount of oil money used over the state budget today. Compared with the UK, Norway has chosen to exploit the resources in a step by step fashion at a moderate rate. This policy can be seen in the granting of concession. New concessions will be granted at a rate suitable for smoothing out the activity level and strengthening onshore employment. The North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are quite different as to mapping and maturity and hence require different concession policies. The new deep-sea fields in the Norwegian Sea offer technological challenges and it is important that offshore activities in this area create opportunities for regional development on land

  3. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-08-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeastern Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010, respectively. Speciation of organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates - from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were in focus. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), 12 organosulfates and 1 nitrooxy organosulfate were identified in aerosol samples from the two sites using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. At Station Nord, compound concentrations followed a distinct annual pattern, where high mean concentrations of organosulfates (47 ± 14 ng m-3) and organic acids (11.5 ± 4 ng m-3) were observed in January, February and March, contrary to considerably lower mean concentrations of organosulfates (2 ± 3 ng m-3) and organic acids (2.2 ± 1 ng m-3) observed during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain, organosulfate and organic acid concentrations remained relatively constant during most of the year at a mean concentration of 15 ± 4 ng m-3 and 3.9 ± 1 ng m-3, respectively. However during four weeks of spring, remarkably higher concentrations of total organosulfates (23-36 ng m-3) and total organic acids (7-10 ng m-3) were observed. Elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentrations coincided with the Arctic haze period at both stations, where northern Eurasia was identified as the main source region. Air mass transport from northern Eurasia to Zeppelin Mountain was associated with a 100% increase in the number of detected organosulfate species compared with periods of air mass transport from the Arctic Ocean, Scandinavia and Greenland. The results from this

  4. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-02-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS). A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA) and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA)), 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14) ng m-3, accounting for 7 (±2)% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3) ng m-3 (accounting for 1 (±1)% of total organic matter) observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4) ng m-3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6)% of total organic matter) in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1) ng m-3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4)% of total organic matter) during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  5. Associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with incidence of lung cancer and histologic types in Norwegian adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi-Qian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Wu, Chunsen

    2018-01-01

    Previous prospective studies have shown inconsistent associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and lung cancer incidence. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with incidence of lung cancer overall and different histologic types...... were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) for lung cancer overall or histologic types in relation to serum 25(OH)D levels. Compared with the fourth season-specific quartile of 25(OH)D (median 68.0 nmol/L), lower 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the incidence......)D with a reduced risk of adenocarcinoma were only observed in the overweight/obese subjects [HRs for second and third quartiles: 0.40 (0.22-0.72) and 0.50 (0.27-0.92)] but not in the normal weight subjects [HRs: 0.95 (0.52-1.75) and 0.60 (0.32-1.10)]. Serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the risk of lung...

  6. Modeling CO 2 emissions from Arctic lakes: Model development and site-level study: MODELING CO 2 EMISSIONS FROM ARCTIC LAKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zeli [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Now at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zhuang, Qianlai [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Shurpali, Narasinha J. [Department of Environmental and Biological Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Finland; Marushchak, Maija E. [Department of Environmental and Biological Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Finland; Biasi, Christina [Department of Environmental and Biological Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Finland; Eugster, Werner [Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich Switzerland; Walter Anthony, Katey [Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska USA

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies indicated that Arctic lakes play an important role in receiving, processing, and storing organic carbon exported from terrestrial ecosystems. To quantify the contribution of Arctic lakes to the global carbon cycle, we developed a one-dimensional process-based Arctic Lake Biogeochemistry Model (ALBM) that explicitly simulates the dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in Arctic lakes. By realistically modeling water mixing, carbon biogeochemistry, and permafrost carbon loading, the model can reproduce the seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from the study Arctic lakes. The simulated area-weighted CO2 fluxes from yedoma thermokarst lakes, non-yedoma thermokarst lakes and glacial lakes are 29.5 g C m-2 yr-1, 13.0 g C m-2 yr-1 and 21.4 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively, close to the observed values (31.2 g C m-2 yr-1, 17.2 g C m-2 yr-1 and 16.5±7.7 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively). The simulations show that the high CO2 fluxes from yedoma thermokarst lakes are stimulated by the biomineralization of mobilized labile organic carbon from thawing yedoma permafrost. The simulations also imply that the relative contribution of glacial lakes to the global carbon cycle could be the largest because of their much larger surface area and high biomineralization and carbon loading. According to the model, sunlight-induced organic carbon degradation is more important for shallow non-yedoma thermokarst lakes but its overall contribution to the global carbon cycle could be limited. Overall, the ALBM model can simulate the whole-lake carbon balance of Arctic lakes, a difficult task for field and laboratory experiments and other biogeochemistry models.

  7. Employee and Workplace Well-Being: A Multi-Level Analysis of Teacher Personality and Organizational Climate in Norwegian Teachers from Rural, Urban and City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richard Andrew; Machin, Michael Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Although teaching is frequently cited as a stressful profession, limited recent Norwegian data is available. This study addressed the extent to which organizational climate and individual and organizational well-being outcomes vary between schools in rural, urban, and city locations. Participants were predominantly female (68%), aged 45+ years…

  8. Development in risk level - Norwegian Shelf. Phase 7 main report 2006; Utvikling i risikonivaa - norsk sokkel. Fase 7 hovedrapport 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The project's main objective is to establish and evaluate status and trends for the risk level for the petroleum industry as a whole. The project has been based on two complementary assessment processes: 1. Register, analyze and evaluate data for defined risk and accident situations and contribution from barriers. 2. To conduct social science analyses, in phase 7, mainly by means of field work in two installations. On the basis of these data and indicators, a neutral development is observed in 2006. This includes central indicators related to major accidents, also helicopter accidents, as well as the frequency for severe personal injuries. For major accidents there has been a persistent trend that the frequency is declining, but the degree of seriousness ascends. There has been no fatal accidents in 2006, within the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway's jurisdiction. The field work points towards well service personnel as a challenging group, but a few arrangements have succeeded in improving conditions for this group (ml)

  9. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  10. Arctic atmospheric contaminants in NE Greenland: levels, variations, origins, transport, transformations and trends 1990-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidam, Niels Z; Christensen, Jesper; Wåhlin, Peter; Skov, Henrik

    2004-09-20

    This review is based on the results obtained from the Danish AMAP programme for the Arctic atmosphere during the 1990s. The purpose of the programme is to quantify the pollution, apportion source contributions, follow the trends, and identify midlatitude source areas and transport pathways. The project has been carried out in North Greenland as integrated monitoring, which is an interacting combination of field measurements and model calculations of atmospheric transport and transformation in the Northern Hemisphere. At the monitoring site at Station Nord the large and seasonally recurrent variations in the pollutant concentrations are testimony to the influence in this region of the phenomenon of Arctic Haze. These results can only be understood in terms of long range transport from distant pollution sources. The measurements also comprise a large number of particle-born elements. These results are used to build receptor models, which show that the ambient concentrations and their variations to a high degree can be explained by the influence of only four source types of both natural and anthropogenic nature. The challenging phenomena of atmospheric ozone and mercury depletion around Polar sunrise have been studied at Station Nord over several years. The results show that these two phenomena are closely connected, presumably through photochemical reactions with atmospheric halogens released from sea ice. A large-scale Eulerian model system for the Northern Hemisphere has been developed in this AMAP project. The validity of the model is illustrated by comparisons between measured and calculated air concentrations. The model has been used to calculate both the vertical distribution and the atmospheric depositions for several pollutants at various locations in Greenland and split into quantified contributions from different and geographically distant source areas. Mercury deposition estimates for the Northern Hemisphere are also presented. They show that the mercury

  11. CEEPRA - Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solatie, D.; Leppaenen, A.P. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Kasatkina, N. [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (Russian Federation); Nalbandyan, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland); Reinikainen, K.; Nissi, M. [Poeyry Finland Oy (Finland); Vaaramaa, K. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    CEEPRA (Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research) is an EU-funded project acting under the Kolarctic ENPI CBC programme. The CEEPRA project's main aim is to develop a collaboration network between key radiation research institutions in the EuroArctic region, which will lead to improved emergency preparedness capabilities in the event of any nuclear accidents. The project is studying the current state of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the EuroArctic region by examining environmental samples collected from Lapland in Finland, Finnmark and Troms in Norway, the Kola Peninsula in Russia and in the Barents Sea. The results provide updated information on the present levels, occurrence and the fate of radioactive substances in the Arctic environments and food chains. Special attention is given to collection and analyses of natural products widely used by general public in Finland, Russia and Norway, such as berries, mushrooms, fish and reindeer meat. The region-specific risk assessments are carried out through modelling and studying of long-term effects of potential nuclear accidents in the EuroArctic region and possible impacts on the region's indigenous population, terrestrial and marine environments, reindeer husbandry, the natural product sector, tourism and industries. The project partners are Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) from Finland, the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) from Russia, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Finnish Meteorological Institute and Poeyry Finland Oy. The Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SSC RAS) and Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET) are taking part in the project as well. The main results of the project are presented in this study. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Chemical composition of arctic snow: concentration levels and regional distribution of major elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Hall, Gwendy; Gìslason, Sigurdur; Belsey, William; Braun, Marlene; Goloubeva, Natalia I; Olsen, Hans Kristian; Scheie, Jon Ove; Vaive, Judy E

    2005-01-05

    At the end of the northern winter 1996/1997, 21 snow samples were collected from 17 arctic localities in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Svalbard, Russia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Iceland. Major element concentrations of the filtered (0.45 mum) melted snow indicate that most samples are consistent with a diluted seawater composition. Deviations from this behaviour indicate additional SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) relative to seawater, suggesting a minor contribution from (probably local) coal combustion emissions (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard). The samples with the highest Na and Cl(-) content (Canada, Russia) also have higher Na/SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-) ratios than seawater, suggesting a slight contamination from (probably local) deicing activities. Local soil or rock dust inputs in the snow are indicated by 'excess' Ca contents (Alaska, Svalbard, Greenland, Sweden). No overall relationship was found between pH (range: 4.6-6.1) and total or non-seasalt SO(4)(2-) (NSS), suggesting that acidification due to long-range transport of SO(2) pollution is not operating on an arctic-wide scale. In a few samples (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard), a significant proportion (>50%) of SO(4)(2-) is non-marine in origin. Sources for this non-marine SO(4)(2-) need not all be found in long-range atmospheric transport and more likely sources are local industry (Finland, Sweden), road traffic (Alaska) or minor snow-scooting traffic (one Svalbard locality). A few samples from northern Europe show a relatively weak trend of decreasing pH with increasing NO(3)(-).

  13. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  16. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...... and influence policies relating to the Arctic. But each country’s approach is quite different, writes Aki Tonami....

  17. Arctic Haze Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset

  18. Norwegian Secondary School Teachers and ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikan, Gerd; Molster, Terje

    2011-01-01

    ICT is meant to be integrated in all subjects in Norwegian schools; nevertheless many teachers are reluctant to use ICT in their own teaching. This paper explores to what extent teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching and what teacher-level factors influence the use of ICT. It draws on an analysis of 10 focus-group interviews with 10 teachers…

  19. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Routti, Heli

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4-11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ13C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ13C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Arctic ice management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Smith, Nathan; Groppi, Christopher; Vargas, Perry; Jackson, Rebecca; Kalyaan, Anusha; Nguyen, Peter; Probst, Luke; Rubin, Mark E.; Singleton, Heather; Spacek, Alexander; Truitt, Amanda; Zaw, Pye Pye; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2017-01-01

    As the Earth's climate has changed, Arctic sea ice extent has decreased drastically. It is likely that the late-summer Arctic will be ice-free as soon as the 2030s. This loss of sea ice represents one of the most severe positive feedbacks in the climate system, as sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by sea ice is absorbed by open ocean. It is unlikely that CO2 levels and mean temperatures can be decreased in time to prevent this loss, so restoring sea ice artificially is an imperative. Here we investigate a means for enhancing Arctic sea ice production by using wind power during the Arctic winter to pump water to the surface, where it will freeze more rapidly. We show that where appropriate devices are employed, it is possible to increase ice thickness above natural levels, by about 1 m over the course of the winter. We examine the effects this has in the Arctic climate, concluding that deployment over 10% of the Arctic, especially where ice survival is marginal, could more than reverse current trends of ice loss in the Arctic, using existing industrial capacity. We propose that winter ice thickening by wind-powered pumps be considered and assessed as part of a multipronged strategy for restoring sea ice and arresting the strongest feedbacks in the climate system.

  1. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  2. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  3. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Martin S.; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø.; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Routti, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ 13 C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ 13 C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ 13 C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  4. Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnington, Matthew J; Lei, Ying D; Pokiak, Lucky; Pokiak, James; Ostertag, Sonja K; Loseto, Lisa L; Chan, Hing M; Yeung, Leo W Y; Huang, Haiyong; Wania, Frank

    2017-08-16

    For Canadian Arctic indigenous populations, marine mammal (MM) traditional foods (TFs) represent sources of both important nutrients and hazardous environmental contaminants. Food preparation is known to impact the nutrient and environmental contaminant content of processed items, yet the impacts of preparation on indigenous Arctic MM TFs remain poorly characterized. In order to determine how the various processes involved in preparing beluga blubber TFs affect their levels of nutrients and environmental contaminants, we collected blubber samples from 2 male beluga whales, aged 24 and 37 years, captured during the 2014 summer hunting season in Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, and processed them according to local TF preparation methods. We measured the levels of select nutrients [selenium (Se), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)] and contaminants [organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury (Hg)] in raw and prepared (boiled, roasted, aged) beluga blubber TFs. The impacts of beluga blubber TF preparation methods on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels were inconsistent, as the majority of processes either did not appear to influence concentrations or affected the two belugas differently. However, roasting and ageing beluga blubber consistently impacted certain compounds: roasting blubber increased concentrations of hydrophilic substances (Se and certain PFASs) through solvent depletion and deposited PAHs from cookfire smoke. The solid-liquid phase separation involved in ageing blubber depleted hydrophilic elements (Se, Hg) and some ionogenic PFASs from the lipid-rich liquid oil phase, while PUFA levels appeared to increase, and hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants were retained. Ageing blubber adjacent to in-use smokehouses also resulted in considerable PAH deposition to processed samples. Our findings

  5. Deciphering patterns of postglacial sea level at the junction of the Laurentide and Innuitian Ice Sheets, western Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Hanson, Michelle A.

    2014-05-01

    Recent sampling of deglacial and postglacial raised marine sediments across Melville and Eglinton islands in the western Canadian High Arctic yielded over 200 new radiocarbon dates on molluscs, driftwood and other organic materials. From this database, eight relative sea-level curves and an isobase map for the 9.5 cal ka BP shoreline were constructed. The forms, chronology and pattern of the relative sea-level curves across the study area reflect the complex glacial history of this region, including the asynchronous retreat of the formerly coalescent Laurentide and Innuitian Ice Sheets. Zone I relative sea-level curves, which show continuous emergence to present, were observed in areas closer to greater Last Glacial Maximum ice sheet loading; at more distal sites, transitional Zone I/II curves display emergence followed by submergence in the mid- to late-Holocene (still ongoing) related to forebulge migration and collapse. An independent record of late Holocene submergence is provided by radiocarbon-dated driftwood, which is accumulating at modern sea level due to re-deposition during transgression. Geomorphic evidence of submergence at the modern coastline is widespread but does not distinguish areas that experienced a late Holocene lowstand and subsequent transgression from those that are currently at their lowstand. Of special interest are the relative sea-level histories of two areas that experienced earlier deglaciation by the Laurentide Ice Sheet, while remaining in the peripheral depression of the more stable and adjacent Innuitian Ice Sheet. The flat-topped relative sea-level curves from these sites appear to record unusually slow rates of glacioisostatic emergence for ˜1500 years immediately following deglaciation. The relative sea-level data presented in this paper provide important comparisons for sea level models, which have been shown to fit poorly with previously published data from this region.

  6. The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): a Geoportal for Visualizing Project-level Information About U.S. Funded Research in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Score, R.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; http://armap.org/) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information, including links to data where possible. The latest ARMAP iteration has i) reworked the search user interface (UI) to enable multiple filters to be applied in user-driven queries and ii) implemented ArcGIS Javascript API 4.0 to allow for deployment of 3D maps directly into a users web-browser and enhanced customization of popups. Module additions include i) a dashboard UI powered by a back-end Apache SOLR engine to visualize data in intuitive and interactive charts; and ii) a printing module that allows users to customize maps and export these to different formats (pdf, ppt, gif and jpg). New reference layers and an updated ship tracks layer have also been added. These improvements have been made to improve discoverability, enhance logistics coordination, identify geographic gaps in research/observation effort, and foster enhanced collaboration among the research community. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research effort supported by the U.S. Government.

  7. Comparison of cryoconite organic matter composition from Arctic and Antarctic glaciers at the molecular-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautler, Brent G.; Dubnick, Ashley; Sharp, Martin J.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2013-03-01

    Glacier surfaces are reservoirs that contain organic and inorganic debris referred to as cryoconite. Solar heating of this material results in the formation of water-filled depressions that are colonized by a variety of microbes and are hypothesized to play a role in carbon cycling in glacier ecosystems. Recent studies on cryoconite deposits have focused on their contribution to carbon fluxes to determine whether they are a net source or sink for atmospheric CO2. To better understand carbon cycling in these unique ecosystems, the molecular constituents of cryoconite organic matter (COM) require further elucidation. COM samples from four glaciers were analyzed by targeted extraction of plant- and microbial-derived biomarkers in conjunction with non-targeted NMR experiments to determine the COM composition and potential sources. Several molecular proxies were applied to assess COM degradation and microbial activity using samples from Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, and Antarctica. COM from Canadian (John Evans glacier) and Greenlandic (Leverett glacier) locations was more chemically heterogeneous than that from the Antarctic likely due to inputs from higher plants, mosses and Sphagnum as suggested by the solvent-extractable alkyl lipids and sterols and the detection of lignin- and Sphagnum-derived phenols after cupric oxide chemolysis. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments highlighted the bulk chemical functional groups of COM allowing for a general assessment of its degradation stage from the alkyl/O-alkyl proxy whereas solution-state 1H NMR highlighted both microbial and plant contributions to base-soluble extracts from these COM samples. The dominance of 1H NMR signals from microbial protein/peptides in base-soluble extracts of COM from Antarctica (Joyce glacier and Garwood glacier), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker detection and the absence of plant-derived biomarkers in both the solvent and cupric oxide extracts suggests that this

  8. Late winter under ice pelagic microbial communities in the high Arctic Ocean and the impact of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Adam; Findlay, Helen S; Charvet, Sophie; Lovejoy, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Polar Oceans are natural CO2 sinks because of the enhanced solubility of CO2 in cold water. The Arctic Ocean is at additional risk of accelerated ocean acidification (OA) because of freshwater inputs from sea ice and rivers, which influence the carbonate system. Winter conditions in the Arctic are of interest because of both cold temperatures and limited CO2 venting to the atmosphere when sea ice is present. Earlier OA experiments on Arctic microbial communities conducted in the absence of ice cover, hinted at shifts in taxa dominance and diversity under lowered pH. The Catlin Arctic Survey provided an opportunity to conduct in situ, under-ice, OA experiments during late Arctic winter. Seawater was collected from under the sea ice off Ellef Ringnes Island, and communities were exposed to three CO2 levels for 6 days. Phylogenetic diversity was greater in the attached fraction compared to the free-living fraction in situ, in the controls and in the treatments. The dominant taxa in all cases were Gammaproteobacteria but acidification had little effect compared to the effects of containment. Phylogenetic net relatedness indices suggested that acidification may have decreased the diversity within some bacterial orders, but overall there was no clear trend. Within the experimental communities, alkalinity best explained the variance among samples and replicates, suggesting subtle changes in the carbonate system need to be considered in such experiments. We conclude that under ice communities have the capacity to respond either by selection or phenotypic plasticity to heightened CO2 levels over the short term.

  9. History of Norwegian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringlen, Einar

    2012-03-01

    Psychiatry as a professional and scientific enterprise developed in Norway in the middle of the 19th century. During the last part of this century, four state asylums were erected, followed by several county asylums during the first part of the 20th century. From the 1870 s, institutions for private care were established, usually in the vicinity of the asylums. During the middle of the 19th century, psychiatry in Norway was influenced by "moral treatment", but during the end of the century somatic ideas prevailed. After the Second World War, Norwegian psychiatry was influenced by Dutch and British social psychiatry, followed by American psychoanalytic-oriented psychiatry during the 1960-70s. Since the 1980s, the climate changed, with more emphasis on classification and drug therapy. The new American DSM-III also influenced Norwegian psychiatry, and cognitive-behavioral therapies became more prevalent. Norwegian psychiatric research has during the last few decades been characterized by epidemiological studies, clinical follow-ups and twin research.

  10. Comparison of Freeboard Retrieval and Ice Thickness Calculation From ALS, ASIRAS, and CryoSat-2 in the Norwegian Arctic to Field Measurements Made During the N-ICE2015 Expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Jennifer; Skourup, Henriette; Hvidegaard, Sine M.

    2018-01-01

    We present freeboard measurements from airborne laser scanner (ALS), the Airborne Synthetic Aperture and Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS), and CryoSat‐2 SIRAL radar altimeter; ice thickness measurements from both helicopter‐borne and ground‐based electromagnetic‐sounding; and point...... measurements of ice properties. This case study was carried out in April 2015 during the N‐ICE2015 expedition in the area of the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. The region is represented by deep snow up to 1.12 m and a widespread presence of negative freeboards. The main scattering surfaces from both CryoSat‐2...... freeboard on a regional scale of tens of kilometers. We derived a modal sea‐ice thickness for the study region from CryoSat‐2 of 3.9 m compared to measured total thickness 1.7 m, resulting in an overestimation of sea‐ice thickness on the order of a factor 2. Our results also highlight the importance of year...

  11. Arctic Radiation Measurement in Column: Atmosphere-Surface (ARMCAS) MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Level-1B Data Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Arctic Radiation Measurement in Column: Atmosphere-Surface (ARMCAS) experiment was to detect and differentiate between clouds, ice, and snow...

  12. CAR ARMCAS Level 1C Arctic Cloud Radiation Measurements (CAR_ARMCAS_L1C) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Arctic Radiation Measurement in Column Atmosphere-surface System (ARMCAS) was a collaborative research effort between the Cloud and Aerosol Research (CAR) Group,...

  13. CAR FIREACE Level 1C Arctic Ice and Cloud Radiation (CAR_FIREACE_L1C) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The scientific objectives of FIRE/ACE are to study impact of Arctic clouds on radiation exchange between surface, atmosphere, and space, and the influence of surface...

  14. Greenhouse gas quotas on the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd; Kolshus, Hans H.; Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses advantages and disadvantages of voluntary quota obligations in a greenhouse gas emissions trading system at the company level, and advantages and disadvantages associated with various initial allocation mechanisms in a quota system. The analysis is based on the situation for the Norwegian oil industry in an early Norwegian emissions trading system in the period 2005-2007, and on oil companies' participation in international emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol in the period 2008-2012. The report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and was written in the period March-April 2002. (author)

  15. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2017-09-01

    The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial-interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  16. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  17. Quantifying the potential for low-level transport of black carbon emissions from cropland burning in Russia to the snow-covered Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne V.; Loboda, Tatiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Short-lived aerosols and pollutants transported from northern mid-latitudes have amplified the short term warming in the Arctic region. Among those black carbon is recognized as the second most important human emission in regards to climate forcing, behind carbon dioxide, with a total climate forcing of +1.1Wm-2. Studies have suggested that cropland burning may be a large contributor to the black carbon emissions which are directly deposited on the snow in the Arctic. However, commonly applied atmospheric transport models rely on estimates of black carbon emissions from cropland burning which are known to be highly inaccurate in both the amount and the timing of release. Instead, this study quantifies the potential for the deposition of hypothetical black carbon emissions from known cropland burning in Russia, identified by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections, through low-level transport to the snow in the Arctic using wind vectors from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ ERA-Interim Reanalysis product. Our results confirm that Russian cropland burning is a potentially significant source of black carbon deposition on the Arctic snow in the spring despite the low injection heights associated with cropland burning. Approximately 10% of the observed spring (March - May) cropland active fires (7% annual) likely contribute to black carbon deposition on the Arctic snow from as far south as at least 40°N. Furthermore, our results show that potential spring black carbon emissions from cropland burning in Russia can be deposited beyond 80°N, however, the majority ( 90% - depending on injection height) of all potential spring deposition occurs below 75°N.

  18. Comparison of Freeboard Retrieval and Ice Thickness Calculation From ALS, ASIRAS, and CryoSat-2 in the Norwegian Arctic to Field Measurements Made During the N-ICE2015 Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer; Skourup, Henriette; Hvidegaard, Sine M.; Rösel, Anja; Gerland, Sebastian; Spreen, Gunnar; Polashenski, Chris; Helm, Veit; Liston, Glen E.

    2018-02-01

    We present freeboard measurements from airborne laser scanner (ALS), the Airborne Synthetic Aperture and Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS), and CryoSat-2 SIRAL radar altimeter; ice thickness measurements from both helicopter-borne and ground-based electromagnetic-sounding; and point measurements of ice properties. This case study was carried out in April 2015 during the N-ICE2015 expedition in the area of the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. The region is represented by deep snow up to 1.12 m and a widespread presence of negative freeboards. The main scattering surfaces from both CryoSat-2 and ASIRAS are shown to be closer to the snow freeboard obtained by ALS than to the ice freeboard measured in situ. This case study documents the complexity of freeboard retrievals from radar altimetry. We show that even under cold (below -15°C) conditions the radar freeboard can be close to the snow freeboard on a regional scale of tens of kilometers. We derived a modal sea-ice thickness for the study region from CryoSat-2 of 3.9 m compared to measured total thickness 1.7 m, resulting in an overestimation of sea-ice thickness on the order of a factor 2. Our results also highlight the importance of year-to-year regional scale information about the depth and density of the snowpack, as this influences the sea-ice freeboard, the radar penetration, and is a key component of the hydrostatic balance equations used to convert radar freeboard to sea-ice thickness.

  19. Effectiveness and regulation in the Norwegian power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittelsen, S.A.C.

    1994-03-01

    The report deals with the Norwegian research project dubbed ''Effectiveness in the power supply''. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology and a suitable tool (EDB-PC) to assess the cost effectiveness in the electric power distribution network in order to stipulate the average prices of power distribution in the different network levels. Topics cover as follow: Demand of regulation; measuring method and data; measured effectiveness; regulation of the Norwegian power distribution. 52 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter “Snow Geese”) and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese.

  1. Arctic methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyupina, E.; Amstel, van A.R.

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of a runaway greenhouse effect from methane release from hydrates in the Arctic? In January 2013, a dramatic increase of methane concentration up to 2000 ppb has been measured over the Arctic north of Norway in the Barents Sea. The global average being 1750 ppb. It has been

  2. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...

  3. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  4. Temporal biomass dynamics of an Arctic plankton bloom in response to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and carbonation, driven by anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2, have been shown to affect a variety of marine organisms and are likely to change ecosystem functioning. High latitudes, especially the Arctic, will be the first to encounter profound changes in carbonate chemistry speciation at a large scale, namely the under-saturation of surface waters with respect to aragonite, a calcium carbonate polymorph produced by several organisms in this region. During a CO2 perturbation study in Kongsfjorden on the west coast of Spitsbergen (Norway, in the framework of the EU-funded project EPOCA, the temporal dynamics of a plankton bloom was followed in nine mesocosms, manipulated for CO2 levels ranging initially from about 185 to 1420 μatm. Dissolved inorganic nutrients were added halfway through the experiment. Autotrophic biomass, as identified by chlorophyll a standing stocks (Chl a, peaked three times in all mesocosms. However, while absolute Chl a concentrations were similar in all mesocosms during the first phase of the experiment, higher autotrophic biomass was measured as high in comparison to low CO2 during the second phase, right after dissolved inorganic nutrient addition. This trend then reversed in the third phase. There were several statistically significant CO2 effects on a variety of parameters measured in certain phases, such as nutrient utilization, standing stocks of particulate organic matter, and phytoplankton species composition. Interestingly, CO2 effects developed slowly but steadily, becoming more and more statistically significant with time. The observed CO2-related shifts in nutrient flow into different phytoplankton groups (mainly dinoflagellates, prasinophytes and haptophytes could have consequences for future organic matter flow to higher trophic levels and export production, with consequences

  5. Regional variability of acidification in the Arctic: a sea of contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is a region that is particularly vulnerable to the impact of ocean acidification driven by rising atmospheric CO2, with potentially negative consequences for calcifying organisms such as coccolithophorids and foraminiferans. In this study, we use an ocean-only general circulation model, with embedded biogeochemistry and a comprehensive description of the ocean carbon cycle, to study the response of pH and saturation states of calcite and aragonite to rising atmospheric pCO2 and changing climate in the Arctic Ocean. Particular attention is paid to the strong regional variability within the Arctic, and, for comparison, simulation results are contrasted with those for the global ocean. Simulations were run to year 2099 using the RCP8.5 (an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 scenario with the highest concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The separate impacts of the direct increase in atmospheric CO2 and indirect effects via impact of climate change (changing temperature, stratification, primary production and freshwater fluxes were examined by undertaking two simulations, one with the full system and the other in which atmospheric CO2 was prevented from increasing beyond its preindustrial level (year 1860. Results indicate that the impact of climate change, and spatial heterogeneity thereof, plays a strong role in the declines in pH and carbonate saturation (Ω seen in the Arctic. The central Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay show greatest rates of acidification and Ω decline as a result of melting sea ice. In contrast, areas affected by Atlantic inflow including the Greenland Sea and outer shelves of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas, had minimal decreases in pH and Ω because diminishing ice cover led to greater vertical mixing and primary production. As a consequence, the projected onset of undersaturation in respect to aragonite is highly variable regionally within the

  6. U.S. National Arctic Strategy: Preparing Defensive Lines of Effort for the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    with regional interlocutors.3 There are four entrances to the Arctic, the Bering Strait , the Davis Strait west of Greenland, the Denmark... Strait between Greenland and Iceland, and the Norwegian Sea between Iceland and northwestern Europe. The Bering Strait , and the Alaskan and Canadian...then passed off to Russian Sukhoi SU- 27 fighter jets over the Bering Strait , which forced the aircraft to land at a Russian Air Force base in Anadyr

  7. Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

  8. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87μg/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51μg/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35μg/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for ongoing public health action directed at tobacco prevention, reduction, and cessation for women of reproductive age. Pb and THg were detected in more than 95% of all cord blood samples, with GMs of 21 μg/L and 2.7μg/L, respectively, and Cd was detected in 26% of all cord samples, with a GM of 0.08μg/L. Cord:maternal ratios from paired samples ranged from 0.44 to 4.5 for THg, from 0.5 to 10.3 for MeHg, and 0.1 to 9.0 for Pb. On average, levels of THg, MeHg, and Zn were significantly higher in cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.0001), whereas maternal Cd, Pb, Se, and Cu levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0

  9. Cultural and musical activity among Norwegian doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2013-06-25

    The cultural and musical activity of Norwegian doctors was studied in 1993. We wished to re-examine their cultural and musical activity, analyse the development and study the correlation with satisfaction, health and other leisure activities. In the autumn of 2010, a survey was undertaken among a representative sample of economically active Norwegian doctors. The survey asked the same questions as in 1993, and the responses were also compared to the population studies conducted by Statistics Norway. We also used a cultural index that we have developed ourselves. Altogether 1,019 doctors (70%) responded to the survey. They reported a higher level of cultural activity in 2010 than in 1993, measured in terms of reading of non-medical literature and visits to the cinema, theatre and concerts. The doctors engaged in musical activity of their own especially frequently: 58% reported to be able to play an instrument, and 21% reported to play on a regular basis, which is more than among other academic professions. We found a significant correlation between the doctors' level of cultural activity and their job satisfaction, general satisfaction, self-reported health and physical activity. The doctors who engage most frequently in cultural activities are thus most satisfied with their work and with life in general. Furthermore, they also have better self-reported health. Norwegian doctors give priority to cultural and musical activities. The assertion that doctors are particularly fond of music is more than just a myth.

  10. Climate variability and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in the arctic: a study of glaucous gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Verreault, Jonathan

    2010-04-15

    The impact of climate variability on temporal trends (1997-2006) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs; polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], and oxychlordane) was assessed in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Norwegian Arctic (n = 240). The Arctic Oscillation (AO: an index of sea-level pressure variability in the Northern Hemisphere above 20 degrees N) with different time lags was used as a climate proxy. The estimated concentrations of POPs in glaucous gull blood/plasma declined substantially (16-60%) over the time period. Multiple regression analyses showed that the rates of decline for POPs were correlated to climate variation when controlling for potential confounding variables (sex and body condition). More specifically AO in the current winter showed negative associations with POP concentrations, whereas the relationships with AO measurements from the year preceding POP measurements (AO preceding summer and AO preceding winter) were positive. Hence, gulls had relatively higher POP concentrations in breeding seasons following years with high air transport toward the Arctic. Furthermore, the impact of AO appeared to be stronger for HCB, a relatively volatile compound with high transport potential, compared to heavy chlorinated PCB congeners. This study thus suggests that predicted climate change should be considered in assessments of future temporal trends of POPs in Arctic wildlife.

  11. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO(2) and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.; Lennert, Kunuk

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3 center dot 6H(2)O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that m...

  12. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  13. Challenges of climate change: an Arctic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corell, Robert W

    2006-06-01

    Climate change is being experienced particularly intensely in the Arctic. Arctic average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as that of the rest of the world in the past few decades. Widespread melting of glaciers and sea ice and rising permafrost temperatures present additional evidence of strong Arctic warming. These changes in the Arctic provide an early indication of the environmental and societal significance of global consequences. The Arctic also provides important natural resources to the rest of the world (such as oil, gas, and fish) that will be affected by climate change, and the melting of Arctic glaciers is one of the factors contributing to sea level rise around the globe. An acceleration of these climatic trends is projected to occur during this century, due to ongoing increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. These Arctic changes will, in turn, impact the planet as a whole.

  14. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  15. Factors Reducing Efficiency of the Operational Oceanographic Forecast Systems in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belokopytov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of the forecasted fields in the Arctic Basin is limited by a number of problems resulting, in the first turn, from lack of operational information. Due to the ice cover, satellite data on the sea level and the sea surface temperature is either completely not available or partially accessible in summer. The amount of CTD measuring systems functioning in the operational mode (3 – 5 probes is not sufficient. The number of the temperature-profiling buoys the probing depth of which is limited to 60 m, is not enough for the Arctic as well. Lack of spatial resolution of the available altimetry information (14 km, as compared to the Rossby radius in the Arctic Ocean (2 – 12 km, requires a thorough analysis of the forecasting system practical goals. The basic factor enhancing reliability of the oceanographic forecast consists in the fact that the key oceanographic regions, namely the eastern parts of the Norwegian and Greenland seas, the Barents Sea and the Chukchi Sea including the Bering Strait (where the Atlantic and Pacific waters flow in and transform, and the halocline structure is formed are partially or completely free of ice and significantly better provided with operational information.

  16. The measurement of I-129 in the Canadian Arctic basin and other Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilius, L.R.; Zhao, X.L.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first demonstration by accelerator mass spectrometry for the measurement of 129 I in oceanic systems, the use of 129 I as a long range tracer has become widespread because the constraint of large sample volumes has been removed. Following extensive measurements of 129 I in both the Barents and Kara Seas, seawater samples were collected within the Canadian Arctic Basin, and at a cruise from the Chuchi Sea, across the pole, to the Norwegian Sea. Only 450 ml samples were required for all AMS measurements of Arctic seawater. Enhanced concentrations of 129 I were observed. Based on 137 Cs measurements for the same samples, the 129 I/ 137 Cs ratios showed the signature of Sellafield reprocessing effluents as the primary source of this 129 I. Based on average estimates, 13% of the total Sellafield/La Hague 129 I emissions now resides within the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. 7 refs., 3 figs

  17. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  18. Population-level body condition correlates with productivity in an arctic wader, the dunlin Calidris alpina, during post-breeding migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Grzegorz; Pilacka, Lucyna; Zieliński, Piotr; Gromadzka, Jadwiga

    2017-01-01

    Weather and predation constitute the two main factors affecting the breeding success of those Arctic waders whose productivity is highly variable over the years. We tested whether reproductive success is associated with the post-breeding condition of adults, in which in 'good' years (with warm weather, plentiful food and low predation pressure) the condition of breeders and their productivity is high. To verify this hypothesis, we used a 10-year dataset comprising 20,792 dunlins Calidris alpina, trapped during migration at a stopover site on the southern Baltic Sea shore. Males were consistently in a slightly worse condition than females, likely due to male-biased parental investment in brood rearing. Annual productivity indices were positively correlated with the respective condition indices of breeders from the Eurasian Arctic, indicating that in 'good' years, despite great effort spent on reproduction, breeders leave the breeding grounds in better condition. The pattern did not hold for 1992: productivity was low, but the average condition of adults during migration was the highest noted over the decade. We suggest that the delayed effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, could be responsible for the unexpected high condition of Arctic breeders in 1992. High population-level average condition, coupled with the low productivity could stem from severe weather caused by the volcano eruption a year before and strong predation pressure, which in turn lead to a reduced investment in reproduction. The importance of large-scale episodic phenomena, like this volcano eruption, may blur the statistical associations of wildlife with local environmental drivers.

  19. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of China, India, Japan, Singapore and Italy as permanent observers in the Arctic Council has increased the international status of this forum significantly. This chapter aims to explain the background for the increased international interest in the Arctic region through an analysis...... of the general security situation and to identify both the explicit and the implicit agendas of the primary state actors. The region contains all the ingredients for confrontation and conflict but the economical potential for all the parties concerned creates a general interest in dialogue and cooperation...

  20. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  1. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  2. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  3. Categorization of speech sounds by Norwegian/English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dypvik, Audny T.; Slawinski, Elzbieta B.

    2005-04-01

    Bilinguals who learned English late in life (late bilinguals) as opposed to those who learned English early in life (early bilinguals) differ in their perception of phonemic distinctions. Age of acquisition of a second language as well as depth of immersion into English is influenced by perceptual differences of phonemic contrasts between monolinguals and bilinguals, with consequences for speech production. The phonemes /v/ and /w/ are from the same category in Norwegian, rendering them perceptually indistinguishable to the native Norwegian listener. In English, /v/ and /w/ occupy two categories. Psychoacoustic testing on this phonemic distinction in the current study will compare perceptual abilities of monolingual English and bilingual Norwegian/English listeners. Preliminary data indicates that Norwegian/English bilinguals demonstrate varying perceptual abilities for this phonemic distinction. A series of speech sounds have been generated by an articulatory synthesizer, the Tube Resonance Model, along a continuum between the postures of /v/ and /w/. They will be presented binaurally over headphones in an anechoic chamber at a sound pressure level of 75 dB. Differences in the perception of the categorical boundary between /v/ and /w/ among English monolinguals and Norwegian/English bilinguals will be further delineated.

  4. Norwegian secondary school teachers and ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Wikan, Gerd; Mølster, Terje

    2011-01-01

    ICT is meant to be integrated in all subjects in Norwegian schools; nevertheless many teachers are reluctant to use ICT in their own teaching. This paper explores to what extent teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching and what teacher-level factors influence the use of ICT. It draws on an analysis of 10 focus-group interviews with 10 teachers and a quantitative study of 59 teachers in three lower secondary schools in Hamar, Norway. The teachers showed commitment to ICT; however, may did ...

  5. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414. Median energy percentages (E% from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%. Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81% and received vitamin D supplements (84%. The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001. The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  6. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  7. DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION: The Case of Norwegian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Indarti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among young people. The empirical basis is Norwegian students, while an objective is also to create a basis for comparative studies among different economic and cultural contexts. Independent variables in the study include demographic factors and individual background, personality traits, and contextual elements like access to capital and information. The individual perceptions of self-efficacy and instrumental readiness are the variables that affect entrepreneurial intentions most significantly. Age, gender and educational background have no statistically significant impact. Generally, the level of the entrepreneurial intentions among Norwegian students is relatively low, which may be explained by social status and economic remuneration of entrepreneurs compared with employees in the Norwegian context.

  8. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  9. Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, V. P. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hudson, S. R. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso (Norway); Cohen, L. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso (Norway)

    2016-03-01

    The Norwegian Young Sea Ice (N-ICE) experiment was conducted aboard the R/V Lance research vessel from January through June 2015. The primary purpose of the experiment was to better understand thin, first-year sea ice. This includes understanding of how different components of the Arctic system affect sea ice, but also how changing sea ice affects the system. A major part of this effort is to characterize the atmospheric conditions throughout the experiment. A micropulse lidar (MPL) (S/N: 108) was deployed from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility as part of the atmospheric suite of instruments. The MPL operated successfully throughout the entire experiment, acquiring data from 21 January 2015 through 23 June 2015. The MPL was the essential instrument for determining the phase (water, ice or mixed) of the lower-level clouds over the sea ice. Data obtained from the MPL during the N-ICE experiment show large cloud fractions over young, thin Arctic sea ice from January through June 2015 (north of Svalbard). The winter season was characterized by frequent synoptic storms and large fluctuations in the near-surface temperature. There was much less synoptic activity in spring and summer as the near-surface temperature rose to 0 C. The cloud fraction was lower in winter (60%) than in the spring and summer (80%). Supercooled liquid clouds were observed for most of the deployment, appearing first in mid-February. Spring and summer clouds were characterized by low, thick, uniform clouds.

  10. Operating costs on Norwegian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.; Nansve, A.H.

    1992-09-01

    In this report we summarize some of the findings in a project for A/S Norske Shell, where the objective was to find trends in the development of operating expenditures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf if any, and to explain these. We also present a short compilation of articles on the subject. 23 refs., 13 figs

  11. "Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellnes, Atle

    1992-01-01

    Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

  12. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  13. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    crucial point from the traditional security perspective, but more from the viewpoint of economic security and development. In addition, their perspectives manifest themselves slightly differently from one another. China is willing to invest more in the Arctic. Japan is willing to build on the achievements......At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  14. Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassol, S.J.; Zijderveld, J.; Moll, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than previously known, at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and increasing greenhouse gases from human activities are projected to make it warmer still, according to an unprecedented four-year scientific study of the region conducted by an international team of 300 scientists. At least half the summer sea ice in the Arctic is projected to melt by the end of this century, along with a significant portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as the region is projected to warm an additional 4-7C by the year 2100. These changes will have major global impacts, such as contributing to global sea-level rise and intensifying global warming, according to the final report of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). The assessment was commissioned by the Arctic Council (a ministerial intergovernmental forum comprised of the eight Arctic countries and six Indigenous Peoples organizations) and the International Arctic Science Committee (an international scientific organization appointed by 18 national academies of science). The assessment's projections are based on a moderate estimate of future emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and incorporate results from five major global climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [nl

  15. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  16. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  17. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  18. Arctic potential - Could more structured view improve the understanding of Arctic business opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsala, Henna; Niemelä, Sami; Tervonen, Pekka

    2016-09-01

    The increasing interest towards the Arctic has been witnessed during the past decades. However, the commonly shared definitions of the Arctic key concepts have not yet penetrated national and international arenas for political and economic decision making. The lack of jointly defined framework has made different analyses related to the Arctic quite limited considering the magnitude of economic potential embedded in Arctic. This paper is built on the key findings of two separate, yet connected projects carried out in the Oulu region, Finland. In this paper's approach, the Arctic context has been defined as a composition of three overlapping layers. The first layer is the phenomenological approach to define the Arctic region. The second layer is the strategy-level analysis to define different Arctic paths as well as a national level description of a roadmap to Arctic specialization. The third layer is the operationalization of the first two layers to define the Arctic business context and business opportunities. The studied case from Oulu region indicates that alternative futures for the Arctic competences and business activities are in resemblance with only two of the four identified strategic pathways. Introduction of other pathways to regional level actors as credible and attractive options would require additional, systematic efforts.

  19. Comparison of stress levels among 8 different professions : reflections on variance in reported job-related stress: a comparative study based on Norwegian Nursing College teachers’ situation

    OpenAIRE

    Stamnes, John H.; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is (1) to identify the most prominent stressor among teachers, and (2) to examine the stress level in three samples of teachers: Nursing teachers, primary school teachers and preparatory college teachers. Stress is measured using Cooper Stress Inventory. The three-factorial model is based on principal component analysis (N=278) and in-depth qualitative interviews (N=14). Time-pressure and relations between work and private-life play a prominent part in perception of s...

  20. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H.; Angerer, Jürgen; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hoppin, Jane A.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 μg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 μg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 μg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrfios-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates). PMID:19394271

  1. Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Arctic Council as a forum for facilitating Arctic states’ cooperation on myriad issues of mutual interest within its current mandate. 252...development, in the forms of resource extraction, adventure tourism , and trans-Arctic shipping drives much of the current maritime activity in the...Arctic Council should remain a high-level forum devoted to issues within its current mandate and not be transformed into a formal international

  2. Advective and atmospheric forced changes in heat and fresh water content in the Norwegian Sea, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Kjell Arne; Skagseth, Øystein; Ivshin, Victor; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Hughes, Sarah L.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn

    2014-09-01

    Climate variability in the Norwegian Sea was investigated in terms of ocean heat and fresh water contents of Atlantic water above a reference surface, using hydrographic data during spring 1951-2010. The main processes acting on this variability were examined and then quantified. The area-averaged water mass cooled and freshened, but a deepening of the reference surface resulted in a positive trend in the heat content of 0.3 W m-2. Air-sea heat fluxes explained about half of the interannual variability in heat content. The effect of the advection of Atlantic and Arctic waters on the variability varied with time, apparently due to large-scale changes in the ocean circulation. The data are consistent with the explanation that changing wind patterns caused buffering and then release of Arctic water in the Iceland Sea during the late 1960s to early 1970s, and this caused large hydrographic changes in the Norwegian Sea.

  3. A symbiotic relationship: Norwegian diplomacy and Norwegian journalism on war and peace in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Krøvel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Norwegian journalism on the Guatemalan civil war and the peace process from 1990 to 1997. The author has examined all documents regarding the peace process in Guatemala registered in the archive of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from the late 1980s to 1995 and interviewed most of the relevant Norwegian and Guatemalan sources. The results of the study show that Norwegian sources consistently dominated the reporting on Guatemala. The constructed understandings of Norwegian engagement with war and peace in Guatemala resonated with deep sentiments within Norwegian society. Norwegian journalists came to rely heavily on Norwegian diplomats and facilitators, not only for information, but also for the interpretation of the information.

  4. [Cosmetic surgery among Norwegian women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Roald, Helge Einar; Skolleborg, Knut Chr

    2004-07-01

    There are few data on the frequency of cosmetic surgery among Norwegian women. A random sample of 2000 Norwegian women aged 22 to 55 received a questionnaire on cosmetic surgery, demographic data, self-esteem, and to what extent people around them accepted cosmetic surgery. The response rate was 46% (907 women). Of these, 7.7% indicated that they had undergone cosmetic surgery, while 22.6% wished to do so. Other people's degree of acceptance predicted both the wish to undergo cosmetic surgery and already conducted surgery. Low self-esteem was correlated with a wish to undergo surgery, though women who had done surgery had no lower self-esteem than non-patients. Although the response rate was relatively low, this study gives the first reliable data on the frequency of cosmetic surgery in Norway. The results indicate that other people's degree of acceptance of cosmetic surgery is a predictor of such surgery being chosen.

  5. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  6. EU`s research programs - an important source for Norwegian innovation; EUs forskningsprogrammer - en viktig kilde til norsk innovasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document presents some examples of the Norwegian participation in the research programs of the European Union (EU). By the end of 1997, Norwegian researchers had taken part in the formulation of more than 2400 applications. Over 660 applications with Norwegian participation have been granted support from the EU for common European projects. The examples most directly relating to energy technology and environment are from the following fields: (1) Well technology (CENET project). Utilization of abandoned oil- and gas installations to the benefit of the fisheries, (2) Climate research based on forest observations (FOREST project), (3) Improved methods of analysing and characterising the sea floor (ISACS project), (4) Water-based hydraulic systems, (5) Surface treatment of aluminium, (6) The Arctic environment, (7) Solar cells

  7. Baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone during different life cycle substages in a shorebird on the high arctic breeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Morrison, R I Guy; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Piersma, Theunis; Wingfield, John C

    2002-01-01

    After a migratory flight of several thousand kilometers to their high arctic breeding grounds, red knots (Calidris canutus islandica, Scolopacidae) showed high baseline concentrations of plasma corticosterone (58 ng/mL). Such high baseline corticosterone levels may be conditional for the right behavioral and metabolic adjustments to environmental and social stresses that shorebirds experience on arrival in an unpredictable tundra breeding environment. Despite the high baseline levels of corticosterone, red knots still showed a marked stress response during the postarrival period, with corticosterone concentrations increasing significantly during a 60-min period of confinement. Baseline levels of corticosterone declined as the breeding season progressed. Red knots with brood patches, that is, birds that had completed egg laying and commenced incubation, had a reduced adrenocortical response to the stress of confinement compared with red knots with no, or with half-developed, brood patches. This is consistent with the idea that birds breeding in extreme environments with short breeding seasons may exhibit a decreased adrenocortical response to stressful events to prevent high corticosterone concentrations from inducing interruptions of reproductive behavior.

  8. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  9. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  10. Long-term changes of mercury levels in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from Amundsen Gulf, and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Beaufort Sea, western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outridge, P.M.; Hobson, K.A.; Savelle, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the canine teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) harvested during the 13th-14th, late 19th and early 21st Centuries in Amundsen Gulf, Northwest Territories, Canada. Most historical and pre-industrial teeth contained undetectable Hg levels (i.e. 15 N values) did not change over time, modern δ 13 C values were lower by about 2 per mille than in the 14th and 19th Centuries. This could be due to increased dissolution of anthropogenically derived CO 2 in the ocean from the atmosphere, but could also indicate more offshore pelagic feeding by modern seals, which might be a factor in their Hg exposure. New tooth [Hg] data are also presented for the Beaufort Sea beluga, using recently-discovered museum samples collected in 1960/61, which showed that most of the anthropogenic contribution to beluga Hg had already taken effect by 1960 (reaching ∼ 75% of total Hg). Taken together, the long-term seal and beluga data indicate that whereas Hg levels in the marine ecosystems of the western Canadian Arctic were probably unchanged from pre-industrial times up to the late 19th Century, there was a significant, many-fold increase in the early to mid-20th Century, but little or no change after about the early 1960s.

  11. Arctic hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The devastating winter storms that swoop across the Arctic, endangering offshore oil rigs, shipping, and fishing operations in their paths, are the subject of current study by a team of weather researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As part of the study, U.S. scientists and those from several other countries also will attempt to estimate how much carbon dioxide is transferred from the atmosphere into the North Atlantic's deep waters during winter storms.A typical polar low, like a hurricane, has a spiral cloud pattern and winds exceeding 120 km per hour, said Melvyn Shapiro, senior meteorologist on the polar-low study. The storms are smaller than most hurricanes, however, and rarely have a diameter greater than 320 km. Some, but not all, develop an “eye,” like a hurricane. Polar lows, only recently documented from polar orbiting satellite imagery, appear to form primarily from October to April, but peak in February.

  12. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Bellika, Siri Karlsen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  13. Impacts of climate change on air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with special focus on Europe and the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Hedegaard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of a selected number of chemical species is inspected with respect to climate change. The coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM4-OPYC3 is providing meteorological fields for the Chemical long-range Transport Model DEHM. Three selected decades (1990s, 2040s and 2090s are inspected. The 1990s are used as a reference and validation period. In this decade an evaluation of the output from the DEHM model with ECHAM4-OPYC3 meteorology input data is carried out. The model results are tested against similar model simulations with MM5 meteorology and against observations from the EMEP monitoring sites in Europe.

    The test results from the validation period show that the overall statistics (e.g. mean values and standard deviations are similar for the two simulations. However, as one would expect the model setup with climate input data fails to predict correctly the timing of the variability in the observations. The overall performance of the ECHAM4-OPYC3 setup as meteorological input to the DEHM model is shown to be acceptable according to the applied ranking method. It is concluded that running a chemical long-range transport model on data from a "free run" climate model is scientifically sound. From the model runs of the three decades, it is found that the overall trend detected in the evolution of the chemical species, is the same between the 1990 decade and the 2040 decade and between the 2040 decade and the 2090 decade, respectively.

    The dominating impacts from climate change on a large number of the chemical species are related to the predicted temperature increase. Throughout the 21th century the ECHAM4-OPYC3 projects a global mean temperature increase of 3 K with local maxima up to 11 K in the Arctic winter based on the IPCC A2 emission scenario. As a consequence of this temperature increase, the temperature dependent biogenic emission of isoprene is predicted to increase significantly over land by

  14. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. https://www.norad.no/en/front/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative · View all initiatives.

  15. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  16. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  17. The Technical Student Programme draws Norwegians

    CERN Multimedia

    Maria Martin Sanchez

    2005-01-01

    Erik Hejne, second from left, Chairman of the Technical Students Committee, and Jens Vigen, who is concerned spefically with Norwegian students at CERN, with some of the Norwegian technical students who arrived at CERN in spring 2005, together with their teachers.

  18. Tipping elements in the Arctic marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Arrieta, Jesús M; Alcaraz, Miquel; Coello, Alexandra; Marbà, Núria; Hendriks, Iris E; Holding, Johnna; García-Zarandona, Iñigo; Kritzberg, Emma; Vaqué, Dolors

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic marine ecosystem contains multiple elements that present alternative states. The most obvious of which is an Arctic Ocean largely covered by an ice sheet in summer versus one largely devoid of such cover. Ecosystems under pressure typically shift between such alternative states in an abrupt, rather than smooth manner, with the level of forcing required for shifting this status termed threshold or tipping point. Loss of Arctic ice due to anthropogenic climate change is accelerating, with the extent of Arctic sea ice displaying increased variance at present, a leading indicator of the proximity of a possible tipping point. Reduced ice extent is expected, in turn, to trigger a number of additional tipping elements, physical, chemical, and biological, in motion, with potentially large impacts on the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  19. Forging Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    from the perception of public discourse over the past two years. As members of the Norwegian Special Operation Forces, we also have some first- hand ...values to new members and, at the same time and given new contexts, reaffirm those values to old hands .140 This, as Schein points out, is one key to an...delegeres så ansatte kan handle på egen hånd. 12 Involvement Capability Development The "bench strenght " (capability of people) is constantly improving

  20. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Cooke, A.

    1995-01-01

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  1. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameris, Thomas K; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, Silke; Cobben, Marleen M P; Ens, Bruno J; Nolet, Bart A

    2017-10-01

    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset of local spring, consequently reducing individual fitness and potentially even population levels. We used a dynamic state variable model to study whether Arctic long-distance migrants can advance their migratory schedules under climate warming scenarios which include Arctic amplification, and whether such an advancement is constrained by fuel accumulation or the ability to anticipate climatic changes. Our model predicts that barnacle geese Branta leucopsis suffer from considerably reduced reproductive success with increasing Arctic amplification through mistimed arrival, when they cannot anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring from their wintering grounds. When geese are able to anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring, they are predicted to advance their spring arrival under Arctic amplification up to 44 days without any reproductive costs in terms of optimal condition or timing of breeding. Negative effects of mistimed arrival on reproduction are predicted to be somewhat mitigated by increasing summer length under warming in the Arctic, as late arriving geese can still breed successfully. We conclude that adaptation to Arctic amplification may rather be constrained by the (un)predictability of changes in the Arctic spring than by the time available for fuel accumulation. Social migrants like geese tend to have a high behavioural plasticity regarding stopover site choice and migration schedule, giving them the potential to adapt to future climate changes on their flyway. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Atmospheric transport of pollution to the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, T.

    1984-01-01

    If the atmospheric processes are assumed to be nearly adiabatic, the conclusion is that the possible source areas of Arctic air pollution detected at ground level have to be situated in areas with almost the same temperature as observed in the Arctic itself. Sources south of the polar front system can only contribute to high-altitude (or upper level) Arctic pollution. The amplitude and phase of long, planetary waves are important since they determine the position of the polar front, and provide conditions for meridional transport of air at certain longitudes

  3. Invisible Migrants : Norwegians in Brazil, 1820-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Clarisse Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on Norwegian migration to Brazil from a macro-level perspective: how many migrated, when, where, how and why. The present analysis is based on data from emigration and immigration records, passenger lists, as well as other “alternative” sources such as travelogues, personal and historical accounts and letters, collected both in Norway and Brazil. Official emigration and immigration statistics on this group are often incomplete, unreliable or simply inexistent, in par...

  4. An exploration of job stress and health in the Norwegian police service: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Øivind

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Police work is regarded as a high-stress occupation, but so far, no nationwide study has explored the associations between work stress and health. Aims To explore physical and mental health among Norwegian police and associations to job stress. Comparisons were made with a nationwide sample of Norwegian physicians and the general Norwegian population. Methods Comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of 3,272 Norwegian police at all hierarchical levels, including the Norwegian Police Stress Survey with two factors (serious operational tasks and work injuries, the Job Stress Survey with two factors (job pressure and lack of support, the Basic Character Inventory, the Subjective Health Complaint questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Paykel's Suicidal Feelings in the General Population. Results The frequency of job pressure and lack of support was mainly associated to physical and mental health problems. Females showed higher means on anxiety symptoms than males (4.2, SD 2.9 and 3.7, SD 2.9, respectively; p Conclusion This is the first nationwide study to explore job stress and physical and mental health in police. The results indicate that Norwegian police have high levels of musculoskeletal health problems mainly associated to the frequency of job pressure and lack of support. However, also frequent exposure to work injuries was associated to health problems. This may indicate that daily routine work as well as police operational duties must be taken into consideration in assessing job stress and police health.

  5. Changes in seasonal and annual high-frequency air temperature variability in the Arctic from 1951 to 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylak, Rajmund

    2002-07-01

    A detailed analysis of intraseasonal (within season) and interannual (between years) temperature variability for the whole Arctic for the period 1951-90 is provided. For this purpose four temperature variables were used: average (TMEAN), maximum (TMAX) and minimum (TMIN) temperatures, and the diurnal temperature range (DTR). The source data for the analysis were the daily TMAX and TMIN for ten stations representing almost all climatic regions in the Arctic. The methods of calculation of temperature variability were mostly taken from Plummer ([1996]; Australian Meteorological Magazine 45: 233). Thus the results presented for the Arctic can be fully compared with existing results for the other parts of the world (China, the former USSR, the USA and Australia).Regional trends in intraseasonal and interannual temperature variability were mixed and the majority of them were insignificant. Trends in intraseasonal variability were positive in the Norwegian Arctic and eastern Greenland and negative in the Canadian and Russian Arctic. Small increases in interannual variability for all temperature variables were observed annually in the Norwegian Arctic and eastern Greenland, and in the Canadian Arctic. These were largely a result of increases in winter and transitional seasons respectively. On the other hand, opposite tendencies, both on a seasonal and an annual basis, occurred in the Russian Arctic. Statistically significant negative trends in intraseasonal variability were noted mainly in the Canadian Arctic, whereas such trends in interannual variability were noted mainly in the Russian Arctic. The absence of significant changes in intraseasonal and interannual variability of TMEAN, TMAX, TMIN and DTR is additional evidence (besides the average temperature) that in the Arctic in the period 1951-90 no tangible manifestations of the greenhouse effect can be identified.

  6. Migration and breeding biology of Arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    , the study produced the first estimates of the key prey species of the Arctic tern in Greenland. Although zooplankton and various fish species were present in the chick diet of terns breeding in Disko Bay, Capelin (Mallotus villosus) was the single most important prey species found in all age groups...... (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... by the distribution of breeding Arctic terns as suggested by Egevang et al. (2004). Included in the thesis are furthermore results with an appeal to the Greenland management agencies. Along with estimates of the Arctic tern population size at the two most important Arctic tern colonies in West Greenland and East...

  7. Advancing NOAA NWS Arctic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M. C.; Meyers, J. C.; Churma, M.; Thoman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic require changes in the way the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) delivers hydrological and meteorological information to prepare the region's societies and indigenous population for emerging challenges. These challenges include changing weather patterns, changes in the timing and extent of sea ice, accelerated soil erosion due to permafrost decline, increasing coastal vulnerably, and changes in the traditional food supply. The decline in Arctic sea ice is opening new opportunities for exploitation of natural resources, commerce, tourism, and military interest. These societal challenges and economic opportunities call for a NOAA integrated approach for delivery of environmental information including climate, water, and weather data, forecasts, and warnings. Presently the NOAA Arctic Task Force provides leadership in programmatic coordination across NOAA line offices. National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide the foundational operational hydro-meteorological products and services in the Arctic. Starting in 2016, NOAA's NWS will work toward improving its role in programmatic coordination and development through assembling an NWS Arctic Task Team. The team will foster ties in the Arctic between the 11 NWS national service programs in climate, water, and weather information, as well as between Arctic programs in NWS and other NOAA line offices and external partners. One of the team outcomes is improving decision support tools for the Arctic. The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) currently has more than 1100 registered users, including NOAA staff and technical partners. The tool has been available online since 2013 (http://nws.weather.gov/lcat/ ). The tool links trusted, recommended NOAA data and analytical capabilities to assess impacts of climate variability and climate change at local levels. A new capability currently being developed will

  8. Arctic Gas hydrate, Environment and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienert, Jurgen; Andreassen, Karin; Bünz, Stefan; Carroll, JoLynn; Ferre, Benedicte; Knies, Jochen; Panieri, Giuliana; Rasmussen, Tine; Myhre, Cathrine Lund

    2015-04-01

    contribute to ocean acidification, what is the marine benthic uptake rate and response time and how much will bypass the natural ocean filter systems to the atmosphere? We do have a strong commitment to collaborating with relevant research entities in USA, Russia, Canada and Europe. CAGE creates needed science and technology sectors and enhance the ability in Norwegian Arctic regions to prosper by facilitating recruitment of early career scientists and active cooperation between hydrocarbon industry, technology providers and prominent Arctic research teams. The Research Council of Norway is funding the Centre of Excellence for a 10 years period under grant no. 223259.

  9. The Norwegian hydrogen guide 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies are maturing at rapid speed, something we experience in Norway and around the globe every day as demonstration projects for vehicles and infrastructure expand at a rate unthinkable of only a few years ago. An example of this evolution happened in Norway in 2009 when two hydrogen filling stations were opened on May the 11th, making it possible to arrange the highly successful Viking Rally from Oslo to Stavanger with more than 40 competing teams. The Viking Rally demonstrated for the public that battery and hydrogen-electric vehicles are technologies that exist today and provide a real alternative for zero emission mobility in the future. The driving range of the generation of vehicles put into demonstration today is more than 450 km on a full hydrogen tank, comparable to conventional vehicles. As the car industry develops the next generation of vehicles for serial production within the next 4-5 years, we will see vehicles that are more robust, more reliable and cost effective. Also on the hydrogen production and distribution side progress is being made, and since renewable hydrogen from biomass and electrolysis is capable of making mobility basically emission free, hydrogen can be a key component in combating climate change and reducing local emissions. The research Council of Norway has for many years supported the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and The Research Council firmly believes that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies play a crucial role in the energy system of the future. Hydrogen is a flexible transportation fuel, and offers possibilities for storing and balancing intermittent electricity in the energy system. Norwegian companies, research organisations and universities have during the last decade developed strong capabilities in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, capabilities it is important to further develop so that Norwegian actors can supply high class hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to global markets

  10. Atmospheric Bromine in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.W.; Sperry, P.D.; Rahn, K.A.; Gladney, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    We report the first measurements of both particulate and gas phase bromine in the Arctic troposphere. Data from continuous sampling of the Arctic aerosol over a period of 4 years (1976--1980) indicate that the bromine content in the aerosol averages 6 +- 4 ngBr/SCM (5 +- 3 pptm Br) for 9 months of every year. During the 3-month period between February 15 and May 15, however, we observed an annual sharp maximum in particulate bromine with levels exceeding 100 ngBr/SCM (82 pptm Br). The Arctic aerosol showed no bromine enrichment relative to seawater except for this 3 month peak period. During the bromine maximum, enrichment factors reached 40 with average values near 10. Calculations of the amount of excess bromine in the Arctic aerosol showed that over 90% of the peak bromine had an origin other than from direct bulk seawater injection. Total levels of gas phase bromine in the Arctic troposphere found during the peak aerosol period averaged 422 +- 48 ngBr/SCM (118 +- 14 pptv). Total bromine content during this period averaged 474 +- 49 ngBr/SCM with gas-to-particle ratios ranging from 7 to 18. A measurement under nonpeak conditions showed total bromine levels at <25 ngBr/SCM. The possibility that local contamination contributed to the seasonal development of the 3-month bromine peak was carefully considered and ruled out. Elevated particualte bromine levels, with peak values ranging from 22 to 30 ngBr/SCM, were also found at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen (Norway). The apparent seasonal nature of this bromine peak suggests that the large bromine maximum observed at Barrow is not an isolated or unique phenomenon characteristic of that sampling location

  11. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic....

  12. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Arctic climate tipping points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  14. Dramatic for Norwegian glaciers in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesje, Atle; Bakke, Jostein; Lie, Oeyvind; Dahl, Svein Olaf

    2006-01-01

    The article presents briefly some results from the research program RegClim. Various climatic aspects are discussed and climatic models are used. 98 % of the Norwegian glaciers may have disappeared before 2100

  15. Pronouns, Gender, and Sex in Norwegian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venas, Kjell

    1992-01-01

    The stages in the development of a policy concerning the third person singular pronoun in Norwegian is sketched out and new information is presented about usage in generic and sex-indefinite contexts. (14 references) (JL)

  16. Arctic pollution: How much is too much

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An overview is presented of the problems of pollution in the Arctic. Pollution from lower latitudes is carried into the Arctic by atmospheric circulation and ocean currents. Contamination of snow, waters and organisms with imported pollutants has appeared in the past few decades and appears to be increasing. Arctic ecosystems show indications of being much more susceptible to biological damage at low levels of pollutants than higher-energy ecosystems in temperate latitudes, and many Arctic organisms become accumulators and concentrators of organic pollutants and toxic metals. Arctic haze is 20 to 40 times as high in winter as in summer and has been found to consist of particles of largely industrial origin, mostly soot, hydrocarbons and sulphates. Dramatic declines in stratospheric ozone have been apparent over Antarctica, and a similar but less intense depletion is appearing over the Arctic. Toxic compounds, particularly organochlorines and some heavy metals, have been found in worrying amounts in snow, water and organisms in Arctic North America, Greenland and Svalbard. Radioactive contamination was widespread during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1960s and 1970s, and the comparatively small amount of radiation released by the Chernobyl accident had greatest effect in northern Scandinavia. 4 figs.

  17. Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Planetary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Haekkinen, S.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of a fifty-year record (1946-1995) of monthly-averaged sea level pressure data provides a link between the phases of planetary-scale sea level pressure waves and Arctic Ocean and ice variability. Results of this analysis show: (1) a breakdown of the dominant wave 1 pattern in the late 1960's, (2) shifts in the mean phase of waves 1 and 2 since this breakdown, (3) an eastward shift in the phases of both waves 1 and 2 during the years of simulated cyclonic Arctic Ocean circulation relative to their phases during the years of anticyclonic circulation, (4) a strong decadal variability of wave phase associated with simulated Arctic Ocean circulation changes. Finally, the Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns that emerge when waves 1 and 2 are in their extreme eastern and western positions suggest an alternative approach for determining significant forcing patterns of sea ice and high-latitude variability.

  18. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll and Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea - A basin-scale habitat comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Bagøien, Espen

    2012-09-01

    Seasonal patterns for mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll, and Calanus finmarchicus in different water masses between 62 and 70°N of the Norwegian Sea were compared using spatiotemporally aggregated basin-scale data. Norwegian Coastal Water was stratified throughout the year due to a low-salinity upper layer. The winter mixed layer depth was typically about 50-60m, and the spring phytoplankton bloom peaked in late April. In Atlantic and Arctic Waters the winter mixed layer depths were much greater, typically about 175-250m. Due to the requirement for thermal stratification, the phytoplankton build-ups there were slower and the peaks were delayed until late May. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrient consumption and chlorophyll was similar for the Atlantic and Arctic areas. Young Calanus copepodites of the first new generation in Coastal Water peaked in early May, preceding the peak in Atlantic Water by about 2weeks, and that in Arctic Water by about 6weeks. While the young G 1 cohorts in Coastal and Atlantic waters coincided rather well in time with the phytoplankton blooms, the timing of the cohort in Arctic Water was delayed compared to the phytoplankton. Two or more Calanus generations in Coastal Water, and two generations in Atlantic Water were observed. Only one generation was found in Arctic Water, where scarce autumn data precludes evaluation of a possible second generation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. DNA damage and photosynthesis in Antarctic and Arctic Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske under ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lud, D; Moerdijk, T.C W; van de Poll, W.H.; Buma, A.G.J.; Huiskes, A.H L

    2002-01-01

    The response of the bipolar moss Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske to ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation was investigated at an Antarctic (Leonie Island, 67degrees35' S, 68degrees20' W) and an Arctic (Ny-Alesund, 78degrees55' N, 11degrees56' E) site, which differed in ambient UV-B radiation (UV-BR:

  20. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsen...

  1. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  3. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service of the co......This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  4. Air pollution impacts due to petroleum extraction in the Norwegian Sea during the ACCESS aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tuccella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from oil/gas extraction activities in the Arctic are already important in certain regions and may increase as global warming opens up new opportunities for industrial development. Emissions from oil/gas extraction are sources of air pollutants, but large uncertainties exist with regard to their amounts and composition. In this study, we focus on detailed investigation of emissions from oil/gas extraction in the Norwegian Sea combining measurements from the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign in July 2012 and regional chemical transport modeling. The goal is to (1 evaluate emissions from petroleum extraction activities and (2 investigate their impact on atmospheric composition over the Norwegian Sea. Numerical simulations include emissions for permanently operating offshore facilities from two datasets: the TNO-MACC inventory and emissions reported by Norwegian Environment Agency (NEA. It was necessary to additionally estimate primary aerosol emissions using reported emission factors since these emissions are not included in the inventories for our sites. Model runs with the TNO-MACC emissions are unable to reproduce observations close to the facilities. Runs using the NEA emissions more closely reproduce the observations although emissions from mobile facilities are missing from this inventory. Measured plumes suggest they are a significant source of pollutants, in particular NOx and aerosols. Sensitivities to NOx and NMVOC emissions show that, close to the platforms, O3 is sensitive to NOx emissions and is much less sensitive to NMVOC emissions. O3 destruction, via reaction with NO, dominates very close to the platforms. Far from the platforms, oil/gas facility emissions result in an average daytime O3 enhancement of +2% at the surface. Larger enhancements are predicted at noon ranging from +7% at the surface to +15% at 600 m. Black carbon is the aerosol species most strongly influenced by petroleum extraction emissions. The results highlight

  5. Long-term changes of mercury levels in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from Amundsen Gulf, and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Beaufort Sea, western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outridge, P.M., E-mail: outridge@nrcan.gc.ca [Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0E8 (Canada); Hobson, K.A. [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 3H5 (Canada); Savelle, J. [Department of Anthropology, McGill University, 855 Sherbrooke Street, Montreal, Canada H3A 2T7 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the canine teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) harvested during the 13th-14th, late 19th and early 21st Centuries in Amundsen Gulf, Northwest Territories, Canada. Most historical and pre-industrial teeth contained undetectable Hg levels (i.e. < 1.0 ng/g DW), whereas samples from 2001-03 contained up to 12 ng/g DW in an age-dependent pattern. Assuming a median [Hg] value in 13th-14th Century teeth of half the detection limit (i.e. 0.5 ng/g DW), geometric means of Hg in modern teeth were 9-17 times those of seals in the 14th Century, equivalent to an anthropogenic input of 89-94% of total Hg in modern seals. These results corroborate a previous study of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in the nearby Beaufort Sea. While the seals' trophic position (inferred from {delta}{sup 15}N values) did not change over time, modern {delta}{sup 13}C values were lower by about 2 per mille than in the 14th and 19th Centuries. This could be due to increased dissolution of anthropogenically derived CO{sub 2} in the ocean from the atmosphere, but could also indicate more offshore pelagic feeding by modern seals, which might be a factor in their Hg exposure. New tooth [Hg] data are also presented for the Beaufort Sea beluga, using recently-discovered museum samples collected in 1960/61, which showed that most of the anthropogenic contribution to beluga Hg had already taken effect by 1960 (reaching {approx} 75% of total Hg). Taken together, the long-term seal and beluga data indicate that whereas Hg levels in the marine ecosystems of the western Canadian Arctic were probably unchanged from pre-industrial times up to the late 19th Century, there was a significant, many-fold increase in the early to mid-20th Century, but little or no change after about the early 1960s.

  6. Rule of Law and Transparency in Modern Norwegian Whaling (2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Tiili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Norway’s whaling, it was discovered that the Government has achieved quite a high level of transparency. However, in some areas, for instance training of whalers, there is still need for a higher level of transparency. Moreover, a higher overall level of transparency would be reached if all the information available in Norwegian, were also available in English.

  7. Norwegian petroleum technology. A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the Norwegian petroleum industry is an economic and technological fairy tale. In the course of a little more than 30 years Norway has developed a petroleum industry with world class products and solutions. This book highlights some of the stories behind this Norwegian success. A strong Norwegian home market has helped Norwegian industries to develop technologies in the absolute forefront. In some important areas, like the subsea market, the Norwegian 'oil cluster' became world leaders through companies like Vetco, Aker Kvaerner and FMC Technologies. Advanced products for the domestic market, with cost effective and flexible solutions, are also sought after in the international market place. Norwegian companies are now involved in some of the world's foremost projects, from Sakhalin in the east to Brazil in the west and Angola in the south. Norway, with its 4.5 million inhabitants, is a very small country indeed. As an energy supplier, however, Norway will play an increasingly important role. This will require an even stronger emphasis on research, competence and technology development. Today some 75.000 highly qualified people are working directly in the Norwegian petroleum industry, where the domestic market is still strong with large field developments like Snoehvit and Ormen Lange. Norway has established a unique Petroleum Fund, which currently is passing $ 160 billion, and political leaders in resource rich oil countries are looking to Norway for inspiration and guidance. This book describes some of the best technology stories that have emerged from Norwegian research institutions. Financial support, text and illustrations from the companies and institutions presented in the book have made its publication possible and are gratefully acknowledged. An editorial committee has been responsible for producing the book under the chairmanship of Research Director Ole Lindefjeld of ConocoPhillips, who once demonstrated a multiplier effect of at least 15

  8. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  9. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  10. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  11. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R. W.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K.; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ˜1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  12. Recent Changes in the Arctic Melt Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.

  13. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-10-01

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women (n 69 471). Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend bread consumption (P trend bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

  14. Seasonal differences in the response of Arctic cyclones to climate change in CESM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jonathan J.; Holland, Marika M.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2017-06-01

    The dramatic warming of the Arctic over the last three decades has reduced both the thickness and extent of sea ice, opening opportunities for business in diverse sectors and increasing human exposure to meteorological hazards in the Arctic. It has been suggested that these changes in environmental conditions have led to an increase in extreme cyclones in the region, therefore increasing this hazard. In this study, we investigate the response of Arctic synoptic scale cyclones to climate change in a large initial value ensemble of future climate projections with the CESM1-CAM5 climate model (CESM-LE). We find that the response of Arctic cyclones in these simulations varies with season, with significant reductions in cyclone dynamic intensity across the Arctic basin in winter, but with contrasting increases in summer intensity within the region known as the Arctic Ocean cyclone maximum. There is also a significant reduction in winter cyclogenesis events within the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian sea region. We conclude that these differences in the response of cyclone intensity and cyclogenesis, with season, appear to be closely linked to changes in surface temperature gradients in the high latitudes, with Arctic poleward temperature gradients increasing in summer, but decreasing in winter.

  15. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO(2) and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.; Lennert, Kunuk

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3 center dot 6H(2)O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate......, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO(2) in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m(-2) sea ice d(-1) or to 3.3 ton km(-2) ice floe week(-1). This is markedly higher than the estimated...... that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km(2) (0.5-1m thick) drifting ice floe...

  16. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  17. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities

  18. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  19. Mediating National Language Management: The Discourse of Citizenship Categorization in Norwegian Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The dimension of language policing that is the focus in this article refers to the management of micro-level language use by a macro-level institution, in this context the Norwegian Language Council, co-constructed with media actors. An important aspect of language policing is the official definition of terms, carried out by bodies like the…

  20. What characterizes Norwegian nursing students’ reflective journals during clinical placement in an African country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Johannes Hovland

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The students predominantly expressed strong personal emotions and described their hosts in a judgemental and, in many cases, critical manner, often in comparison with Norwegian conditions. A stronger focus on cultural competence in preparing students for exchange programmes may decrease their level of criticism and negative judgement, and affect the level of reflection in their journals.

  1. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  2. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  3. Paperless migrants and Norwegian general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Svein; Kongshavn, Trygve; Maartmann-Moe, Kjell; Hjortdahl, Per

    2016-06-01

    In Norway, the rights of paperless migrants are restricted. We wished to investigate the extent to which Norwegian general practitioners give treatment to this group and their grounds for doing so, as well as to identify the health problems that were presented. In 2010, an online questionnaire was distributed to 3 994 general practitioners who were members of the Norwegian Medical Association. Altogether 1 027 GPs responded. Of these, 237 (23 %) reported to have treated paperless migrants. Mental problems, pregnancy-related issues and respiratory ailments were the most frequently reported reasons for contact. Of the 237 GPs who reported to have treated paperless migrants, altogether 166 (70 %) stated that they would continue to receive these patients. The fact that most of the GPs who had treated paperless migrants would continue to receive this patient group and thus provide health services beyond this group’s entitlements, we regard as a wish to comply with the Code of Ethics for Norwegian doctors.

  4. On the potential for abrupt Arctic winter sea-ice loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathiany, S.; Notz, Dirk; Mauritsen, T.; Raedel, G.; Brovkin, V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the transition from a seasonally ice-covered Arctic to an Arctic Ocean that is sea ice free all year round under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. It is shown that in comprehensive climate models, such loss of Arctic winter sea ice area is faster than the preceding loss of

  5. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  6. White Paper No 54 (2000-2001). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This White Paper from the Norwegian Government discusses the climate problem as a global challenge, Norway's strategy for meeting the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, the national climate policies of other countries, Norwegian national climate policy in the short term, and Norwegian national climate policy with the Kyoto agreement in force

  7. Norwegian gas on the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    1999-01-01

    Article. Norsk Hydro's acquisition of Saga has made the organization of Norwegian gas sales a very topical issue. Traditionally, Norwegian gas has been sold on long-term take-or-pay contracts where the sales volume is secured and the price is linked to the prices of other energy carriers, primarily oil. Norway has sold large volumes of gas to the continent and has an increasing share of the market. However, the long-term contracts place most of the price risk on the seller. Although the sale is guaranteed, earnings are low. Statoil, the largest seller of Norwegian gas, has so far earned much more by transporting the gas to the continent than by producing and selling it. The long-term take-or-pay contracts are no longer safe. In Germany, the power market is quickly opening for competition, implying falling prices and lapsing long-term contracts. A similar development is likely to occur in the gas market. From Norwegian quarters there has been little interest in establishing oneself in the gas markets on the continent, which worries the author. However, the traditional contracts will have to be renegotiated so that the prices will reflect the real competition in the market. It is argued that a sensible Norwegian strategy will be to prepare for a new world for gas, not to hold tight to historical positions. It is suggested that old plans to establish a gas transport company, Gassledd, should be revived. Such a company would be subject to the European Gas Directive and would have to admit a third party. It is likely that the Norwegian opposition to liberalization of the European gas market will one day appear poorly thought out, and that defensive considerations have overshadowed new opportunities

  8. Genetic variation in Norwegian piscine myocarditis virus in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Alarcón, M; Fineid, B; Rode, M; Haugland, Ø

    2013-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., is a severe cardiac disease characterized by a necrotizing myocarditis involving the atrium and the spongious part of the ventricle. The disease is caused by piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), a double-stranded RNA virus likely belonging to the family Totiviridae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variation in Norwegian PMCV isolates focusing on the putative structural proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 3. The virus isolates were sampled from a total of 36 farms along the Norwegian coastline. This study represents the first investigation of PMCV genome variation and shows that Norwegian isolates are highly similar, with the most divergent isolates sharing 98.6% nucleotide identity. Interestingly, amino acid sequence diversity within ORF3 is approximately threefold higher than for ORF1. While phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide data covering ORF1 and ORF3 revealed four main clusters, the maximum sequence variation of 1.4% at the nucleotide level suggests that all Norwegian isolates belong to a single genogroup. Substantial sequence variation within farms was also observed, which may complicate future molecular epidemiological investigations. The genetic homogeneity among the Norwegian isolates might facilitate development of both diagnostic tools and an efficient vaccine against CMS in the future. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation and from the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1987-01-01

    The doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation are extensively reviewed. The annual population weighted average dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from 222 Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 3.5 and 4.5 mSv. The average concentration of 220 Rn daughters in Norwegian dwellings is most probably between 1.0 and 1.5 Bq m -3 . The corresponding effective dose equivalent for 220 Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 0.4 and 0.6 mSv. The total annual collective dose equivalent from naturally occuring radiation in Norway is found to be between 21000 and 27000 man Sv. The doses to the Norwegian population from the Chernobyl fallout are briefly discussed. Based on the results of a ''food basket'' project and supplementary data from about 30000 measurements on food samples the first year after the reactor accident, the total annual effective dose equivalent from foodstuffs to an average Norwegian consumer during this first year is estimated to be 0.15 +-0.002 m Sv at the 95% confidence level. The per caput effective dose equivalent from external fallout gamma radiation in the first year after the Chernobyl accident, is approximately 82 μSv in Norway

  10. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Akthar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Method Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46% and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38% in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL was used as a measure of psychological distress. Results Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p Conclusion Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions and social support system of immigrant communities simultaneously.

  11. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status...... with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish...

  12. Norwegian security policy and the Norwegian armed forces in the 21st century : a case study of KFOR

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Sven Kristian

    2002-01-01

    Norwegian Security Policy and the Norwegian Armed Forces in the 21st century - a case study of KFOR (Summary) The subject of the study is Norwegian security policy and the Norwegian Armed Forces as an instrument for international operations, studied within the context of globalisation and substantial internal restructuring. Conducted as a case study of KFOR and by means of an inter-disciplinary approach, the objective is to carve out interesting hypothesis concerning the interacti...

  13. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Physical properties of the arctic summer aerosol particles in relation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sea-salt particles of marine origin generated within the Arctic circle are identified as the main source of the Arctic summer aerosols. ... concentration starts decreasing within a few minutes from the start of these events but requires a few hours to restore to the normal background aerosol level after the end of event.

  15. Neodymium isotopes and the Neogene evolution of Arctic intermediate water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, B. A.; Frank, M.; Spielhagen, R.

    2006-12-01

    We present the first Nd isotope record of Arctic intermediate water obtained from metal-oxide coatings weakly leached off sediments from the IODP Leg 302 (ACEX) cores drilled on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean. The ACEX cores provide the first archive of Arctic Ocean sedimentation covering most of the Cenozoic, and show that detrital sediments dominate the most recent 17 Ma, deposited above a condensed section spanning the period from ~17 to 45 Ma. Comparison of core top sediment leaches to direct seawater measurements demonstrate the Nd isotopic signal of the leaches robustly records the ambient Arctic bottom water Nd isotopic composition (typical Nd of Arctic core top sediment leachates is ~-10.5, compared with measured deep water Nd of ~-11; Andersson, Porcelli, Frank et al., unpublished). This is critical, as the Arctic sediments in the upper 200 m are essentially barren of other authigenic phases- such as carbonates - from which seawater Nd could potentially be extracted. Sampling resolution was generally low (Myr) with the exception of sections showing distinct glacial/interglacial cyclicities during the Late Quaternary, where sampling was increased to kyr resolution. This cyclicity was reproduced in the well-dated nearby piston core PS2185. The Nd isotopic variations are pronounced, for both the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary (Nd ranges from ~-7.5 to ~-10.5, respectively), and for the Nd on the million year time scale (maxima at ~-6 and minima at ~-8.5). On the long time scale, the Nd isotopic record is argued to reflect tectonically- driven changes in gateways to the Arctic. The Nd isotopic record becomes more positive from 17 to 8 Ma, reflecting the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge with a closed Fram Strait, which increased the hydrological cycle and erosion over N.Europe/ W. Siberia. Opening of the Fram Strait at 8 Ma allowed N. Atlantic-sourced Intermediate water forming in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas to

  16. Rapid Arctic change and implications for sea-ice use and its management at the local and regional level: An example from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Meek, C. L.; Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Reductions in sea-ice thickness and summer extent over the past few decades have been particularly pronounced in Alaska. This rapid environmental change coincides with significant socio-economic transformations, including increased ship traffic and offshore oil and gas development. Adaptation and response to these changes and regulation of coastal and offshore activities require environmental data and projections on seasonal to decadal timescales. Nascent Arctic observation networks are of great potential value in this context. However, in order for such observing and associated modeling activities to be useful, several criteria have to be met: (1) observations need to be relevant to stakeholders adapting or responding to a changing ice regime, (2) data products need to be accessible and interpretable by those they are meant to serve, and (3) institutions and governance strategies need to be in place to allow effective utilization of environmental data and information on changing ice conditions. We show how the concept of sea-ice system services can help guide observing programs, in particular in situations with conjoined uses of the ice cover. An example from our work in Arctic Alaska illustrates this concept for the use of sea ice as a platform by indigenous hunters, industry and marine mammals. Adaptive responses by different user groups to the substantial variability observed in local-scale ice conditions will require a significant effort in downscaling standard sea-ice data products and integrating new types of measurements. The challenge for ice-covered waters is that current approaches governing utilization of the sea-ice environment may not always be effective in addressing conjoined, potentially conflicting uses. The major transformations underway in the Arctic now provide us with an opportunity to explore and evaluate different approaches of observing, adapting and responding to change.

  17. Melt onset dates for Arctic regions derived from satellite passive microwave data for 1979-2010; a comparison between the operational CDR and research level ESDR data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. R.; Bliss, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid nature and extent of the sea ice loss during recent summers have shown the importance of monitoring melt during the spring and summer transition. Using remotely sensed brightness temperatures, snow overlying sea ice can be identified. The purpose of this presentation is to show the usefulness of the new NOAA CDR for melt onset dates and the new NASA MEaSURES ESDR for melt onset dates records. The NOAA CDR melt onset algorithm is designed as an operational algorithm and uses the daily brightness temperature differences between the 37H and 19H Ghz channels from the special sensor microwave imager (SSMI) and special sensor microwave imager and sounder (SSMIS) on board the Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP) platform for the years 1987-2007 to determine the melt onset date. The melt onset dates are archived as part of the NOAA CDR for sea ice. The NASA MEaSURES ESDR melt onset date algorithm uses the same brightness temperature differences between the 37H and 19H Ghz channels, however, a ten day window and different thresholds are used to determine melt onset dates. The ESDR melt onset dates are also calculated for the scanning multi-channel microwave sensor (SMMR) on board the NASA Nimbus-7 platform. Therefore ESDR melt onset dates are calculated from 1979-2010. Comparisons are made between the NOAA CDR melt onset date data and the NASA MEaSURES ESDR melt onset date data. For the most part, the two data sets are comparable, indicating melt occurring at roughly the same time during spring. However, there are instances when the two algorithms differ, producing different melt onset dates. The main difference occurs during the earlier part of spring when spurious brightness temperatures are observed. For example, there may be low level clouds containing liquid water passing over the area, affecting the brightness temperature data for a single day, however, there is no change in the snow crystals which the algorithm should identify as melt. To account

  18. Arctic polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Vera; Muench, Robin

    Polynyas are areas of open water that occur at specific, recurrent locations in the polar regions and that are surrounded by ice-covered waters. They have been of interest historically because they are centers of upper trophic level biological activity and were consequently foci of both commercial whaling activities and of native subsistence hunting. They have more recently become of interest from a basic research viewpoint because they are typified by intensive biological activity and energetic physical processes. They are similar, in many respects, to the marginal ice zones, which are an ongoing focus of considerable oceanographic research. Polynyas can be conceptually envisaged as polar oceanic “oases” in which biological activities are focused locally while they are surrounded by relatively unproductive waters. Polynyas serve as outposts of enhanced production within the pack ice remote from the biologically rich marginal ice zones.

  19. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  20. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  1. Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Being "Neutral"? English Pronunciation among Norwegian Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…

  3. Norwegian Superintendents as Mediators of Change Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theoretical argument in this article views municipal school superintendents in the Nordic context as middle managers in organizational theory terminology. Empirical support for this discussion emerges from national data collected among Norwegian school superintendents in 2009. Findings show that the actual work and leadership…

  4. Tertiary education and its association with mental health indicators and educational factors among Arctic young adults: the NAAHS cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Elisabeth Valmyr; Kvernmo, Siv Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background Completed tertiary education is closely associated with employment and influences income, health and personal well-being. Objective The purpose of the study is to explore predictors for completed tertiary education among indigenous Sami and non-indigenous young people in relation to mental health indicators and educational factors in sociocultural rural and urban contexts across the Arctic part of Norway. Design The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study (NAAHS) is a cross-sectional, school-based survey that was conducted in 2003–2005. Of all 5,877 10th graders (aged 15–16 years) in north Norway, 83% from all 87 municipalities participated; 450 (9.2%) reported indigenous Sami ethnicity, and 304 (6.2%) reported Laestadian affiliation. Data from NAAHS were merged with registry data from the National Education Database and Norwegian Patient Register for 3,987 adolescents who gave their consent for follow-up studies. Results Completion of upper secondary school is the only common predictor of a completed tertiary education degree for both genders. Among females, conduct problems was a significant predictor of lower level education, typically vocational professions, while among males severe mental health problems requiring treatment by the specialist health care system reduced the opportunity to complete tertiary education at intermediate and higher level. Parental higher educational level was associated with less lower education among females and less higher education among males. Men residing in the northernmost and remote areas were less likely to complete education on higher level. Males’ completion of higher level education was strongly but not significantly associated (p=0.057) with higher average marks in lower secondary school. Conclusions The gender differences found in this study emphasize the need for gender-specific interventions to encourage, support and empower young people to attend and complete tertiary education. Young females with

  5. Tertiary education and its association with mental health indicators and educational factors among Arctic young adults: the NAAHS cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Valmyr Bania

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Completed tertiary education is closely associated with employment and influences income, health and personal well-being. Objective: The purpose of the study is to explore predictors for completed tertiary education among indigenous Sami and non-indigenous young people in relation to mental health indicators and educational factors in sociocultural rural and urban contexts across the Arctic part of Norway. Design: The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study (NAAHS is a cross-sectional, school-based survey that was conducted in 2003–2005. Of all 5,877 10th graders (aged 15–16 years in north Norway, 83% from all 87 municipalities participated; 450 (9.2% reported indigenous Sami ethnicity, and 304 (6.2% reported Laestadian affiliation. Data from NAAHS were merged with registry data from the National Education Database and Norwegian Patient Register for 3,987 adolescents who gave their consent for follow-up studies. Results: Completion of upper secondary school is the only common predictor of a completed tertiary education degree for both genders. Among females, conduct problems was a significant predictor of lower level education, typically vocational professions, while among males severe mental health problems requiring treatment by the specialist health care system reduced the opportunity to complete tertiary education at intermediate and higher level. Parental higher educational level was associated with less lower education among females and less higher education among males. Men residing in the northernmost and remote areas were less likely to complete education on higher level. Males’ completion of higher level education was strongly but not significantly associated (p=0.057 with higher average marks in lower secondary school. Conclusions: The gender differences found in this study emphasize the need for gender-specific interventions to encourage, support and empower young people to attend and complete tertiary education

  6. Tertiary education and its association with mental health indicators and educational factors among Arctic young adults: the NAAHS cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Elisabeth Valmyr; Kvernmo, Siv Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background Completed tertiary education is closely associated with employment and influences income, health and personal well-being. Objective The purpose of the study is to explore predictors for completed tertiary education among indigenous Sami and non-indigenous young people in relation to mental health indicators and educational factors in sociocultural rural and urban contexts across the Arctic part of Norway. Design The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study (NAAHS) is a cross-sectional, school-based survey that was conducted in 2003-2005. Of all 5,877 10th graders (aged 15-16 years) in north Norway, 83% from all 87 municipalities participated; 450 (9.2%) reported indigenous Sami ethnicity, and 304 (6.2%) reported Laestadian affiliation. Data from NAAHS were merged with registry data from the National Education Database and Norwegian Patient Register for 3,987 adolescents who gave their consent for follow-up studies. Results Completion of upper secondary school is the only common predictor of a completed tertiary education degree for both genders. Among females, conduct problems was a significant predictor of lower level education, typically vocational professions, while among males severe mental health problems requiring treatment by the specialist health care system reduced the opportunity to complete tertiary education at intermediate and higher level. Parental higher educational level was associated with less lower education among females and less higher education among males. Men residing in the northernmost and remote areas were less likely to complete education on higher level. Males' completion of higher level education was strongly but not significantly associated (p=0.057) with higher average marks in lower secondary school. Conclusions The gender differences found in this study emphasize the need for gender-specific interventions to encourage, support and empower young people to attend and complete tertiary education. Young females with conduct

  7. Included as Excluded and Excluded as Included: Minority Language Pupils in Norwegian Inclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems…

  8. Implementing CEFR Principles in Introductory Norwegian Language Courses for International Students: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapinska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This article describes some of the opportunities and challenges presented by beginners' courses in Norwegian for international students offered by the Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies at the University of Oslo. Teaching approaches and course content are examined in relation to CEFR levels A1, A2 and B1 and the CEFR's main…

  9. Patient safety culture in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2017-06-20

    Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values patient safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient safety factor scores in nursing homes were poorer than previously found in Norwegian general practices, but similar to findings in out-of-hours primary care clinics. Patient safety culture assessment may help nursing home leaders to initiate targeted quality improvement interventions. Further research should investigate associations between patient safety culture and the

  10. Environment 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the government's goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of produced water treatment techniques. It demonstrates that new Norwegian technology helps to limit the risk of environmental harm. New treatment techniques have been developed and adopted, but it can be difficult to understand why a specific solution is not applicable to every field. Through the thematic section in part 2, we endeavour to explain why the choice of solution will vary from field to field, and how that reflects such considerations as technical reservoir conditions and costs. The strong focus on the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas production has undoubtedly helped to make the Norwegian petroleum sector a leader in this area. That reflects both the way the authorities have incorporated environmental considerations extensively into the industry's frame conditions, and from the commitment made by the industry itself. Environment 2004 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions discharges, environmental impacts, measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities.

  11. Semi volatile organic compounds in the snow of Russian Arctic islands: Archipelago Novaya Zemlya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A T; Mazur, D M; Polyakova, O V; Kosyakov, D S; Kozhevnikov, A Yu; Latkin, T B; Andreeva Yu, I; Artaev, V B

    2018-04-18

    Environmental contamination of the Arctic has widely been used as a worldwide pollution marker. Various classes of organic pollutants such as pesticides, personal care products, PAHs, flame retardants, biomass burning markers, and many others emerging contaminants have been regularly detected in Arctic samples. Although numerous papers have been published reporting data from the Canadian, Danish, and Norwegian Arctic regions, the environmental situation in Russian Arctic remains mostly underreported. Snow analysis is known to be used for monitoring air pollution in the regions with cold climate in both short-term and long-term studies. This paper presents the results of a nontargeted study on the semivolatile organic compounds detected and identified in snow samples collected at the Russian Artic Archipelago Novaya Zemlya in June 2016. Gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of pollutants including those from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutants list, emerging contaminants (plasticizers, flame retardants-only detection), as well as the identification of novel Arctic organic pollutants, (e.g., fatty acid amides and polyoxyalkanes). The possible sources of these novel pollutants are also discussed. GC-HRMS enabled the detection and identification of emerging contaminants and novel organic pollutants in the Arctic, e.g., fatty amides and polyoxyalkanes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature and precipitation history of the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, G. H.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Alley, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    its present extent. With the loss of land ice, sea level was about 5 m higher than present, with the extra melt coming from both Greenland and Antarctica as well as small glaciers. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) peaked w21 ka ago, when mean annual temperatures over parts of the Arctic were as much...... in the tilt of Earth’s axis, but for the past 700 ka, glacial cycles have been longer, lasting w100 ka, separated by brief, warm interglaciations, when sea level and ice volumes were close to present. The cause of the shift from 41 ka to 100 ka glacial cycles is still debated. During the penultimate...... of the equinoxes. The extra energy elevated early Holocene summer temperatures throughout the Arctic 1e3 C above 20th century averages, enough to completely melt many small glaciers throughout the Arctic, although the Greenland Ice Sheet was only slightly smaller than at present. Early Holocene summer sea ice...

  13. The Arctic Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2018-01-01

    , a few states – Canada, Denmark, and the United States – sent other representatives. There was nothing unusual about the absence of Per Stig Møller, the Danish foreign minister – a Danish foreign minister had only once attended an Arctic Council ministerial meeting (Arctic Council 2016). Møller......In October 2006, representatives of the Arctic governments met in Salekhard in northern Siberia for the biennial Arctic Council ministerial meeting to discuss how the council could combat regional climate change, among other issues. While most capitals were represented by their foreign minister...... and Greenlandic affairs had mainly been about managing fishing quotas. Though crucial for Danish-Greenlandic relations, such issues were hardly top priorities for Her Majesty’s Foreign Service....

  14. Evaluation of Norwegian-Russian environmental collaboration 1995-2006; Evaluering av miljoevernsamarbeidet mellom Norge og Russland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Lars; Hoenneland, Geir; Moe, Arild

    2007-09-15

    This report presents the findings of FNI's evaluation of the Norwegian-Russian collaboration on environmental issues from 1995 to 2006. The central body of this collaboration is the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Commission, established in 1988 (then as the Norwegian-Soviet Environmental Commission) and renewed in 1992. The Commission has developed a number of working areas, of which three have been studied specifically: (i) the cleaner production programme; (ii) the transboundary environmental collaboration; and (iii) the collaboration on cultural heritage. In addition, this evaluation concentrates on two project areas directly under the auspices of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: (i) the energy saving programme in Northwest-Russia; and (ii) the bio energy programme in Russia. The main empirical source has been a number of in-depth interviews with participants on both sides. Additional information has been drawn from written material such as minutes, project reports, propositions to the Norwegian parliament, etc. After an examination of the overarching level of the collaboration and the individual project areas mentioned above, the report briefly discusses potential future developments in the Norwegian-Russian environmental collaboration. (author). 23 refs., 3 figs

  15. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2002. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  16. "We are the Arctic"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Robert Chr.; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Mahadevan, Renuka

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we explore the 2016 Arctic Winter Games as a site for Arctic, Indigenous and national identity-building, drawing on fieldwork from the planning and execution of AWG 2016 and surveys conducted with participant and stakeholder groups. We show that although the AWG 2016 event is see...... positions also. In practice, competition at this sporting event extends to identity discourses competing for hegemony, but the games also create spaces for identity negotiation and willful identity entanglement....

  17. Mapping of Norwegian civil society organizations working on energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    energy solutions at a local level; Norwegian CSOs generally possess high and quite specialized levels of competence for this purpose, covering the most relevant technologies (bio-energy, micro and pico hydropower, solar, clean cook-stoves, energy efficiency). Although some CSOs act as 'watchdogs' in Norway, the watchdog role does not seem to be very prominent for Norwegian CSOs engaged in clean energy and development related work outside Norway (FIVAS is the only clear watchdog organization in its activities abroad). This study also shows that several Norwegian CSOs have a high competence level related to policy. development at the international, regional and the national development country level which can be utilized in a Clean Energy for Development Initiative context. Norwegian CSO experience can play an important role not only in strengthening CSOs in developing countries through organizational capacity building, but also through facilitating access to and experience with best practices in OECD countries and global policy work. The different focus of primarily environmental and social CSOs potentially opens avenues for complimentary cooperation in projects that fit under a Clean Energy for Development Initiative umbrella, as is already exemplified in the cooperation between Kirkens Noedhjelp and Zero in Brazil and Kenya. There are likely significant unreleased synergies and potential for cooperation between the often professional and quite specialized milieus in different CSOs with regards to clean energy topics, and between Norwegian CSOs and other Norwegian stakeholders (government institutions private companies etc.) involved in clean energy for development activities.(auth)

  18. The PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) Project in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Andreev, A.; Baumer, M.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Fedorov, G.; Frolova, L.; Krastel, S.; Lebas, E.; Ludikova, A.; Melles, M.; Meyer, H.; Nazarova, L.; Pestryakova, L.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Subetto, D.; Wagner, B.; Wennrich, V.

    2017-12-01

    The joint Russian- German project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transec' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a >6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to investigate the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The climate history of the Arctic is of particular interest since it is the region, which is experiencing major impact of the current climate change. The project is funded for three years (2015-2018) by the Russian and German Ministries of Research. Since 2013 extensive fieldwork, including seismic surveys, coring, and hydrological investigations, was carried out at lakes Ladoga (NW Russia, pilot study), Bolshoye Shuchye (Polar Urals), Emanda (Verkhoyansk Range, field campaign planned for August 2017), Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr (Taymyr Peninsula). Fieldwork at lakes Bolshoye Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr was conducted in collaboration with the Russian-Norwegian CHASE (Climate History along the Arctic Seaboard of Eurasia) project. A major objective of the PLOT project was to recover preglacial sediments. A multiproxy approach was applied to the analytical work of all cores, including (bio-)geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and biological analyses. First data implies the presence of preglacial sediments in the cores from all lakes so far visited. Age-depth models, based on radiocarbon dating, OSL dating, paleomagnetic measurements, identification of cryptotephra, and varve counting (where applicable), are in progress. Climate variability in the records shall be compared to that recorded at Lake Eĺgygytgyn (NE Russia), which represents the master record for the Siberian Arctic. The outcome of the PLOT project will be a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability and development of the Arctic climate. Here, we present the major results and first key interpretations of the PLOT project, along with an outlook on the future strategy and foci. First results from lakes Ladoga

  19. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Friedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  20. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  1. Measurements and modeling of CO2 concentration and isotopes to improve process-level understanding of Arctic and boreal carbon cycling. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Ralph F. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-29

    The major goal of this project was to improve understanding of processes that control the exchanges of CO2 between the atmosphere and the land biosphere on decadal and longer time scales. The approach involves measuring the changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and the isotopes of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) at background stations and uses these and other datasets to challenge and improve numerical models of the earth system. The project particularly emphasized the use of these data to improve understanding of changes occurring in boreal and arctic ecosystems over the past 50 years and to seek from these data improved understanding of large-scale processes impacting carbon cycling, such as the responses to warming, CO2 fertilization, and disturbance. The project also led to advances in the understanding of changes in water-use efficiency of land ecosystems globally based on trends in 13C/12C. The core element of this project was providing partial support for continuing measurements of CO2 concentrations and isotopes from the Scripps CO2 program, initiated by C. D. Keeling in the 1960s. The measurements included analysis of flasks collected at an array of ten stations distributed from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The project also supported modeling studies and interpretive work to help understand the origins of the large ~50% increase in the amplitude of the atmospheric CO2 cycle detected at high northern latitudes between 1960 and present and to understand the long-term trend in carbon 13C/12C of CO2. The seasonal cycle work was advanced through collaborations with colleagues at MPI Jena and Imperial College

  2. Screening-level exposure-based prioritization to identify potential POPs, vPvBs and planetary boundary threats among Arctic contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A report that reviews Arctic contaminants that are not currently regulated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs under international treaties was recently published by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP. We evaluated 464 individual chemicals mentioned in the AMAP report according to hazard profiles for POPs, very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB chemicals, and two novel and distinct hazard profiles we derived from the planetary boundary threat framework. The two planetary boundary threat profiles assign high priority to chemicals that will be mobile and poorly reversible environmental contaminants. Utilizing persistence as a proxy for poor reversibility, we defined two exposure-based hazard profiles; airborne persistent contaminants (APCs and waterborne persistent contaminants (WPCs that are potential planetary boundary threats. We used in silico estimates of physicochemical properties and multimedia models to calculate hazard metrics for persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential, then we synthesized this information into four exposure-based hazard scores of the potential of each AMAP chemical to fit each of the POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard profiles. As an alternative to adopting a “bright line” score that represented cause for concern, we scored the AMAP chemicals by benchmarking against a reference set of 148 known and relatively well-studied contaminants and expressed their exposure-based hazard scores as percentile ranks against the scores of the reference set chemicals. Our results show that scores in the four exposure-based hazard profiles provide complementary information about the potential environmental exposure-based hazards of the AMAP chemicals. Our POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard scores identify high priority chemicals for further study from among the AMAP contaminants.

  3. Late-Quaternary glaciation and postglacial emergence, southern Eureka Sound, high-Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Cofaigh, Colm Seamus

    Eureka Sound is the inter-island channel separating Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands, High Arctic Canada. This thesis reconstructs the glacial and sea level history of southern Eureka Sound through surficial geological mapping, studies of glacial sedimentology and geomorphology, surveying of raised marine shorelines, radiocarbon dating of marine shells and driftwood and surface exposure dating of erratics and bedrock. Granite dispersal trains, shelly till and ice-moulded bedrock record westerly-flow of warm-based, regional ice into Eureka Sound from a source on southeastern Ellesmere Island during the late Wisconsinan. Regional ice was coalescent with local ice domes over Raanes and northern Svendsen peninsulas. Marine limit (dating Isobases drawn on the 8.5 ka shoreline for greater Eureka Sound demonstrate that a cell of highest emergence extends along the length of the channel, and closes in the vicinity of the entrance to Norwegian Bay. The isobase pattern indicates a distinct loading centre over the sound, and in conjunction with glacial geological evidence, suggests that the thickest late Wisconsinan ice lay over the channel.

  4. A bio-economic analysis of harvest control rules for the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Richter, Andries P; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2013-05-01

    Harvest control rules (HCRs) have been implemented for many fisheries worldwide. However, in most instances, those HCRs are not based on the explicit feedbacks between stock properties and economic considerations. This paper develops a bio-economic model that evaluates the HCR adopted in 2004 by the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fishery Commission to manage the world's largest cod stock, Northeast Arctic cod (NEA). The model considered here is biologically and economically detailed, and is the first to compare the performance of the stock's current HCR with that of alternative HCRs derived with optimality criteria. In particular, HCRs are optimized for economic objectives including fleet profits, economic welfare, and total yield and the emerging properties are analyzed. The performance of these optimal HCRs was compared with the currently used HCR. This paper show that the current HCR does in fact comes very close to maximizing profits. Furthermore, the results reveal that the HCR that maximizes profits is the most precautionary one among the considered HCRs. Finally, the HCR that maximizes yield leads to un-precautionary low levels of biomass. In these ways, the implementation of the HCR for NEA cod can be viewed as a success story that may provide valuable lessons for other fisheries.

  5. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anonymous

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  6. Carbon stocks in Norwegian forested systems. Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyen BH.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1990 and 2010 the projected emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway is assumed to increase 24%. As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, Norway is supposed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008–2012 to 1% above the 1990 level. Potentially, forestry activities may contribute as a means to achieve the set target of emission reductions. The initial Norwegian views and proposals for definitions and accounting framework for activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol was reported to the UNFCCC August 1 2000 by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment. There was also an annex to the submission with preliminary data and information on Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper is based on this annex, and focuses mainly on data for forests and other woodlands. Preliminary data indicate that approximately 85% of the carbon (C pool of forested systems is found in the soil. The major part of the annual C sequestration takes place in living biomass and soil, while sequestration in wood products and landfills etc. has been found to be of minor importance. It must be noted that the reported data are preliminary and contain large uncertainties.

  7. Arctic seabirds transport marine-derived contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Jules M; Kimpe, Lynda E; McMahon, Dominique; Keatley, Bronwyn E; Mallory, Mark L; Douglas, Marianne S V; Smol, John P

    2005-07-15

    Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants is generally assumed to be the main vector for arctic contamination, because local pollution sources are rare. We show that arctic seabirds, which occupy high trophic levels in marine food webs, are the dominant vectors for the transport of marine-derived contaminants to coastal ponds. The sediments of ponds most affected by seabirds had 60 times higher DDT, 25 times higher mercury, and 10 times higher hexachlorobenzene concentrations than nearby control sites. Bird guano greatly stimulates biological productivity in these extreme environments but also serves as a major source of industrial and agricultural pollutants in these remote ecosystems.

  8. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringing together leading experts from various disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive study of the governance of offshore oil and gas activities in the circumpolar Arctic. As a consequence of energy globalisation, and of a sharp increase in world energy demand, the Arctic Ocean is also now...... being targeted for its offshore oil and gas resources, at the same time as an increasing demand for democratic legitimisation and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples is emerging in the civil spheres of society. The volume analyses how, in the daunting context of climate change......, the interactions between the various levels of governance structure the policy process and impact on the efficiency of environmental management and the effectiveness of public participation, including the participation of indigenous peoples. Any governance system for Arctic offshore oil and gas activities...

  9. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... atmospheric deposition of mercury on sea surfaces to uptake in marine organisms, bio-accumulation, and finally mercury levels in mammals. The studies in the project are focused on the behaviour of mercury during the spring period where special phenomena lead to an enhanced deposition of mercury in the Arctic...... environment, at a time where the marine ecosystem is particularly active. The studies also include a comprehensive time trend study of mercury in top carnivore species. Each of these studies contributes towards establishing the knowledge necessary to develop a general model for transport and uptake of mercury...

  10. Satellite Observations of Arctic Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this site is to expose NASA satellite data and research on Arctic change in the form of maps that illustrate the changes taking place in the Arctic...

  11. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  12. Relexification in a Northern Norwegian dialect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Sollid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how the process of relexification can contribute to the understanding of the genesis of the new Norwegian dialect of Sappen in Nordreisa. The dialect has emerged in the context of language shift from Finnish to Norwegian, and the dialect syntax has features that might be regarded as products of relexification. One example is declarative main clauses with the finite verb in the third position (V3. The discussion adheres to a more general discussion of approaches to language genesis, where substratist and universalist (and also superstratist theories often are regarded as contrary to each other. I argue that different theories can contribute to the understanding of different aspects of the same question.

  13. Supertankers are threatening the Norwegian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steensen, Anders J.; Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article has three sections. The first discusses the environmental problems the tanker traffic poses to the Norwegian coastal waters and shores. Various precautionary measures and requirements are briefly presented. The size of the present marine transportation and the future Russian marine petroleum activity in the Barents area are briefly mentioned. The second named, conflicting exploration drilling, presents the conflicting interests regarding exploratory drilling in the Barents Sea in Norway. The environmental problems are large and have lead to an on-going reevaluation. Some pollution abatement measures are mentioned. The regional economic development is briefly outlined. The third deals with the Norwegian governmental safety activities and presents a brief survey of the official safety activities in the petroleum sector in Norway and the international cooperation particularly with the Russian Federation. The emphasis is on the maritime security, the safety of the maritime transportation systems, the environmental aspects such as pollution management and on the legal frameworks

  14. Norwegian Innvandrerlitteratur and the Spell of Transnationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovio Olaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current evolution of Norwegian literature, namely on the branch of Norwegian literary activity that falls within the theoretical frame of ‘immigrationist literature’ (innvandrerlitteratur. The paper is to be seen as a pledge against the implementation of cultural studies in the field of literary theory when dealing with such works that, through their number, are unrepresentative for a wider literary context. The argumentation relies on the fact that the phenomenon of innvandrerlittertur cannot be fully addressed from a cultural studies perspective, which often tends to produce reductionist claims and thus lead to ready-made conclusions that fail to reveal the inner workings of the literary phenomenon it aims to present. Moreover, such an approach tends to divert the interpreter’s attention from the actual literary works and funnel all interest in the direction of politics and extra-literary contexts.

  15. The Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, K-M; Grytten, N; Torkildsen, Ø; Wergeland, S; Bø, L; Aarseth, J H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with unknown cause and various benefits from disease modifying therapies. Systematic recording of data into national MS registries is therefore needed to optimize treatment and define the pathogenesis of the disease. The Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was established for systematic collection of clinical and epidemiological data, as well as biological samples. Data collection is based on informed consent from the individual patients and recordings by treating neurologists. All researchers have, by application, access to data and biological samples from the Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank. By this combined effort from both patients and healthcare personnel, the Registry and Biobank aims to facilitate research for improved understanding of disease mechanisms and improved health care in MS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  17. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Online consumer behavior among Norwegian business students

    OpenAIRE

    Møller-Hansen, Tor Ragnar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2013 E-commerce is an ever growing phenomenon which merits further research. This study conducts a literature review in the field of online consumer behavior, focusing on online consumer purchase intention and online consumer loyalty in the context of Norwegian business students. We also conduct a survey with 196 business students in Norway, and go on to identify three important variables impacting online consumer purchase i...

  19. Collaborative Research: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    This project developed and applied a regional Arctic System model for enhanced decadal predictions. It built on successful research by four of the current PIs with support from the DOE Climate Change Prediction Program, which has resulted in the development of a fully coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) consisting of atmosphere, land-hydrology, ocean and sea ice components. An expanded RACM, a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), has been set up to include ice sheets, ice caps, mountain glaciers, and dynamic vegetation to allow investigation of coupled physical processes responsible for decadal-scale climate change and variability in the Arctic. RASM can have high spatial resolution (~4-20 times higher than currently practical in global models) to advance modeling of critical processes and determine the need for their explicit representation in Global Earth System Models (GESMs). The pan-Arctic region is a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification. However, a system-level understanding of critical arctic processes and feedbacks needs further development. Rapid climate change has occurred in a number of Arctic System components during the past few decades, including retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, increased surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet, acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers, reduced snow cover, thawing permafrost, and shifts in vegetation. Such changes could have significant ramifications for global sea level, the ocean thermohaline circulation and heat budget, ecosystems, native communities, natural resource exploration, and commercial transportation. The overarching goal of the RASM project has been to advance understanding of past and present states of arctic climate and to improve seasonal to decadal predictions. To do this the project has focused on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The three foci of this research are: - Changes

  20. Arctic dimension of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Alekseev

    2014-01-01

    A brief assessment of the global warming in the Arctic climate system with the emphasis on sea ice is presented. The Arctic region is coupled to the global climate system by the atmosphere and ocean circulation that providesa major contribution to the Arctic energy budget. On this basis using of special indices it is shown that amplification of warming in the Arctic is associated with the increasing of meridional heat transport from the low latitudes.

  1. The Technical Student Programme draws Norwegians

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Erik Hejne, second from left, Chairman of the Technical Students Committee, and Jens Vigen, who is concerned spefically with Norwegian students at CERN, with some of the Norwegian technical students who arrived at CERN in spring 2005, together with their teachers. From mid-April, CERN's PH and IT Departments are hosting ten Norwegian students from Bergen University College, the Sør-Trøndelag University College and the University of Science and Technology in Trondheim to take part in the Laboratory's Technical Student Programme. The Technical Student Programme is open to students of universities and technical higher education establishments in the Member States who, in the course of their studies, are required to complete a period of professional training in industry or in a laboratory. Around 70 Technical Students come to work at CERN each year. Selected by a committee, they spend between six months and one year with the Organization. The programme is funded by CERN. However, once the Laboratory's quota of...

  2. Discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    As discussed in this document, there are 108 discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf which so far have not been approved for development. The oil and gas resources of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are mostly found in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Eighty-one of the discoveries which are not approved for development are located in the North Sea and more than 60% of the discoveries in this province contain less than 5 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. In the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea there are 27 discoveries which are not approved for development and whose total resources are estimated at 500 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. About 60% of the oil resources is expected to be comprised by development plans in 1997 or 1998. Another 20% is in new discoveries currently being evaluated or in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Production forecasts indicate substantial vacant oil processing capacity after 2000. Vacant gas processing capacity will mainly arise after 2005. 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  4. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  5. Assessment of climate vulnerability in the Norwegian built environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hygen, H. O.; Øyen, C. F.; Almås, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The main trends expected for the change of Norwegian climate for this century are increasing temperatures, precipitation and wind. This indicates a probable increase of climate-related risks to the Norwegian built environment. Through co-operation between the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, building and climate information have been combined to estimate changes in strain to the built environment due to climate change. The results sh...

  6. Strategic War Game - Arctic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Arctic Game Theory Strategic Analysis War Game ... Strategic War Game – Arctic Response A. P. Billyard I. A. Collin H. A. Hrychuk Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Center Operational...Operational Research Strategic War Game – Arctic Response A. P. Billyard I. A. Collin H. A. Hrychuk Canadian Forces Aerospace

  7. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  8. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of

  9. Climate of the Arctic marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John E

    2008-03-01

    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  10. Arctic Warming as News - Perils and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revkin, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    A science journalist in his 30th year covering human-driven climate change, including on three Arctic reporting trips, reflects on successes and setbacks as news media, environmentalists and Arctic communities have tried to convey the significance of polar change to a public for which the ends of the Earth will always largely be a place of the imagination.Novel challenges are arising in the 24/7 online media environment, as when a paper by a veteran climate scientist proposing a mechanism for abrupt sea-level rise became a big news story before it was accepted by the open-review journal to which it had been submitted. New science is digging in on possible connections between changing Arctic sea ice and snow conditions and disruptive winter weather in more temperate northern latitudes, offering a potential link between this distant region and the lives of ordinary citizens. As cutting-edge research, such work gets substantial media attention. But, as with all new areas of inquiry, uncertainty dominates - creating the potential for distracting the public and policymakers from the many aspects of anthropogenic climate change that are firmly established - but, in a way, boring because of that.With the challenges, there are unprecedented opportunities for conveying Arctic science. In some cases, researchers on expeditions are partnering with media, offering both scientists and news outlets fresh ways to convey the story of Arctic change in an era of resource constraints.Innovative uses of crittercams, webcams, and satellite observations offer educators and interested citizens a way to track and appreciate Arctic change. But more can be done to engage the public directly without the news media as an intermediary, particularly if polar scientists or their institutions test some of the established practices honed by more experienced communicators at NASA.

  11. The Immediacy of Arctic Change: New 2016-17 Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, J. E.; Kattsov, V.; Olsen, M. S.; Walsh, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Additional recent observations add increased certainty to cryospheric Arctic changes, and trends are very likely to continue past mid-century. Observed and projected Arctic changes are large compared with those at mid-latitude, driven by greenhouse gas (GHG) increase and Arctic feedbacks. Sea ice has undergone a regime shift from mostly multi-year to first-year sea ice, and summer sea ice is likely to be esentially gone within the next few decades. Spring snow cover is decreasing, and Arctic greening is increasing, although somewhat variable. There are potential emerging impacts of Arctic change on mid-latitude weather and sea level rise. Model assessments under different future GHG concentration scenarios show that stabilizing global temperatures near 2° C compliant with Paris agreement could slow, but not halt further major changes in the Arctic before mid- 21st century; foreseeable Arctic temperature changes are 4-5° C for fall/winter by 2040-2050. Substantial and immediate mitigation reductions in GHG emissions (at least at the level of the RCP 4.5 emission scenario) should reduce the risk of further change for most cryospheric components after mid-century, and reduce the likelyhood of potential runaway loss of ice sheets and glaciers and their impact on sea level rise. Extreme winter 2016 Arctic temperatures and a large winter 2017 sea ice deficit demonstrate contemporary climate states outside the envelope of previous experience. While there is confidence in the sign of Arctic changes, recent observations increase uncertainty in projecting the rate for future real world scenarios. Do events return to mean conditions, represent irreversible changes, or contribute to accelerating trends beyond those provided by climate models? Such questions highlight the need for improved quantitative prediction of the cryosphere and its global impacts, crucial for adaptation actions and risk management at local to global scales.

  12. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  13. Globalising the Arctic Climate:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    targets of political operations and contestations—are not simple ‘issues’ or ‘problems’ given to actors to deal with. Governance-objects emerge and are constructed through science, technology and politics, and rather than slotting neatly into existing structures, they have their own structuring effects...... on world politics. The emergence of the Arctic climate as a potential target of governance provides a case in point. The Arctic climate is becoming globalised, pushing it up the political agenda but drawing it away from its local and regional context....

  14. Arctic shipping and risks: Emergency categories and response capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, Nataly A.; Andreassen, Natalia; Borch, Odd Jarl

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we look into the risk of accidents in Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of emergency response. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location. As accidents...... are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic maritime accidents. Hence, this study offers a qualitative analysis and an expert-based risk assessment. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the Arctic region are discussed....

  15. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  16. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  17. The Climate Science Special Report: Arctic Changes and their Effect on Alaska and the Rest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid and visible climate change is happening across the Arctic, outpacing global change. Annual average near-surface air temperatures across the Arctic are increasing at more than twice the rate of global average surface temperature. In addition to surface temperature, all components of the Arctic climate system are responding in kind, including sea ice, mountain glaciers and the Greenland Ice sheet, snow cover, and permafrost. Many of these changes with a discernable anthropogenic imprint. While Arctic climate change may seem physically remote to those living in other regions of the planet, Arctic climate change can affect the global climate influencing sea level, the carbon cycle, and potentially atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. As an Arctic nation, United States' adaptation, mitigation, and policy decisions depend on projections of future Alaskan and Arctic climate. This chapter of the Climate Science Special Report documents significant scientific progress and knowledge about how the Alaskan and Arctic climate has changed and will continue to change.

  18. NORWEGIAN SCABIES IN AIDS PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meita Ardini Pratamasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a skin infection caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. This disease may present severe clinical manifestations in immune-compromised patient, well-known as Norwegian scabies or crusted scabies.A 36-year old man with AIDS had chief complaint thick crust almost all over his body in this case. History of household member infected by scabies before was present. Clinical findings show hyperpigmented macules unsharply marginated, covered with thick scales and accompanied by papules, fissures, and erotion. T cell CD4 level was 12 cell/μL. Scraping examination showed scabies infection and so did the histopathology examination. This patient was treated by topical Permethrin 5% combined with 2-4 ointment application in between permethrin usage. Before topical scabicide was given, thick crust was previously treated by topical urea 10% and wet dressing by normal saline. On day 14 after the patient first came there was lesion improvement.

  19. Evaluation of the Norwegian R&D Tax Credit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådne Cappelen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We find that the Norwegian R&D tax credit scheme introduced in 2002 mainly works as intended. The scheme is cost-effective and it is used by a large number of firms. It stimulates these firms to invest more in R&D, and, in particular, the effect is positive for small firms with little R&D experience. The returns on the R&D investments supported by the scheme are positive and generally not different from the returns to other R&D investments. We have found examples of what can be interpreted as tax motivated adjustments to the scheme, but to some extent this must be accepted as a cost to subsidy and support schemes intended for use by a large number of economic agents. This is particularly so when attempts are made to keep administrative expenditures and control routines at a low level.

  20. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  1. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND TRENDS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCTIC TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin

    2015-01-01

    the legal and regulatory institutional frameworks on Arctic issues.The scientific novelty of this study lies in the fact that, based on best international practices and trends in the fi eld of exploration and development of Arctic territories, recommend measures regarding the development and implementation of the Russian Arctic policy, namely: Increase the efficiency of technological equipment and exploration and production of natural resources in the Arctic; The achievement of a reliable logistical infrastructure to secure future energy supplies; Transformation of the operational risks of development and extraction of natural resources in the Arctic financial risks through the mechanisms of public-private partnerships and venture fi nancing; Harmonization of domestic legislation in thesphere of development of Arctic territories with international; Liberalization of the production and sale of energy resources, lobbying national Arctic interests at the global level through the various national structures and institutions.

  2. Prevention of microbial species introductions to the Arctic: The efficacy of footwear disinfection measures on cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine B. Rumpf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity measures are commonly used to prevent the introduction of non-native species to natural environments globally, yet the efficacy of practices is rarely tested under operational conditions. A voluntary biosecurity measure was trialled in the Norwegian high Arctic following concern that non-native species might be transferred to the region on the footwear of travellers. Passengers aboard an expedition cruise ship disinfected their footwear with the broad spectrum disinfectant Virkon S prior to and in-between landing at sites around the remote Svalbard archipelago. The authors evaluated the efficacy of simply stepping through a disinfectant foot bath, which is the most common practice of footwear disinfection aboard expedition cruise ships in the Arctic. This was compared to a more time consuming and little-used method involving drying disinfected footwear, as proposed by other studies. The two practices were evaluated by measuring microbial growth on paired footwear samples before and after disinfection under both conditions. Step-through disinfection did not substantially reduce microbial growth on the footwear. Allowing disinfected footwear to dry, however, reduced the microbial burden significantly to lower levels. Thus, the currently adopted procedures used aboard ships are ineffective at removing microbial burden and are only effective when footwear is given more time to dry than currently granted under operational conditions. These findings underscore results from empirical research performed elsewhere and suggest the need to better relay this information to practitioners. It is suggested that footwear should minimally be wiped dry after step-through disinfection as a reasonable compromise between biosecurity and practicability.

  3. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  4. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  5. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues

  6. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  7. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    21 Figure 15. Crowley ACV on a beach in Gwydyr Bay. .................................................................................. 22...Figure 16. Quonset hut structure allows year round operations for ACV . .................................................... 22 Figure 17. Dalton...met with Crowley Maritime Services which operates the Arctic Hawk Air Cushion Vehicle ( ACV ). This vessel is used to provide logistical support to

  8. Arctic offshore engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, Andrew; Croasdale, Ken

    2013-01-01

    ... so safely, economically and with minimal risk to the environment. Singapore may at first seem a surprising place to be writing such a book, but in fact we have a significant and growing interest in the Arctic, from several directions, among them shipping and petroleum production. At Keppel we are already active in more than one of those fields, and have a ...

  9. Arctic avalanche dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Alexander; Eiken, Mari; Ganaus, Kerstin; Rubensdotter, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Since the avalanche disaster December 19th, 2015 in Longyearbyen (Svalbard) happened, where two people were killed within settlements, the dynamic of avalanches in arctic regions is of increasing interest for hazard mapping in such areas. To investigate the flow behavior of arctic avalanches we focused on avalanches that occurred in Central Svalbard. In this regions historic avalanche events can be analyzed due to their deposition behavior visible on geomorphological maps in the run-out area of the avalanches. To get an idea about possible snow mass that was involved in the avalanches we measured the snow volume balance of recent avalanches (winters 2015/16) via terrestrial laser scanning. In this way we gained reasonable data to set calibration and input parameters for dynamic avalanche modeling. Using state of the art dynamic avalanche models allowed us to back calculate how much snow was involved in the historic avalanches that we identified on the geomorphological maps and what the return period of those events are. In our presentation we first explain our methodology; we discuss arctic avalanche behavior of the avalanches measured via terrestrial laser scanning and how the dynamic avalanche models performed for those case examples. Finally we conclude how our results can improve avalanche hazard mapping for arctic regions.

  10. Who are they? Identities in the Norwegian radiographer profession as presented in the Norwegian printed press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalsberg, R.; Thingnes, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore how Norwegian radiographers are portrayed in written press. Method: Textual discourse analysis, following a multiple step strategy, combining both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. 189 newspaper articles were included. The articles were registered and subject fields were inductively categorized. Each subject field was analysed regarding the field's role as an agent of influence on public perception of radiographers. Results: On average, less than one article a year concerning radiography profession is published in Norwegian newspapers. A majority are published in newspapers with small circulation figures, often reporting on resources in the local health services where radiographers are involved. Mostly radiographers are placed in the articles' background playing supporting roles, frequently mentioned in the cutline as an operator of a new medical technology. There is a heavy emphasis on the technology, leaving the specialized expertise and radiography knowledge out. This focus persist in the instances where radiographers play a main role in the texts. When patient stories are told, positive value-laden words are used to describe the radiographer and both the technical and the patient-care aspects of being a radiographer are noticeable. Conclusion: Norwegian radiographers typically appear, in glimpses, as anonymous allied health technicians in local reports on new diagnostic equipment or resource utilization. The professional qualities and decisive skills required to handle sophisticated diagnostic equipment and continuity of patient care are underestimated. A more-nuanced media coverage might give radiographers a strengthened identity as important health-care service contributors. - Highlights: • The radiography profession is an inconspicuous topic in Norwegian written press. • Written press involving radiographers highlight new equipment and medical technology. • Radiographers' professional qualities and decisive

  11. NOM removal technologies – Norwegian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ødegaard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the methods for removal of natural organic matter (NOM in water, particularly humic substances (HS, with focus on the Norwegian experiences. It is demonstrated that humic substances may be removed by a variety of methods, such as; molecular sieving through nanofiltration membranes, coagulation with subsequent floc separation (including granular media or membrane filtration, oxidation followed by biofiltration and sorption processes including chemisorption (ion exchange and physical adsorption (activated carbon. All these processes are in use in Norway and the paper gives an overview of the operational experiences.

  12. Norwegian scabies - rare case of atypical manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Karina Corrêa; Alves, Júlia Barazetti; Tomé, Lísias de Araújo; Moraes, Carlos Floriano de; Gaspar, Arianne Ditzel; Franck, Karin Fernanda; Hussein, Mohamad Ali; Cruz, Lucas Raiser da; Ebrahim, Leonardo Duque; Sidney, Luis Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Human scabies affects all social classes and different races around the world. It is highly contagious, but the exact figures on its prevalence are unknown. A 19-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room reporting fever (38°C) and multiple lesions throughout the body, except face, soles, and palms. Lesions were non-pruritic, which hampered the initial diagnostic suspicion. Skin biopsy was performed, and the final diagnosis was crusted scabies (Norwegian). It was concluded that human scabies is a significant epidemic disease, due to its different clinical manifestations, and because it is extremely contagious.

  13. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Source: doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000245 To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.Adult women (n 69 471).Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and ...

  14. The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, E. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    This report includes abstracts from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme 11-12 March 1996. The abstracts are organized according to the sessions: (1) Regional effects of climate change with emphasis on ecology, (2) Climate research related to the North Atlantic, (3) What lessons can be drawn from paleoclimatology about changes in the current climate?, (4) Changes in the ozone layer and their effect on UV and biology. Abstracts of a selection of papers presented at the workshop can be found elsewhere in the present data base. 70 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Norwegian Armed Forces Personnel Recovery Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PR and SERE is largely due to the personal dedication and vested interest in the field by people like “ Kid ,” “Banzai,” “Darth,” “Bilbo,” and Frode...the first tradition among many traditions of human inquiry and action.”14 In their book The Design Way: Intentional Change in an Unpredictable World...Printing Office, 1943); and War Department, Norwegian Phrase Book , TM 30-610 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943). 125 For the

  16. Disentangling the mechanisms of the coupling between sea ice and tundra productivity: cold air advection vs. arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Fauria, M.; Karlsen, S. R.; Forbes, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in arctic terrestrial productivity have been associated with the decline in sea ice extent, concentration, and volume observed at a pan-Arctic scale during the last decades, on the basis that most tundra ecosystems lay close to the sea. However the mechanisms for this coupling remain elusive, and despite overall trend agreements between different components of the Arctic system, no clear hypothesis has successfully explained the heterogeneous spatial and temporal patterns of sea ice and tundra productivity. Here we propose two mechanisms through which sea ice might influence tundra productivity: (1) by advecting cold air from sea ice to the adjacent land during the growing season (cold air advection, local-to-regional control); (2) via changes in the regional climate linked to the snow-ice albedo feedbacks (arctic amplification, regional-to-pan-Arctic controls). We used 8-day Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI MODIS) and concurrent sea ice concentration data (Norwegian Sea Ice Service) to test the relative influence of cold air advection vs. arctic amplification over the Svalbard Archipelago (period 2000-2014). Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analyses suggest that cold air advection affects tundra productivity in regions/periods where/when sea ice is close to the adjacent land during the growing season, whereas a more regional signal appears when sea ice is distant ( >100km) from the coast. Further analyses were performed using the same approach over the pan-Arctic region using bi-weekly NDVI (GIMMS-NDVI3g) and sea ice extent (NASA/JAXA dataset; period 1981-2015). We interpret that cold air advection locally causes temperatures in the adjacent land to drop ("true coupling"), whereas in the arctic amplification scenario both NDVI and regional sea ice concentration are collinearly related to warmer, regional-to-pan-Arctic temperatures. Our results offer a mechanism that successfully explains NDVI/sea ice coupling and its heterogeneous spatial and

  17. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  18. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  19. Radioactivity in the Arctic Seas. Report for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on environmental conditions in the Arctic Seas as required for the study of possible radiological consequences from dumped high level radioactive wastes in the Kara Sea. The report describes the oceanography of the regions, with emphasis on the Kara and Barents Seas, including the East Novaya Zemlya Fjords. The ecological description concentrates on biological production, marine food-weds and fisheries in the Arctic Seas. The report presents data on radionuclide concentrations in the Kara and Barents Seas and uses these data to estimate the inventories of radionuclides currently in the marine environment of the Kara and Barents Seas

  20. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  1. AMBON - the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iken, K.; Danielson, S. L.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Kuletz, K.; Stafford, K.; Mueter, F. J.; Collins, E.; Bluhm, B.; Moore, S. E.; Bochenek, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (AMBON) is to build an operational and sustainable marine biodiversity observing network for the US Arctic Chukchi Sea continental shelf. The AMBON has four main goals: 1. To close current gaps in taxonomic biodiversity observations from microbes to whales, 2. To integrate results of past and ongoing research programs on the US Arctic shelf into a biodiversity observation network, 3. To demonstrate at a regional level how an observing network could be developed, and 4. To link with programs on the pan-Arctic to global scale. The AMBON fills taxonomic (from microbes to mammals), functional (food web structure), spatial and temporal (continuing time series) gaps, and includes new technologies such as state-of-the-art genomic tools, with biodiversity and environmental observations linked through central data management through the Alaska Ocean Observing System. AMBON is a 5-year partnership between university and federal researchers, funded through the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP), with partners in the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Bureau of Ocean and Energy Management (BOEM), and Shell industry. AMBON will allow us to better coordinate, sustain, and synthesize biodiversity research efforts, and make data available to a broad audience of users, stakeholders, and resource managers.

  2. Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

    1997-08-25

    Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv.

  3. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  4. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2; Produksjonsutviklingen paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  5. Epidemiology of coeliac disease and comorbidity in Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ketil; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Surén, Pål; Stene, Lars C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of clinically diagnosed coeliac disease in children ages 0 to 12 years in Norway, including regional variation and coexisting type 1 diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, and Down syndrome. The Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) contains individual-level hospital data from 2008 onward. Small-bowel biopsies for establishing the coeliac disease diagnosis are only performed at public hospitals reporting to the NPR. Data on all hospital contacts during 2008-2011 when a diagnosis of coeliac disease was registered were retrieved from the NPR for patients born between 1999 and 2011, allowing estimation of the proportion registered with coeliac disease at ages 0 to 12 years in a cohort study. A total of 3006 individuals (58.2% girls) were recorded as having coeliac disease among 797,360 children, corresponding to a proportion of 3.8/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7-3.9/1000) children, 4.5 (CI 4.3-4.7) among girls and 3.1 (CI 2.9-3.3/1000) among boys (P coeliac disease were registered with coexisting conditions: type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 142, 4.7%), Down syndrome (n = 47, 1.6%), or thyroid disease (n = 41, 1.4%). In this first nationwide study of clinically diagnosed coeliac disease in Norwegian children, we found a high occurrence, comparable with that in Sweden. Comorbidity was common, but routine screening of high-risk groups contributed to a limited number of cases.

  6. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor I. Romøren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors - primary health and long term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures. Policy practice: Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term "Coordination Reform". These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented. Discussion: The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden.

  7. The acquisition of compositional definiteness in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Anderssen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim to explain why the prenominal definiteness marker found in modified structures only is acquired much later than the suffixal definite article in Norwegian. The coexistence of the two definiteness markers is the result of the so-called double definiteness phenomenon in Norwegian which occurs in definite structures involving an attributive adjective. As the prenominal determiner only occurs in modified contexts, one obvious explanation that presents itself is that the omission of the prenominal determiner is related to the fact that it is much less frequent in the input than the suffixal article. However, if we consider the form of this determiner, it is clear that the form itself must be very frequent in the input, as it is homophonous with the demonstrative and with inanimate third person pronouns, which are all frequent in use. Consequently, a lexical insertion approach to the double definiteness phenomenon is proposed according to which the discrepancy in the order of acquisition is argued to be due to a combination of prosodic saliency and the lexicalisation of semantic features, the latter of which will be dealt with here.

  8. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor I. Romøren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors - primary health and long term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures.Policy practice: Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term "Coordination Reform". These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented.Discussion: The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden.

  9. [A linguistic analysis of Norwegian medical discourse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløttum, Kjersti

    2006-01-05

    Recent studies show that the traditional conception of academic writing practices as neutral and deprived of personal elements needs to be revised. The KIAP project investigates whether there is such a thing as cultural identity in academic prose and to what extent it may be related to discipline or language. The genre "research article" is analysed with respect to specific linguistic devises which may indicate similarities and differences between articles written in different languages (English, French, Norwegian) and within different disciplines (economics, linguistics, medicine). The material consists of an electronic corpus containing 450 refereed articles taken from recognised journals. The methods used are both quantitative and qualitative. The results confirm the main hypothesis that discipline is more important than language for the explanation of similarities and differences between the nine sub-corpora. Medical articles in all languages are characterised by relatively few occurrences of first person pronouns, indefinite pronouns, meta-textual elements, negations and concessive constructions; on the other hand, medical articles have the highest frequency as regards bibliographical references. These observations may to some extent be explained by different academic traditions, different objects of study and different methods. Norwegian medical articles contain relatively more occurrences of the studied linguistic phenomena than the English and French articles.

  10. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Nansen Arctic Drilling Program as well as by sponsorships from British Petroleum, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, StatoilHydro, and Shell International. The major targets of the workshop were: (1) to bring together an international group of Arctic scientists, young scientists and ocean drilling scientists to learn and exchange ideas, experience and enthusiasm about the Arctic Ocean; (2) to develop a scientific drilling strategy to investigate the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system; (3) to summarize the technical needs, opportunities, and limitations of drilling in the Arctic; (4) to define scientific and drilling targets for specific IODP-type campaigns in Arctic Ocean key areas to be finalized in the development of drilling proposals. Following overview presentations about the history of the Arctic Ocean, legacy of high-latitude ocean drilling, existing site-survey database, technical needs for high-latitude drilling, possibilities of collaboration with industry, and the process of developing ocean-drilling legs through IODP, the main part of the workshop was spent in thematic and regional break-out groups discussing the particular questions to be addressed by drilling and the particular targets for Arctic scientific drilling. Within the working groups, key scientific questions (related to the overall themes paleoceanography, tectonic evolution, petrology/geochemistry of basement, and gas hydrates) and strategies for reaching the overall goals were discussed and - as one of the main results - core groups for further developing drilling proposals were formed. Based on discussions at this workshop, approximately ten new pre-proposals are planned to be submitted to IODP for the April 01- 2009 deadline. We hope that the development of new scientific objectives through the pre-proposal process will help reshape plans for scientific ocean drilling beyond 2013 and direct

  11. Norwegian power and energy balance towards the year of 2010; Norges effekt- og energibalanse frem mot aar 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekke, K.

    1996-12-31

    The present conference paper deals with the Norwegian power and energy balance towards the year of 2010 based on the rate of domestic energy consumption, development of new power plants, and international supply agreements. The efficiency of power transmission compared to the level of delivered energy in the Norwegian power grid within the period from 1975 to 1992 has increased from 83% to 91% with an equivalency of 5.5 TWh. Aspects in connection with the long-range programme are discussed. 12 figs.

  12. Income and wealth distribution of the richest Norwegian individuals: An inequality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Maciej; Czyżewski, Kordian; Kutner, Ryszard; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-05-01

    Using the empirical data from the Norwegian Tax Administration, we analyze the wealth and income of the richest individuals in Norway during the period 2010-2013. We find that both annual income and wealth level of the richest individuals are describable using the Pareto law. We find that the robust mean Pareto exponent over the four-year period to be ≈2.3 for income and ≈1.5 for wealth.

  13. The impact of subtitles in second language acquisition : an experimental study on Norwegian upper secondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Eye, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to find and measure the long-term effects of subtitled second language audiovisual material on second language acquisition, and how significant the potential effects were. The participants of this study were students from a VG3 level in upper secondary school class who were divided into three groups. Two of these groups were experimental groups who watched four episodes of Family Guy with either English or Norwegian subtitles, while the third group, being a control gr...

  14. Why students plagiarise from the internet: The views and practices in three Norwegian upper secondary classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Håvard; Hammer, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In a two-part mixed methods study, internet-based plagiarism amongst Norwegian upper secondary students was measured and related to performance level and knowledge of source use. Subsequently, interviews were conducted to explore these students' views on internet access and plagiarism during essay writing. The quantitative part of the study showed that 75% of the 67 students in the study plagiarised from the online sources and that plagiarism accounted for 25% of the total amount of text. Stu...

  15. Long-term dispersion and availability of metals from submarine mine tailing disposal in a fjord in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kristine B; Jensen, Pernille E; Sternal, Beata; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Henning, Mie Vesterskov; Kudahl, Manja Marie; Junttila, Juho; Skirbekk, Kari; Frantzen, Marianne

    2017-05-27

    Mining of Cu took place in Kvalsund in the Arctic part of Norway in the 1970s, and mine tailings were discharged to the inner part of the fjord, Repparfjorden. Metal speciation analysis was used to assess the historical dispersion of metals as well as their potential bioavailability from the area of the mine tailing disposal. It was revealed that the dispersion of Ba, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn from the mine tailings has been limited. Dispersion of Cu to the outer fjord has, however, occurred; the amounts released and dispersed from the mine tailing disposal area quantified to be 2.5-10 t, less than 5% of Cu in the original mine tailings. An estimated 80-390 t of Cu still remains in the disposal area from the surface to a depth of 16 cm. Metal partitioning showed that 56-95% of the Cu is bound in the potential bioavailable fractions (exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable) of the sediments, totalling approximately 70-340 t, with potential for continuous release to the pore water and re-precipitation in over- and underlying sediments. Surface sediments in the deposit area were affected by elevated Cu concentrations just above the probable effect level according to the Norwegian sediment quality criteria, with 50-80% Cu bound in the exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable fractions, potentially available for release to the water column and/or for uptake in benthic organisms.

  16. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea-ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models perform less accurately in the polar regions. This paper presents, a kinematic processing of global positioning system (GPS......) placed on sea-ice, at six different sites north of Greenland for the preliminary study of sea surface height (SSH), and tidal analysis to improve tide models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tide model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and altimetry data....... The results show coherence between the GPS buoy measurements, and the tide model. Furthermore, we have proved that the reference ellipsoid of WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  17. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  18. Building upon cooperative prospects amongst stakeholders for fighting Arctic marine invasion challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    environmental quality outcomes: Norwegian and Russian fishermen, Live and frozen crab markets, and Society, representing all possible beneficiaries of a healthy and well-sustained marine ecosystem in the Barents Sea as well as those in areas to which the invasion may spread. These actors must make decisions...... under significant uncertainty; sustained Arctic observation data of crab populations and spread, ecosystem quality and related productivity parameters improve decision-making capability and increase clarity of the trade-offs involved. We identify the stakeholders’ involved and trace out their roles...... in the decision making process to help articulate incentive-compatible ecosystem management strategies that are adaptive to new information garnered from sustained Arctic observations....

  19. Dumping of radioactive waste in the Artic Seas - The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The IAEA has initiated the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) to address the widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts of the dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters the Arctic seas. The work is being carried out as part of IAEA responsibilities to the London Convention 1972. It is envisaged that the project will last for four years and be run by the IAEA in co-operation with the Norwegian and Russian Governments and with the involvement, through the IAEA, of experts from relevant IAEA member states. The project is aimed at producing an assessment of the potential radiological implications of the dumping and at addressing the question of possible remedial measures. At the same time, it is intended to provide a focus for the reporting of national research and assessment work and a mechanism for encouraging international co-operation and collaboration

  20. Северный идентитет как основа развития традиций в исследовании арктики 1890-1917(Northern identity in Russian and Norwegian cultures as a background for polar explorations 1890-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Xorkina

    1998-02-01

    Northern identity and attachment to the Arctic created the cultural background for both Russian and Norwegian traditions of polar ex- ploration. However, if Norwegian culture confined itself to northernness, the northern identity of the Russians was only one part of a heterogeneous national identity. During the second part of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries the central place of northernness in Norwegian culture and national self-consciousness made polar exploration a natural part of nation-building and promoted Norwegian involvement in the Arctic. For Russia, on the other hand, this period was marked by both decline and reanimation of northern identity. It seems to be that in case of Russia, the geographic factor of the northern identity and political and economic interests in the north were of more importance than cultural predispositions for renewed research activity in the Arctic during the period 1890-1917. At the same time, cultural attributes related to the North were an important part of the Norwegian exploring tradition.

  1. Japan’s arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Streltsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article is devoted to the public policy of modern Japan in the Arctic. The Japanese government has put forward clear and well-specifi ed targets of the intensifi cation of Japan’s efforts in the economic development of the Arctic region. Among the priorities of the Arctic policy one should mention such areas as the development of maritime transportation, development of hydrocarbon deposits of the Arctic shelf, sea fi shing, as well as the preservation and increase of the sea bioresources.

  2. The Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV): Visualization, Data Discovery, Strategic Assessment, and Decision Support for Arctic Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Villarreal, S.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    To better assess progress in Arctic Observing made by U.S. SEARCH, NSF AON, SAON, and related initiatives, an updated version of the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org) has been released. This web mapping application and information system conveys the who, what, where, and when of "data collection sites" - the precise locations of monitoring assets, observing platforms, and wherever repeat marine or terrestrial measurements have been taken. Over 13,000 sites across the circumarctic are documented including a range of boreholes, ship tracks, buoys, towers, sampling stations, sensor networks, vegetation plots, stream gauges, ice cores, observatories, and more. Contributing partners are the U.S. NSF, NOAA, the NSF Arctic Data Center, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, CAFF, GINA, IASOA, INTERACT, NASA ABoVE, and USGS, among others. Users can visualize, navigate, select, search, draw, print, view details, and follow links to obtain a comprehensive perspective of environmental monitoring efforts. We continue to develop, populate, and enhance AOV. Recent updates include: a vastly improved Search tool with free text queries, autocomplete, and filters; faster performance; a new clustering visualization; heat maps to highlight concentrated research; and 3-D represented data to more easily identify trends. AOV is founded on principles of interoperability, such that agencies and organizations can use the AOV Viewer and web services for their own purposes. In this way, AOV complements other distributed yet interoperable cyber resources and helps science planners, funding agencies, investigators, data specialists, and others to: assess status, identify overlap, fill gaps, optimize sampling design, refine network performance, clarify directions, access data, coordinate logistics, and collaborate to meet Arctic Observing goals. AOV is a companion application to the Arctic Research Mapping Application (armap.org), which is focused on general project information at a

  3. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L.; Colegrove, Dominique P.; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through ‘atmospheric mercury depletion events’, or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(II)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(II) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)—the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere—occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L; Colegrove, Dominique P; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W; Sonke, Jeroen E; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-12

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through 'atmospheric mercury depletion events', or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(ii)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(ii) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)-the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere-occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Midlatitude atmospheric responses to Arctic sensible heat flux anomalies in Community Climate Model, Version 4: Atmospheric Response to Arctic SHFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Catrin M. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, John J. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, Elizabeth N. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2016-12-10

    Possible linkages between Arctic sea ice loss and midlatitude weather are strongly debated in the literature. We analyze a coupled model simulation to assess the possibility of Arctic ice variability forcing a midlatitude response, ensuring consistency between atmosphere, ocean, and ice components. We work with weekly running mean daily sensible heat fluxes with the self-organizing map technique to identify Arctic sensible heat flux anomaly patterns and the associated atmospheric response, without the need of metrics to define the Arctic forcing or measure the midlatitude response. We find that low-level warm anomalies during autumn can build planetary wave patterns that propagate downstream into the midlatitudes, creating robust surface cold anomalies in the eastern United States.

  6. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  7. Influence of sea ice on Arctic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Kay, J. E.; Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Coasts form the dynamic interface between the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a focal point for population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A key difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Changes in sea ice cover can influence the coast because (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the location of the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can interact with open ocean water, which in turn governs nearshore water level and wave field. We first focus on the interaction of sea ice and ice-rich coasts. We combine satellite records of sea ice with a model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to estimate how changes in the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment along Alaska's Beaufort Sea Coast for the period 1979-2012. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic: the median length of the open-water season has expanded by 90 percent, while coastal erosion rates have more than doubled from 8.7 to 19 m yr-1. At Drew Point, NW winds increase shoreline water levels that control the incision of a submarine notch, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. The maximum water-level setup at Drew Point has increased consistently with increasing fetch. We extend our analysis to the entire Arctic using both satellite-based observations and global coupled climate model output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project. This 30-member ensemble employs a 1-degree version of the CESM-CAM5 historical forcing for the period 1920-2005, and RCP 8.5 forcing from 2005-2100. A control model run with constant pre-industrial (1850) forcing characterizes internal variability in a constant climate. Finally, we compare observations and model results to

  8. Assessing a Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Lone, Jon Anders; Bjørkli, Cato A; Ulleberg, Pål; Hoff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure developed by Patterson and colleagues. The Organizational Climate Measure is a global measure of organizational climate based on Quinn and Rohrbaugh's competing values model. The survey was administered to a Norwegian branch of an international service sector company (N = 555). The results revealed satisfactory internal reliability and interrater agreement for the 17 scales, and confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure. The findings gave preliminary support for the Organizational Climate Measure as a reliable measure with a stable factor structure, and indicated that it is potentially useful in the Norwegian context.

  9. Environmental regulation of the Norwegian pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, Rolf; Greve, Arent; Harris, Ken

    2000-01-01

    The report discusses how the Norwegian pulp and paper industry has adapted to the emission requirements given by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) during the last 30 years. The authors have identified process alterations and internal measures in the factories that are due to stricter emission requirements, and they have identified external cleaning measures. The report also documents the interaction between the companies and SFT and it maps out real and permitted emissions to water and air from the Norwegian pulp and paper industry

  10. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change—A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Eicken, H.; Fox, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    permafrost, land ice and sea level, and societal and policy implications. Together, the goals will provide significant insight into arctic system change as a whole. The SEARCH SSC will release the goals in their revised form and then work closely with agency representatives to implement the goals through research opportunities and community activities. SEARCH is guided by a Science Steering Committee and several panels and working groups, with broad representation of the research community. SEARCH is sponsored by eight U.S. agencies, including: the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of the Interior (DOI), the Smithsonian Institution, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The U.S. Arctic Research Commission participates as an agency observer. For further information, please visit the website: http://www.arcus.org/search or contact: Helen V. Wiggins: helen@arcus.org, SEARCH Project Office, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS).

  11. Norwegian High-School Students Internship Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The High-School Students Internship Programme (HSSIP is a programme developed by the ECO group’s Teacher and Student Programmes section to engage students from a young age with scientific research and innovation. Norway was selected as one out of five countries for the pilot programmes run in 2017. Out of some 150 applications, 10 boys and 14 girls, from Longyearbyen (Svalbard) in the North to Flekkefjord in the South, were invited to participate in the Norwegian programme that took place from 15 October - 28 October. The youngsters were offered an intense two-week internship at CERN, during which they took part in many diverse activities. Accompanied by mentors, the students got a deeper insight into how CERN supports particle physics by working on their own projects and through a variety of visits.

  12. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infan...

  13. Ecology of North American Arctic continental shelf benthos: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Andrew G.

    1991-08-01

    The zoogeography, ecology, and biology of continental shelf invertebrate benthos along the arctic coast of North America from Alaska to western Greenland are reviewed. Environmental influences are noted and the life histories as well as the food sources of the fauna are summarized. The existence of regionally associated, characteristic community structures, centred upon the northern Bering Sea and the eastern Chukchi Sea, the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Archipelago, the eastern Canadian Arctic, and western Greenland, is indicated. Early field research was exploratory and fragmented. Since 1940 more extensive studies oriented toward surveys and environmental baselines have been conducted. Over the last few decades physiological ecology studies of selected species have been undertaken to better understand adaptations to polar conditions. Recent Canadian research has included long-term field experiments on the effects of oil spillage in arctic waters as well as quantitative studies of benthos across the Archipelago and within fiords and other specialized environments. This research has suggested the need for basic biological and ecological research from the level of species through complete ecosystems in arctic waters. Additional studies on the long-term effects of pollution should be undertaken in the colder regions where it is likely that biological processes are slower and the effects of pollution are more long-lasting. Specifically, the ability to define pelagic-benthic coupling in Canadian arctic waters would provide insight into the role of the benthos in low productivity arctic ecosystems. In summary co-operative international research programmes on continental shelf benthos throughout the Arctic Basin and its surrounding seas should be undertaken. Knowledge of the range of shelf environments will provide insight into the controlling physical and biological features of the environment as well as the role of the seafloor within the arctic environment.

  14. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-07-09

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time.

  15. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  16. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  17. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1998; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1998-04-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  19. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1997; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1997-02-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  20. Heroes and Nomads in Norwegian Polar Explorer Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Alnæs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1888 six Norwegians crossed the Greenland-ice on skis. Two years after, the expedition leader Fridtjof Nansen published the book På ski over Grønland (English title: The First Crossing of Greenland about the expedition. In Norway, this book has had an enormous influence and for modern Norwegian travel authors, it has become a kind of centre from which they organise their travels and their writing. This paper will focus on how På ski over Grønland has been read and its impact on the travel genre. Also, I will look briefly at another book published by the Norwegian Bjørn Staib, about 85 years after Nansen's. This book too is importatant in the Norwegian polar explorer discourse.

  1. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  2. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  3. Arctic interests and policy of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri I. Rubinsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author considers scientific, economic and political activities of France for the development and exploration of the Arctic, providing security there. Along with some other non-Arctic countries, France is not ready to accept such a situation when eight members of the Arctic Council solve Arctic problems on behalf of all mankind.

  4. Arctic interests and policy of France

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri I. Rubinsky

    2016-01-01

    The author considers scientific, economic and political activities of France for the development and exploration of the Arctic, providing security there. Along with some other non-Arctic countries, France is not ready to accept such a situation when eight members of the Arctic Council solve Arctic problems on behalf of all mankind.

  5. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    harvest. The net photosynthesis per leaf area was on average 22% higher in 61% reduced UV-B treatment across the season, but per ground area photosynthesis was unchanged. The leaf level increase in photosynthesis was accompanied by increased leaf nitrogen, higher stomatal conductance and F(v) /F...

  6. The Arctic-Subarctic Sea Ice System is Entering a Seasonal Regime: Implications for Future Arctic Amplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Martin, T.

    2017-12-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is a conspicuous example of climate change. Climate models project ice-free conditions during summer this century under realistic emission scenarios, reflecting the increase in seasonality in ice cover. To quantify the increased seasonality in the Arctic-Subarctic sea ice system, we define a non-dimensional seasonality number for sea ice extent, area, and volume from satellite data and realistic coupled climate models. We show that the Arctic-Subarctic, i.e. the northern hemisphere, sea ice now exhibits similar levels of seasonality to the Antarctic, which is in a seasonal regime without significant change since satellite observations began in 1979. Realistic climate models suggest that this transition to the seasonal regime is being accompanied by a maximum in Arctic amplification, which is the faster warming of Arctic latitudes compared to the global mean, in the 2010s. The strong link points to a peak in sea-ice-related feedbacks that occurs long before the Arctic becomes ice-free in summer.

  7. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  8. How sustainable is the framework for Norwegian gas sales?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the way Norway has organized its gas sales, and to what extent Norwegian regulatory goals are reconcilable with EU gas market objectives. Although there are strong arguments in favor of governmental resource management and coordination of Norwegian offshore activities, there are also a series of reasons why the existing organization of gas sales is not the right one in a liberalized market. (Author)

  9. Facts 2000. Norwegian petroleum activities; Fakta 2000. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The petroleum resources discovered on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounts to about 9,6 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents, 76 percent in the North Sea, 20 percent in the Norwegian Sea and 4 percent in the Barents Sea. The present publication gives a summary of the resources, the exploration, the field development, the production of oil and gas, and the revenue from petroleum sale for the year 1999.

  10. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  11. a New Japanese Project for Arctic Climate Change Research - Grene Arctic - (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    A new Arctic Climate Change Research Project 'Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences' has started in 2011 for a five years project. GRENE-Arctic project is an initiative of Arctic study by more than 30 Japanese universities and institutes as the flame work of GRENE (Green Network of Excellence) of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). The GRENE-Arctic project set four strategic research targets: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic 2. Understanding the Arctic system for global climate and future change 3. Evaluation of the effects of Arctic change on weather in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries 4. Prediction of sea Ice distribution and Arctic sea routes This project aims to realize the strategic research targets by executing following studies: -Improvement of coupled general circulation models based on validations of the Arctic climate reproducibility and on mechanism analyses of the Arctic climate change and variability -The role of Arctic cryosphere in the global change -Change in terrestrial ecosystem of pan-Arctic and its effect on climate -Studies on greenhouse gas cycles in the Arctic and their responses to climate change -Atmospheric studies on Arctic change and its global impacts -Ecosystem studies of the Arctic ocean declining Sea ice -Projection of Arctic Sea ice responding to availability of Arctic sea route (* ** ***) *Changes in the Arctic ocean and mechanisms on catastrophic reduction of Arctic sea ice cover **Coordinated observational and modeling studies on the basic structure and variability of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system ***Sea ice prediction and construction of ice navigation support system for the Arctic sea route. Although GRENE Arctic project aims to product scientific contribution in a concentrated program during 2011-2016, Japanese Arctic research community established Japan Consortium for Arctic Environmental Research (JCAR) in May

  12. Authority in Arctic governance: changing spheres of authority in Greenlandic offshore oil and gas developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.C.A.; Tatenhove, van J.; Leeuwen, van J.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic has rapidly transformed from a ‘‘frozen desert’’ into a theater for high-level politics. Climate change and socioeconomic interdependencies bring the World more and more to the Arctic and vice versa. Increased geological knowledge, new technologies, and high-energy prices make it possible

  13. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    In this document the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates the total recoverable petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf to be 12.5 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the undiscovered resources, the expected value being 3.5 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. The new estimates signify an increase of 14% since the calculations made last year. This increase is chiefly due to an upward adjustment of the expectations for a future increase in the recovery factor for the in place resources on the continental shelf. In 1995, the Norwegian oil production accounted for 4.3% of the global oil production. It is estimated that Norway has a total of about 1.3% of the discovered recoverable oil resources and about 1.8% of the discovered recoverable gas resources in the world. The Norwegian annual oil production is expected to reach a maximum of 3.7 million barrels per day in the year 2000. Many new discoveries are still being made on the Norwegian continental shelf. In the last two years, 20 new discoveries have been made, giving a resources growth of about 260 million Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. Great technological progress has been made on the Norwegian continental shelf during the last five years concerning exploration, development and production. As for mapping, the introduction of 3D seismic data and the development of interpolation tools have helped to provide a much better understanding of the substratum. 88 figs.

  14. Trophic pathways supporting Arctic grayling in a small stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jason J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Beaded streams are prominent across the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, yet prey flow and food web dynamics supporting fish inhabiting these streams are poorly understood. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are a widely distributed upper-level consumer on the ACP and migrate into beaded streams to forage during the short 3-month open-water season. We investigated energy pathways and key prey resources that support grayling in a representative beaded stream, Crea Creek. We measured terrestrial invertebrates entering the stream from predominant riparian vegetation types, prey types supporting a range of fish size classes, and how riparian plants and fish size influenced foraging habits. We found that riparian plants influenced the quantity of terrestrial invertebrates entering Crea Creek; however, these differences were not reflected in fish diets. Prey type and size ingested varied with grayling size and season. Small grayling (15 cm FL) foraged most heavily on ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) throughout the summer, indicating that grayling can be insectivorous and piscivorous, depending on size. These findings underscore the potential importance of small streams in Arctic ecosystems as key summer foraging habitats for fish. Understanding trophic pathways supporting stream fishes in these systems will help interpret whether and how petroleum development and climate change may affect energy flow and stream productivity, terrestrial–aquatic linkages and fishes in Arctic ecosystems.

  15. Trophic pathways supporting Arctic grayling in a small stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jason J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Beaded streams are prominent across the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, yet prey flow and food web dynamics supporting fish inhabiting these streams are poorly understood. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are a widely distributed upper-level consumer on the ACP and migrate into beaded streams to forage during the short 3-month open-water season. We investigated energy pathways and key prey resources that support grayling in a representative beaded stream, Crea Creek. We measured terrestrial invertebrates entering the stream from predominant riparian vegetation types, prey types supporting a range of fish size classes, and how riparian plants and fish size influenced foraging habits. We found that riparian plants influenced the quantity of terrestrial invertebrates entering Crea Creek; however, these differences were not reflected in fish diets. Prey type and size ingested varied with grayling size and season. Small grayling (fish (>15 cm FL) foraged most heavily on ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) throughout the summer, indicating that grayling can be insectivorous and piscivorous, depending on size. These findings underscore the potential importance of small streams in Arctic ecosystems as key summer foraging habitats for fish. Understanding trophic pathways supporting stream fishes in these systems will help interpret whether and how petroleum development and climate change may affect energy flow and stream productivity, terrestrial–aquatic linkages and fishes in Arctic ecosystems.

  16. A comparison of heavy metal levels in the kidneys of High Arctic and mainland caribou populations in the Northwest Territories of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, N C; Nagy, J A

    2000-02-10

    Aluminum, nickel, cadmium, mercury and lead levels were measured in the kidney tissue of Banks Island Peary caribou and barren-ground caribou, from the Bluenose herd, of the western Northwest Territories of Canada. Cadmium concentrations of Bluenose caribou were similar to those reported elsewhere for barren-ground caribou and showed a positive correlation with age. Cadmium concentrations of Peary caribou were significantly lower than those of Bluenose caribou regardless of age, were the lowest reported for caribou during winter, and did not show a positive correlation with age. Mercury levels, expressed on a wet weight basis, were similar to those reported for other barren-ground caribou. Mercury levels were significantly higher in Bluenose [mean 10.45 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E.= 0.85; n = 20] than Peary [mean 5.43 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E. = 0.31; n = 20] caribou. Aluminum concentrations for Bluenose and Peary caribou were similar [mean 1.48 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E. = 0.17; n = 20 and mean 1.56 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E.= 0.15; n = 20, respectively), but were considerably lower than those reported for barren-ground caribou elsewhere. Lead and nickel concentrations were low and similar between Bluenose, Peary and other reported barren-ground caribou populations. Higher cadmium and mercury concentrations in Bluenose caribou are consistent with the hypothesis that caribou with a high dietary lichen component have higher contaminant levels. It is unlikely that subsistence harvesters would consume enough kidney during a year to exceed the tolerable intake of cadmium recommended by the WHO.

  17. The Effectiveness of the Regulatory Regime for Black Carbon Mitigation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Shapovalova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being a hazardous air pollutant, Black Carbon is the second-largest contributor to Arctic warming. Its mitigation is being addressed at the international regulatory level by the Arctic Council and the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP. Whilst the Convention and its protocols are binding documents, the Black Carbon regulation under their framework appears to have ‘soft law’ characteristics. At the same time, the voluntary Black Carbon and Methane Framework, adopted by the Arctic Council, demonstrates positive compliance and follow-up dynamics compared to earlier norm-creating attempts. This paper argues that the nature of the norm (binding or non-binding is not the decisive factor regarding effective implementation in the Arctic region. Current efforts to mitigate Black Carbon by means of a non-binding Arctic Council Black Carbon and Methane Framework represent an improvement in the Council's normative function and may have more effect on the behaviour of Arctic States than relevant provisions under the Gothenburg Protocol to the CLRTAP. To support this argument, the first section presents an overview of the Arctic Council as an actor in Arctic policy-making. It then provides an assessment of current efforts to combat Black Carbon carried out by the Arctic Council and the CLRTAP.

  18. Role of polar anticyclones and mid-latitude cyclones for Arctic summertime sea-ice melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernli, Heini; Papritz, Lukas

    2018-02-01

    Annual minima in Arctic sea-ice extent and volume have been decreasing rapidly since the late 1970s, with substantial interannual variability. Summers with a particularly strong reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent are characterized by anticyclonic circulation anomalies from the surface to the upper troposphere. Here, we investigate the origin of these seasonal circulation anomalies by identifying individual Arctic anticyclones (with a lifetime of typically ten days) and analysing the air mass transport into these systems. We reveal that these episodic upper-level induced Arctic anticyclones are relevant for generating seasonal circulation anomalies. Sea-ice reduction is systematically enhanced during the transient episodes with Arctic anticyclones and the seasonal reduction of sea-ice volume correlates with the area-averaged frequency of Arctic anticyclones poleward of 70° N (correlation coefficient of 0.57). A trajectory analysis shows that these anticyclones result from extratropical cyclones injecting extratropical air masses with low potential vorticity into the Arctic upper troposphere. Our results emphasize the fundamental role of extratropical cyclones and associated diabatic processes in establishing Arctic anticyclones and, in turn, seasonal circulation anomalies, which are of key importance for understanding the variability of summertime Arctic sea-ice melting.

  19. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-07-01

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  20. Russia in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Arctic as a new Canadian flagship. The decision—approved almost unanimously by the House of Commons in spite of protests from northern Inuit ...1961. 25. “State-of-the- art nuclear submarines to the Russian Navy,” Barents Observer, June 19, 2009, available from www.bar- entsobserver.com/state-of...the- art -nuclear-submarines-to-the-russian- navy.4608935-58932.html. 26. “Sineva extended range launch,” Russianforces.org, Octo- ber 11, 2008

  1. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Complement Flexible space for hovercraft , airboats, USVs and RHIBs Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division Green Arctic Patrol Vessel 1...through Sea State 3 (SS3). Flexible capability for a variety of organic craft, such as boat, hovercraft and/or Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs...2.0, Finland 6.0 2.7 2.8 6 1.8 Hovercraft Griffon/500TD 8.04 3.92 2.41 99 5 ~1.5 Hovercraft Griffon/2000TD 12.7 6.1 3.93 450 20

  2. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2006-01-01

    entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...... sent representatives. Also attending were representatives from the International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and the National Indian Health Board. The working group developed a set of ten recommendations related to research opportunities in heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders; obstacles...

  3. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F.

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  4. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km 2 , is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Germany's strategy for the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav B. Belov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade Germany has increased activity in the Arctic region. From a formal point of view, the German state connects it with various aspects of international security (mainly — environmental and transport, with needs to respect the rights of peoples living in the Arctic regions and the importance of scientific research in the Arctic. But in reality, they are hiding far-reaching interests of safeguarding the national security of raw materials and access of German concerns to the Arctic resources. In solidarity and in many ways defining the EU's policy in the Arctic, Germany primarily is focusing on their long-term economic and geopolitical goals and objectives, which it will consistently implement in the coming years in the framework of the Arctic Council, and beyond, including within the framework of cooperation with Russia. This article is devoted to the analysis of these goals and objectives, as well as to the definition of medium-term trends in Germany's Arctic policy.

  6. Variations in freshwater pathways from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeliang; Hamilton, James; Su, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and adjacent oceans is critical to building our knowledge of how the Arctic is reacting to a warming climate, and how potential changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater export may impact the AMOC (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation). Here, freshwater pathways from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic are investigated using a 1 degree global model. An EOF analysis of modeled sea surface height (SSH) demonstrates that while the second mode accounts for only 15% of the variability, the associated geostrophic currents are strongly correlated with freshwater exports through CAA (Canadian Arctic Archipelago; r = 0.75), Nares Strait (r = 0.77) and Fram Strait (r = -0.60). Separation of sea level into contributing parts allows us to show that the EOF1 is primarily a barotropic mode reflecting variability in bottom pressure equivalent sea level, while the EOF2 mode reflects changes in steric height in the Arctic Basin. This second mode is linked to momentum wind driven surface current, and dominates the Arctic Ocean freshwater exports. Both the Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole atmospheric indices are shown to be linked to Arctic Ocean freshwater exports, with the forcing associated with the Arctic Dipole reflecting the out-of-phase relationship between transports through the CAA and those through Fram Strait. Finally, observed freshwater transport variation through the CAA is found to be strongly correlated with tide gauge data from the Beaufort Sea coast (r = 0.81), and with the EOF2 mode of GRACE bottom pressure data (r = 0.85) on inter-annual timescales.

  7. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-07-19

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level.

  8. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2017-01-01

    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  9. Arctic Ice Management: an integrated approach to climate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, S. J.; Hartnett, H. E.; Groppi, C. E.; Romaniello, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The warming climate is having the most rapid and pronounced effects in the high Arctic. The loss of Arctic sea ice is not only changing the physical oceanography of the Arctic Ocean and its coastlines; it is also promoting new conversations about the dangers and benefits for trade, transportation, and industry in the Arctic. The rate of decrease of summer sea ice in the Arctic is currently -300 km3 yr-1, a rate that will lead to complete loss of end-summer sea ice as soon as 2030. Preventing the strong positive feedbacks and increased warming due to sea ice albedo loss must be an important component of climate mitigation strategies. Here, we explore a direct engineering approach we call Arctic Ice Management (AIM) to reduce the loss of Arctic sea ice. We predict that pumping seawater onto the ice surface during the Arctic winter using wind-powered pumps can thicken sea ice by up to 1 m per year, reversing the current loss rates and prolonging the time until the Arctic Ocean is ice-free. Thickening sea ice would not change CO2 levels, which are the underlying cause of ice loss, but it would prevent some of the strongest feedbacks and would buy time to develop the tools and governance systems necessary to achieve carbon-neutrality. We advocate exploration of AIM as a mitigation strategy employed in parallel with CO2 reduction efforts. The opportunity and risk profiles of AIM differ from other geoengineering proposals. While similar in principle to solar radiation management, AIM may present fewer large-scale environmental risks. AIM is separate from greenhouse gas emission reduction or sequestration, but might help prevent accelerated release of methane from thawing permafrost. Further, AIM might be usefully employed at regional and local scales to preserve Arctic ecosystems and possibly reduce the effects of ice-loss induced coastal erosion. Through presentation of the AIM concept, we hope to spark new conversations between scientists, stakeholders, and decision

  10. Raising the question of dignity through knowledge about tacit practices and politics: sharing learning from the Norwegian welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Synnes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this special issue is some of the main tacit policies and practices in the Norwegian welfare state. By looking at what is tacit, mute, unarticulated and neglected we will contribute to raising and presenting knowledge about the social and ethical question of dignity in welfare. This introductory article will first give a short overview of the historical background of the Norwegian welfare state and some of its current features. This will be followed by our positioning of the Norwegian welfare state as situated within complex practices, political discourses and dimensions that might be characterised as tacit, implicit or unarticulated. The article aims to discuss the concept of dignity in welfare services, at the individual and structural level, by asking ‘what kind of practices and structural conditions preserve dignity and where might dignity be violated, ignored or left out?’ The various articles in this special issue of the International Practice Development Journal illuminate what can be said and what is mute and tacit in different ways, and consider a range of practice-based responses. By revealing tacit dimensions in the Norwegian welfare this issue offers important insight into practices and discourses where dignity is at stake. It is a requirement of us all that we revisit dignity and its location and representation in our health systems to ensure it is not left behind as the state and other systems within it evolve.

  11. How do Restructuring Processes Influence Low- and Unskilled Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Workers and their Managers in a Norwegian Hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Enehaug

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that workplace restructuring has undesirable effects on the psychosocial work environment, health, and sick leave, but no attention has been given to the health effects of work environments characterized by restructuring, a multicultural staff, and a strong socioeconomic occupational hierarchy. In this casestudy, we examine a large Norwegian hospital in which all of these features are present. Through in-depth interviews with employees and their managers we investigate the healthiness of the restructuring process, and the consequences of the restructuring process on the work environment, subjective health, and sick leave. Results show that immigrant workers received less information, had higher level of frustration and less control over work, and experienced a decrease in well-being, autonomy, and social support. Immigrant worker vulnerability, that is, the handicap of poor understanding of the Norwegian language and a lack of understanding of general and local organizational norms and practices in the Norwegian workplace, is an important explanation. Immigrant workers with a poor Norwegian language understanding are even worse off. We conclude that a strong occupational hierarchy within the hospital exerts an overall influence on the position of low/unskilled employees in the restructuring process as well as their perception of and involvement in it.

  12. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, Dag Harald.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the first study in the research project '' Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation''. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad's research program ''Petropol''. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  13. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  14. Diabetic foot ulcer teams in Norwegian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberstad, Mari; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Berg, Tore Julsrud; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-09-19

    The national clincial guidelines for diabetes recommend that diabetic foot ulcers be treated by interdisciplinary diabetic foot ulcer teams. This study aims to survey the extent of diabetic foot ulcer teams in the specialist health service in Norwegian hospitals and to describe their clinical composition, organisation and working routines. The study is cross-sectional with the use of a questionnaire survey. The criteria for participating were somatic hospitals with 24-hour operations and a specialist function for patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 41 hospitals participated of the 51 that fulfilled the criteria. Altogether 17 of 41 hospitals had diabetic foot ulcer teams. The teams had a broad clinical composition and followed national recommendations for surveying risk factors and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Nine foot ulcer teams had written routines for assessment, five used the Noklus diabetes patient records to document ulcer treatment, and ten had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Only one-quarter of the teams included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration. The diabetic foot ulcer teams had broad clinical competence and followed national clinical guidelines. The teams had a short waiting time for the initial consultation, half had written guidelines, and 60 % had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Far fewer had included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration.

  15. [Norwegian physicians' knowledge of Latin medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2005-12-15

    It is well established that medical terminology is firmly based in Latin and Greek. However, teaching in Latin and medical terminology is not adequate in the medical education in Norway. A questionnaire on medical practitioners' knowledge of medical Latin was handed out among doctors participating in further education at the University of Tromsø, spring 2005. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: knowledge of Latin medical words, Latin names on diseases, and grammar (Latin word endings). The response rate was 102/121 (84 %).; 102 doctors participated, including 51 general practitioners. The understanding of Latin medical words was generally good. 70 % (71/102) of the doctors had less than three errors. The knowledge of Latin names for diseases was also quite good, with 73 % (74/102) having less than three errors. However, there were many grave mistakes. The ability to give correct word endings in plural nominative and singular genitive was almost absent; 85 % (87/102) made four or more errors. Although Norwegian medical practitioners have a certain degree of skills in medical Latin, their knowledge is not sufficient. Marginal knowledge of important medical terms may complicate communication between doctors. A compulsory minimum of training in medical nomenclature should be a part of the curriculum in medical schools.

  16. Lifestyle and mortality among Norwegian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotevatn, S; Akslen, L A; Bjelke, E

    1989-07-01

    Information on six different habits (cigarette smoking, physical activity, frequency of alcohol and of fruit/vegetable consumption, and daily bread and potato consumption) was obtained by two postal surveys (1964 and 1967) among Norwegian men. The answers were related to mortality among 10,187 respondents ages 35-74 years at the start of the follow-up period (1967-1978). Analyses, stratified by age, place of residence, marital status, and socioeconomic group, showed an association between the six variables and observed/expected deaths, as well as odds ratio estimates. A health practice score, obtained by adding the number of favorable habits, showed a strong inverse relationship with total mortality as well as deaths from cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other causes. Odds ratio estimates for men with only favorable habits vs those with at most one such habit, were 0.31 for total mortality, 0.44 for cancer, and 0.36 for cardiovascular mortality. Separate analyses among current smokers and nonsmokers showed a particularly strong association between the five other habits and mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  17. Differential utilization of primary health care services among older immigrants and Norwegians: a register-based comparative study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Kumar, Bernadette N

    2014-11-26

    Aging in an unfamiliar landscape can pose health challenges for the growing numbers of immigrants and their health care providers. Therefore, better understanding of how different immigrant groups use Primary Health Care (PHC), and the underlying factors that explain utilization is needed to provide adequate and appropriate public health responses. Our aim is to describe and compare the use of PHC between elderly immigrants and Norwegians. Registry-based study using merged data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration database. All 50 year old or older Norwegians with both parents from Norway (1,516,012) and immigrants with both parents from abroad (89,861) registered in Norway in 2008 were included. Descriptive analyses were carried out. Immigrants were categorised according to country of origin, reason for migration and length of stay in Norway. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the utilization of PHC comparing Norwegians and immigrants, and to assess associations between utilization and both length of stay and reason for immigration, adjusting for other socioeconomic variables. A higher proportion of Norwegians used PHC services compared to immigrants. While immigrants from high-income countries used PHC less than Norwegians disregarding age (OR from 0.65 to 0.92 depending on age group), they had similar number of diagnoses when in contact with PHC. Among immigrants from other countries, however, those 50 to 65 years old used PHC services more often (OR 1.22) than Norwegians and had higher comorbidity levels, but this pattern was reversed for older adults (OR 0.56 to 0.47 for 66-80 and 80+ years respectively). For all immigrants, utilization of PHC increased with longer stay in Norway and was higher for refugees (1.67 to 1.90) but lower for labour immigrants (0.33 to 0.45) compared to immigrants for family reunification. However, adjustment for education and income levels reduced most

  18. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel E.; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-10-01

    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  19. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  20. Squaring the Arctic Circle: connecting Arctic knowledge with societal needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the coming years the landscape of the Arctic will change substantially- environmentally, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Arctic change has the potential to significantly impact Arctic and non-Arctic countries alike. Thus, our science is in-demand by local communities, politicians, industry leaders and the public. During these times of transition it is essential that the links between science and society be strengthened further. Strong links between science and society is exactly what is needed for the development of better decision-making tools to support sustainable development, enable adaptation to climate change, provide the information necessary for improved management of assets and operations in the Arctic region, and and to inform scientific, economic, environmental and societal policies. By doing so tangible benefits will flow to Arctic societies, as well as for non-Arctic countries that will be significantly affected by climate change. Past experience has shown that the engagement with a broad range of stakeholders is not always an easy process. Consequently, we need to improve collaborative opportunities between scientists, indigenous/local communities, private sector, policy makers, NGOs, and other relevant stakeholders. The development of best practices in this area must build on the collective experiences of successful cross-sectorial programmes. Within this session we present some of the outreach work we have performed within the EU programme ICE-ARC, from community meetings in NW Greenland through to sessions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Conferences, industry round tables, and an Arctic side event at the World Economic Forum in Davos.

  1. Norwegian deep-water coral reefs: cultivation and molecular analysis of planktonic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigmund; Lynch, Michael D J; Ray, Jessica L; Neufeld, Josh D; Hovland, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Deep-sea coral reefs do not receive sunlight and depend on plankton. Little is known about the plankton composition at such reefs, even though they constitute habitats for many invertebrates and fish. We investigated plankton communities from three reefs at 260-350 m depth at hydrocarbon fields off the mid-Norwegian coast using a combination of cultivation and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and transcript sequencing. Eight months incubations of a reef water sample with minimal medium, supplemented with carbon dioxide and gaseous alkanes at in situ-like conditions, enabled isolation of mostly Alphaproteobacteria (Sulfitobacter, Loktanella), Gammaproteobacteria (Colwellia) and Flavobacteria (Polaribacter). The relative abundance of isolates in the original sample ranged from ∼ 0.01% to 0.80%. Comparisons of bacterial SSU sequences from filtered plankton of reef and non-reef control samples indicated high abundance and metabolic activity of primarily Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 Ia), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), but also of Deltaproteobacteria (Nitrospina, SAR324). Eukaryote SSU sequences indicated metabolically active microalgae and animals, including codfish, at the reef sites. The plankton community composition varied between reefs and differed between DNA and RNA assessments. Over 5000 operational taxonomic units were detected, some indicators of reef sites (e.g. Flavobacteria, Cercozoa, Demospongiae) and some more active at reef sites (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria, Ciliophora, Copepoda). © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines - Implementation by Norwegian Tax Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollund, Stig

    1998-07-01

    Presentation. The growth of multinational enterprises and integration of world markets across national borders has increased the importance of this issue: How should corporate tax systems at the national level be applied to the profits of companies engaging in the vast number of cross border transactions? The challenges and implications of the issue are tremendous both to the national governments and to the enterprises. The OECD countries have responded to these challenges by declaring that each enterprise within a multinational group of companies shall be treated as a separate entity. In order to apply the separate entity approach to intra group transactions, individual group members must be taxed on the basis that they act at arm's length with each other. The arm's length principle is more easily understood in theory than applied in practice. In some countries, therefore, the authorities have explored other methods than the traditional ones, as described in the 1979 Transfer Pricing Report of the OECD. A confirmed consensus between the governments was reached in the form of the revised 1995 guidelines. The Norwegian Ministry of Finance has given its full support to the efforts of defending the separate entity approach and the arm's length principle in the OECD committees.

  3. Noise exposure of commercial divers in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedwell, J R; Mason, T I; Collett, A G; Gardiner, R W K

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that exposure to high noise levels can adversely affect human hearing. Legislation exists in Europe to control or restrict the level of noise to which employees may be exposed during the course of their work. While the noise levels to which a worker may be exposed is well defined in air, human sensitivity to noise is different in high-pressure and mixed-gas conditions. Relatively little research exists to define human hearing in these circumstances, and few measurements exist of the levels of noise to which divers working in these conditions are exposed. A study using specially designed equipment has been undertaken in Norwegian waters to sample the noise levels present during typical saturation dives undertaken by commercial divers working in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The divers were working in heliox at depths of 30 msw and 120 msw. It found noise levels were generally dominated by self-noise: flow noise while breathing and communications. The noise levels, both when corrected for the difference in hearing sensitivity under pressure in mixed gas and uncorrected, would exceed legislated limits for noise exposure in a working day without the use of noisy tools.

  4. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources; Norsk ressurspolitikk: Utvinningstempoet for norske petroleumsressurser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway`s largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Transitions of social-ecological subsistence systems in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitions of social-ecological systems (SES expose governance systems to new challenges. This is particularly so in the Arctic where resource systems are increasingly subjected to global warming, industrial development and globalization which subsequently alter the local SES dynamics. Based on common-pool resource theory, we developed a dynamic conceptual model explaining how exogenous drivers might alter a traditional subsistence system from a provisioning to an appropriation actions situation. In a provisioning action situation the resource users do not control the resource level but adapt to the fluctuating availability of resources, and the collective challenge revolve around securing the subsistence in the community. An increased harvest pressure enabled by exogenous drivers could transform the SES to an appropriation action situation where the collective challenge has changed to avoid overuse of a common-pool resource. The model was used as a focal lens to investigate the premises for broad-scale transitions of subsistence-oriented SESs in Arctic Alaska, Canada and Greenland. We synthesized data from documents, official statistics and grey and scientific literature to explore the different components of our model. Our synthesis suggests that the traditional Arctic subsistence SESs mostly comply with a provisioning action situation. Despite population growth and available technology; urbanization, increased wage labor and importation of food have reduced the resource demand, and we find no evidence for a broad-scale transition to an appropriation action situation throughout the Western Arctic. However, appropriation ­challenges have emerged in some cases either as a consequence of commercialization of the resource or by severely reduced resource stocks due to various exogenous drivers. Future transitions of SESs could be triggered by the emergence of commercial local food markets and Arctic warming. In particular, Arctic warming is an

  6. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  7. Arctic climate change in an ensemble of regional CORDEX simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Koenigk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifth phase Climate Model Intercomparison Project historical and scenario simulations from four global climate models (GCMs using the Representative Concentration Pathways greenhouse gas concentration trajectories RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are downscaled over the Arctic with the regional Rossby Centre Atmosphere model (RCA. The regional model simulations largely reflect the circulation bias patterns of the driving global models in the historical period, indicating the importance of lateral and lower boundary conditions. However, local differences occur as a reduced winter 2-m air temperature bias over the Arctic Ocean and increased cold biases over land areas in RCA. The projected changes are dominated by a strong warming in the Arctic, exceeding 15°K in autumn and winter over the Arctic Ocean in RCP8.5, strongly increased precipitation and reduced sea-level pressure. Near-surface temperature and precipitation are linearly related in the Arctic. The wintertime inversion strength is reduced, leading to a less stable stratification of the Arctic atmosphere. The diurnal temperature range is reduced in all seasons. The large-scale change patterns are dominated by the surface and lateral boundary conditions so future response is similar in RCA and the driving global models. However, the warming over the Arctic Ocean is smaller in RCA; the warming over land is larger in winter and spring but smaller in summer. The future response of winter cloud cover is opposite in RCA and the GCMs. Precipitation changes in RCA are much larger during summer than in the global models and more small-scale change patterns occur.

  8. The sedimentation pattern of the last deglaciation and postglacial phase in a high-arctic valley: Endalen, Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Soltvedt, Stian

    2000-01-01

    The present study, focused in the valley-side gravel fans in the eastern part of Endalen and the adjoining side-slope of Adventdalen, has contributed to an understanding of the spatial pattern of the late Weichselian deglaciation and associated meltwater drainage in a 3rd-order and a 2nd-order valley and adjacent mountain plateau in central Spitsbergen, Norwegian high-Arctic. The author’s fieldwork in 1998 was focused on the following main topics: (1) the mapping and chronology of postglacial...

  9. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  10. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  11. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...

  12. Pain assessment practices in Swedish and Norwegian neonatal care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Randi Dovland; Munsters, Josanne M A; Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Gradin, Maria

    2017-12-28

    The use of measurement scales to assess pain in neonates is considered a prerequisite for effective management of pain, but these scales are still underutilised in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to describe and compare pain assessment practices including the use of pain measurement scales in Norwegian and Swedish neonatal care units. A unit survey investigating practices regarding pain assessment and the use of pain measurement scales was sent to all neonatal units in Sweden and Norway (n = 55). All Norwegian and 92% of Swedish units responded. A majority of the participating units (86.5%) assessed pain. Swedish units assessed and documented pain and used pain measurement scales more frequently than Norwegian units. The most frequently used scales were different versions of Astrid Lindgren's Pain Scale (ALPS) in Sweden and Echelle Douleur Inconfort Noveau-Ne (EDIN), ALPS and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) in Norway. Norwegian head nurses had more confidence in their pain assessment method and found the use of pain measurement scales more important than their Swedish colleagues. The persisting difference between Swedish and Norwegian units in pain assessment and the use of pain measurement scales are not easily explained. However, the reported increased availability and reported use of pain measurement scales in neonatal care units in both countries may be seen as a contribution towards better awareness and recognition of pain, better pain management and potentially less suffering for vulnerable neonates. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels M.; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how they ...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  14. Forecasters Handbook for the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Arctic is the mountainous terrain. The * Aleutians extend for more than a thousand miles from the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu Island (Fig. 2-10). Unimak is... UNIMAK 10 ISLAND UNALASKA Figure 2-10. Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. 2-16 J NANSEN ALERT ,; SOUND AXEL INELLESIEE QUEEN/ ELIZABETH/ ISLANDSl GRE...received at Elmendorf Air Force Base on 11 May 1990. Arctic plume generation is apparent over Unimak Island in obvious close association with a polar

  15. The Circumpolar Arctic vegetation map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Donald A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Einarsson, E.; Elvebakk, A.; Gould, W.A.; Katenin, A.E.; Kholod, S.S.; Markon, C.J.; Melnikov, E.S.; Moskalenko, N.G.; Talbot, S. S.; Yurtsev, B.A.; Bliss, L.C.; Edlund, S.A.; Zoltai, S.C.; Wilhelm, M.; Bay, C.; Gudjonsson, G.; Ananjeva, G.V.; Drozdov, D.S.; Konchenko, L.A.; Korostelev, Y.V.; Ponomareva, O.E.; Matveyeva, N.V.; Safranova, I.N.; Shelkunova, R.; Polezhaev, A.N.; Johansen, B.E.; Maier, H.A.; Murray, D.F.; Fleming, Michael D.; Trahan, N.G.; Charron, T.M.; Lauritzen, S.M.; Vairin, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: What are the major vegetation units in the Arctic, what is their composition, and how are they distributed among major bioclimate subzones and countries? Location: The Arctic tundra region, north of the tree line. Methods: A photo-interpretive approach was used to delineate the vegetation onto an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) base image. Mapping experts within nine Arctic regions prepared draft maps using geographic information technology (ArcInfo) of their portion of the Arctic, and these were later synthesized to make the final map. Area analysis of the map was done according to bioclimate subzones, and country. The integrated mapping procedures resulted in other maps of vegetation, topography, soils, landscapes, lake cover, substrate pH, and above-ground biomass. Results: The final map was published at 1:7 500 000 scale map. Within the Arctic (total area = 7.11 x 106 km 2), about 5.05 ?? 106 km2 is vegetated. The remainder is ice covered. The map legend generally portrays the zonal vegetation within each map polygon. About 26% of the vegetated area is erect shrublands, 18% peaty graminoid tundras, 13% mountain complexes, 12% barrens, 11% mineral graminoid tundras, 11% prostrate-shrub tundras, and 7% wetlands. Canada has by far the most terrain in the High Arctic mostly associated with abundant barren types and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, whereas Russia has the largest area in the Low Arctic, predominantly low-shrub tundra. Conclusions: The CAVM is the first vegetation map of an entire global biome at a comparable resolution. The consistent treatment of the vegetation across the circumpolar Arctic, abundant ancillary material, and digital database should promote the application to numerous land-use, and climate-change applications and will make updating the map relatively easy. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  16. Circulation in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, E. Peter

    2001-01-01

    Much information on processes and circulation within the Arctic Ocean has emerged from measurements made on icebreaker expeditions during the past decade. This article offers a perspective based on these measurements, summarizing new ideas regarding how water masses are formed and how they circulate. Best understood at present is the circulation of the Atlantic Layer and mid-depth waters, to depths of about 1700 m, which move in cyclonic gyres in the four major basins of the Arctic Ocean. New...

  17. Interannual variability of cloudiness in the Norwegian, Barents and Kara Seas from the late 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokulsky, Alexander V.; Esau, Igor; Bulygina, Olga N.; Davy, Richard; Mokhov, Igor I.; Outten, Stephen; Semenov, Vladimir A.

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic is a highly sensitive region where numerous processes combine to generate the so-called Arctic amplification. One of the important climate feedbacks is related to the role of clouds. The limited observational record is one of the major challenges in the assessment of Arctic clouds. Here, a long-term climatology of cloudiness over the Norwegian, Barents and Kara Seas (NBK) based on visual surface observations is presented. Annual mean total cloud cover (TCC) over the NBK is almost equal over solid-ice (SI) and open-water (OW) parts of NBK (73±3% and 76±2% respectively). In general, TCC has higher intra- and inter-annual variability over SI than over OW. A decrease of TCC in the middle of the 20th century and an increase in the last few decades was found at individual stations and for the NBK as a whole. In most cases these changes are statistically significant with magnitudes exceeding the data uncertainty that is associated with the surface observations. The most pronounced trends are observed in autumn when the largest changes to the sea-ice concentration (SIC) occur. TCC over SI correlates significantly with SIC in the Barents Sea, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient between annual TCC and SIC of -0.38 for the period 1936-2013. Cloudiness over OW shows non-significant correlation with SIC. An overall increase in the frequency of broken and scattered cloud conditions, and a decrease in the frequency of overcast and cloudless conditions were found over OW. These changes are statistically significant and likely to be connected with the long-term changes of morphological types (an increase of convective and a decrease of stratiform cloud amounts).

  18. Effects of Arctic geoengineering on precipitation in the tropical monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Aditya; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2017-07-01

    Arctic geoengineering wherein sunlight absorption is reduced only in the Arctic has been suggested as a remedial measure to counteract the on-going rapid climate change in the Arctic. Several modeling studies have shown that Arctic geoengineering can minimize Arctic warming but will shift the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) southward, unless offset by comparable geoengineering in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigate and quantify the implications of this ITCZ shift due to Arctic geoengineering for the global monsoon regions using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 coupled to a slab ocean model. A doubling of CO2 from pre-industrial levels leads to a warming of 6 K in the Arctic region and precipitation in the monsoon regions increases by up to 15%. In our Arctic geoengineering simulation which illustrates a plausible latitudinal distribution of the reduction in sunlight, an addition of sulfate aerosols (11 Mt) in the Arctic stratosphere nearly offsets the Arctic warming due to CO2 doubling but this shifts the ITCZ southward by 1.5° relative to the pre-industrial climate. The combined effect from this shift and the residual CO2-induced climate change in the tropics is a decrease/increase in annual mean precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere/Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions by up to -12/+17%. Polar geoengineering where sulfate aerosols are prescribed in both the Arctic (10 Mt) and Antarctic (8 Mt) nearly offsets the ITCZ shift due to Arctic geoengineering, but there is still a residual precipitation increase (up to 7%) in most monsoon regions associated with the residual CO2 induced warming in the tropics. The ITCZ shift due to our Global geoengineering simulation, where aerosols (20 Mt) are prescribed uniformly around the globe, is much smaller and the precipitation changes in most monsoon regions are within ±2% as the residual CO2-induced warming in the tropics is also much less than in Arctic and Polar geoengineering. Further

  19. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  20. Cross-cultural validation and psychometric testing of the Norwegian version of the TeamSTEPPS® teamwork perceptions questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2017-12-02

    Teamwork is an integrated part of today's specialized and complex healthcare and essential to patient safety, and is considered as a core competency to improve twenty-first century healthcare. Teamwork measurements and evaluations show promising results to promote good team performance, and are recommended for identifying areas for improvement. The validated TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Perception Questionnaire (T-TPQ) was found suitable for cross-cultural validation and testing in a Norwegian context. T-TPQ is a self-report survey that examines five dimensions of perception of teamwork within healthcare settings. The aim of the study was to translate and cross-validate the T-TPQ into Norwegian, and test the questionnaire for psychometric properties among healthcare personnel. The T-TPQ was translated and adapted to a Norwegian context according to a model of a back-translation process. A total of 247 healthcare personnel representing different professionals and hospital settings responded to the questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to test the factor structure. Cronbach's alpha was used to establish internal consistency, and an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the test - retest reliability. A confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fitting model (χ 2 (df) 969.46 (546), p teamwork dimension clearly represents that specific construct. The Cronbach's alpha demonstrated acceptable values on the five subscales (0.786-0.844), and test-retest showed a reliability parameter, with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient scores from 0.672 to 0.852. The Norwegian version of T-TPQ was considered to be acceptable regarding the validity and reliability for measuring Norwegian individual healthcare personnel's perception of group level teamwork within their unit. However, it needs to be further tested, preferably in a larger sample and in different clinical settings.

  1. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  2. Cancer in the Norwegian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Bård M N; Romundstad, Pål Rikard; Boffetta, Paolo; Andersen, Aage

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Norwegian workers in the printing industry, particularly lung and bladder cancer. Cancer incidence was investigated from 1953 through 1998 in a cohort of 10 549 male members of a trade union in the printing industry in Oslo and nearby areas. Rates from the region, were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR) separately for the skilled and unskilled workers. Smoking data from a sample of the cohort were utilized for evaluating the risk estimates of smoking-related cancers. Specific exposure data were not available. Among the skilled workers, significantly elevated risks of cancer of the urinary bladder [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19-1.79], liver (SIR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-2.99), pancreas (SIR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and colon (SIR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.55) were observed, whereas an increased risk of lung cancer in this group was confined to those born before 1910. Among the unskilled workers, there were significantly increased risks of cancer of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and all sites. The study showed that workers in the printing industry were at increased risk of several types of cancer. In particular the increased risk of bladder cancer among the skilled workers is suggestive of an occupational cause. However, no specific agent could be identified as an occupational carcinogen. The results did not support the hypothesis of a generally increased risk of lung cancer. The risk pattern for unskilled workers may reflect confounding by nonoccupational factors.

  3. A veterinary perspective on One Health in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert James; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Eulaers, Igor; Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie; Gustavson, Kim; Styrishave, Bjarne; Dietz, Rune

    2017-12-16

    Exposure to long-range transported industrial chemicals, climate change and diseases is posing a risk to the overall health and populations of Arctic wildlife. Since local communities are relying on the same marine food web as marine mammals in the Arctic, it requires a One Health approach to understand the holistic ecosystem health including that of humans. Here we collect and identify gaps in the current knowledge of health in the Arctic and present the veterinary perspective of One Health and ecosystem dynamics. The review shows that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is having multiple organ-system effects across taxa, including impacts on neuroendocrine disruption, immune suppression and decreased bone density among others. Furthermore, the warming Arctic climate is suspected to influence abiotic and biotic long-range transport and exposure pathways of contaminants to the Arctic resulting in increases in POP exposure of both wildlife and human populations. Exposure to vector-borne diseases and zoonoses may increase as well through range expansion and introduction of invasive species. It will be important in the future to investigate the effects of these multiple stressors on wildlife and local people to better predict the individual-level health risks. It is within this framework that One Health approaches offer promising opportunities to survey and pinpoint environmental changes that have effects on wildlife and human health.

  4. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  5. Pliocene palaeoceanography of the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Jens; Knies, Jochen; Vogt, Christoph; Stein, Ruediger

    2009-01-13

    The Pliocene is important in the geological evolution of the high northern latitudes. It marks the transition from restricted local- to extensive regional-scale glaciations on the circum-Arctic continents between 3.6 and 2.4Ma. Since the Arctic Ocean is an almost land-locked basin, tectonic activity and sea-level fluctuations controlled the geometry of ocean gateways and continental drainage systems, and exerted a major influence on the formation of continental ice sheets, the distribution of river run-off, and the circulation and water mass characteristics in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of a water mass exchange restricted to the Bering and Fram Straits on the oceanography is unknown, but modelling experiments suggest that this must have influenced the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Cold conditions associated with perennial sea-ice cover might have prevailed in the central Arctic Ocean throughout the Pliocene, whereas colder periods alternated with warmer seasonally ice-free periods in the marginal areas. The most pronounced oceanographic change occurred in the Mid-Pliocene when the circulation through the Bering Strait reversed and low-salinity waters increasingly flowed from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The excess freshwater supply might have facilitated sea-ice formation and contributed to a decrease in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

  6. Pliocene warmth, polar amplification, and stepped Pleistocene cooling recorded in NE Arctic Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham-Grette, Julie; Melles, Martin; Minyuk, Pavel; Andreev, Andrei; Tarasov, Pavel; DeConto, Robert; Koenig, Sebastian; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Wennrich, Volker; Rosén, Peter; Haltia, Eeva; Cook, Tim; Gebhardt, Catalina; Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Snyder, Jeff; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2013-06-21

    Understanding the evolution of Arctic polar climate from the protracted warmth of the middle Pliocene into the earliest glacial cycles in the Northern Hemisphere has been hindered by the lack of continuous, highly resolved Arctic time series. Evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, in northeast (NE) Arctic Russia, shows that 3.6 to 3.4 million years ago, summer temperatures were ~8°C warmer than today, when the partial pressure of CO2 was ~400 parts per million. Multiproxy evidence suggests extreme warmth and polar amplification during the middle Pliocene, sudden stepped cooling events during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, and warmer than present Arctic summers until ~2.2 million years ago, after the onset of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. Our data are consistent with sea-level records and other proxies indicating that Arctic cooling was insufficient to support large-scale ice sheets until the early Pleistocene.

  7. Low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment at Murmansk, Russia: Technical design and review of facility upgrade and expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.S.; Diamante, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of International Activities; Duffey, R.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The governments of Norway and the US have committed their mutual cooperation and support the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to expand and upgrade the Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLRW) treatment system located at the facilities of the Russian company RTP Atomflot, in Murmansk, Russia. RTP Atomflot provides support services to the Russian icebreaker fleet operated by the MSCo. The objective is to enable Russia to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters. The proposed modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s Northern fleet, and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The three countries set up a cooperative review of the evolving design information, conducted by a joint US and Norwegian technical team from April through December, 1995. To ensure that US and Norwegian funds produce a final facility which will meet the objectives, this report documents the design as described by Atomflot and the Russian business organization, ASPECT, both in design documents and orally. During the detailed review process, many questions were generated, and many design details developed which are outlined here. The design is based on the adsorption of radionuclides on selected inorganic resins, and desalination and concentration using electromembranes. The US/Norwegian technical team reviewed the available information and recommended that the construction commence; they also recommended that a monitoring program for facility performance be instituted.

  8. Low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment at Murmansk, Russia: Technical design and review of facility upgrade and expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.S.; Diamante, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The governments of Norway and the US have committed their mutual cooperation and support the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to expand and upgrade the Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLRW) treatment system located at the facilities of the Russian company RTP Atomflot, in Murmansk, Russia. RTP Atomflot provides support services to the Russian icebreaker fleet operated by the MSCo. The objective is to enable Russia to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters. The proposed modifications will increase the facility's capacity from 1,200 m 3 per year to 5,000 m 3 per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy's Northern fleet, and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The three countries set up a cooperative review of the evolving design information, conducted by a joint US and Norwegian technical team from April through December, 1995. To ensure that US and Norwegian funds produce a final facility which will meet the objectives, this report documents the design as described by Atomflot and the Russian business organization, ASPECT, both in design documents and orally. During the detailed review process, many questions were generated, and many design details developed which are outlined here. The design is based on the adsorption of radionuclides on selected inorganic resins, and desalination and concentration using electromembranes. The US/Norwegian technical team reviewed the available information and recommended that the construction commence; they also recommended that a monitoring program for facility performance be instituted

  9. Norwegian Retroflexion − Licensing by Cue or Prosody?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Hamann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the class of retroflex segments in Norwegian. The question is handled whether the phonotactic restrictions on retroflexes to occur mainly only in coda position cannot be better described in terms of the availability of the retroflex cues in post-vocalic position instead of refering to their syllable-position. The latter approach, the so-called prosodic licensing (Lombardi 1995, is shown to be insufficient in cases of retroflexion across word-boundaries, where retroflexes appear in onset-position. The so-called lincensing by cue-approach (Steriade 1995, on the other hand, is shown to be able to cover all the instances of retroflex occurrences: retroflexes in Norwegian occur only when a vowel precedes, which enhances their strong transitional cues from vowel to retroflex. In addition to this, licensing by cue can account for the progressive assimilation of retroflexion also found in Norwegian.

  10. Arctic sea-ice syntheses: Charting across scope, scale, and knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Perovich, D. K.; Francis, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice supports and intersects a multitude of societal benefit areas, including regulating regional and global climates, structuring marine food webs, providing for traditional food provisioning by indigenous peoples, and constraining marine shipping and access. At the same time, sea ice is one of the most rapidly changing elements of the Arctic environment and serves as a source of key physical indicators for monitoring Arctic change. Before the present scientific interest in Arctic sea ice for climate research, it has long been, and remains, a focus of applied research for industry and national security. For generations, the icy coastal seas of the North have also provided a basis for the sharing of local and indigenous knowledge between Arctic residents and researchers, including anthropologists, biologists, and geoscientists. This presentation will summarize an ongoing review of existing synthesis studies of Arctic sea ice. We will chart efforts to achieve system-level understanding across geography, temporal scales, and the ecosystem services that Arctic sea ice supports. In doing so, we aim to illuminate the role of interdisciplinary science, together with local and indigenous experts, in advancing knowledge of the roles of sea ice in the Arctic system and beyond, reveal the historical and scientific evolution of sea-ice research, and assess current gaps in system-scale understanding.

  11. Mapping the Delivery of Societal Benefit through the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, S. M.; Gallo, J.

    2017-12-01

    The international Arctic scientific community has identified the need for a sustained and integrated portfolio of pan-Arctic Earth-observing systems. In 2017, an international effort was undertaken to develop the first ever Value Tree framework for identifying common research and operational objectives that rely on Earth observation data derived from Earth-observing systems, sensors, surveys, networks, models, and databases to deliver societal benefits in the Arctic. A Value Tree Analysis is a common tool used to support decision making processes and is useful for defining concepts, identifying objectives, and creating a hierarchical framework of objectives. A multi-level societal benefit area value tree establishes the connection from societal benefits to the set of observation inputs that contribute to delivering those benefits. A Value Tree that relies on expert domain knowledge from Arctic and non-Arctic nations, international researchers, Indigenous knowledge holders, and other experts to develop a framework to serve as a logical and interdependent decision support tool will be presented. Value tree examples that map the contribution of Earth observations in the Arctic to achieving societal benefits will be presented in the context of the 2017 International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework. These case studies will highlight specific observing products and capability groups where investment is needed to contribute to the development of a sustained portfolio of Arctic observing systems.

  12. Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintanja, R; Selten, F M

    2014-05-22

    Precipitation changes projected for the end of the twenty-first century show an increase of more than 50 per cent in the Arctic regions. This marked increase, which is among the highest globally, has previously been attributed primarily to enhanced poleward moisture transport from lower latitudes. Here we use state-of-the-art global climate models to show that the projected increases in Arctic precipitation over the twenty-first century, which peak in late autumn and winter, are instead due mainly to strongly intensified local surface evaporation (maximum in winter), and only to a lesser degree due to enhanced moisture inflow from lower latitudes (maximum in late summer and autumn). Moreover, we show that the enhanced surface evaporation results mainly from retreating winter sea ice, signalling an amplified Arctic hydrological cycle. This demonstrates that increases in Arctic precipitation are firmly linked to Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. As a result, the Arctic mean precipitation sensitivity (4.5 per cent increase per degree of temperature warming) is much larger than the global value (1.6 to 1.9 per cent per kelvin). The associated seasonally varying increase in Arctic precipitation is likely to increase river discharge and snowfall over ice sheets (thereby affecting global sea level), and could even affect global climate through freshening of the Arctic Ocean and subsequent modulations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  13. High-Arctic Plant-Herbivore Interactions under Climate Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thomas B.; Schmidt, Niels M.; Høye, Toke Thomas

    This chapter focuses on a 10-year data series from Zackenberg on the trophic interactions between two characteristic arctic plant species, arctic willow Salix arctica and mountain avens Dryas octopetala, and three herbivore species covering the very scale of size present at Zackenberg, namely...... production upon which the herbivores depend, and snow may be the most important climatic factor affecting the different trophic levels and the interactions between them. Hence, the spatio-temporal distribution of snow, as well as thawing events during winter, may have considerable effects on the herbivores...

  14. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high arctic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mech, L.D. [Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 8711-37th St., SE, 58401-7317 Jamestown, North Dakota (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Global climate change may affect wolves in Canadas High Arctic (80{sup o} N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena.

  15. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinde, J

    2010-10-18

    The ALTOS campaign focuses on operating a tethered observing system for routine in situ sampling of low-level (< 2 km) Arctic clouds. It has been a long-term hope to fly tethered systems at Barrow, Alaska, but it is clear that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will not permit in-cloud tether systems at Barrow, even if unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations are allowed in the future. We have provided the scientific rationale for long-term, routine in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties in the Arctic. The existing restricted air space at Oliktok offers an opportunity to do so.

  16. Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida

    , emitted in order to communicate within and between trophic levels and as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, or as byproducts. Some BVOCs are very reactive, and when entering the atmosphere they rapidly react with for example hydroxyl radicals and ozone, affecting the oxidative capacity......Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from arctic ecosystems are scarcely studied and the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions even less so. BVOCs are emitted from all living organisms and play a role for atmospheric chemistry. The major part of BVOCs derives from plants...... dependent and the emissions will increase in a future warmer climate. The aims of this dissertation were to study BVOC emission rates and blends from arctic ecosystems and to reveal the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions from the Arctic. BVOC emissions were measured in ambient and modified...

  17. Late-Middle Quaternary lithostratigraphy and sedimentation patterns on the Alpha Ridge, central Arctic Ocean: Implications for Arctic climate variability on orbital time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rujian; Polyak, Leonid; Xiao, Wenshen; Wu, Li; Zhang, Taoliang; Sun, Yechen; Xu, Xiaomei

    2018-02-01

    We use sediment cores collected by the Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions from the Alpha Ridge to advance Quaternary stratigraphy and paleoceanographic reconstructions for the Arctic Ocean. Our cores show a good litho/biostratigraphic correlation to sedimentary records developed earlier for the central Arctic Ocean, suggesting a recovered stratigraphic range of ca. 0.6 Ma, suitable for paleoclimatic studies on orbital time scales. This stratigraphy was tested by correlating the stacked Alpha Ridge record of bulk XRF manganese, calcium and zirconium (Mn, Ca, Zr), to global stable-isotope (LR04-δ18O) and sea-level stacks and tuning to orbital parameters. Correlation results corroborate the applicability of presumed climate/sea-level controlled Mn variations in the Arctic Ocean for orbital tuning. This approach enables better understanding of the global and orbital controls on the Arctic climate. Orbital tuning experiments for our records indicate strong eccentricity (100-kyr) and precession (∼20-kyr) controls on the Arctic Ocean, probably implemented via glaciations and sea ice. Provenance proxies like Ca and Zr are shown to be unsuitable as orbital tuning tools, but useful as indicators of glacial/deglacial processes and circulation patterns in the Arctic Ocean. Their variations suggest an overall long-term persistence of the Beaufort Gyre circulation in the Alpha Ridge region. Some glacial intervals, e.g., MIS 6 and 4/3, are predominated by material presumably transported by the Transpolar Drift. These circulation shifts likely indicate major changes in the Arctic climatic regime, which yet need to be investigated. Overall, our results demonstrate applicability of XRF data to paleoclimatic studies of the Arctic Ocean.

  18. The relation between Arctic Ocean circulation and the Arctic Oscillation as revealed by satellite altimetry and gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, J.; Kwok, R.; Peralta Ferriz, C.; Dickinson, S.; Morison, D.; Andersen, R.; Dewey, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Ocean circulation is commonly characterized by the persistent anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre in the Canada Basin and the Transpolar Drift. While these are clearly important features, their role in changing Arctic Ocean circulation is at times distorted by sampling biases inherent in drifting buoy and standard shipboard measurements of western nations. Hydrographic measurements from SCICEX submarine cruises for science in the early 1990s revealed an increasingly cyclonic circulation along the Russian side of the Arctic Ocean related to the low sea level pressure pattern in the same region associated with a high Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. More recently satellite altimetry (ICESat and CryoSat2) and gravimetry (GRACE) have provided the basin-wide observational coverage needed to see shifts to increased cyclonic circulation in 2004 to 2008 and decreased cyclonic circulation in 2008 to 2015. These shifts are related to changes in the AO and are important for their effect on the trajectories of sea ice and freshwater through the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  20. Simulating Arctic clouds during Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, D. H.; Hines, K. M.; Wang, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The representation within global and regional models of the extensive low-level cloud cover over polar oceans remains a critical challenge for quantitative studies and forecasts of polar climate. In response, the polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) is used to simulate the meteorology, boundary layer, and Arctic clouds during the September-October 2014 Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) project. Polar WRF was developed with several adjustments to the sea ice thermodynamics in WRF. ARISE was based out of Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska and included multiple instrumented C-130 aircraft flights over open water and sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Arctic boundary layer clouds were frequently observed within cold northeasterly flow over the open ocean and ice. Preliminary results indicate these clouds were primarily liquid water, with characteristics differing between open water and sea ice surfaces. Simulated clouds are compared to ARISE observations. Furthermore, Polar WRF simulations are run for the August-September 2008 Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) for comparison to the ARISE. Preliminary analysis shows that simulated low-level water clouds over the sea ice are too extensive during the the second half of the ASCOS field program. Alternatives and improvements to the Polar WRF cloud schemes are considered. The goal is to use the ARISE and ASCOS observations to achieve an improved polar supplement to the WRF code for open water and sea ice that can be provided to the Polar WRF community.

  1. Climate change and the ecology and evolution of Arctic vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilg, Olivier; Kovacs, Kit M.; Aars, J.

    2012-01-01

    already been documented. Changes in phenology and range will occur for most species but will only partly mitigate climate change impacts, which are particularly difficult to forecast due to the many interactions within and between trophic levels. Even though Arctic species richness is increasing via...

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinov, Vladimir; Muir, Derek C G; Svetochev, Vladislav; Svetocheva, Olga; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrey; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Savinova, Tatiana

    2011-06-15

    Organochlorine compounds total DDT (ΣDDT), total HCH isomers (ΣHCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (ΣCBz), total chlordane compounds (ΣCHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ΣPCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ΣPBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, ΣCHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ΣHCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ΣDDT and ΣPCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ΣPBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ΣPBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ΣPBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  4. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  5. Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T

    2008-11-01

    Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (PCashmere goats had higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (PCashmere goats scored highest (PCashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability.

  6. Arctic System Science: Meeting Earth System and Social Impact Challenges through Integrative Approaches and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.; Rawlins, M. A.; Serreze, M. C.; Francis, J. A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; McDonald, K. C.; Piasecki, M.; Rich, R. H.; Holland, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an integral part of the Earth system where multiple interactions unite its natural and human elements. Recent observations show the Arctic to be experiencing rapid and amplified signatures of global climate change. At the same time, the Arctic system's response to this broader forcing has itself become a central research topic, given its potential role as a critical throttle on future planetary dynamics. Changes are already impacting life systems and economic prosperity and continued change is expected to bear major implications far outside the region. We also have entered an era when environmental management, traditionally local in scope, must confront regional, whole biome, and pan-Arctic biogeophysical challenges. While challenges may appear to operate in isolation, they emerge within the context of an evolving, integrated Arctic system defined by interactions among natural and social sub-systems. Clearly, new efforts aimed at community planning, industrial development, and infrastructure construction must consider this multiplicity of interacting processes. We recently organized an "Arctic System Synthesis Workshop Series" supported by the Arctic Systems Science Program of NSF and devoted to exploring approaches capable of uncovering the systems-level behavior in both the natural and social sciences domains. The series featured two topical meetings. The first identified the sources responsible for extreme climate events in the Arctic. The second focused on multiple "currencies" within the system (i.e., water, energy, carbon, nutrients) and how they interact to produce systems-level behaviors. More than 40 experts participated, drawn from the ranks of Arctic natural and social sciences. We report here on the workshop series consensus report, which identifies a broad array of topics. Principal among these are a consideration of why study the Arctic as a system, as well as an articulation of the major systems-level approaches to support basic as well

  7. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  8. Radioactive contamination in Norwegian fish and seafood 1960-2013: time trends and geographical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Svaeren, Ingrid; Liebig, Penny Lee [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Brungot, Anne Lene; Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Norwegian marine waters are home to some of the world's richest fishing grounds. In 2011, Norway was the world's twelfth largest fishery nation, and the world's second largest exporter of seafood. Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish and seafood is therefore of major importance to Norwegian consumers and the fishery industry. Monitoring of radioactive pollution in Norwegian fish and seafood has been ongoing in various ways since the early 1960's. During the 1960's, different species of fish from the Barents Sea were analysed for 'total mean beta activity minus potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)'. Although not directly comparable to current measurements, these were probably the highest observed concentrations in fish during the whole monitoring period. Contamination levels decreased substantially during the late 1960's as a result of the decrease in global fallout, biological elimination of the radioactive elements and the short physical half-lives of some beta-emitters. Monitoring was more or less terminated in the following years, and little data exists from the 1970's and early 1980's, though monitoring was resumed following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Today, different species of commercially important fish and crustacean species (as well as other species), are sampled on a regular basis from the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and Norwegian fjords. The samples are analysed mainly for cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and, additionally, a selection of the samples are analysed for technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu) and polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po). This study summarizes results from the monitoring during the period 1960 to 2013. Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood from Norwegian marine waters have been generally low during the past 20 to 25 years (up to 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}(fresh weight) in different species of fish in the

  9. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  10. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotander, Anna; Bavel, Bert van; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Polder, Anuschka; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas was covered. PCN congeners 48, 52, 53, 66 and 69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland and the total PCN content accounted for 0.2% or less of the total non-planar PCB content. No statistically significant trend in contaminant levels could be established for the studied areas. However, in all species except minke whales caught off Norway the lowest ∑PCN concentrations were found in samples from the latest sampling period. - Highlights: ► PCN concentrations are described in a wide variety of marine mammal species. ► A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas is covered. ► Pooled blubber samples covering a time period of 23 years are evaluated. ► Species- and geographic-dependent PCN congener distribution is seen. ► A decrease in the PCN load is indicated in the studied areas in recent years. - Analysis of PCNs in seven marine mammal species sampled over a 23 year period indicates a decline in the PCN load in sub-Arctic and Arctic areas in recent years.

  11. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  12. Observations of shifts in cetacean distribution in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eNøttestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess possible shifts in distributional patterns of cetaceans residing in the Norwegian Sea, and if possible relate the distribution to their feeding ecology during the summer seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2012. During this same period, historically large abundances in the order of 15 million tonnes pelagic planktivorous fish such as Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, have been reported feeding in the Norwegian Sea during the summer. There is also observed elevated average surface temperatures and a reduction in zooplankton biomasses. Such changes might influence species composition, distribution patterns and feeding preferences of cetaceans residing the region. Our results show higher densities of toothed whales, killer whales (Orcinus orca and pilot whales (Globicephala melas, than the previous norm for these waters. Baleen whales, such as minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus, which is often associated with zooplankton, displayed a distribution overlap with pelagic fish abundances. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae were observed in low numbers, indicating shift in habitat preference, compared to sighting data collected only few years earlier. Our study illustrate that both small and large cetaceans that reside in the Norwegian Sea have the capability to rapidly perform shifts in distribution and abundance patterns dependent of the access to different types and behaviour of prey species.

  13. Educational Language Practices Described by Preschool Teachers in Norwegian Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Joakim Evensen; Alvestad, Marit

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on educational language practices as described by preschool teachers in Norwegian kindergartens in groups consisting of one- to three-year-old children. Research indicates a relationship between high-quality childcare and language development, yet there is a need for more research on educational practices in high-quality…

  14. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...... between cystic fibrosis patients has occurred....

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  16. Norwegian "Friluftsliv" and Ideals of Becoming an "Educated Man"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurholt, Kirsti Pedersen

    2008-01-01

    Norwegian "friluftsliv" or outdoor life is often identified as a "simple way of life" and as exemplary of green life-philosophy and environmental practices. This paper argues that "friluftsliv" must be conceptualized as a complex social phenomenon and an example of long-standing Western discourse linking ideas of…

  17. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their…

  18. Intercultural Empathy among Norwegian Students: An Inclusive Citizenship Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Trond; Osler, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, Norwegian schools have experienced increased cultural diversification among students. Growing heterogeneity in origin and culture may enhance the risk of student marginalisation, segregation and exclusion. In response to these challenges, this paper examines students' intercultural empathy and, particularly, how schools can…

  19. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1998-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO 2 and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NO x and NO 2 , CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  20. Distressed Relationships : Lessons from the Norwegian Banking Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Smith, D.C.; Michalsen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper measures the economy-wide impact of bank distress on the loss of relationship benefits. We use the near-collapse of the Norwegian banking system during the period 1988 to 1991 to measure the impact of bank distress announcements on the stock prices of firms maintaining a relationship with

  1. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  2. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  3. Radon concentrations in Norwegian kindergartens: survey planning and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovljev, A.; Strand, T.; Heiberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive radon survey in Norwegian kindergartens and schools was started in early 1997; so far 2481 kindergartens were examined. Preliminary results of the first phase of the survey are presented in tabular and graphic form including, among others, the dependence of average radon concentration on the construction year of the kindergartens and on the age of the buildings. (A.K.)

  4. Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells the story of Jens Glad Balchen (1926-2009, a Norwegian research scientist and engineer who is widely regarded as the father of Engineering Cybernetics in Norway. In 1954, he founded what would later become the Department of Automatic Control at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. This name was changed to the Department of Engineering Cybernetics in 1972 to reflect the broader efforts being made, not only within the purely technical disciplines, but also within biology, oceanography and medicine. Balchen established an advanced research community in cybernetics in postwar Norway, whose applications span everything from the process industry and positioning of ships to control of fish and lobster farming. He was a chief among the tribe of Norwegian cybernetics engineers and made a strong impact on his colleagues worldwide. He planted the seeds of a whole generation of Norwegian industrial companies through his efforts of seeking applications for every scientific breakthrough. His strength and his wisdom in combination with his remarkable stubbornness gave extraordinary results.

  5. Environmental Implications of Maritime Vessel Intensification in Arctic Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. C.; Banis, D.; Sheard, W.

    2016-12-01

    In 2016, the Arctic experienced some of the warmest monthly temperatures on record. Record high temperatures in the Arctic continue to cause rapid sea ice declines, opening new areas of ocean to commercial exploitation and transportation and causing significant reductions in critical sea ice habitats used by iconic species. Elevated maritime vessel traffic in the Arctic is projected to increase black carbon emissions, encourage the spread of invasive species, increase mammal strikes, intensify conflict with smaller subsistence boats, and heighten oil spill risks. The Arctic Council, an intergovernmental organization concerned with sustainable development and environmental protection, is working with member countries, indigenous participants and other groups on developing networks of marine protected areas within ecologically or biologically important areas. To help inform that process, we analyzed vessel traffic and marine protected area coverage occurring within ecologically or biologically significant areas in the circumpolar Arctic. Our preliminary findings suggest vessel traffic within ecologically or biologically significant areas were highest around Iceland, Norway, Russia and United States but differed by vessel type. The density of fishing vessels occurring within ecologically or biologically important areas were highest near Norway, Iceland, Faroe Islands, parts of Greenland and United States, whereas vessels carrying liquefied natural gas and oil were concentrated near Norway and Russia. The percentage of area covered by marine protected areas within ecologically or biologically significant areas was low, with the exception of places like Wrangel Island, Svalbard, and areas around Greenland. These findings are important because it illustrates ecologically or biologically significant areas in the Arctic are vulnerable to projected vessel traffic intensification and the level of protection afforded by marine protected areas is relatively low.

  6. Influence of North Pacific decadal variability on the western Canadian Arctic over the past 700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, François; Francus, Pierre; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Vuille, Mathias; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Bradley, Raymond S.; Massa, Charly

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how internal climate variability influences arctic regions is required to better forecast future global climate variations. This paper investigates an annually-laminated (varved) record from the western Canadian Arctic and finds that the varves are negatively correlated with both the instrumental Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) during the past century and also with reconstructed PDO over the past 700 years, suggesting drier Arctic conditions during high-PDO phases, and vice versa. These results are in agreement with known regional teleconnections, whereby the PDO is negatively and positively correlated with summer precipitation and mean sea level pressure respectively. This pattern is also evident during the positive phase of the North Pacific Index (NPI) in autumn. Reduced sea-ice cover during summer-autumn is observed in the region during PDO- (NPI+) and is associated with low-level southerly winds that originate from the northernmost Pacific across the Bering Strait and can reach as far as the western Canadian Arctic. These climate anomalies are associated with the PDO- (NPI+) phase and are key factors in enhancing evaporation and subsequent precipitation in this region of the Arctic. Collectively, the sedimentary evidence suggests that North Pacific climate variability has been a persistent regulator of the regional climate in the western Canadian Arctic. Since projected sea-ice loss will contribute to enhanced future warming in the Arctic, future negative phases of the PDO (or NPI+) will likely act to amplify this positive feedback.

  7. The roles of stratosphere vortex downward intrusion and troposphere baroclinity in two summer Arctic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tao, W.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Storm activities have recently exhibited intensification over the Arctic, potentially impacting air-ice-sea interactions and contributing to rapid changes in the Arctic climate and environment. In this study, the individual and collaborative impacts of stratosphere vortex and troposphere baroclinity in the development of two Arctic storms were explored with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In the long-lasting Arctic storm in September 2010, it is found the downward intrusion of stratosphere vortex and the resultant upper level positive potential vorticity (PV) anomaly play decisive roles in the storm's intensification and persistence over an extended period of time, though a merged surface baroclinic front also makes contributions at the initial time period. In the super strong Arctic storm in August 2012, thermal anomalies in both the troposphere and stratosphere are necessary for the storm's drastic development. The troposphere baroclinity along the Arctic Front Zone, as well as the enhanced upper level positive PV anomaly due to stratosphere warm anomalies contribute to a strong jet and accordingly accelerate the deepening rate of the surface low. In both of the cases, the out-of-phase occurrence in the maxima of the stratosphere warm and troposphere cold anomalies sustains the intensity of the PV anomalies around the tropopause, which in turn further supports the storm's persistence.The results here may have significant implications for enhancing Arctic storm prediction capability, and improving understanding of the physical mechanisms of large-scale climate variability and changes and their linkage to synoptic storms.

  8. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  9. [Dynamics of parasite communities in an age series of Arctic Cisco Coregonus migratorius (Georgi, 1775)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarov, Zh N; Pronin, N M

    2013-01-01

    Parasite communities of Arctic cisco from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal have been analyzed at levels of a host individual (infracommunity), a individual age group of a host-(assemblages of infracommunities), and a host population (component community). Significant positive correlations of parameters of species richness (number of parasite species, Margalef and Menhinick indices) with the age of Arctic cisco were recorded only at the level of parasite inffacommunities. The absence of linear positive correlations between the parameters of species richness and the age of Arctic cisco at the level of assemblages of parasite infracommunities were revealed for the first time for fish of Lake Baikal. The peculiarity of the dynamics of parasite communities of. Arctic cisco is determined by specific features of the host physiology and ecology, primarily by the age dynamics of the feeding spectrum.

  10. Trends in NDVI and tundra community composition in the Arctic of NE Alaska between 1984 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Pattison; Janet C. Jorgenson; Martha K. Raynolds; Jeffery M. Welker

    2015-01-01

    As Arctic ecosystems experience increases in surface air temperatures, plot-level analyses of tundra vegetation composition suggest that there are important changes occurring in tundra communities that are typified by increases in shrubs and declines in non-vascular species. At the same time analyses of NDVI indicate that the Arctic tundra is greening. Few studies have...

  11. Population dynamics and life history strategies of the dominant copepods in a sub-arctic Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    Investigations of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic pelagic food web have previously focused on the copepod genus Calanus, as they often dominate the mesozooplankton community and serve as a lipid rich food source for higher trophic levels. However, if night samples are considered a different food web mi...

  12. Developing scenarios for the Norwegian travel industry 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anniken Enger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The Norwegian travel industry faces decline in important international tourism segments and needs an industry wide and future‐oriented strategy to face these challenges. Accordingly, a common understanding of future drivers and different scenarios for the industry is needed. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Using the process of scenario analysis and drawing upon the involvement of the tourism industry, this paper describes the method, drivers, scenarios, and implications. Findings – The research identified six important drivers with predictable outcomes: uneven global economic development, digitalization, climate change, consumer demand – return on time, centralization, and demography. The Norwegian economy and Norwegian politics were the two drivers that stood out as the most significant for the tourism industry, with a very uncertain outcome, and constituted the two axes of the scenarios. This resulted in four scenarios: Money Rules, The Urban Diamond, Opportunities for All, and Master Plan. Practical implications – The four scenarios represent different economic value of international tourism in Norway. The Opportunities for All and Master Plan scenarios represent the greatest economic value for Norwegian tourism. They indicate great opportunities for tourism to become the “new oil” in Norway if the oil economy declines. The two scenarios differ with respect to the degree of governance control vs market liberalization. The scenarios will be used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the tourism industry, and to further explore how governance control and market liberalization may be combined. Originality/value – The research identified six drivers which are significant for the Norwegian tourism industry. This resulted in four scenarios which are used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the industry.

  13. Schools In Board - Bridging Arctic Research And Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. G.; Barber, L.

    2008-12-01

    Schools on Board (www.arcticnet.ulaval.ca) was created in 2002 to address the outreach objectives of a network of Canadian scientists conducting research in the High Arctic. The program was piloted with great success with the 2004 research program called the Canadian Arctic Shelf Study (CASES). Since then, the S/B program continues as an integral outreach program of the Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE) known as ArcticNet. The primary objective of the program is to bridge Arctic climate change research with science and environmental education in the public school system. It is a vehicle for scientists and graduate students to share their research program with high schools and the general public. The program encourages schools to include Arctic Sciences into their science programs by linking Arctic research to existing curriculum, providing resources and opportunities to send high school students and teachers into the Arctic to participate in a science expedition on board the Canadian research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. The field program is an adventure into Arctic research that exposes students and teachers to the objectives and methods of numerous science teams representing a number of research disciplines and institutions from across Canada and beyond. Face-to-face interactions with scientists of all levels (masters, PhD's, researchers, CRC chairs), hands-on experiences in the field and in the labs, and access to state-of-the-art scientific instrumentation, combine to create a powerful learning environment. In addition to hands-on research activities the program introduces participants to many aspects of Canada's North, including local knowledge related to climate change, culture, history, and politics - within the educational program on the ship and the planned visits to Northern communities. During International Polar Year (IPY) Schools on Board collaborated with international researchers and northern agencies from 11 countries to offer one

  14. The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: Extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Seas and Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus (heterococcolith-bearing phase) in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects crossing Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Iceland Sea, respectively, each conducted during both July 2011 and September-October 2007. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles were used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water and surface mixed layer at the time of sampling. Strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks characterized the northern and southern transects, where the maximum values of 53×103 cells/l (fall) and 70×103 cells/l (summer), respectively, were essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This pattern confirms previous findings of a summer to fall northwestward shift in peak coccolithophore cell densities within the Nordic Seas. While depicting an overall zonal shift in high cell densities between the summer (Norwegian Sea) and fall (northern Iceland Sea) conditions, the southern transects were additionally characterized by local peak coccolithophore concentrations associated with a geographically and temporally restricted convective process (Lofoten Gyre, summer), as well as an island mass effect (in the vicinity of Jan Mayen Island, fall). Maximum coccolithophore abundances within Fram Strait were found during both seasons close to the western frontal zone (Polar and Arctic Fronts) an area of strong density gradients where physical and chemical properties of the surface mixed layer are prone to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Here, changes in species dominance from E. huxleyi in summer, to C. pelagicus in fall, were related to the strengthened influence during summer, of surface AW, as well as to high July solar irradiance, within an area usually characterized by C. pelagicus-dominated low density populations.

  15. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Tanya M.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Wang, Xiaowa; Ferguson, Steven H.; Young, Brent G.; Reimer, Ken J.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  16. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tanya M., E-mail: tanya.brown@mun.ca [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ferguson, Steven H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Young, Brent G. [University of Manitoba, 500 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Reimer, Ken J. [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  17. Clinical manifestations of pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian marine salmon farming - variations due to salmonid alphavirus subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, M D; Jensen, B Bang; Brun, E

    2015-04-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) in Norwegian salmonid aquaculture has traditionally been caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 3. Following the isolation of a novel SAV subtype in 2010, marine SAV2, two separate endemic areas have developed. It has been debated whether disease outbreaks due to marine SAV2 result in milder clinical manifestations compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. The aim of this study was to descriptively investigate site-level differences in the clinical manifestations of marine SAV2 and SAV3 at Norwegian seawater sites diagnosed with PD in 2012. The findings suggest that Norwegian PD outbreaks caused by marine SAV2 result in lower mortality and milder clinical signs compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. For sites without reported PD-related mortality, there was no difference in the mortality levels between sites infected by marine SAV2 and SAV3. The results also indicate that there are no differences in grading quality at slaughter between the SAV subtypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosen