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Sample records for norway spruce wood

  1. The variability of wood density and compression strength of Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Petr; Fajstavr, Marek; Stojanović, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 17-26 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Norway spruce * wood density * compression strength * variability Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry

  2. Assessing the suitability of Norway spruce wood as an environmental archive for sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, T.; Ulrich, A.; Rennenberg, H.; Zwicky, C.N.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of Norway spruces (Picea abies L. Karst.) as an environmental archive for sulphur. For this purpose spruce trees were sampled in two distinct regions of Switzerland: the Alps and the Swiss Plateau, which differ significantly with respect to S immission. Wood samples were measured using two methods: LASER Ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Independently corroborated by previous measurements of sulphur in peat bogs, the rise and fall of sulphur dioxide pollution in Switzerland appears to be reflected in spruce wood sulphur content. While the wood sulphur content profile of trees sampled in the Alps is relatively flat, the profiles of trees located on the Swiss Plateau display a characteristic sulphur peak. This corresponds to air pollution data in the different regions and indicates that the trees reacted on the changing S supply and recorded a pollution signal in the wood. - Norway spruce is a suitable archive for sulphur when physiological aspects and limitations are taken into account

  3. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of young Norway spruce clones related to growth and wood structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSNER, SABINE; KLEIN, ANDREA; MÜLLER, ULRICH; KARLSSON, BO

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem segments of eight five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones differing in growth characteristics were tested for maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (ks100), vulnerability to cavitation and behavior under mechanical stress. The vulnerability of the clones to cavitation was assessed by measuring the applied air pressure required to cause 12 and 50% loss of conductivity (Ψ12, Ψ50) and the percent loss of conductivity at 4 MPa applied air pressure (PLC4MPa). The bending strength and stiffness and the axial compression strength and stiffness of the same stem segments were measured to characterize wood mechanical properties. Growth ring width, wood density, latewood percentage, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness, tracheid length and pit dimensions of earlywood cells, spiral grain and microfibril angles were examined to identify structure–function relationships. High ks100 was strongly and positively related to spiral grain angle, which corresponded positively to tracheid length and pit dimensions. Spiral grain may reduce flow resistance of the bordered pits of the first earlywood tracheids, which are characterized by rounded tips and an equal distribution of pits along the entire length. Wood density was unrelated to hydraulic vulnerability parameters. Traits associated with higher hydraulic vulnerability were long tracheids, high latewood percentage and thick earlywood cell walls. The positive relationship between earlywood cell wall thickness and vulnerability to cavitation suggest that air seeding through the margo of bordered pits may occur in earlywood. There was a positive phenotypic and genotypic relationship between ks100 and PLC4MPa, and both parameters were positively related to tree growth rate. Variability in mechanical properties depended mostly on wood density, but also on the amount of compression wood. Accordingly, hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength or stiffness showed no tradeoff. PMID:17472942

  4. Tradeoffs between hydraulic and mechanical stress responses of mature Norway spruce trunk wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Sabine; Klein, Andrea; Müller, Ulrich; Karlsson, Bo

    2008-08-01

    We tested the effects of growth characteristics and basic density on hydraulic and mechanical properties of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) wood from six 24-year-old clones, grown on two sites in southern Sweden differing in water availability. Hydraulic parameters assessed were specific hydraulic conductivity at full saturation (ks100) and vulnerability to cavitation (Psi50), mechanical parameters included bending strength (sigma b), modulus of elasticity (MOE), compression strength (sigma a) and Young's modulus (E). Basic density, diameter at breast height, tree height, and hydraulic and mechanical parameters varied considerably among clones. Clonal means of hydraulic and mechanical properties were strongly related to basic density and to growth parameters across sites, especially to diameter at breast height. Compared with stem wood of slower growing clones, stem wood of rapidly growing clones had significantly lower basic density, lower sigma b, MOE, sigma a and E, was more vulnerable to cavitation, but had higher ks100. Basic density was negatively correlated to Psi50 and ks100. We therefore found a tradeoff between Psi50 and ks100. Clones with high basic density had significantly lower hydraulic vulnerability, but also lower hydraulic conductivity at full saturation and thus less rapid growth than clones with low basic density. This tradeoff involved a negative relationship between Psi50 and sigma b as well as MOE, and between ks100 and sigma b, MOE and sigma a. Basic density and Psi50 showed no site-specific differences, but tree height, diameter at breast height, ks100 and mechanical strength and stiffness were significantly lower at the drier site. Basic density had no influence on the site-dependent differences in hydraulic and mechanical properties, but was strongly negatively related to diameter at breast height. Selecting for growth may thus lead not only to a reduction in mechanical strength and stiffness but also to a reduction in

  5. Interactions between soil- and dead wood-inhabiting fungal communities during the decay of Norway spruce logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkipää, Raisa; Rajala, Tiina; Schigel, Dmitry; Rinne, Katja T; Pennanen, Taina; Abrego, Nerea; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the interaction between fungal communities of soil and dead wood substrates. For this, we applied molecular species identification and stable isotope tracking to both soil and decaying wood in an unmanaged boreal Norway spruce-dominated stand. Altogether, we recorded 1990 operational taxonomic units, out of which more than 600 were shared by both substrates and 589 were found to exclusively inhabit wood. On average the soil was more species-rich than the decaying wood, but the species richness in dead wood increased monotonically along the decay gradient, reaching the same species richness and community composition as soil in the late stages. Decaying logs at all decay stages locally influenced the fungal communities from soil, some fungal species occurring in soil only under decaying wood. Stable isotope analyses suggest that mycorrhizal species colonising dead wood in the late decay stages actively transfer nitrogen and carbon between soil and host plants. Most importantly, Piloderma sphaerosporum and Tylospora sp. mycorrhizal species were highly abundant in decayed wood. Soil- and wood-inhabiting fungal communities interact at all decay phases of wood that has important implications in fungal community dynamics and thus nutrient transportation.

  6. Wood density variations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. under contrasting climate conditions in southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed inter-annual variations in ring width and maximum wood density of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. at different altitudes in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany, to determine the climate response of these parameters under contrasting climate conditions. In addition, we compared maximum, average and minimum wood density between sites. Bootstrapped correlation coefficients of ring width and maximum wood density with monthly temperature and precipitation, revealed a different climate sensitivity of both parameters. Ring width showed strong correlations with climate variables in the previous year and in the first half of the growing season. Further, a negative relationship with summer temperature was observed at the low-altitude sites. Maximum wood density correlated best with temperature during the growing season, whereby strongest correlations were found between September temperature and maximum wood density at the high-altitude sites. Observed differences in maximum, average and minimum wood density are suggested to relate to the local climate; with lower temperatures and higher water availability having a negative effect on wood density. 

  7. Wood density variations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. under contrasting climate conditions in southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed inter-annual variations in ring width and maximumwood density of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. at different altitudes in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany, to determine the climate response of these parameters under contrasting climate conditions. In addition, we compared maximum, average and minimum wood density between sites. Bootstrapped correlation coefficients of ring width and maximum wood density with monthly temperature and precipitation, revealed a different climate sensitivity of both parameters. Ring width showed strong correlations with climate variables in the previous year and in the first half of the growingseason. Further, a negative relationship with summer temperature was observed at the low-altitude sites. Maximum wood density correlated best with temperature during the growing season, whereby strongest correlations were found between September temperature and maximum wood density at the high-altitude sites. Observed differences in maximum, average and minimum wood density are suggested to relate to the local climate; with lower temperature and higher water availability having a negative effect on wood density.

  8. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application....... This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase...... in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash...

  9. Change of mechanical properties of Norway Spruce wood due to degradation caused by fire retardants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kloiber, Michal; Frankl, Jiří; Drdácký, Miloš; Kučerová, I.; Tippner, J.; Bryscejn, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 23-38 ISSN 1336-4561 Grant - others:GAČR(CZ) GA103/07/1091 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : wood degradation * fire retardant * mechanical properties * tensile strength * hardness Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2010

  10. Romanian legal management rules limit wood production in Norway spruce and beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouriaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The quantitative impact of forest management on forests’ wood resource was evaluated for Picea and Fagus mixed forests. The effects on the productivity of tendering operations, thinnings and rotation length have seldom been directly quantified on landscape scale. Methods Two sites of similar fertility but subject to contrasted forest management were studied with detailed inventories: one in Germany, the other in Romania, and compared with the respective national forest inventories. In Romania, regulations impose very long rotations, low thinnings and a period of no-cut before harvest. In contrast, tending and thinnings are frequent and intense in Germany. Harvests start much earlier and must avoid clear cutting but maintain a permanent forest cover with natural regeneration. While Germany has an average annual wood increment representative for Central Europe, Romania represents the average for Eastern Europe. Results The lack of tending and thinning in the Romanian site resulted in twice as many trees per hectare as in the German site for the same age. The productivity in Romanian production forests was 20 % lower than in Germany despite a similar fertility. The results were supported by the data from the national forest inventory of each country, which confirmed that the same differential exists at country scale. Furthermore, provided the difference in rotation length, two crops are harvested in Germany when only one is harvested in Romania. The losses of production due to a lower level of management in Romania where estimated to reach 12.8 million m3.y-1 in regular mountain production forests, and to 15 million m3.y-1 if managed protection forest is included. Conclusions The productivity of Picea and Fagus mountain forests in Romania is severely depressed by the lack of tending and thinning, by overly long rotations and the existence of a 25-years no-cut period prior to harvest. The average standing volume in Germany was 50

  11. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  12. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  13. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  14. Effects of liming and wood ash application on root biomass, root distribution and soil chemistry in a Norway spruce stand in southwest Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebke, C.G.

    2001-07-01

    Effects of liming (CaPK) and wood ash application (A) on soil chemistry, root (< 2 mm and 2-5 mm in diameter) biomass and distribution, root length density (RLD, cm/cm{sup 3} ) and specific root length (SRL, m/g) were investigated in a 60 year old Norway spruce stand in SW Sweden. Soil cores were taken from the litter fermented humus (LFH) and mineral soil layers to a depth of 30 cm, eight years after treatments. The pH values of the LM layer increased significantly (p< 0.05) in the lime and ash treatments compared to the control, while in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH was increased only in the A treatment compared to CaPK. The P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations increased in the CaPK treatment in the LM layer, while K and Ca decreased significantly at 5-10 cm depth in CaPK treated plots compared to the control and A. The highest amounts of ammonium and nitrate were found in A treatment in all soil layers. The A treatment increased fine root (< 2 mm in diameter) biomass in the LFH layer compared to the control but decreased it in the top 10 cm of the mineral soil compared to CaPK. A shallower fine root system was found in the A treated plots compared to the control and CaPK. The coarser root (2-5 mm in diameter) biomass was higher in the mineral soil in the A treatment compared to the control and CaPK but the differences were not significant. RLD increased in both CaPK and A in the upper soil layers. SRL increased in almost all layers in the CaPK and A treatments compared to the control. The number of root tips were also higher in the treated plots compared to the control, except in the 10-20 cm layer. It was concluded that CaPK and A treatments resulted in improved root vitality with a higher capacity for nutrient uptake.

  15. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  16. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  17. Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2015-01-01

    As wood construction increasingly uses engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives used. Bondline strength is a crucial issue for engineered wood applications, especially in cold climates. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) joints (150 mm...... adhesive was tested at six temperatures: 20, −20, −30, −40, −50 and −60 °C. Generally, within the temperature test range, temperature changes significantly affected the shear strength of solid wood and wood joints. As the temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR adhesive in most cases...... resulted in the strongest shear strength and MUF adhesive resulted in the weakest. MF and PRF adhesives responded to temperature changes in a similar manner to that of the PUR adhesive. The shear strengths of wood joints with PVAc and EPI adhesives were more sensitive to temperature change. At low...

  18. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Soil surface CO2 fluxes in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Janouš, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 50 (2004), s. 573-578 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * Soil CO2 efflux * Q10 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Zurita Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The potential applicability of the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT (version 3.01) was tested for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles collected from stress resistant and resilient trees. Direct comparison of the measured and simulated leaf optical properties between 450¿1000 nm

  2. Testing two novel stump-lifting heads in a final felling Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Mutikainen, A. (TTS Research, Rajamaeki (Finland)), Email: arto.mutikainen@tts.fi

    2009-07-01

    The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2008 it was around 1.2 TWh. Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research tested two new stump-lifting devices for lifting stumps in a final felling Norway spruce (picea abies) stand. In the time study with the Vaekevae Stump Processor lifting head, the productivity of stump lifting was 7,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 30 cm from clayey soil, and 8.3 m3 /E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps from sandy soil. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the stump-lifting productivity was 9.0 m3 /E{sub 0}-h (clay) and 10,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-h (sand). The results of this relatively restricted test indicated that the Vaekevae Stump Processor is s reliable and effective stump-lifting head that enables the harvesting of high-quality stump raw material for energy generation. The stump lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Jaervinen) was lower than that of the Vaekevae Strump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Jaervinen lifting head were presented and discussed. (orig.)

  3. Transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, I.; Kubasek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was made at the study site of Bily Kriz (the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts., the Czech Republic) at different sky conditions during the growing season in 2010. For the description of PAR transmittance different phenological phases of the spruce stand development in clear and overcast days were chosen. The mean daily PAR transmittance of the spruce canopy was significantly higher in overcast days compared with clear ones. Diffuse PAR thus penetrated into lower parts of the canopy more efficiently than direct one. PAR transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy was different in individual phenological phases of the spruce stand canopy which was caused by changes in the stand structure during the growing season. Thus monitoring of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for PAR can help to describe the development of spruce stand canopy

  4. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  5. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  6. HEAT TREATMENTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE DRIED NORWAY SPRUCE BOARDS: SACCHARIDES AND FURFURALS IN SAPWOOD SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Karlsson,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates that migrate to wood surfaces in sapwood during drying might influence properties such as mould susceptibility and colour. Sugars on the surface of Norway spruce boards during various heat treatments were studied. Samples (350mmx125mmx25mm were double-stacked, facing sapwood-side outwards, and dried at 110oC to a target moisture content (MC of 40%. Dried sub-samples (80 mm x 125 mm x 25 mm were stacked in a similar way and further heated at 110oC and at 130oC for 12, 24, and 36 hours, respectively. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose as well as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF and furfural in the sapwood surface layer of treated wood were analysed using HPLC (RI- and UV-detectors. Carbohydrates degraded to a lower extent at 110oC than at 130oC. Furfural and to a larger extent HMF increased with treatment period and temperature. Heat treatment led to a decrease in lightness and hue of the sapwood surface of sub-samples, while chroma increased somewhat. Furthermore, considerably faster degradation (within a few minutes of the carbohydrates on the surface of the dried spruce boards was observed when single sub-samples were conductively hot pressed at 200oC. Treatment period and initial MC influenced the presence of the carbohydrates in wood surface as well as colour change (Eab of the hot pressed sub-samples.

  7. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  8. Isoprenoid emission variation of Norway spruce across a European latitudinal transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Wang, Min; Karlsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Isoprenoid emissions were measured from Norway spruce trees at seven different sites, distributed from Ljubljana in Slovenia to Piikkiö in Finland. Four of the sites were part of a network of genetically identical spruce trees...

  9. Pathogenicity of Neonectria fuckeliana on Norway Spruce Clones in Sweden and Potential Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Pettersson; Venche Talgø; John Frampton; Bo Karlsson; Jonas Rönnberg

    2018-01-01

    The fungus Neonectria fuckeliana has become an increasing problem on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the Nordic countries during recent years. Canker wounds caused by the pathogen reduce timber quality and top-dieback is a problem for the Christmas tree industry. In this study, four inoculation trials were conducted to examine the ability of N. fuckeliana to cause disease on young Norway spruce plants and determine how different wound types would affect the occurrence and severity of the disea...

  10. Clonal variability and ortet-ramet relationships in a norway spruce population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birot, Y.; Nepveu, G.

    1979-01-01

    The study was intended to assess the effectiveness of multiclonal vegetative propagation in breeding programmes for Norway spruce. Fifty-one individuals were selected (mainly for height growth, but also for girth and for nematode resistance) in 1956 from a progeny test of 11 open-pollinated families, of Lithuanian origin, established near Nancy, France, in 1943. Ramets from these individuals were grafted in 1957 and planted out in the Gros Bois Forest, Allier, in 1961. Height, diameter, bud burst date, basic density and resistance to the nematode Pristiphora abietina were assessed at intervals until 1976 for both the ortets and their ramets. The results of the progeny test indicated that high genetic gains could be expected for most traits (especially volume production). Bud burst appeared to be independent of growth traits and wood density. The results of the test with grafted clones showed that selection for late bud burst and high wood density would be efficient, because the traits were genotypically independent and had good genotypic stability. Wood density showed, however, a (weak) negative correlation with diameter. Phenotypic selection for namatode resistance was negatively related to late bud burst. No firm conclusions could be drawn on the effectiveness of selection for growth traits, because of bias introduced by the selection of the ortets, possible genotypic differences between rootstocks, and genotypeXsite interaction. This was taken from authors' summary.

  11. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  12. Heat Resistance of Glued Finger Joints in Spruce Wood Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sviták

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heat resistance of glued spruce wood was evaluated for different joint types and adhesives. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and also fracture evaluation were investigated on glued spruce samples made by the finger-jointed principle. Finger-jointed samples were glued with polyurethane (PUR and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF adhesives. Heat loading was realized at temperatures 60, 80, and 110 °C and compared with wood with 20 °C. A static bending test with four-point flexural test was used. Elevated temperature and adhesive type had an important influence on the bending strength. On the other hand, adhesive type had a significant influence on the modulus of elasticity, but elevated temperature had no substantial influence.

  13. Characteristics and modeling of spruce wood under dynamic compression load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenacher, Germar

    2014-01-01

    Spruce wood is frequently used as an energy absorbing material in impact limiters of packages for the transportation of radioactive material. A 9m drop test onto an unyielding target is mandatory for the packages. The impact results in a dynamic compression load of the spruce wood inside the impact limiter. The lateral dilation of the wood is restrained thereby due to encasing steel sheets. This work's objective was to provide a material model for spruce wood based on experimental investigations to enable the calculation of such loading conditions. About 600 crush tests with cubical spruce wood specimens were performed to characterize the material. The compression was up to 70% and the material was assumed to be transversely isotropic. Particularly the lateral constraint showed to have an important effect: the material develops a high lateral dilation without lateral constraint. The force-displacement characteristics show a comparably low force level and no or only slight hardening. Distinctive softening occurs after the linear-elastic region when loaded parallel to the fiber. On the other hand, using a lateral constraint results in significantly higher general force levels, distinctive hardening and lateral forces. The softening effect when loaded parallel to the fiber is less distinctive. Strain rate and temperature raise or lower the strength level, which was quantified for the applicable ranges of impact limiters. The hypothesis of an uncoupled evolution of the yield surface was proposed based on the experimental findings. It postulates an independent strength evolution with deviatoric and volumetric deformation. The hypothesis could be established using the first modeling approach, the modified LS-DYNA material model MAT075. A transversely isotropic material model was developed based thereupon and implemented in LS-DYNA. The material characteristics of spruce wood were considered using a multi-surface yield criterion and a non-associated flow rule. The yield

  14. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  15. MICROSTRUCTURE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED IN SPRUCE WOOD BY FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is amodern, non-invasive method for objective andspecialized image analysis of anatomical materialfeatures at microscopic level. Referring to wood, itoffers the possibility to view in 3D a bunch ofneighboring cells, in all three grain directions.This allows the imaging of modifications thatmight appear in the structure of the wood cellmembrane (e.g. micro-fissures caused by differentfactors, including temperature variations. This paperpresents the results of the SEM analysis performedon European spruce (Picea abies samples, cut fromboards which were subjected to freezing and thawingunder different conditions of temperature variationand time of exposure.The main aim of this research was to reveal theconditions which determine the occurrence of microfissuresin the cell wall and consequently lead tostrength losses in wood.

  16. A Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog is implicated in control of growth rhythm in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-05-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants.

  17. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted approx...... rate by using two precision pumps operated at approximately 60 mi min(-1). The terpenes collected on the adsorbent tubes were significantly decomposed by ozone during sampling unless ozone scrubbers were applied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiess Nadine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define its status as one of the economically most important tree species of Northern Europe. In this study, EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for the assessment of putative functional diversity in Austrian Norway spruce stands. Results SSR sequences were identified by analyzing 14,022 publicly available EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were most abundant in the data set followed by penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. Specific primer pairs were designed for sixty loci. Among these, 27 displayed polymorphism in a testing population of 16 P. abies individuals sampled across Austria and in an additional screening population of 96 P. abies individuals from two geographically distinct Austrian populations. Allele numbers per locus ranged from two to 17 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.075 to 0.99. Conclusions We have characterized variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce detected in expressed genes. Due to their moderate to high degree of variability in the two tested screening populations, these newly developed SSR markers are well suited for the analysis of stress related functional variation present in Norway spruce populations.

  19. Modelling long-term water yield effects of forest management in a Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, X.; Lamačová, A.; Duffy, Ch.; Krám, P.; Hruška, Jakub; White, T.; Bhatt, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 174-191 ISSN 0262-6667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Lysina critical zone observatory * PIHM * Norway spruce * forest management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.182, year: 2015

  20. Application of Raman spectroscopy to analyse lignin/cellulose ratio in Norway spruce tree rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Petr; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, 1-2 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : dendrochronology * vibrational spectroscopy * lignification * Norway spruce * abiotic stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  1. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb...

  2. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics and lignin in Ascocalyx abietina infected Norway spruces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Eder, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2006), s. 563-570 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ascocalyx abietina (Lagerberg) * Lignin * Norway spruce Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2006

  3. Tolerance of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) embryogenic tissue to penicillin, carbapenem and aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Pavingerová, Daniela; Cvrčková, H.; Bříza, Jindřich; Dostál, J.; Šíma, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 156-161 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * Norway spruce * penicillin antibiotics * Agrobacterium tumefaciens * carbapenem antibiotics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurajdová, Jana; Acosta, Manuel; Pavelka, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 19 (2006), s. 1 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 627.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce stand * temperature * spatial and temporal heterogeneity * stand density Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  6. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive

  7. Measurement methods and variability assessment of the Norway spruce total leaf area: Implications for remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Lukes, P.; Malenovsky, Z.; Lhotakova, Z.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of total leaf area (LAT) is important to express biochemical properties in plant ecology and remote sensing studies. A measurement of LAT is easy in broadleaf species, but it remains challenging in coniferous canopies. We proposed a new geometrical model to estimate Norway spruce LAT and

  8. Interaction of soil filamentous fungi affects needle composition and nutrition of Norway spruce seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrnka, Libor; Tokárová, H.; Vosátka, Miroslav; Matějka, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2009), s. 887-897 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycelial interaction s * norway spruce * nutrient cycling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.603, year: 2009

  9. Soil saprotrophic micromycetes in Norway spruce forests in the Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2001), s. 177-184 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil saprotrophic micromycetes * Norway spruce forest * bark beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  11. Cadmium and zinc toxicity in white pine, red maple, and Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.D.; Fretz, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of Cd or Zn in white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), resulted in reduced root initiation, poor development of root laterals, chlorosis, dwarfism, early leaf drop, wilting, and necrosis of current season's growth. Positive correlations existed between nutrient culture levels and tissue accumulation when plants were grown in sand. White pine seddlings accumulated more Cd and Zn than either red maple or Norway spurce when compared in similar experiments. White pine appeared to be more tolerant of Cd and Zn accumulation than either red maple or Norway spruce since visual phytotoxicity symptoms were observed only at the higher: 1 treatment levels. Accumulation of Cd and Zn from a medium of 2 sand:1 soil:1 perlite by volume was also observed.

  12. Norway spruce crown structure changes under long-term multiple stress impact in Central European Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 252-255 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * crown transformation * tree status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  13. Utilization of hyperspectral image optical indices to assess the Norway spruce forest health status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mišurec, J.; Kopáčková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Hanuš, Jan; Weyermann, J.; Entcheva-Campbel, P.; Albrechtová, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, JUN 2012 (2012), 63545-1-63545-25 ISSN 1931-3195 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorophyll * optical indices * Norway spruce * continuum removal * HyMap * actual physiological status * Sokolov basin * forest management Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.876, year: 2012

  14. Physiological responses of Norway spruce trees to elevated CO2 and SO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tausz, M.; De Kok, L.J.; Stulen, I.

    Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were exposed to elevated CO2 (0.8 mL L(-1)), SO2 (0.06 mu L L(-1)), and elevated CO2 and SO2 (0.8 mL L(-1) and 0.06 mu L L(-1), respectively) for three months. Exposure to elevated CO2 resulted in an increased biomass production of the needles,

  15. Norway spruce fine root dynamics and carbon input into soil in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the quantity of belowground litter carbon (C) input is scarce but highly valued in C budget calculations. Specifically, the turnover rate of fine roots is considered to be one of the most important parameters in the estimation of changes in soil C stock. In this thesis Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (Karst.)) fine root lifespan and litter production and their responses to nutrient availability and temperature were examined. Aboveground foliage and understory litter C inputs were a...

  16. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive measurements with the TRAC instrument were conducted to produce mainly the element clumping index. The aim of the study was to compare the performances of LAI-2000 and DHP and to evaluate effect of...

  17. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Pretel, J.; Chroust, P.; Cudlín, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Hůnová, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, OCT 2012 (2012), s. 267-273 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC10022; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Stomatal ozone flux * AOT40 * Phytotoxic Ozone Dose * Norway spruce * Net ecosystem production * Ozone * Climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  18. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbohydrate content in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, S (2005), s552-s553 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /3./. Brno, 20.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Norway spruce * needles * carbohydrates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  19. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapletal, Milos; Cudlin, Pavel; Chroust, Petr; Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek; Edwards-Jonasova, Magda; Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel; Paoletti, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s -1 and 0.36 cm s -1 by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s -1 . In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O 3 concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: → We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. → The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. → We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. → We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O 3 imply a reduction of NEP. → Deposition and stomatal uptake of O 3 decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  20. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES): CONCORDANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ALLOZYMIC VARIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Ulf; Ryman, Nils

    1990-02-01

    This study describes the population structure of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as revealed by protein polymorphisms and morphological variation. Electrophoretically detectable genetic variability was examined at 22 protein loci in 70 populations from the natural range of the species in Europe. Like other conifers, Norway spruce exhibits a relatively large amount of genetic variability and little differentiation among populations. Sixteen polymorphic loci (73%) segregate for a total of 51 alleles, and average heterozygosity per population is 0.115. Approximately 5% of the total genetic diversity is explained by differences between populations (G ST = 0.052), and Nei's standard genetic distance is less than 0.04 in all cases. We suggest that the population structure largely reflects relatively recent historical events related to the last glaciation and that Norway spruce is still in a process of adaptation and differentiation. There is a clear geographic pattern in the variation of allele frequencies. A major part of the allelefrequency variation can be accounted for by a few synthetic variables (principal components), and 80% of the variation of the first principal component is "explained" by latitude and longitude. The central European populations are consistently depauperate of genetic variability, most likely as an effect of severe restrictions of population size during the last glaciation. The pattern of differentiation at protein loci is very similar to that observed for seven morphological traits examined. This similarity suggests that the same evolutionary forces have acted upon both sets of characters. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Transformation of solar radiation in Norway spruce stands into produced biomass - the effect of stand density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marková, I.; Marek, M.V.; Pokorný, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the assessment of the effects of stand density and leaf area development on radiation use efficiency in the mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand. The young even-aged (17-years-old in 1998) plantation of Norway spruce was divided into two experimental plots differing in their stand density in 1995. During the late spring of 2001 next cultivating high-type of thinning of 15% intensity in a reduction of stocking density was performed. The PAR regime of investigated stands was continually measured since 1992. Total aboveground biomass (TBa) and TBa increment were obtained on the basis of stand inventory. The dynamic of LAI development showed a tendency to be saturated, i.e. the LAI value close to 11 seems to be maximal for the local conditions of the investigated mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand in the Beskids Mts. Remarkable stimuli (up to 17%) of LAI formation were started in 2002, i.e. as an immediate response to thinning. Thus, the positive effect of thinning on LAI increase was confirmed. The data set of absorbed PAR and produced TBa in the period 1998-2003 was processed by the linear regression of Monteith's model, which provided the values of the coefficient of solar energy conversion efficiency into biomass formation. The differences in biomass formation values between the dense and sparse plot after thinning amounted to 18%

  2. BVOC emission in Norway spruce: the effect of stand structure, high temperature and ozone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Večeřová, Kristýna; Esposito, Raffaela; Lusini, Ilaria; Juráň, Stanislav; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is a widely distributed conifer species in the boreal zone and mountain areas of central Europe and is a moderate emitter of volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Although the vaporization and diffusion processes from resin ducts were generally considered to be the main processes for monoterpene emissions in conifers, recently it has been showed that a significant portion (up to one third) of monoterpene emissions of Norway spruce can originate from novel biosynthesis, thus depending on photosynthetic processes. For this reason, both biosynthesis and emission are strongly influenced by the environment and the stand structure. They increase with both increasing light and temperature during the warmer periods, although those are the periods with the higher ozone concentration that usually act as an inhibitor of both assimilation and isoprenoids synthesis and emission. On the other hand, stand structure can play an important role, because the photosynthetic capacity is influenced by temperature and light conditions through the canopy. In order to assess the effects of stand structure, temperature and ozone on isoprenoids emission of Norway spruce we carried out field and laboratory experiments. In the experimental field campaigns we measured: assimilation and BVOC emission from needles of sun and shade layers within the canopy of the spruce forest present at the Bily Kriz experimental research site (Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mountains, 49° 33' N, 18° 32' E, NE of Czech Republic, 908 m a.s.l.). Moreover in the same layers we measured continuously concentration of BVOCs in the air using a PTR-TOF-MS. In laboratory we analyzed the effects of short-term exposure to high temperature and high ozone concentrations on branches of spruce trees collected at the Bily Kriz experimental research site. Preliminary results show that in Norway spruce both stand structure and environmental conditions influenced the gas exchange and BVOC emission rates

  3. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aline; Sperisen, Christoph; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Brang, Peter; Walthert, Lorenz; St Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare. We studied the genecology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba), two co-occurring but ecologically distinct European conifers in Central Europe. For each species, we collected seed from more than 90 populations across Switzerland, established a seedling common-garden test, and developed genecological models that associate population variation in seedling growth and phenology to climate, soil properties, and site water balance. Population differentiation and associations between seedling traits and environmental variables were much stronger for Norway spruce than for silver fir, and stronger for seedling height growth than for bud phenology. In Norway spruce, height growth and second flushing were strongly associated with temperature and elevation, with seedlings from the lowlands being taller and more prone to second flush than seedlings from the Alps. In silver fir, height growth was more weakly associated with temperature and elevation, but also associated with water availability. Soil characteristics explained little population variation in both species. We conclude that Norway spruce has become an adaptive specialist because trade-offs between rapid juvenile growth and frost avoidance have subjected it to strong diversifying natural selection based on temperature. In contrast, because silver fir has a more conservative growth habit, it has

  4. Regulation of Gene Expression during the Onset of Ligninolytic Oxidation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on Spruce Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premsagar Korripally; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Don C. Jones; Peter J. Kitin; Dan Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel; A. A. Brakhage

    2015-01-01

    Since uncertainty remains about how white rot fungi oxidize and degrade lignin in wood, it would be useful to monitor changes in fungal gene expression during the onset of ligninolysis on a natural substrate. We grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium on solid spruce wood and included oxidant-sensing beads bearing the fluorometric dye BODIPY 581/591 in...

  5. Wood-thermoplastic composites manufactured using beetle-killed spruce from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Yadama; Eini Lowell; N. Petersen; D. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the critical properties of wood flour produced using highly deteriorated beetle-killed spruce for wood-plastic composite (WPC) production and evaluate important mechanical and physical properties of WPC extruded using an industry standard formulation. Chemical composition analysis indicated no significant...

  6. Distribution of Lepidopteran Larvae on Norway Spruce: Effects of Slope and Crown Aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulfan, Ján; Dvořáčková, Katarína; Zach, Peter; Parák, Michal; Svitok, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Lepidoptera associated with Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten, play important roles in ecosystem processes, acting as plant pests, prey for predators, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Their distribution patterns in spruce crowns and forests are only poorly understood. We examined how slope and crown aspect affect the occurrence and abundance of moth larvae on solitary spruce trees in a montane region in Central Europe. Moth larvae were collected from southern and northern crowns of trees growing on south- and north-facing slopes (four treatments) using emergence boxes at the end of winter and by the beating method during the growing season. Species responses to slope and crown aspect were not uniform. Treatment effects on moth larvae were stronger in the winter than during the growing season. In winter, the abundance of bud-boring larvae was significantly higher in northern than in southern crowns regardless of the slope aspect, while both slope and aspect had marginally significant effects on abundance of miners. During the growing season, the occurrence of free-living larvae was similar among treatments. Emergence boxes and beating spruce branches are complementary techniques providing valuable insights into the assemblage structure of moth larvae on Norway spruce. Due to the uneven distribution of larvae detected in this study, we recommend adoption of a protocol that explicitly includes sampling of trees from contrasting slopes and branches from contrasting crown aspect in all seasons. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluating the Suitability of Management Strategies of Pure Norway Spruce Forests in the Black Forest Area of Southwest Germany for Adaptation to or Mitigation of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Hanewinkel, Marc; Le Moguédec, Gilles

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the problem of evaluating management strategies for pure stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies Karst) to balance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, taking into account multiple objectives of a forest owner. A simulation and optimization approach was used to evaluate the management of a 1000 ha model Age-Class forest, representing the age-class distribution of an area of 66,000 ha of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest region of Southwest Germany. Eight silvicultural scenarios comprising five forest conversion schemes which were interpreted as “adaptation” strategies which aims at increasing the proportion of Beech, that is expected to better cope with climate change than the existing Norway spruce, and three conventional strategies including a “Do-nothing” alternative classified as “mitigation”, trying to keep rather higher levels of growing stock of spruce, were simulated using the empirical growth simulator BWINPro-S. A linear programming approach was adapted to simultaneously maximize the net present values of carbon sequestration and timber production subject to the two constraints of wood even flow and partial protection of the oldest (nature protection). The optimized plan, with the global utility of 11,687 €/ha in forty years, allocated a combination of silvicultural scenarios to the entire forest area. Overall, strategies classified as “mitigation” were favored, while strategies falling into the “adaptation”-category were limited to the youngest age-classes in the optimal solution. Carbon sequestration of the “Do-nothing” alternative was between 1.72 and 1.85 million tons higher than the other alternatives for the entire forest area while the differences between the adaptation and mitigation approaches were approximately 133,000 tons. Sensitivity analysis showed that a carbon price of 21 €/ t is the threshold at which carbon sequestration is promoted, while an interest rate of above 2

  8. Does the orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovsky, Z.; Rock, B.N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if selected biochemical, structural and spectral properties of Norway spruce needles are influenced by the azimuth orientation of the branch. Three youngest needle age classes from 20 mature (100 years old or older) Norway spruce trees were sampled from upper

  9. Influence of road salting on the adjacent Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forczek, S.T.; Benada, O.; Kofronova, O.; Sigler, K.; Matucha, M.

    2011-01-01

    Winter deicing and traffic spreads salt to road-adjacent Norway spruce trees in the form of spraying and salt slops. Our use of Na36Cl revealed roots as the main pathway of salt uptake. One-shot application of a concentrated Na36Cl solution to spruce saplings by both irrigation and spraying causes macroscopic damage to the needles and affects the needle phyllosphere. Irrigation affects the trees more than spraying because Cl uptake through roots is faster and eventually leads to higher chloride content in the plant. Along with the root-needle route, spray-deposited chloride from the needles is re-transported back into the soil and again taken up by roots to needles

  10. Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Two latent colonizers of Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    Among the endophytic microfungi colonizing Norway spruce, the non-pathogenic species Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri are ubiquitous. Most Norway spruce in Sweden are colonized by these fungi. L. piceae colonizes healthy needles of various ages, while T pinastri colonizes the bark of branches. New shoots become infected around the time of their emergence. Fruit bodies are formed after the needles and branches die. It was found that L. piceae colonized needles during the summer and early autumn, about six weeks after a prolonged period of intensive rain. The number of individual fungal mycelia per needle increased linearly with needle age. In experiments with trees, irrigation resulted in lower total colonization and delayed colonization of the current-year needles, regardless of whether fertilizer had been added. Colonization by L. piceae was lowest in the ammonium sulfate treatment, which simulated the deposition of air pollutants. Colonization was highest in the control and drought treatments, which did not differ significantly from each other. Only a few pathogenic fungi can damage Norway spruce needles. Needles damaged by the rust fungus Chrysomyxa abietis were investigated to study interactions between fungi. The frequency and intensity of L. piceae colonization were found to be similar for C. abietis infected and healthy needles. However, in needles partially infected with rust, L. piceae seemed to establish itself easier in the rust-infected part than in the green part. The genetic structures of populations of T. pinastri in southern Sweden and Finland were investigated using DNA markers produced by means of arbitrarily primed PCR. Single spore isolates from apothecia were used in the analysis. A considerable amount of variation was detected. No geographical differentiation was found among the populations studied

  11. Photosynthesis in Norway spruce seedlings infected by the needle rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Helmut; Plattner, Karin; Volgger, Waltraud

    2000-02-01

    Chrysomyxa rhododendri (DC.) De Bary is a needle rust with a host shift between Rhododendron sp. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), penetrating only the new developing flushes of the conifer. Because little is known about its effects on trees, we investigated several parameters related to photosynthesis in artificially infected 3-year-old Norway spruce seedlings. The potential efficiency of photosystem II (PSII; derived from chlorophyll fluorescence measurements) was reduced in infected current-year needles as soon as disease symptoms were visible, about three weeks after inoculation. Two weeks later, photosynthetic O(2) evolution (P(max)) of infected needles was less than 20% of control needles, whereas respiratory O(2) uptake (R(D)) was about three times higher than that of control needles. Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations were about 60% of control values in all parts of the shoots of infected trees. Photosynthetic inhibition was associated with marked decreases in chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll a/b ratio but only a small reduction in carotenoid concentration. In infected trees, P(max) of noninfected 1-year-old and 2-year-old needles was 50 and 80% higher than in the corresponding age class of needles of control trees. Estimation of potential daily net dry mass production, based on P(max), R(D), specific leaf area, carbon content and needle biomass, indicated that seedlings infected once were able to produce 60%, and those infected twice only 25%, of the dry mass of controls. We conclude that afforestation and regeneration of Norway spruce is seriously impaired in regions where seedlings are frequently attacked by Chrysomyxa.

  12. A Norway Spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog Is Implicated in Control of Growth Rhythm in Conifers1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants. PMID:17369429

  13. Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. variability in progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Norway spruce is one of the most important economic species is Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the species at the edge of its natural range; nevertheless it attains significant growth and yield results. The species is often used for afforestation purposes. In the previous period, 4 progeny tests of Norway spruce were established in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The offspring from 6 natural populations: Han Pijesak 1, Han Pijesak 2, Foča, Potoci, Olovo and Kneževo were build-in the progeny tests. In 2016, the samples of Norway spruce from 2 progeny tests: Srebrenica and Drinić were collected. In total, 360 samples were collected. DNA isolation was done according to Dumoline et al. (1990. For assessment of genetic differences among populations, co-dominant nSSR microsatellite system had been used. The number of effective alleles ranged from 7.78 in the population Potoci up to 15 in the population Kneževo, the average number of alleles was 13. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.61 for the population Han Pijesak 2 up to 0.68 for population Kneževo. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.65. Fixation index was in the range from -0.073 in the population Potoci, to 0.030 for the population Han Pijesak 2. The average value of Wright fixation index is -0.007. The average fixation index indicates the existence of a very small number of homozygotes. Concerning the variability among populations it has been concluded that the total level of genetic differentiation among populations was very low (FST= 0.026. The result of Nei’s genetic distance shows that the populations Olovo and Potoci are separated from other populations. The results obtained by genetic markers, in addition with other, morphological and physiological markers will be the basis for the further investigation of Norway spruce adaptability and possibility for the transfer of genetic material in light of climate changes.

  14. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  15. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Brasov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate, for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  16. Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway spruce defoliation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstroem, H.

    1999-02-01

    Satellite based remote sensing supported by air photo and field surveys, provide a means to area covering forest health assessment on a regional scale. Landsat TM data has been extensively used in studies of spruce and fir defoliation in Europe and North America. The temporal coverage of Landsat TM in combination with cloudiness however restrict the availability of data. In this study the LISS-3 sensor onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the central part of Sweden. The near infrared wavelength band proved to be best correlated with mean stand defoliation. After normalisation of satellite data for topographic conditions, the correlation coefficient increased from -0,19 to -0,83. Normalising satellite data for species composition did not improve the results though. The correction coefficients involved in the procedure were originally developed for Landsat TM, and proved to be inadequate for the LISS-3 data set. A thorough examination of the effects of species composition on LISS-3 data is needed to yield better results. The correlation between observed defoliation in the verification stands and predicted (based on the inverse regression function between corrected NIR values and defoliation in reference stands) was 0,70, despite a very limited range of defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to Landsat TM for spruce defoliation studies, although the results would probably not be significantly improved 49 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  17. Determination of stress bioindicators in three Norway spruce stands in northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbold, D.L.; Feig, R.; Cremer-Herms, A.; Huettermann, A.

    1993-01-01

    At three sites in northern Germany (Witzenhausen, Egge-Mountains and Hamburg-Eissendorf) biochemical stress bioindicators (chlorophyll, starch, proline and acid phosphatase and peroxidase activity) were determined in the needles of healthy and damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). Peroxidase activity was higher in 1 and 2 yr old needles of damaged Norway spruce at the Witzenhausen and Hamburg-Eissendorf sites. Phosphatase activity was significantly higher in needles of damaged trees in all needle ages at the Egge-mountains site in 1983, and at the Witzenhausen site in current and 1 yr old needles. At the Hamburg-Eissendorf site lower phosphatase activity in needless of damaged trees was determined. At the Witzenhausen site lower levels of chlorophyll were determined in the 1 and 2 yr old needles of damaged trees, whereas at the Hamburg-Eissendorf and Egge-mountains sites lower chlorophyll levels were found in current needles. Thus between healthy and damaged trees at a specific site differences in the stress bioindicators could be found, however no common pattern between the sites could be determined. The study indicates that these biochemical bioindicators may be used to show a general stress, but it is difficult to relate them to a specific stress factor. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Thomas; De Mita, Stéphane; Larsson, Hanna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Heuertz, Myriam; Parducci, Laura; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.

  19. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Pathogenicity of Neonectria fuckeliana on Norway Spruce Clones in Sweden and Potential Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pettersson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Neonectria fuckeliana has become an increasing problem on Norway spruce (Picea abies in the Nordic countries during recent years. Canker wounds caused by the pathogen reduce timber quality and top-dieback is a problem for the Christmas tree industry. In this study, four inoculation trials were conducted to examine the ability of N. fuckeliana to cause disease on young Norway spruce plants and determine how different wound types would affect the occurrence and severity of the disease. Symptom development after 8–11 months was mainly mild and lesion lengths under bark were generally minor. However, N. fuckeliana could still be reisolated and/or molecularly detected. Slow disease development is in line with older studies describing N. fuckeliana as a weak pathogen. However, the results do not explain the serious increased damage by N. fuckeliana registered in Nordic forests and Christmas tree plantations. Potential management implications, such as shearing Christmas trees during periods of low inoculum pressure, cleaning secateurs between trees, and removal and burning of diseased branches and trees to avoid inoculum transfer and to keep disease pressure low, are based on experiments presented here and experiences with related pathogens.

  1. Isoprenoid emission variation of Norway spruce across a European latitudinal transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Wang, Min; Karlsson, Tomas; Seifert, Ana; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the dominant tree species in the European boreal zone with the capacity to grow over large areas within Europe. It is an important emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which can act as precursors of photochemical smog and ozone and contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Isoprenoid emissions were measured from Norway spruce trees at seven different sites, distributed from Ljubljana in Slovenia to Piikkiö in Finland. Four of the sites were part of a network of genetically identical spruce trees and contained two separate provenances. The remaining three sites were part of other networks which have been used to conduct studies in the European boreal zone. There were minimal differences in the standardized emission rates between sites and across latitudes. The emission profile differed between provenances and sites, but there were not any distinct patterns which could be connected to a change in latitude. By using genetically identical trees and comparing the emission rates between sites and with genetically different trees, it was observed that the emission patterns were mostly influenced by genetics. But in order to confirm this possible stability of the relative emission profile based on genetics, more studies need to be performed. The effects of branch height, season and variation between years on observed emission pattern variations were also investigated. There were indications of potential influences of all three factors. However, due to different experimental setups between measurement campaigns, it is difficult to draw any robust conclusions.

  2. Wood variables affecting the friction coefficient of spruce pine on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett J. Lemoine; Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1970-01-01

    Wood of spruce pine, Pinus glabra Walk., was factorially segregated by moisture content (0, 10, and 18 percent), specific gravity (less than 0.45 and more than 0.45), and extractive content (unextracted and extractive-freE), and the kinetic coefficient of friction on steel (having surface roughness of 9 microinches RMS) determined for tangential...

  3. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  4. Dynamics and composition of litterfall in an unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest after bark-beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Cudlín, Pavel; Fluksová, H.; Kaňa, Jiří; Picek, T.; Šantrůčková, H.; Svoboda, M.; Vaněk, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2015), s. 305-323 ISSN 1239-6095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : bark beetle * litter * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.476, year: 2015

  5. Enhanced UV-B radiation may lead to the decrease of specific phenolic compounds in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Otmar; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Marek, Michal V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2008), s. 564-567 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : 4-hydroxyacetophenone * catechin * Norway spruce * picein * screening pigments * ultraviolet radiation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2008

  6. Relationship between norway spruce status and soil water base cations/aluminum rations in the Czech republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hruška, J.; Cudlín, Pavel; Krám, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 130, - (2001), s. 983-988 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/94/0832 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : BC/Al molar ratio * norway spruce * crown structure Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2001

  7. Long-term effects of CO2 enrichment on bud phenology and shoot growth patterns of Norway spruce juvenile trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Drápelová, I.; Kulhavý, J.; Marek, Michal V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2010), s. 251-257 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bud * elevated CO2 * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Genotype-environment interaction and stability in ten-year height growth of Norway spruce Clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit

    1986-01-01

    Norway spruce cuttings of 40 clones were tested on seven contrasting sites in northern Germany. Analysis of variance for ten-year height growth indicate a highly significant clone x site interaction. This interaction may be reduced by selection of stable clones. Several measures of stability were calculated and discussed. Characterization of sites by the method of...

  9. Culturable bacterial populations associated with ectomycorrhizae of Norway spruce stands with different degrees of decline in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avidano, L.; Rinaldi, M.; Gindro, R.; Cudlín, Pavel; Martinotti, M G.; Fracchia, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2010), s. 52-64 ISSN 0008-4166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Ectomycorrhizae * Norway spruce * forest decline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2010

  10. Ecological Factors Influencing Norway Spruce Regeneration on Nurse Logs in a Subalpine Virgin Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Stroheker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of Picea abies in high-elevation mountain forests often depends on the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD, as logs provide sites with more favorable conditions for spruce regeneration compared to the forest floor. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on the factors that are conducive to or hindering spruce establishment on CWD. We examined spruce regeneration on CWD by sampling 303 plots (50 cm × 50 cm each on 56 downed logs in a virgin forest in the Swiss Alps. Variables describing microsite conditions were measured, and fungi were isolated from wood samples. To investigate the relationship between the ecological factors and establishment success, two models were fitted with seedling and sapling density as response variables, respectively. Besides log diameter, the models identified different ecological factors as significant for seedling and sapling establishment, i.e., regeneration depends on different factors in different development stages. Seedling density depended on the type of rot, log inclination, and decay stage. Sapling density depended mainly on light availability, cover by bark and moss, the time of tree fall, and the distance between the log surface and the forest floor. A total of 22 polypore fungi were isolated from the wood samples, four of them being threatened species. White- and brown-rot fungi were found in all decay stages. The visual assessment of the type of rot in the field corresponded in only 15% of cases to the type of rot caused by the isolated fungi; hence caution is needed when making field assessments of rot types.

  11. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light......, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances...... be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or temperature dependencies for individual compounds across species. Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic...

  12. Frost sensitivity and nutrient status in a fertilized Norway spruce stand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, A. M.; Ingerslev, M.; Raulund-Rasmussen, K.

    2004-01-01

    by an index of injury, based on conductivity measurements of ion leakage from needles. Despite fertilization, all trees indicated N, P and K deficiency. The foliage, collected in late winter, was generally not very frost sensitive, but foliage from trees with the lowest K and P status were more sensitive......The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the N, P and K status on frost sensitivity of Norway spruce needles in a fertilization experiment situated in a nutrient poor 29-year-old Picea abies stand in western Denmark. The relative difference in frost sensitivity among trees was assessed...... to frost, and the current year needles were more sensitive than the second and third year needles. The advancement of bud burst was assessed in May. Trees with a relatively high N concentration in the current year needles had a more advanced bud burst than trees with a lower N concentration, increasing...

  13. Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicijan Mateja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758 and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM. C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica.

  14. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  15. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  16. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon along an altitudinal gradient from Norway spruce forest to the mountain birch/alpine ecotone in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, N.; Roesberg, I.; Aamlid, D.

    2005-07-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil water from the base of the soil organic layer were determined at three forest plots along an altitudinal gradient in eastern Norway. The lowest plot, at 830 m above sea level (a.s.l.), was in Norway spruce forest and there were additional plots at the ecotone between Norway spruce and mountain birch at 925 m a.s.l. and at the forest line (1000 m a.s.l.). DOC concentrations in soil water did not decrease uniformly with altitude although tree biomass, above-ground litterfall and the soil C pool all did so. Significant correlations between DOC and (H{sup +}) or electrical conductivity may reflect the contribution of DOC to solution acidity and the anionic charge, respectively. If mean temperature during the growing season increases, tree growth at any given altitude will tend to increase and the spruce-birch ecotone may move to a higher altitude than at present. Increased C inputs as litter to the soil might then lead to increasing DOC concentrations and fluxes in surface waters. (orig.)

  17. Fertilization Changes Chemical Defense in Needles of Mature Norway Spruce (Picea abies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybakken

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability limits growth in most boreal forests. However, parts of the boreal zone receive significant levels of nitrogen deposition. At the same time, forests are fertilized to increase volume growth and carbon sequestration. No matter the source, increasing nitrogen in the boreal forest ecosystem will influence the resource situation for its primary producers, the plants, with possible implications for their defensive chemistry. In general, fertilization reduces phenolic compound concentrations in trees, but existing evidence mainly comes from studies on young plants. Given the role of the phenolic compounds in protection against herbivores and other forest pests, it is important to know if phenolics are reduced with fertilization also in mature trees. The evergreen Norway spruce is long-lived, and it is reasonable that defensive strategies could change from the juvenile to the reproductive and mature phases. In addition, as the needles are kept for several years, defense could also change with needle age. We sampled current and previous year needles from an N fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce forest landscape in south-central Norway to which N had been added annually for 13 years. We analyzed total nitrogen (N and carbon (C, as well as low-molecular phenolics and condensed tannins. Needles from fertilized trees had higher N than those from controls plots, and fertilization decreased concentrations of many flavonoids, as well as condensed tannins in current year needles. In previous year needles, some stilbenes and condensed tannins were higher in fertilized trees. In control trees, the total phenolic concentration was almost five times as high in previous year needles compared with those from the current year, and there were great compositional differences. Previous year needles contained highest concentrations of acetophenone and stilbenes, while in the current year needles the flavonoids, and especially coumaroyl

  18. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Lstibůrek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1 existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2 landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate.

  19. High rates of solar radiation - an important natural stress factor of the photosynthetic activity of mountainous norway spruce stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprtova, M.; Marek, M.V.

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity can be regarded as the basis of biomass productivity and vitality of forest trees, respectively. Moreover, this activity is under the strong influence of environment. Excess of photosynthetically active radiation (PhAR) can be a harmful factor of environment which is the reason of photoinhibition. Photoinhibition is demonstrated by a decrease of photosynthetic rate. An analysis of the influence of PhAR excess on function of the assimilatory apparatus of Norway spruce during summer days was done. The strong influence of PhAR excess on values of parameters of photosynthesis reflecting changes in the level of quanta capture and electron transport chain was observed. The comprehensive description of the method of chlorophyll a is given. Excess of PhAR caused rapid changes of assimilatory apparatus function and thus this PhAR excess can be regarded as a significant stress of productional activity of Norway spruce stands under field conditions

  20. Preservation of beech and spruce wood by allyl alcohol-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpan, Dilek; Gueven, Olgun

    1999-01-01

    Allyl alcohol (AA), acrylonitrile (AN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), monomers and monomer mixtures AA+AN, AA+MMA were used to conserve and consolidate Beech and Spruce. After impregnation, copolymerisation and polymerisation were accomplished by gamma irradiation. The fine structure of wood+polymer(copolymer) composites was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that copolymer obtained from AA+MMA monomer mixture showed the optimum compatibility. The compressional strength and Brinell Hardness Numbers determined for untreated and treated wood samples indicated that the mechanical strength of wood+copolymer composites was increased. It was found that the mechanical strength of the wood samples containing the AA+MMA copolymer was higher than the others. In the presence of P(AA/MMA), at highest conversion, the compressive strength perpendicular to the fibres in Beech and Spruce increased approximately 100 times. The water uptake capacity of wood+copolymer composites was observed to decrease by more than 50% relative to the original samples, and biodegradation did not take place

  1. Effects of Wood Roughness, Light Pigments, and Water Repellent on the Color Stability of Painted Spruce Subjected to Natural and Accelerated Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Reinprecht

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the color stability of painted Norway spruce (Picea abies samples subjected to natural and accelerated weathering, using Duncan’s tests and correlation analyses. The following effects were studied: (1 the different initial roughness of the wood; (2 use of transparent or lightly-pigmented top-coat layers; and (3 the presence of the final water-repellent layer. Natural weathering at a 45° slope in an industrial zone lasted 104 weeks, whereas accelerated weathering in Xenotest with 0.55 W/m2 UV irradiation at 340 nm and sprayed water lasted 12 weeks. The color stability of painted spruce, measured in a CIE-L*a*b* system, was not, in the majority of cases, significantly affected by the initial roughness of the wood, the type of top-coat (WoodCare UV or PerlColor layer, or presence of the final water repellent (AquaStop layer. The light pine or larch pigments in the top-coat layers had positive color stabilizing effects. In their presence, the darkening (-L* and total color differences (E* of the painted samples dropped ca. 2.5 times during exterior weathering and ca. 5 times during Xenotest weathering. Samples painted with transparent coatings turned a reddish shade (+a* during the Xenotest, while those exposed to the exterior absorbed dirt and became more blue (-b*.

  2. Spread of Heterobasidion annosum in European fir and Norway spruce after 4 years of treatment with pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddi, P.; Mugnal, L.; Capretti, P.

    1993-01-01

    By means of a series of inoculations with S- and F-isolates of Heterobasidion annosum on plants treated with pollutants, it was observed that the treatments with ABS and H 2 SO 4 caused an increase in silver fir in the colonization by group F and decrease in the growth of the plants. In Norway spruce, both isolates were favoured by the pollutants. (orig.) [de

  3. The antioxidative system of Norway spruce: Effects of different stress factors. Das antioxidative System der Fichte: Einfluss von verschiedenen Stressfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittenhelm, J. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Westphal, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Toder, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Wagner, E. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The effects of different stress factors on the antioxidative system of 6-year-old Norway spruces of the same clone were examined. Flooding and permanent darkness had only minor effects. On the other hand drought, chilling, intense light, and very high ozone concentrations showed strong but distinct consequences. This indicates that the damages by these stress factors are due to different toxic oxygen species, and that the stress factors could produce synergistic damages under natural field conditions. (orig.)

  4. Effects of ABA application on cessation of shoot elongation in long-day grown Norway spruce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, O M

    1986-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) was applied in lanolin to apical buds of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings actively growing in a 24 h photoperiod. At a rate of 100 microg per plant, ABA suspended shoot elongation for about three weeks in the majority of plants but failed to induce normal winter buds. The role of ABA in the induction of dormancy is thus uncertain in conifers as well as in deciduous woody plants.

  5. Nitrogen availability in Norway spruce forest floor – the effect of forest defoliation induced by bark beetle infestation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tahovská, K.; Kopáček, Jiří; Šantrůčková, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2010), 553–564. ISSN 1239-6095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1200; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Grant - others:FM EHS(CZ) CZ-0051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : nitrogen availability * Norway spruce * soil Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2010

  6. Spectral differences of the functional crown parts and status of Norway spruce trees studied using remote sensing information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Clevers, J G P W.; Arkima, H.; Kuosmanen, V.; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 207-210 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * stress response * remote sensing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  7. Shoot-level terpenoids emission in Norway spruce (Picea abies) under natural field and manipulated laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esposito, R.; Lusini, I.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Holišová, Petra; Pallozzi, E.; Guidolotti, G.; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, nov (2016), s. 530-538 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13031; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * BVOC * Monoterpenes * Temperature * Ozone * Sun-shade * Stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  8. Biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for pine (pinus spp.), spruce (picea spp.) and broadleaved dominated stands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Viken, Knut Ole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...

  9. Interactions between near-ground temperature and radiation, silvicultural treatments and frost damage to Norway spruce seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Langvall, Ola

    2000-01-01

    Several different silvicultural treatments were studied in two experiments. In the first, mechanical scarification, slash removal, vegetation control, clear-cut age and seedling types were investigated with respect to frost injury to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Frost damage was also related to near-ground minimum temperature. In the other experiment, the effects of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) shelterwood density gradients, ranging from dense, uncut forest to comp...

  10. The epigenetic memory of temperature during embryogenesis modifies the expression of bud burst-related genes in Norway spruce epitypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor; Viejo, Marcos; Olsen, Jorunn E; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2017-09-01

    Epigenetic memory affects the timing of bud burst phenology and the expression of bud burst-related genes in genetically identical Norway spruce epitypes in a manner usually associated with ecotypes. In Norway spruce, a temperature-dependent epigenetic memory established during embryogenesis affects the timing of bud burst and bud set in a reproducible and predictable manner. We hypothesize that the clinal variation in these phenological traits, which is associated with adaptation to growth under frost-free conditions, has an epigenetic component. In Norway spruce, dehydrins (DHNs) have been associated with extreme frost tolerance. DHN transcript levels decrease gradually prior to flushing, a time when trees are highly sensitive to frost. Furthermore, EARLY BUD BREAK 1 genes (EBB1) and the FT-TFL1-LIKE 2-gene (PaFTL2) were previously suggested to be implied in control of bud phenology. Here we report an analysis of transcript levels of 12 DHNs, 3 EBB1 genes and FTL2 in epitypes of the same genotype generated at different epitype-inducing temperatures, before and during spring bud burst. Earlier flushing of epitypes originating from embryos developed at 18 °C as compared to 28 °C, was associated with differential expression of these genes between epitypes and between buds and last year's needles. The majority of these genes showed significantly different expressions between epitypes in at least one time point. The general trend in DHN expression pattern in buds showed the expected reduction in transcript levels when approaching flushing, whereas, surprisingly, transcript levels peaked later in needles, mainly at the moment of bud burst. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the epigenetic memory of temperature during embryogenesis affects bud burst phenology and expression of the bud burst-related DHN, EBB1 and FTL2 genes in genetically identical Norway spruce epitypes.

  11. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Elek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Europe. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old, young (15 yr after planting, middle-aged (30 yr after planting, old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting, and a native submontane beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae as a control stand were compared.

    Our results showed that deciduous forest species decreased significantly in abundance in the plantations, and appeared in high abundance only in the native beech forest. Furthermore, open habitat species increased remarkably in abundance in the recently established plantation. Carabids were significantly more abundant and species rich in the native forest than in the plantations, while differences were not significant among the plantations. Multiple regression between the abundance and species richness of carabids and twelve environmental measurements showed that pH of the soil, herb cover and density of the carabids’ prey had a significant effect in determining abundance and species richness.

    Our results showed that plantation of non-native Norway spruce species had a detrimental effect on the composition of carabid communities and no regeneration could be observed during the growth of plantations even 50 yr after the establishment. This emphasises the importance of an active nature management practice to facilitate the recolonization of the native species.

  12. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  13. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  14. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  15. Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds measured and modelled above a Norway spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Savi, Flavia; Alivernini, Alessandro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Večeřová, Kristýna; Křůmal, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were investigated at Norway spruce forest at Bílý Kříž in Beskydy Mountains of the Czech Republic during the summer 2014. A proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) has been coupled with eddy-covariance system. Additionally, Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model has been used to derive fluxes from concentration gradient of various monoterpenes previously absorbed into n-heptane by wet effluent diffusion denuder with consequent quantification by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Modelled data cover each one day of three years with different climatic conditions and previous precipitation patterns. Model MEGAN was run to cover all dataset with monoterpene fluxes and measured basal emission factor. Highest fluxes measured by eddy-covariance were recorded during the noon hours, represented particularly by monoterpenes and isoprene. Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model suggests most abundant monoterpene fluxes being α- and β-pinene. Principal component analysis revealed dependencies of individual monoterpene fluxes on air temperature and particularly global radiation; however, these dependencies were monoterpene specific. Relationships of monoterpene fluxes with CO2 flux and relative air humidity were found to be negative. MEGAN model correlated to eddy-covariance PTR-TOF-MS measurement evince particular differences, which will be shown and discussed. Bi-directional fluxes of oxygenated short-chain volatiles (methanol, formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and methyl ethyl ketone) were recorded by PTR-TOF-MS. Volatiles of anthropogenic origin as benzene and toluene were likely transported from the most benzene polluted region in Europe - Ostrava city and adjacent part of Poland around Katowice, where metallurgical and coal mining industries are located. Those were accumulated during

  16. Ash-forming elements in four Scandinavian wood species part 3: Combustion of five spruce samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkelin, Johan; Lindberg, Daniel; Skrifvars, Bengt-Johan; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Bostroem, Dan [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Forest residue is the remaining fraction after the outtake of timber, which comprises the tree tops and branches. It may as fuel cause damage to the combustion device through ash slagging and fouling. The objective of this work was to model the ash composition from well-specified samples of a spruce tree: wood, bark, twigs, needles, and shoots. Their ash at 1000 C was modelled using global chemical equilibrium calculations, and laboratory-made ash of the five samples was analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDXA. According to the results, the risk of slagging arises from the spruce foliage: molten alkali silicates from spruce needles and probably molten alkali phosphates from spruce shoots may cause problems in the furnace. Fouling caused by condensing alkali vapours can be produced by all five samples. The amount of alkali vapours in the flue gas was in the same order of magnitude for all five samples, in spite of large differences in their original alkali contents. (author)

  17. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLeuzinger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  18. Gene expression changes during short day induced terminal bud formation in Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Daniel K A; Yakovlev, Igor A; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Holefors, Anna; Opseth, Lars; Olsen, Jorunn E; Junttila, Olavi; Johnsen, Øystein

    2011-02-01

    The molecular basis for terminal bud formation in autumn is not well understood in conifers. By combining suppression subtractive hybridization and monitoring of gene expression by qRT-PCR analysis, we aimed to identify genes involved in photoperiodic control of growth cessation and bud set in Norway spruce. Close to 1400 ESTs were generated and their functional distribution differed between short day (SD-12 h photoperiod) and long day (LD-24 h photoperiod) libraries. Many genes with putative roles in protection against stress appeared differentially regulated under SD and LD, and also differed in transcript levels between 6 and 20 SDs. Of these, PaTFL1(TERMINAL FLOWER LIKE 1) showed strongly increased transcript levels at 6 SDs. PaCCCH(CCCH-TYPE ZINC FINGER) and PaCBF2&3(C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR 2&3) showed a later response at 20 SDs, with increased and decreased transcript levels, respectively. For rhythmically expressed genes such as CBFs, such differences might represent a phase shift in peak expression, but might also suggest a putative role in response to SD. Multivariate analyses revealed strong differences in gene expression between LD, 6 SD and 20 SD. The robustness of the gene expression patterns was verified in 6 families differing in bud-set timing under natural light with gradually decreasing photoperiod. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Foliar mineral composition, fertilization and dieback of Norway spruce in the Belgian Ardennes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praag, H J; Weissen, F

    1986-09-01

    Needles from healthy Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at Willerzie in the West Ardennes and from trees with symptoms of dieback at Langesthal in the East Ardennes were analyzed by age class for mineral composition. Both stands were on acid oligotrophic soils. At Willerzie, needles were sampled from plots fertilized 12 to 17 years earlier (dolomitic lime plus N, P and K) as well as unfertilized plots. Effects of fertilization included increased levels of calcium, manganese, phosphorus, and copper and reduced levels of total sulfur, sulfate-S, sulfate-S:total S, potassium and aluminum. Levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and boron were low at both sites and, at Langesthal, calcium and magnesium may have been deficient. Sulfur level was normal at Willerzie, but at Langesthal, mean sulfur content for needles of all age classes was 198 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight, a level that may be toxic. In older needles, the N:S ratio at Langesthal was below the threshold value of eight reported to be necessary for healthy growth. Other symptoms of stress observed were high sulfate-S:total S and nitrate-N:total N ratios. At Langesthal, manganese level was probably adequate although only one-fifth the level at Willerzie. Levels of aluminum and iron were very high at both sites. Most of the iron and much of the aluminum occurred as a surface deposit that could be removed by washing the needles in chloroform.

  20. Seedling establishment and distribution of direct radiation in slit-shaped openings of Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brang, P.

    1996-01-01

    Direct radiation is crucial for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling establishment in high-montane and subalpine spruce forests. Fisheye photography was used to estimate the daily distribution of direct radiation in small forest openings on a north-northwest and a south facing slope near Sedrun (Grisons, Switzerland). In slit-shaped openings on the north-northwest facing slope long sunflecks mostly occurred in the afternoon, when the sun shines parallel to the slit axis. This is in accordance to the silvicultural intention. However, since the stands are clumpy and therefore pervious to sunlight, the daily sunfleck distribution is fairly even notwithstanding the slit orientation, and direct radiation at noon is the dominant form of incident energy. In small circular to rectangular openings on the south facing slope direct radiation peaks at noontide. A seeding trial imitating natural seedling establishment was set in place in openings on both slopes. Based on this trial, the relations among seedling establishment, aspect, slit shape, size, and orientation are discussed for Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps. The directional weather factors such as radiation and precipitation can be highly influenced by slits, which is why suitable microclimate for seedling establishment can be promoted provided the slits are oriented appropriately. Slits in which the most insolated edges are oriented windward are especially favourable

  1. Effects of sewage sludge addition to Norway spruce seedlings on nitrogen availability and soil fauna in clear-cut areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, Jouni K.; Räisänen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been suggested to be a slow-release fertilizer in forestry and an alternative to quick-release inorganic fertilizers. The effects of CSS with or without added carbohydrate on inorganic nitrogen availability and on soil animals were tested in two Norway spruce plantations. Half of the seedlings were individually fertilized with CSS, and the rest were left as controls. Solid sucrose was added to half of the fertilized and untreated seedlings. Soil samples were taken in the autumn in the first and the second year after the treatments. CSS increased soil NH 4 –N (2100%), the proportion of soil NO 3 –N, and the N concentration of spruce needles. CSS greatly reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans, but increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes irrespective of carbohydrate addition. A better stabilization method needs to be developed before CSS can be used as a forest fertilizer. -- Highlights: •Spruces were fertilized with anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS). •CSS increased soil N, proportion of NO 3 –N, and N concentration of spruce needles. •CSS reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans. •CSS increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes. •Sucrose did not reduce N pools or counteract negative CSS effects on soil animals. -- Composting and carbohydrate addition do not mitigate the harmful effects of anaerobically digested sewage sludge in boreal forest soil

  2. Surface coating influence on elastic properties of spruce wood by means of holographic vibration mode visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongova, M.; Urgela, Stanislav

    1999-07-01

    Physicoacoustical properties of wood influenced by surface coating are studied by modal analysis. Resonant spruce plates were coated by stain, nitrocellulose varnish, special violin paint and shellac. The modal testing was performed by electronic speckle pattern interferometry. For this purpose, equipment called VIBROVIZER was used. The collected values of physicoacoustical characteristics (density, Young's modulus, acoustic constant) were compared using the graphic plots of data. The 3D plots help to evaluate wooden plates from a viewpoint of the quality control. This fact offers new opportunity for musical instrument manufacturers.

  3. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  4. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute, Koroska 58, 3320 Velenje (Slovenia)], E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Batic, Franc [Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka [Institute of Environment and Spatial Planning, Ipavceva 18, 3000 Celje (Slovenia)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}. - Total sulphur content in needles is a well proved indicator of sulphur burden in the environment.

  5. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samar Al Sayegh Petkovsek; Franc Batic; Cvetka Ribaric Lasnik [ERICo Velenje, Velenje (Slovenia). Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}.

  6. Carbon dioxide exchange in Norway spruce at the shoot, tree and ecosystem scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, G; Linder, S; Lindroth, A; Räntfors, M; Flemberg, S; Grelle, A

    2001-08-01

    Net CO2 exchange in a 35-year-old boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in northern Sweden was measured at the shoot (NSE), tree (NTE) and ecosystem levels (NEE) by means of shoot cuvettes, whole-tree chambers and the eddy covariance technique, respectively. We compared the dynamics of gross primary production (GPP) at the three levels during the course of a single week. The diurnal dynamics of GPP at each level were estimated by subtracting half-hourly or hourly model-estimated values of total respiration (excluding light-dependent respiration) from net CO(2) exchange. The relationship between temperature and total respiration at each level was derived from nighttime measurements of NSE, NTE and NEE over the course of 1 month. There was a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.93) between the hourly estimates of GPP at the shoot and tree levels, but the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was weaker (r2 = 0.69). However, the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was improved (r2 = 0.88) if eddy covariance measurements were restricted to periods when friction velocity was > or = 0.5 m s(-1). Daily means were less dependent on friction velocity, giving an r2 value of 0.94 between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP. The correlation between shoot and tree levels also increased when daily means were compared (r2 = 0.98). Most of the measured variation in carbon exchange rate among the shoot, tree and ecosystem levels was the result of periodic low coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere at the ecosystem level. The results validate the use of measurements at the shoot and tree level for analyzing the contribution of different compartments to net ecosystem CO2 exchange.

  7. Combined fluorescence, reflectance, and ground measurements of a stressed Norway spruce forest for forest damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banninger, C.

    1991-01-01

    The detection and monitoring of stress and damage in forested areas is of utmost importance to forest managers for planning purposes. Remote sensing are the most suitable means to obtain this information. This requires that remote sensing data employed in a forest survey be properly chosen and utilized for their ability to measure canopy spectral features directly related to key tree and canopy properties that are indicators of forest health and vitality. Plant reflectance in the visible to short wave IR regions (400 to 2500 nm) provides information on its biochemical, biophysical, and morphological make up, whereas plant fluorescence in the 400 to 750 nm region is more indicative of the capacity and functioning of its photosynthetic apparatus. A measure of both these spectral properties can be used to provide an accurate assessment of stress and damage within the forest canopy. Foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen are essential biochemical constituents required for the proper functioning and maintenance of a plant's biological processes. Chlorophyll-a is the prime reactive center for photosynthesis, by which a plant converts CO2 and H2O into necessary plant products. Nitrogen forms an important component of the amino-acids, enzymes, proteins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic compounds that make up a plant, including its pigments. Both chlorophyll and nitrogen have characteristic absorption features in the visible to short wave IR region. By measuring the wavelength position and depth of these features and the fluorescence response of the foliage, the health and vitality of a canopy can be ascertained. Examples for a stressed Norway spruce forest in south-eastern Austria are presented.

  8. Stand tending and root rot in Norway spruce stands - economical effects caused by root rot at different thinning regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Mats

    1997-01-01

    This report is divided into three parts: 1) a literature study describing the most common fungi causing rot in wood and descriptions of various strategies to reduce economic loss from root rot, 2) a check of a model describing the development of butt rot in pure Norway spruce plantations in southern Sweden, and 3) simulated economic effects of root rot in stands with various stand tending. The rot model was used to estimate future rot frequencies in the economic calculations. In order to avoid overestimations of rot frequencies, the calculations were also executed when assuming slower growth of rot than shown in the model. When analysing the economical effects of rot, the following three thinning programmes were used: Program 1: thinning at the ages of 30- and 45 years. Final felling at the ages 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70 years. Program 2: thinning at the ages of 40- and 60- years. Final felling at the ages 65 and 75 years. Program 3: thinning at the ages of 30-, 40-, 55-, and 70 years. Final felling at the ages 80 and 90 years. With an interest rate of 3%, programme 2 (final felling at the age of 65 years) had the highest value at present. This result was valid when presuming butt rot in the stand as well as when presuming no butt rot in the stand. There was a small difference between the value at present in programme 1 (final felling at the age of 60 years) and in programme 3 (final felling at the age of 80 years). When presuming butt rot in the stand, the value at present in programme 3 decreased somewhat more in comparison to the value at present in programme 1. Compared to no butt rot in the stand, the optimal final felling time appeared five to ten years earlier when assuming butt rot in the stand. Stand tending programme 1 and an interest rate of 3% were used. Interest rates 2 and 4% did not indicate shorter rotation. The calculated optimal time of final felling appeared at the same stand age whether assuming rot preset or not. The results in this study

  9. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastaugh, Chris S.; Potzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenaueur, Hubert

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the climate change has had an apparent impact in Austrian forests. This research has been conducted on Norway spruce forests as this is the predominant species in Austria. Growth data between regions which have different temperature and precipitation trendsw was then compared, with results showing increased productivity in all regions thus implying that growth of the forest is driven by other factors than climate. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies supporting that forest growth is mainly driven by increasing nitrogen deposition.

  10. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Tord

    2014-01-01

    An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56-63 degrees N). The mean total age was 40 +/- 13 (range 17-91) years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob) was 15 +/- 4 (range 5-27) cm and the mean density was 1621 +/- 902 (range 100-7600) stems ha(-1). The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchan...

  11. Experimental Study Regarding the Freezing and Thawing Dynamics of Spruce Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Bernadett SZMUTKU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results regarding theevolution of the temperature field in spruce wood(Picea abies L. during freezing at two differentfreezing rates: -100C/h (rapid freezing and -10C/h(slow freezing and then during thawing at +50C,+30°C, +50°C temperature.This approach aimed at simulating thetemperature variations which occur inside timberduring open air storage in winter in two situations(sudden vs. gradual drop of temperature, and thenwhen the timber enters the drying kiln, depending onthe temperature applied in the initial heating phase.The results clearly show that the freezing ratesignificantly influences the thawing time and speed,which increase by 13-17% in the case of slowly frozenwood (at -10C/min compared to rapidly frozen wood(at -100C/min. It was also established that theoptimum temperature in the heating-up phase whendrying frozen spruce is 300C instead of the usual500C. This value leads to much better dryinguniformity without significantly prolonging the dryingtime.

  12. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP Based on Ecological Land Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Townshend

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in nine different ecosite groups within the boreal forest of northeastern Ontario, and processed using standard techniques for maceration and fibre length measurement. Regression tree analysis and random forests were used to fit hierarchical classification models and find the most important predictor variables for the response variable area-weighted mean stem-level fibre length. Ecosite group was the best predictor in the regression tree. Longer mean fibre-length was associated with more productive ecosites that supported faster growth. The explanatory power of the model of fitted data was good; however, random forests simulations indicated poor generalizability. These results suggest the potential to develop localized models linking wood fibre length in black spruce to landscape-level attributes, and improve the sustainability of forest management by identifying ideal locations to harvest wood that has desirable fibre characteristics.

  13. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  14. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  15. The ''red'' decline of Norway spruce or ''røde rødgraner'' - is it ammonium overload or top-dying?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    by nitrogen overload was investigated. A sensitive biochemical indicator of nitrogen status of conifer trees is the content of free amino acids of the urea cycle,arginine and ornithine. In pot experiments with four times overload of N as ammonium nitrate the free arginine content increased more than 100 times....... There was no indication of nitrogen overload. The “red” Norway spruce maysuffer from “top-dying” a common disorder of Norway spruce in Great Britain, believed to be caused by several mild winters in a row. In that case the symptoms should diminish after the very cold winter 1995-96....

  16. Association Genetics of Wood Physical Traits in the Conifer White Spruce and Relationships With Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clément, Sébastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sébastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2011-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker–trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ≤ 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ≤ 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ≤ 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a β-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species. PMID:21385726

  17. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  18. A comparison of structural characteristics and ecological factors between forest reserves and managed silver fir - Norway spruce forests in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinšek, A.; Diaci, J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine ecological, floristic and structural differences between the forest stands of managed and unmanaged silver fir - Norway spruce forests (Bazzanio trilobatae-Abietetum albae), twelve sample plots (25x25 m) were established in forest reserves and managed forests. Within the plots, subplots and microplots we conducted phytosociological and pedological surveys, analyses of the stand structure, natural regeneration and estimation of solar radiation. We determined that there are no significant differences in floristic composition and ecological factors between managed forest and forest reserve stands. The only variables that were significantly different were the solar radiation variables (ISF; TSF; DSF), vertical structure (cover indexes (CI)) and stand basal area. Small differences in the composition and the structure of the vegetation indicate that, as far as ecosystematic changes are concerned, managing these forests is not as significant as the soil conditions. Solar radiation had a major influence on natural regeneration. Indirect solar radiation seemed to be more important than direct solar radiation. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between silver fir and Norway spruce regeneration and indirect solar radiation and confirmed that the management of light is a significant factor in the management of regeneration. Another trend that was detected was an increase in the number of beech, which will have quite a large proportion in the upper tree layer of the next generation, especially in forest reserves

  19. Development of Somatic Embryo Maturation and Growing Techniques of Norway Spruce Emblings towards Large-Scale Field Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Tikkinen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to utilize non-additive genetic gain in planting stock has increased the interest towards vegetative propagation. In Finland, the increased planting of Norway spruce combined with fluctuant seed yields has resulted in shortages of improved regeneration material. Somatic embryogenesis is an attractive method to rapidly facilitate breeding results, not in the least, because juvenile propagation material can be cryostored for decades. Further development of technology for the somatic embryogenesis of Norway spruce is essential, as the high cost of somatic embryo plants (emblings limits deployment. We examined the effects of maturation media varying in abscisic acid (20, 30 or 60 µM and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG concentrations, as well as the effect of cryopreservation cycles on embryo production, and the effects of two growing techniques on embling survival and growth. Embryo production and nursery performance of 712 genotypes from 12 full-sib families were evaluated. Most embryos per gram of fresh embryogenic mass (296 ± 31 were obtained by using 30 µM abscisic acid without PEG in the maturation media. Transplanting the emblings into nursery after one-week in vitro germination resulted in 77% survival and the tallest emblings after the first growing season. Genotypes with good production properties were found in all families.

  20. Micro- and macro-geographic scale effect on the molecular imprint of selection and adaptation in Norway spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Scalfi

    Full Text Available Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst, at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale, and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale. At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based F(ST-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the F(ST-outlier methods detected together 11 F(ST-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with F(ST-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also

  1. Micro- and macro-geographic scale effect on the molecular imprint of selection and adaptation in Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfi, Marta; Mosca, Elena; Di Pierro, Erica Adele; Troggio, Michela; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sperisen, Christoph; La Porta, Nicola; Neale, David B

    2014-01-01

    Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale), and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale). At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based F(ST)-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the F(ST)-outlier methods detected together 11 F(ST)-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale) and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale) significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with F(ST)-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also suggests that an

  2. Incorporating shape constraints in generalized additive modelling of the height-diameter relationship for Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pya

    2016-02-01

    fitting. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the SCAM approach allows optimal regression modelling flexibility similar to the standard GAM but with the additional possibility of defining specific constraints for the model effects. The longitudinal character of the model allows for tree height imputation for the current status of forests but also for future tree height prediction. Keywords: Height-diameter curve, Norway spruce, Shape constrained additive models, Impact of climate change, Varying coefficient models

  3. Influence of woody elements of a Norway spruce canopy on nadir reflectance simulated by the DART model at very high spatial resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Martin, E.; Homolová, Lucie; Gastellu-Etchegory, J.P.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Schaepman, M.E.; Pokorný, Radek; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 112, - (2008), s. 1-18 ISSN 0034-4257 Grant - others:-(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : woody elements * radiative transfer * DART * Norway spruce canopy * high spatial resolution * LAI * AISA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.943, year: 2008

  4. Functions for biomass and basic density of stem, crown and root system of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Jens Peter; Bald, Caroline; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Models for predicting the biomass of forest trees are becoming increasingly important for assessing forest resources and carbon sequestration in forests. We developed functions for predicting the biomass and basic density of above- and below-ground parts of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)...

  5. Effects of air pollution and climatic factors on Norway spruce forests in the Orlicke hory Mts. (Czech Republic), 1979-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislav Vacek; Iva Hunova; Zdenek Vacek; Pavla Hejcmanova; Vilem Podrazsky; Jan Kral; Tereza Putalova; W. Keith Moser

    2015-01-01

    The area of the Orlicke hory Mts. has been characterised by decline and disturbances of Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) stands since the 1980s. Currently, only three permanent research plots have been preserved from the original sixteen established plots in this region. In the present study, the health status, as indicated by defoliation, mortality, and...

  6. Is allometry for aboveground organ’s mass estimation in young Norway spruce stands aff ected by diff erent type of thinning?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejza, Jan; Pokorný, Radek; Marková, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2013), s. 1755-1761 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010945 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : allometry * mass * Norway spruce * thinning Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://dx.doi.org/10.11118/actaun201361061755

  7. Liming effects on the chemical composition of the organic surface layer of a mature Norway spruce stand (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, W.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Knicker, H.; Jager, de P.A.; Kreutzer, K.; Weiá, T.

    2003-01-01

    The application of lime in a mature Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) forest in southern Germany induced major changes in the activity of soil organisms and root growth. Since this may influence the chemical compostion of the soil organic matter (SOM) of the organic surface layer, its

  8. Does the azimuth orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Rock, B. N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2007), s. 283-297 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : branch azimuth orientation * Norway spruce * chlorophyll * phenolic compounds * needle structure * spectral reflectance indices * remote sensing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2007

  9. Changes in phenolic acids and stilbenes induced in embryogenic cell cultures of Norway spruce by two fractions of Sirococcus strobilinus mycelia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Máchová, P.; Cvrčková, H.; Martincová, Olga; Cvikrová, Milena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-7 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH82303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : defence response * Norway spruce * phenylpropanoids Subject RIV: GK - Forestry http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/33920.pdf

  10. Risk evaluation of the climatic change impact on secondary Norway spruce stands as exemplified by the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Jankovský, L.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2004), s. 256-262 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC E27.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : climatic change * Norway spruce * risk assessment Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  11. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5, one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqun OuYang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8% out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49% and hormone signal transduction (8.39%. With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1, AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have

  13. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  14. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Oulehle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared two adjacent mature forest ecosystem types (spruce vs. beech to unravel the fate of assimilated carbon (C and the cycling of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N without the risk of the confounding influences of climatic and site differences when comparing different sites. The stock of C in biomass was higher (258 t·ha−1 in the older (150 years beech stand compared to the younger (80 years planted spruce stand (192 t·ha−1, whereas N biomass pools were comparable (1450 kg·ha−1. Significantly higher C and N soil pools were measured in the beech stand, both in forest floor and mineral soil. Cumulative annual CO2 soil efflux was similar among stands, i.e., 9.87 t·ha−1·year−1 of C in the spruce stand and 9.01 t·ha−1·year−1 in the beech stand. Soil temperature explained 78% (Q10 = 3.7 and 72% (Q10 = 4.2 of variability in CO2 soil efflux in the spruce and beech stand, respectively. However, the rather tight N cycle in the spruce stand prevented inorganic N losses, whereas losses were higher in the beech stand and were dominated by nitrate in the mineral soil. Our results highlighted the long-term consequences of forest management on C and N cycling.

  15. Vertical profile of branch CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce tree: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Pavelka, M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite woody-tissue CO2 effluxes having been recognized as an important component of forest carbon budget due to the fraction of assimilates used and the dramatic increase in woody with stand development, there is limited research to determine the CO2 efflux vertical variability of woody-tissue components. For a better understanding and quantification of branch woody-tissue CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to identify the environmental factors influencing it and the role of the branch distribution within the canopy. The proper assessment of this forest component will improve the knowledge of the ratio between ecosystem respiration and gross primary production at forest ecosystem. In order to achieve this goal, branch CO2 efflux of Norway spruce tree was measured in ten branches at five different whorls during the growing season 2004 (from June till October) in campaigns of 3-4 times per month at the Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic, using a portable infrared gas analyzer operating as a closed system. Branch woody tissue temperature was measured continuously in ten minutes intervals for each sample position during the whole experiment period. On the basis of relation between CO2 efflux rate and woody tissue temperature a value of Q10 and normalized CO2 efflux rate (E10 - CO2 efflux rate at 10° C) were calculated for each sampled position. Estimated Q10 values ranged from 2.12 to 2.89 and E10 ranged from 0.41 to 1.19 ?molCO2m-2 s-1. Differences in branch CO2 efflux were found between orientations; East side branches presented higher efflux rate than west side branches. The highest branch CO2 efflux rate values were measured in August and the lowest in October, which were connected with woody tissue temperature and ontogenetic processes during these periods. Branch CO2 efflux was significantly and positively correlated with branch position within canopy and woody tissue temperature. Branches from the upper whorls showed higher respiration activity

  16. Measuring the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in torrefied spruce wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie Shoulaifar, Tooran; Demartini, Nikolai; Ivaska, Ari; Fardim, Pedro; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-11-01

    Torrefaction is moderate thermal treatment (∼200-300°C) to improve the energy density, handling and storage properties of biomass fuels. In biomass, carboxylic sites are partially responsible for its hygroscopic. These sites are degraded to varying extents during torrefaction. In this paper, we apply methylene blue sorption and potentiometric titration to measure the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in spruce wood torrefied for 30min at temperatures between 180 and 300°C. The results from both methods were applicable and the values agreed well. A decrease in the equilibrium moisture content at different humidity was also measured for the torrefied wood samples, which is in good agreement with the decrease in carboxylic acid sites. Thus both methods offer a means of directly measuring the decomposition of carboxylic groups in biomass during torrefaction as a valuable parameter in evaluating the extent of torrefaction which provides new information to the chemical changes occurring during torrefaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of sewage sludge addition to Norway spruce seedlings on nitrogen availability and soil fauna in clear-cut areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Jouni K; Räisänen, Mikko

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been suggested to be a slow-release fertilizer in forestry and an alternative to quick-release inorganic fertilizers. The effects of CSS with or without added carbohydrate on inorganic nitrogen availability and on soil animals were tested in two Norway spruce plantations. Half of the seedlings were individually fertilized with CSS, and the rest were left as controls. Solid sucrose was added to half of the fertilized and untreated seedlings. Soil samples were taken in the autumn in the first and the second year after the treatments. CSS increased soil NH4-N (2100%), the proportion of soil NO3-N, and the N concentration of spruce needles. CSS greatly reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans, but increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes irrespective of carbohydrate addition. A better stabilization method needs to be developed before CSS can be used as a forest fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observations on the effects of acid rain treatment on needle surfaces of scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, M.; Huttunen, S.; Back, J.

    1994-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings were subjected to acid rain treatment at pH 3, pH 4 and pH 7 in a field experiment during 1986-1989. SEM+EDS, TEM, and measurements of wax quantity were used to detect changes in needle surfaces. After 5 weeks at pH 3 and pH 4 acid rain treatment, CaSO 4 -crystallites were observed on visibly undamaged pine and spruce needle surfaces. Direct acid rain damage in conjunction with CaSO 4 -crystallites was observed only occasionally in wax structures. Two-month-old pine needles had 50% less wax in early August after exposure at pH 3 and pH 4 than water controls. The occurrence of CaSO 4 -crystallites on acid rain-treated needle surfaces, and more abundant deposition of Ca oxalate crystallites in the inner walls of epi- and hypodermal cells could be involved with acid rain-induced calcium leaching. Calcium sulphate is probably a result of the disturbed wax and cuticle biosynthesis resulting in undeveloped, permeable cuticles. At the end of experiment, no CaSO 4 -crystallites were seen on needle surfaces. Soil analysis revealed an increase in the soluble Ca concentrations at pH 3. (orig.)

  19. Effect of nitrogen on the seasonal course of growth and maintenance respiration in stems of Norway spruce trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockfors, Jan; Linder, Sune

    1998-03-01

    To determine effects of stem nitrogen concentration ([N]) on the seasonal course of respiration, rates of stem respiration of ten control and ten irrigated-fertilized (IL), 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), growing in northern Sweden, were measured on seven occasions from June 1993 to April 1994. To explore sources of seasonal variation and mechanisms of fertilization effects on respiration, we separated total respiration into growth and maintenance respiration for both xylem and phloem bark. Stem respiration increased in response to the IL treatment and was positively correlated with growth rate, volume of living cells and stem nitrogen content. However, no significant effect of IL treatment or [N] in the living cells was found for respiration per unit volume of live cells. Total stem respiration during the growing season (June to September) was estimated to be 16.7 and 29.7 mol CO(2) m(-2) for control and IL-treated trees, respectively. Respiration during the growing season accounted for approximately 64% of total annual respiration. Depending on the method, estimated growth respiration varied between 40 and 60% of total respiration during the growing season. Between 75 and 80% of the live cell volume in the stems was in the phloem, and phloem maintenance accounted for about 70% of maintenance respiration. Because most of the living cells were found in the phloem, and the living xylem cells were concentrated in the outer growth rings, we concluded that the best base for expressing rates of stem growth and maintenance respiration in young Norway spruce trees is stem surface area.

  20. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on bud burst and shoot growth of boreal Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaney, M.; Linder, S.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations are predicted to double during the next century, and recent studies have suggested that temperature changes as a result of global warming will be pronounced over the mid and high latitudes of northern continents. The phenology of boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, and is a reliable indicator of climate change. This article presented the results of a study investigating the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and temperature on bud and shoot phenology of mature Norway spruce trees grown in northern Sweden. The trees were grown in whole tree chambers over a period of 3 years and supplied with either ambient or elevated CO 2 at either ambient, or elevated temperatures, which were altered on a monthly time step based on simulations by the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Program. Temperature elevation ranged between 2.8 and 5.6 degrees C above ambient temperatures, with a CO 2 elevation of 700 μmol per mol. Bud development and shoot extension were monitored from early spring until the termination of elongation growth. Results of the study showed that elevated air temperature hastened both bud development and the initiation and termination of shoot growth by 2 to 3 weeks in each of the study years. It was noted that elevated CO 2 had no significant effect on bud development patterns or on the length of the shoot growth period. Although there was a distinct correlation between temperature sum and shoot elongation, a precise timing of bud burst could not be obtained by using an accumulation of temperature sums. It was concluded that climate warming will results in earlier bud burst in boreal Norway spruce. 59 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Generic biomass functions for Norway spruce in Central Europe--a meta-analysis approach toward prediction and uncertainty estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Christian; Schumacher, Jens; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2004-02-01

    To facilitate future carbon and nutrient inventories, we used mixed-effect linear models to develop new generic biomass functions for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Central Europe. We present both the functions and their respective variance-covariance matrices and illustrate their application for biomass prediction and uncertainty estimation for Norway spruce trees ranging widely in size, age, competitive status and site. We collected biomass data for 688 trees sampled in 102 stands by 19 authors. The total number of trees in the "base" model data sets containing the predictor variables diameter at breast height (D), height (H), age (A), site index (SI) and site elevation (HSL) varied according to compartment (roots: n = 114, stem: n = 235, dry branches: n = 207, live branches: n = 429 and needles: n = 551). "Core" data sets with about 40% fewer trees could be extracted containing the additional predictor variables crown length and social class. A set of 43 candidate models representing combinations of lnD, lnH, lnA, SI and HSL, including second-order polynomials and interactions, was established. The categorical variable "author" subsuming mainly methodological differences was included as a random effect in a mixed linear model. The Akaike Information Criterion was used for model selection. The best models for stem, root and branch biomass contained only combinations of D, H and A as predictors. More complex models that included site-related variables resulted for needle biomass. Adding crown length as a predictor for needles, branches and roots reduced both the bias and the confidence interval of predictions substantially. Applying the best models to a test data set of 17 stands ranging in age from 16 to 172 years produced realistic allocation patterns at the tree and stand levels. The 95% confidence intervals (% of mean prediction) were highest for crown compartments (approximately +/- 12%) and lowest for stem biomass (approximately +/- 5%), and

  2. Efflux of CO2 from soil in Norway Spruce stands of different ages: a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Fabiánek, Tomáš; Pavelka, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 98-102 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : spruce forest * Picea abies * soil temperatures * moisture * respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Characteristics and modeling of spruce wood under dynamic compression load; Charakteristik und Modellierung von Fichtenholz unter dynamischer Druckbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenacher, Germar

    2014-01-28

    Spruce wood is frequently used as an energy absorbing material in impact limiters of packages for the transportation of radioactive material. A 9m drop test onto an unyielding target is mandatory for the packages. The impact results in a dynamic compression load of the spruce wood inside the impact limiter. The lateral dilation of the wood is restrained thereby due to encasing steel sheets. This work's objective was to provide a material model for spruce wood based on experimental investigations to enable the calculation of such loading conditions. About 600 crush tests with cubical spruce wood specimens were performed to characterize the material. The compression was up to 70% and the material was assumed to be transversely isotropic. Particularly the lateral constraint showed to have an important effect: the material develops a high lateral dilation without lateral constraint. The force-displacement characteristics show a comparably low force level and no or only slight hardening. Distinctive softening occurs after the linear-elastic region when loaded parallel to the fiber. On the other hand, using a lateral constraint results in significantly higher general force levels, distinctive hardening and lateral forces. The softening effect when loaded parallel to the fiber is less distinctive. Strain rate and temperature raise or lower the strength level, which was quantified for the applicable ranges of impact limiters. The hypothesis of an uncoupled evolution of the yield surface was proposed based on the experimental findings. It postulates an independent strength evolution with deviatoric and volumetric deformation. The hypothesis could be established using the first modeling approach, the modified LS-DYNA material model MAT075. A transversely isotropic material model was developed based thereupon and implemented in LS-DYNA. The material characteristics of spruce wood were considered using a multi-surface yield criterion and a non-associated flow rule. The

  4. MILD ALKALINE TREATMENT ACTIVATES SPRUCE WOOD FOR ENZYMATIC PROCESSING: A POSSIBLE STAGE IN BIO-REFINERY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of wood is so compact that enzymes are too large to penetrate into the structure and thereby attack the wood components for modifications that can be valuable for various purposes. Here we present a pretreatment method based on traditional kraft pulping, which opens the wood structure, so that enzymes are able to attack the wood components. To study this kind of chemical pretreatment, spruce wood samples were treated at similar conditions used in kraft cooking at varying intensities (H-factors. To verify if the structure was “opened” for enzymes, the pretreated wood samples were incubated with a cellulolytic culture filtrate, and the released reducing sugar concentration after the enzymatic hydrolysis was measured. The results indicated that un-pretreated wood fibers could not be attacked by the enzymes, but already relatively mild pretreatment was sufficient for letting the culture filtrate attack wood polysaccharides, and more intensive treatments opened the structure further. The mildest treatments did not cause any significant yield losses of lignin (Klason lignin. Some galactogluco-mannans were however lost during the pretreatments. The mechanisms behind the effect and the technical significance of the method are discussed.

  5. Fine root status element contents in three Norway spruce stands in the Krkonose Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldbold, D.; Fritz, H.; Cudlín, Pavel; Bonifacio, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 91-94 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Ca:Al ratios, fine roots, spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  6. Actin distribution in mitotic apparatus of somatic embryo cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cenklová, Věra; Binarová, Pavla; Havel, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2003), s. 167-174 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/99/D092; GA AV ČR IAA5020803; GA ČR GV522/96/K186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cytoskeleton * embryogenesis of spruce * mitosis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  7. Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Salmén, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    of these two climatic factors on TDMB of wood. It was found that the mechanical response of wood tissue is the sum of responses from both tracheids and middle lamella, with only the previous being reversible. The effect of moisture and temperature differed in that the latter affected the elastic and time...

  8. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted notion that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at a given relative humidity (RH) is highest during initial desorption of green wood due to an irreversible loss of hygroscopicity during the 1st desorption. The basis for this notion is investigated by assessing...

  9. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Growth responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to the climate in the south-eastern part of the Ceskomoravska Upland (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybníček, M.; Čermák, P.; Kolář, Tomáš; Žid, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2012), s. 149-157 ISSN 1733-8387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Ceskomoravska Upland * Norway spruce * precipitation * temperature * tree ring Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2012

  11. Characterization of the Embryogenic Tissue of the Norway Spruce Including a Transition Layer between the Tissue and the Culture Medium by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Radim; Mikulka, J.; Hřib, J.; Hudec, Jiří; Havel, L.; Bartušek, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA ČR GA13-09086S; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Norway spruce * ESEs * mucilage * transition layer * MRI relaxometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2016

  12. Digital image analysis of radial shrinkage of fresh spruce (Picea abies L.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Christian; Konnerth, Johannes; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-03-21

    Contact-free digital image analysis was performed of the radial shrinkage of fresh, fully saturated small spruce wood beams. An experimental test set-up was developed to ensure constant distance from the charge-coupled device camera to the sample surface as well as constant climate and light conditions during the whole experiment. Dimensional changes were observed immediately after the drying process began. An unexpected distinct effect could be observed which could not be explained by drying surface layers only. After a fast initial radial shrinkage a slowing down of the dimensional changes occurred at high mean moisture contents. A complete interruption of any dimensional changes followed. Finally, a recovery from shrinkage was even observed. It is assumed that strong negative pressure occurred in the fully saturated capillaries owing to dehydration which led to additional dimensional changes. As a consequence, the break of the water column and aeration in these capillaries finally resulted in a recovery period in the shrinkage rate due to the pressure release. After this effect, the dehydration was characterized by a phase of fast and almost linear shrinkage due to drying surface layers. Finally, the shrinkage slowed down to zero when reaching equilibrium moisture content.

  13. Impact of climate change, seedling type and provenance on the risk of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Sweden due to early summer frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langvall, Ola (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Forest Research Station, Lammhult (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A model including site-specific microclimate-affecting properties of a forest regeneration area together with seedling characteristics was used to evaluate the accumulated risk of frost damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Climate change in Sweden was simulated on the basis of the regional climate model RCA3. The daily average temperature, the driving factor for bud burst in the model, was adjusted using the difference between the mean of the climate model data for the years 1961-1990 and 2036-2065. The model was run for a highly frost prone, clear-cut site in which bare-rooted Norway spruce seedlings of mid-Swedish provenance were planted. Alternate runs were conducted with data for containerized seedlings and seedlings of Belarusian origin. The study showed that bud burst will occur at earlier dates throughout Sweden in the period 2036-2065 if the climate changes according to either of the climate scenarios examined, compared to the reference period 1961-1990. Furthermore, the risk of damage to Norway spruce seedlings as a result of frost events during summer will increase in southern Sweden and be unaffected or decrease in northern Sweden. The risk of frost damage was exacerbated in containerized seedlings, while the risk was lower for the seedlings of Belarusian provenance when compared with bare-rooted seedlings or seedlings of mid-Swedish origin

  14. Differences in the photosynthetic UV-B response between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šprtová, M.; Marek, M.V.; Urban, O.; Kalina, J.; Špunda, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cloned saplings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) (7 years old) were exposed to enhanced UV-B irradiation (+25%) continuously over three growing seasons (1999-2001). Selected parameters of variable chlorophyll alpha fluorescence and pigment composition were analysed in the late summer of the third growing season to evaluate the influence of long-term elevated UV-B irradiation on broadleaf and conifer tree species. To obtain information on the xanthophyll cycle, the de-epoxidation state (DEPS) was calculated. These tree species responded differentially to the long-term effects of enhanced UV-B radiation, Norway spruce was more sensitive compared to the European beech. The results show that in Norway spruce long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions caused negative changes at the level of primary photosynthetic reactions. Contrary to the beech, this had higher degree of UV-B protective responses. UV-B radiation is not effective stressor to its primary photosynthetic reaction

  15. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Johansson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56–63° N. The mean total age was 40 ± 13 (range 17–91 years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob was 15 ± 4 (range 5–27 cm and the mean density was 1621 ± 902 (range 100–7600 stems ha−1. The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchantable volume equations for the estimation of commercial volume for any top diameter and bole length were developed. Soil types in the stands were sediments (coarse sand, fine sand and silt and heavy, medium and light clay, tills (sandy, fine sandy and silty and peat. The standing volume was calculated; the mean was 253 ± 103 (range 26–507 m3 ha−1 with a MAI (mean annual increment of 6.9±3.5 (range 1.3–16.7 m3 ha−1 year−1. There were statistically significant differences between MAI and coarse sand, sand and silt, light clay, peat and silty till soils. Spruce stands growing on silty tills had the lowest MAI (4.94 ± 2.27 m3 ha−1 year−1 and light clay, fine sand and silt and peat the highest (7.62 ± 4.24, 7.46 ± 3.33 and 8.67 ± 2.83 m3 ha−1 year−1.

  16. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  17. Mountain forest wood fuel supply chains: comparative studies between Norway and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Clara; Spinelli, Raffaele; Hillring, Bengt Gunnar; Solberg, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of mountain forest wood fuel supply chains from Norway and Italy are presented and compared. Results from previous studies in which greenhouse gas emissions and costs were evaluated using life cycle assessment and cost analysis respectively, are compared. The supply chain is more mechanized in Norway than Italy. Steeper terrain and low road density partly explain the persistence of motor-manual felling in the Italian case. Mechanized forest harvesting can increase productivity and reduce costs, but generates more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than motor-manual harvesting. In both cases, the main sources of GHG emissions are truck transportation and chipping. The total emissions are 22.9 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Norway) and 13.2 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Italy). The Norwegian case has higher costs than the Italian one, 64 €/m 3 s.o.b. and 41 €/m 3 s.o.b. respectively, for the overall supply chain. The study shows that mountain forests constitute an interesting source for fuel biomass in both areas, but are a rather costly source, particularly in Norway. The study also exemplifies the care needed in transferring LCA results between regions and countries, particularly where forest biomass is involved. - Highlights: • We compare two mountain forest wood fuel supply chains in Norway and in Italy. • Transportation by truck generate the highest emissions in both case studies. • The energy use of the Norwegian supply chain was approximately twice as high as the Italian one. • Changes in fuel consumption affect significantly emissions and energy use from transportation and chipping operations. • Cable yarding and transportation by truck were the most expensive phases respectively in the Italian and Norwegian supply chain

  18. Genetic architecture of wood properties based on association analysis and co-expression networks in white spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamara, Mebarek; Raherison, Elie; Lenz, Patrick; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2016-04-01

    Association studies are widely utilized to analyze complex traits but their ability to disclose genetic architectures is often limited by statistical constraints, and functional insights are usually minimal in nonmodel organisms like forest trees. We developed an approach to integrate association mapping results with co-expression networks. We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2652 candidate genes for statistical associations with wood density, stiffness, microfibril angle and ring width in a population of 1694 white spruce trees (Picea glauca). Associations mapping identified 229-292 genes per wood trait using a statistical significance level of P wood associated genes and several known MYB and NAC regulators were identified as network hubs. The network revealed a link between the gene PgNAC8, wood stiffness and microfibril angle, as well as considerable within-season variation for both genetic control of wood traits and gene expression. Trait associations were distributed throughout the network suggesting complex interactions and pleiotropic effects. Our findings indicate that integration of association mapping and co-expression networks enhances our understanding of complex wood traits. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Impact of soil drainage to the radial stem growth of Norway spruce (Picea Abies L. Karst. in peatland forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempířová Barbora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatland Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. forests represent very valuable ecosystems with considerable importance for nature conservation. However, a lot of peatland forests have been drained or used for opencast mining of peat. Since dendrochronological and dendroecological studies on trees growing on peatlands in Europe are not many, this study aimed to reconstruct the impact of drainage to the growth of trees in forest stands older than 100 years in the moment of drainage. Dendrochronological analysis was performed on two 0.25-ha square sampling plots (50*50 m in two pre-selected stands (control site vs. drained site with similar natural conditions and age. The mean-value functions of the ring indices, comparing the drained site with the control site, in the period after 1940 revealed very similar radial-growth trends. After the year 1992, when one site was substantially drained, the radial-growth trends not showed any significant change. Likewise, the result of the independent two sample t-test for the period after 1992 has not revealed any substantial statistically important difference in the mean index between the control site and the drained site.

  20. Specific impacts of beech and Norway spruce on the structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, S; Oger, P; Tisserand, E; Cébron, A; Turpault, M-P; Buée, M; De Boer, W; Leveau, J H J; Frey-Klett, P

    2016-06-15

    The impacts of plant species on the microbial communities and physico-chemical characteristics of soil are well documented for many herbs, grasses and legumes but much less so for tree species. Here, we investigate by rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing the diversity of microorganisms from the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota:Fungi) in soil samples taken from the forest experimental site of Breuil-Chenue (France). We discovered significant differences in the abundance, composition and structure of the microbial communities associated with two phylogenetically distant tree species of the same age, deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and coniferous Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst), planted in the same soil. Our results suggest a significant effect of tree species on soil microbiota though in different ways for each of the three microbial groups. Fungal and archaeal community structures and compositions are mainly determined according to tree species, whereas bacterial communities differ to a great degree between rhizosphere and bulk soils, regardless of the tree species. These results were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which revealed significant enrichment of specific bacterial genera, such as Burkholderia and Collimonas, known for their ability to weather minerals within the tree root vicinity.

  1. Imaging of Norway spruce early somatic embryos with the ESEM, Cryo-SEM and laser scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neděla, Vilém; Hřib, Jiří; Havel, Ladislav; Hudec, Jiří; Runštuk, Jiří

    2016-05-01

    This article describes the surface structure of Norway spruce early somatic embryos (ESEs) as a typical culture with asynchronous development. The microstructure of extracellular matrix covering ESEs were observed using the environmental scanning electron microscope as a primary tool and using the scanning electron microscope with cryo attachment and laser electron microscope as a complementary tool allowing our results to be proven independently. The fresh samples were observed in conditions of the air environment of the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with the pressure from 550Pa to 690Pa and the low temperature of the sample from -18°C to -22°C. The samples were studied using two different types of detector to allow studying either the thin surface structure or material composition. The scanning electron microscope with cryo attachment was used for imaging frozen extracellular matrix microstructure with higher resolution. The combination of both electron microscopy methods was suitable for observation of "native" plant samples, allowing correct evaluation of our results, free of error and artifacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Age effects on Norway spruce (Picea abies) susceptibility to ozone uptake: a novel approach relating stress avoidance to defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G.; Tegischer, K. [Forstliche Bundesanstalt, Abteilung Forstpflanzenphysiologie, Innsbruck (Austria); Tausz, M. [Karl Franzens Universitat, Inst. fuer Pflanzenphysiologie, Graz (Austria); Haberle, K-H.; Grams, T. E.; Matyssek, R. [Tecnische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology/Forest Botany, Freising (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Cumulative ozone uptake and ozone flux were related to physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics of Norway spruce trees of different ages. Results showed young trees exhibiting greater sensitivity than mature trees. The greater ozone sensitivity of young trees was associated with needle morphology. Biomass of a 100-needle sample increased significantly with tree age, whereas for specific leaf area the correlation was negative. These changes paralleled those observed during differentiation from shade-type to sun-type needles with tree ontogeny. Age-related changes in leaf morphology were related to changes in detoxification capacity, with area-based concentrations of ascorbate increasing during tree ontogeny. It was hypothesized that the extent of ozone-induced injury was related to the ratio of potentially available antioxidants to ozone influx. This ratio was shown to increase with tree age, hence it was concluded that the ratio may serve as an empirical basis for characterizing age-related differences in tree responses to ozone. 70 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Physiological acclimation dampens initial effects of elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration in mature boreal Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Hall, Marianne; Räntfors, Mats; Chaudhary, Nitin; Linder, Sune; Way, Danielle; Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Physiological processes of terrestrial plants regulate the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon, water, and energy, yet few studies have explored the acclimation responses of mature boreal conifer trees to climate change. Here we explored the acclimation responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance to elevated temperature and/or CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]) in a 3-year field experiment with mature boreal Norway spruce. We found that elevated [CO 2 ] decreased photosynthetic carboxylation capacity (-23% at 25 °C) and increased shoot respiration (+64% at 15 °C), while warming had no significant effects. Shoot respiration, but not photosynthetic capacity, exhibited seasonal acclimation. Stomatal conductance at light saturation and a vapour pressure deficit of 1 kPa was unaffected by elevated [CO 2 ] but significantly decreased (-27%) by warming, and the ratio of intercellular to ambient [CO 2 ] was enhanced (+17%) by elevated [CO 2 ] and decreased (-12%) by warming. Many of these responses differ from those typically observed in temperate tree species. Our results show that long-term physiological acclimation dampens the initial stimulation of plant net carbon assimilation to elevated [CO 2 ], and of plant water use to warming. Models that do not account for these responses may thus overestimate the impacts of climate change on future boreal vegetation-atmosphere interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effects of pelleted sewage sludge on Norway spruce establishment and nitrogen dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Anders

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden there is a big resource in unutilised sewage sludge. Studies have shown that application of municipal sewage sludge can improve forest productivity and planting environment. This study is examining the effects of two types of pelleted sewage sludge (pure sludge and a mixture of sludge and domestic wastes compost) on nitrogen turnover. Large differences were found in the fertilisation effect of the different treatments. The pure sewage sludge pellets treatment showed significant increases for NH 4 -accumulation, nitrification and NO 3 -leaching in the top 10 cm of the soil. Uptake of nitrogen was increased in spruce plants and vegetation. The mixed sludge/domestic waste pellets treatment showed indications of a minor initial release of nitrogen. This is seen as a small but significant initial increase in soil nitrification. These results suggest that the pure sewage sludge pellet is an adequate nitrogen fertiliser. The mixed sludge though is inadequate at least in the short run

  5. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Döring, C.; Rauch, E.

    2009-01-01

    is currently being developed at Göttingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining...... the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil–vegetation–atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks—changes of microclimate as a result...... the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend...

  6. Energy wood harvesting from nurse crop of spruce seeding stand; Kuusen taimikon verhopuuston korjuu energiapuuksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, M.; Tanttu, V.

    2008-07-01

    The study focused on establishing the productivity and costs of mechanical energy wood cutting and the profitability of forest management alternatives in the harvesting of hold-overs from spruce seeding stands. The productivity in whole-tree harvesting performed using a multi-tree whole tree processing method reached 3.5 m3/E{sub 0}h with a felling cost of 26 euros/m3. The calculated cost of chainsaw harvesting using a felling-piling technique was 16 euros/m3. The average size of trees harvested from the research stand was 15 dm3. At a rate of 17.8 euros per megawatt that was paid for forest chips delivered to the plant, the net profit using mechanical harvesting method was 272 euros per hectare. The net profit using chainsaw harvesting was 464 euros per hectare. 'Net profit' is defined here as the total amount earned, taking into account forest management costs, the production cost of forest chips, the Kemera subsidies and the price paid for the chips at the place of usage. The net profit of felling the removed trees to the ground (not processing it into fuel) was minus 124 euros. A theoretical stumpage price rate was calculated for the energy harvesting alternatives by dividing the net result by the volume of trees harvested. Theoretical stumpage price was positive when the paid price per megawatt of chips delivered to the place of usage was 13 euros per megawatt-hour for mechanically harvested chips or 10 euros per megawatt-hour for chainsaw-harvested chips. In mechanical harvesting, 17 percent of the trees harvested were damaged in the harvesting process. While it is often essential for the forest owner to ensure that any forest management measures contribute to quick profitability, the forest management benefits that will become realisable assets in the future must nevertheless also be taken into account. (orig.)

  7. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panferov, O; Rauch, E; Doering, C; Ahrends, B; Sogachev, A

    2009-01-01

    Wind damage is one of the major natural disturbances that can occur worldwide in most types of forests. Enhanced management using adequate decision support systems (DSS) can considerably reduce the risk of windthrow. The decision support system 'Forest and Climate Change' (DSS-WuK) which is currently being developed at Goettingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks-changes of microclimate as a result of tree fall and consequent stabilization or destabilization of a forest stand. The results of the study indicate that in Solling the risk of windthrow for spruce and pine forest stands is likely to increase considerably during the 21st century. The general tendencies indicate that under A1B the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend on the particular local or regional combination of climatic and soil factors with tree species, age and structure. For Solling the positive feedback to local climatic forcing is found. The feedback contributes considerably (up to 6% under given conditions) to the projected forest damage and cannot be neglected. Therefore, the adequate projection of future damage probabilities can be performed only with a process-based coupled soil-atmosphere model with corresponding high spatial

  8. In Silico Analysis of Small RNAs Suggest Roles for Novel and Conserved miRNAs in the Formation of Epigenetic Memory in Somatic Embryos of Norway Spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Igor A; Fossdal, Carl G

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in Norway spruce affects the timing of bud burst and bud set, vitally important adaptive traits for this long-lived forest species. Epigenetic memory is established in response to the temperature conditions during embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis at different epitype inducing (EpI) temperatures closely mimics the natural processes of epigenetic memory formation in seeds, giving rise to epigenetically different clonal plants in a reproducible and predictable manner, with respect to altered bud phenology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of plant gene expression and may affect this epigenetic mechanism. We used NGS sequencing and computational in silico methods to identify and profile conserved and novel miRNAs among small RNAs in embryogenic tissues of Norway spruce at three EpI temperatures (18, 23 and 28°C). We detected three predominant classes of sRNAs related to a length of 24 nt, followed by a 21-22 nt class and a third 31 nt class of sRNAs. More than 2100 different miRNAs within the prevailing length 21-22 nt were identified. Profiling these putative miRNAs allowed identification of 1053 highly expressed miRNAs, including 523 conserved and 530 novels. 654 of these miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (DEM) depending on EpI temperature. For most DEMs, we defined their putative mRNA targets. The targets represented mostly by transcripts of multiple-repeats proteins, like TIR, NBS-LRR, PPR and TPR repeat, Clathrin/VPS proteins, Myb-like, AP2, etc. Notably, 124 DE miRNAs targeted 203 differentially expressed epigenetic regulators. Developing Norway spruce embryos possess a more complex sRNA structure than that reported for somatic tissues. A variety of the predicted miRNAs showed distinct EpI temperature dependent expression patterns. These putative EpI miRNAs target spruce genes with a wide range of functions, including genes known to be involved in epigenetic

  9. In Silico Analysis of Small RNAs Suggest Roles for Novel and Conserved miRNAs in the Formation of Epigenetic Memory in Somatic Embryos of Norway Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Yakovlev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic memory in Norway spruce affects the timing of bud burst and bud set, vitally important adaptive traits for this long-lived forest species. Epigenetic memory is established in response to the temperature conditions during embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis at different epitype inducing (EpI temperatures closely mimics the natural processes of epigenetic memory formation in seeds, giving rise to epigenetically different clonal plants in a reproducible and predictable manner, with respect to altered bud phenology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs and other small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs play an essential role in the regulation of plant gene expression and may affect this epigenetic mechanism. We used NGS sequencing and computational in silico methods to identify and profile conserved and novel miRNAs among small RNAs in embryogenic tissues of Norway spruce at three EpI temperatures (18, 23 and 28°C. We detected three predominant classes of sRNAs related to a length of 24 nt, followed by a 21–22 nt class and a third 31 nt class of sRNAs. More than 2100 different miRNAs within the prevailing length 21–22 nt were identified. Profiling these putative miRNAs allowed identification of 1053 highly expressed miRNAs, including 523 conserved and 530 novels. 654 of these miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (DEM depending on EpI temperature. For most DEMs, we defined their putative mRNA targets. The targets represented mostly by transcripts of multiple-repeats proteins, like TIR, NBS-LRR, PPR and TPR repeat, Clathrin/VPS proteins, Myb-like, AP2, etc. Notably, 124 DE miRNAs targeted 203 differentially expressed epigenetic regulators. Developing Norway spruce embryos possess a more complex sRNA structure than that reported for somatic tissues. A variety of the predicted miRNAs showed distinct EpI temperature dependent expression patterns. These putative EpI miRNAs target spruce genes with a wide range of functions, including genes known to be

  10. Variation in Wood Quality in White Spruce (Picea Glauca (Moench Voss. Part I. Defining the Juvenile–Mature Wood Transition Based on Tracheid Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyriac Serge Mvolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of transition age (TA and juvenile wood proportion (JWP are important for wood industries due to their impact on end-product quality. However, the relationships between analytical determination of TA based on tracheid length (TL and recognized thresholds for adequate end products have not yet been established. In this study, we used three different statistical models to estimate TA in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss based on TL radial variation. We compared the results with technological maturity. A two-millimeter threshold, previously suggested for good paper tear strength, was used. Tracheid length increased from pith to bark and from breast height to upper height. Juvenile wood (JW was conical with the three models. At breast height, TA ranged from 11 to 27 years and JWP ranged from 15.3% to 47.5% across the three models. The linear mixed model produced more conservative estimates than the maximum-quadratic-linear (M_Q_L model. Both the linear mixed model and the M_Q_L model produced more conservative TA estimates than the piecewise model. TA estimates by the MIXED model, and to a lesser extent by the M_Q_L model, were equivalent to those for real mature wood, whereas TA estimates by the piecewise model were considerably lower, falling into the transition wood area.

  11. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  12. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  13. Investigation on the Scratch Strength of Clear Paints Used in Furniture Industries on the Wood Species Beech, Elm, Alder and Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In This research, the scratch strength (Cross-Cut Test of clear paints (nitrocellulose lacquers and acid catalyst lacquers of wood species Beech, Elm, Alder and spruce were studied as a function of moisture content (MC of the samples. For this purpose, lumbers (550×110×12 mm were cut from sapwood in tangential surfaces and were air dried for one month according to wood drying procedures. Then, for pre-conditioning of moisture content, at the levels of 8%, 12% and 15%, the samples were placed in three clima rooms. Then, finish applied and strength tests were performed. The results revealed that for acid catalyst lacquers the highest scratch strength (10.4% belongs to Elm wood with 8% moisture content, and the lowest scratch strength (53.6% belongs to Spruce wood with nitrocellulose lacquers having 15% moisture content.

  14. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  15. Autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce plus tree progeny and trees of the local and transferred provenances in central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Mats; Westin, Johan

    2005-09-01

    Reforestation with provenances from locations remote from the planting site (transferred provenances) or the progeny of trees of local provenances selected for superior form and vigor (plus trees) offer alternative means to increase yield over that obtained by the use of seed from unselected trees of the local provenance. Under Swedish conditions, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of certain transferred provenances generally has an advantage in productivity relative to the local provenance comparable to that of progeny of plus trees. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which productivity gains achieved by provenance transfer or the use of plus tree progeny are associated with reductions in autumn frost hardiness, relative to that of trees of the local provenance. In a field trial with 19-year-old trees in central Sweden, bud hardiness was tested on four occasions during the autumn of 2002. Trees of the local provenance were compared with trees of a south Swedish provenance originating 3 degrees of latitude to the south, a Belarusian provenance and the progeny of plus trees of local origin. The Belarusian provenance was the least hardy and the local provenance the most hardy, with plus tree progeny and the south Swedish provenance being intermediate in hardiness. Both the Belarusian provenance and the plus tree progeny were significantly taller than trees of the other populations. Within provenances, tree height was negatively correlated with autumn frost hardiness. Among the plus tree progeny, however, no such correlation between tree height and autumn frost hardiness was found. It is concluded that although the gain in productivity achieved by provenance transfer from Belarus was comparable to that achieved by using the progeny of plus trees of the local provenance, the use of trees of the Belarus provenance involved an increased risk of autumn frost damage because of later hardening.

  16. The contribution of hydroxylamine content to spatial variability of N2O formation in soil of a Norway spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shurong; Herbst, Michael; Bol, Roland; Gottselig, Nina; Pütz, Thomas; Weymann, Daniel; Wiekenkamp, Inge; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Hydroxylamine (NH2OH), a reactive intermediate of several microbial nitrogen turnover processes, is a potential precursor of nitrous oxide (N2O) formation in the soil. However, the contribution of soil NH2OH to soil N2O emission rates in natural ecosystems is unclear. Here, we determined the spatial variability of NH2OH content and potential N2O emission rates of organic (Oh) and mineral (Ah) soil layers of a Norway spruce forest, using a recently developed analytical method for the determination of soil NH2OH content, combined with a geostatistical Kriging approach. Potential soil N2O emission rates were determined by laboratory incubations under oxic conditions, followed by gas chromatographic analysis and complemented by ancillary measurements of soil characteristics. Stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that the potential N2O emission rates, NH2OH and nitrate (NO3-) content were spatially highly correlated, with hotspots for all three parameters observed in the headwater of a small creek flowing through the sampling area. In contrast, soil ammonium (NH4+) was only weakly correlated with potential N2O emission rates, and was excluded from the multiple regression models. While soil NH2OH content explained the potential soil N2O emission rates best for both layers, also NO3- and Mn content turned out to be significant parameters explaining N2O formation in both soil layers. The Kriging approach was improved markedly by the addition of the co-variable information of soil NH2OH and NO3- content. The results indicate that determination of soil NH2OH content could provide crucial information for the prediction of the spatial variability of soil N2O emissions.

  17. Statistical comparison of spectral and biochemical measurements on an example of Norway spruce stands in the Ore Mountains, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Potůčková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The physiological status of vegetation and changes thereto can be monitored by means of biochemical analysis of collected samples as well as by means of spectroscopic measurements either on the leaf level, using field (or laboratory spectroradiometers or on the canopy level, applying hyperspectral airborne or spaceborne image data. The presented study focuses on the statistical comparison and ascertainment of relations between three datasets collected from selected Norway spruce forest stands in the Ore Mountains, Czechia. The data sets comprise i photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and water content of 495 samples collected from 55 trees from three different vertical levels and the first three needle age classes, ii the spectral reflectance of the same samples measured with an ASD Field Spec 4 Wide-Res spectroradiometer equipped with a plant contact probe, iii an airborne hyperspecral image acquired with an Apex sensor. The datasets cover two localities in the Ore Mountains that were affected differently by acid deposits in the 1970s and 1980s. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s honest significance test, hot spot analysis and linear regression were applied either on the original measurements (the content of leaf compounds and reflectance spectra or derived values, i.e., selected spectral indices. The results revealed a generally low correlation between the photosynthetic pigments, water content and spectral measurement. The results of the ANOVA showed significant differences between sites (model areas only in the case of the leaf compound dataset. Differences between the stands on various levels of significance exist in all three datasets and are explained in detail. The study also proved that the vertical gradient of the biochemical and biophysical parameters in the canopy play a role when the optical properties of the forest stands are modelled.

  18. Seasonal accumulation of ultraviolet-B screening pigments in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, R.J.; Kossmann, B.; Panten, H.; Steinbrecher, R.; Heller, W.; Seidlitz, H.K.; Sandermann, H.; Hertkorn, N.; Schnitzler, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Conifer needles are highly effective in screening ultraviolet-B radiation (280–320 nm). This ability is mainly attributed to the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in the epidermal tissue. In two field cabinet experiments with two different clones of Norway spruce we assessed the seasonal accumulation of UV-B screening pigments under near-ambient, and close-to-zero UV-B irradiation. At the beginning of needle development, i.e. in June, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the dominant UV-B screening pigment. It was replaced during needle differentiation by the more effective diacylated flavonol glucosides, particulary kaempferol 3-O-(3 , 6 - O-di-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, which reached highest concentrations in July. In addition to the soluble pool of diacylated flavonol glucoside derivatives, a cell wall-bound UV-B screen in the epidermal cell walls was formed during needle differentiation, consisting mainly of p-coumaric acid and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. An effect of UV-B radiation on the accumulation of diacylated flavonol glucosides was only observed in 1996 with clone 2, when the concentrations of kaempferol 3-O-(3 , 6 - O-di-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside were significantly higher in July and August under field, and near-ambient than under close-to-zero UV-B irradiance. For wall-bound p-coumaric acid and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside UV-B radiation enhanced the concentrations of these compounds by approximately 20% in relation to the concentrations in close-to-zero UV-B-treated plants in both field cabinet experiments. (author)

  19. Internal development of vegetative buds of Norway spruce trees in relation to accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Häkkinen, Risto

    2014-05-01

    The timing of budburst of temperate trees is known to be controlled by complicated interactions of temperature and photoperiod. To improve the phenological models of budburst, better knowledge of the internal bud development preceding budburst in relation to environmental cues is needed. We studied the effect of accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures on the internal development of vegetative buds preceding budburst in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Branches from 17-year-old trees of southern Finnish origin were transferred eight times at 1- to 2-week intervals from October to December 2007 from the field at Punkaharju (61°48'N, 29°20'E) to the greenhouse with forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 °C). After seven different durations of forcing, the developmental phase and primordial shoot growth of the buds were analysed at the stereomicroscopic level. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The accumulated chilling unit sum had a significant effect on the temperature sum that was required to attain a certain developmental phase; a higher amount of chilling required a lower amount of forcing. The variation in the rate of development of different buds within each sample branch in relation to the chilling unit and forcing temperature sum was low. Regarding primordial shoot growth, there was also an inverse relation between accumulated chilling and forcing, i.e., a higher accumulated chilling unit sum before forcing required a lower temperature sum to initiate primordial shoot growth and resulted in a stronger effect of accumulated forcing. A second-order regression model with an interaction of chilling and forcing explained the variation of primordial shoot growth with high precision (R(2) = 0.88). However, further studies are required to determine the final parameter values to be used in phenological modelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  1. Leaf area and light use efficiency patterns of Norway spruce under different thinning regimes and age classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gspaltl, Martin; Bauerle, William; Binkley, Dan; Sterba, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Silviculture focuses on establishing forest stand conditions that improve the stand increment. Knowledge about the efficiency of an individual tree is essential to be able to establish stand structures that increase tree resource use efficiency and stand level production. Efficiency is often expressed as stem growth per unit leaf area (leaf area efficiency), or per unit of light absorbed (light use efficiency). We tested the hypotheses that: (1) volume increment relates more closely with crown light absorption than leaf area, since one unit of leaf area can receive different amounts of light due to competition with neighboring trees and self-shading, (2) dominant trees use light more efficiently than suppressed trees and (3) thinning increases the efficiency of light use by residual trees, partially accounting for commonly observed increases in post-thinning growth. We investigated eight even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands at Bärnkopf, Austria, spanning three age classes (mature, immature and pole-stage) and two thinning regimes (thinned and unthinned). Individual leaf area was calculated with allometric equations and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation was estimated for each tree using the three-dimensional crown model Maestra. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation was only a slightly better predictor of volume increment than leaf area. Light use efficiency increased with increasing tree size in all stands, supporting the second hypothesis. At a given tree size, trees from the unthinned plots were more efficient, however, due to generally larger tree sizes in the thinned stands, an average tree from the thinned treatment was superior (not congruent in all plots, thus only partly supporting the third hypothesis). PMID:25540477

  2. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce...... and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe over the last two to three decades. We analysed data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and additional Danish, German, Flemish and Swiss datasets.Within-plot synchrony...

  3. Relation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sensitive Reflectance Ratios to Carbon FluxMeasurements ofMontanne Grassland and Norway Spruce Forest Ecosystems in the Temperate Zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander; Malenovský, Z.; Urban, Otmar; Hanuš, Jan; Zitová, Martina; Navrátil, M.; Vráblová, M.; Olejníčková, Julie; Špunda, V.; Marek, Michal V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), s. 1-13 ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * carbon flux * forest ecosystems * Norway Spruce * temperate zone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012

  4. Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) of aluminum and lead in fine roots and their ectomycorrhizal mantles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaoudt, S; Vandeputte, D; Van Praag, H; Van Grieken, R; Jacob, W

    1992-03-01

    Fine roots and ectomycorrhizal root tips were sampled in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in the eastern part of the Belgian Ardennes. The cellular and partly subcellular localizations of aluminum and lead were identified by the micro-analytical laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) technique. In fine roots with secondary structure, localization of aluminum was limited to the peripheral cell layers. Lead was found in the outer layers, and also in the primary phloem. Aluminum penetrated the mycorrhizal mantle, but lead was seldom detected in ectomycorrhizae.

  5. The effects of a western spruce budworm outbreak on the dead wood component in relation to ownership in forests of eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Azuma

    2010-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis data were used to investigate the effects of a severe western spruce budworm outbreak on the dead wood component of forests in 11 counties of eastern Oregon for two time periods. The ownership and the level of damage (as assessed by aerial surveys) affected the resulting down woody material and standing dead trees. The pattern of coarse...

  6. Raman imaging to investigate ultrastructure and composition of plant cell walls : distribution of lignin and cellulose in black spruce wood (Picea mariana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the structural organization of the cell wall of vascular plants is important from both the perspectives of plant biology and chemistry and of commercial utilization. A state-of-the-art 633-nm laser-based confocal Raman microscope was used to determine the distribution of cell wall components in the cross section of black spruce wood in situ...

  7. The immigration and spread of spruce forest in Norway, traced by biostratigraphical studies and radiocarbon datings. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsten, U.

    1985-01-01

    Pollen-analytic studies and radiocarbon datings from 86 sites, mostly ombrotrophic peatbogs, situated within the Norwegian spruce domain, show that the occupation of the areas by spruce forest was the result of a protracted spread from cast, or northeast, to west and south, which started in late pre-Christian time and was completed mainly during the Middle Ages

  8. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L. reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed knowledge about spatial and temporal gene expression is important for understanding both the function of genes and their evolution. For the vast majority of species, transcriptomes are still largely uncharacterized and even in those where substantial information is available it is often in the form of partially sequenced transcriptomes. With the development of next generation sequencing, a single experiment can now simultaneously identify the transcribed part of a species genome and estimate levels of gene expression. Results mRNA from actively growing needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. In total, close to 70 million fragments with a length of 76 bp were sequenced resulting in 5 Gbp of raw data. A de novo assembly of these reads, together with publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST data from Norway spruce, was used to create a reference transcriptome. Of the 38,419 PUTs (putative unique transcripts longer than 150 bp in this reference assembly, 83.5% show similarity to ESTs from other spruce species and of the remaining PUTs, 3,704 show similarity to protein sequences from other plant species, leaving 4,167 PUTs with limited similarity to currently available plant proteins. By predicting coding frames and comparing not only the Norway spruce PUTs, but also PUTs from the close relatives Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis to both Pinus taeda and Taxus mairei, we obtained estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among conifer species. In addition, we detected close to 15,000 SNPs of high quality and estimated gene expression differences between samples collected under dark and light conditions. Conclusions Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 × 10

  9. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blande, James D.; Turunen, Katariina; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-β-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites. - Chronic exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on volatile emissions of Norway spruce

  10. Analysing the mechanical performance and growth adaptation of Norway spruce using a non-linear finite-element model and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, T; Jonas, T; Volkwein, A

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] trees of different size, age, and social status, and grown under varying conditions, were investigated to see how they react to complex natural static loading under summer and winter conditions, and how they have adapted their growth to such combinations of load and tree state. For this purpose a non-linear finite-element model and an extensive experimental data set were used, as well as a new formulation describing the degree to which the exploitation of the bending stress capacity is uniform. The three main findings were: material and geometric non-linearities play important roles when analysing tree deflections and critical loads; the strengths of the stem and the anchorage mutually adapt to the local wind acting on the tree crown in the forest canopy; and the radial stem growth follows a mechanically high-performance path because it adapts to prevailing as well as acute seasonal combinations of the tree state (e.g. frozen or unfrozen stem and anchorage) and load (e.g. wind and vertical and lateral snow pressure). Young trees appeared to adapt to such combinations in a more differentiated way than older trees. In conclusion, the mechanical performance of the Norway spruce studied was mostly very high, indicating that their overall growth had been clearly influenced by the external site- and tree-specific mechanical stress.

  11. Effects of copper and arsenic stress on the development of Norway spruce somatic embryos and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Biljana; Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Trojan, Václav; Havel, Ladislav

    2018-05-18

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological technique which can be used in studies associated with environmental stress. Four embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce were grown on media enriched with copper and arsenic in concentration ranges 50-500 μM and 10-50 μM, respectively. The effects were observed during subsequent stages of somatic embryogenesis, the characteristics evaluated being proliferation potential, average number of somatic embryos obtained per g/fresh weight, morphology of developed somatic embryos, metal uptake, and microanalysis of macro- and micronutrients uptake. Copper and arsenic at higher concentrations significantly reduced the growth of early somatic embryos. In almost all treatments, the cell line V-1-3 showed the best performance compared with the other lines tested. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize and identify morphological abnormalities in the development of somatic embryos. Abnormalities observed were classified into several categories: meristemless somatic embryos, somatic embryos with disrupted meristem, reduced number of cotyledons, single cotyledon and fused cotyledons. With the application of a low temperature method for the environmental scanning electron microscope, samples were stabilized and whole meristems could be investigated in their native state. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of the effect of copper and arsenic during the process of somatic embryogenesis and the first to evaluate the content of macro and micronutrients uptake in Norway spruce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The state of the forest ecosystem in an area of oil shale mining and processing. 2. Morphological characteristics of Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ots, K.; Rauk, J.; Mandre, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air pollutants (oil shale fly ash, gases, organic compounds) emitted by the oil shale industry in Kohtla-Jaerve, North-East Estonia, have caused changes in the soil (pH = 4.7-7.4), subsoil water (pH = 5.9-7.2), rainwater (pH = 7.0-7. 1) and snow melt (pH = 7.3-8.7) compared with an unpolluted control area in Lahemaa National Park (soil pH = 3.6, subsoil water pH = 5. 1, rainwater pH = 6.9 and snow melt pH = 6.8). Compared with the period before 1990 the pollution load on the area investigated has fallen drastically; however, this has not resulted in an essential improvement in growth conditions of trees. Morphological analysis of 80-year-old Norway spruces growing on sampling plots (six) in the polluted area and in the control area showed that air pollution has had temporally (1989-1990, 1994-1996) and spatially variable effect on the parameters characterising the state of trees: length growth, weight and dry matter content of needles and shoots, number and density of needles on shoots, radial increment of trees. The length growth of needles and shoots proved to be one of the most suitable parameters indicating the influence of air pollution, although not in all sample plots investigated. The results for fresh and dry weight of needles revealed great differences between sampling plots. The biomass of shoots was notably greater in the immediate vicinity of Kohtla-Jaerve than in the control area. The spruces whose shoots showed inhibited length growth had greater density of needles on shoots with difference from the control being up to 16 Olo. The effect on the radial increment of Norway spruces was especially strong in the immediate vicinity of pollution sources (<2 km) but it fell rapidly with distance from them. (author)

  13. See the forest for the trees: Whole-plant allocation patterns and regulatory mechanisms in Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Behrendt, Thomas; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Weinhold, Alexander; Hellén, Heidi; Reichelt, Michael; Wisthaler, Armin; Dam, Nicole; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    For more than 40 years plant carbon (C) allocation have been of central interest to plant scientists. Most studies on C allocation focus on either biomass partitioning (e.g., root:shoot ratios), particular fluxes (e.g., non-structural carbohydrate, NSC; biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds, VOCs) or short-term proportional allocation patterns (e.g., pulse-chase studies using isotopic tracers). However, a thorough understanding of C allocation priorities, especially at the whole-plant level, requires assessing all of these aspects together. We investigated C allocation trade-off in Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by assessing whole-plant fluxes (assimilation, respiration and VOCs) and biomass partitioning (structural biomass; NSC; secondary metabolites, SMs). The study was carried out over 8 weeks and allowed us, by modifying atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), manipulating plant carbon (C) availability. Treatments included control (400 ppm), carbon compensation (down to 120 ppm) and starvation (down to 50 ppm) C availability levels. Reductions in [CO2] aimed to reveal plant allocation strategies assuming that pools receiving more C than others under C limitation have a high allocation priority. Respiration was less sensitive to declining [CO2] compared to assimilation, NSC and SMs. Strong declines in NSC at low [CO2] suggest that respiration was maintained by using stored NSC. Furthermore, reduced NSC and SMs concentrations also indicate preferential C allocation to growth over NSC and SMs at low C availability. SMs decreased to a lesser extent than NSC in old needles, and remained relatively constant in branches until death from starvation. These results suggest that pools of stored NSC may serve as a buffer for respiration or growth under C limitation but also that SMs remain largely inaccessible for metabolism once they are stored in tissues. VOCs emissions, however, showed contrasting responses to [CO2]; oxygenated VOCs (methanol and

  14. Soil-surface CO2 flux and growth in a boreal Norway spruce stand: Effects of soil warming and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemgren, M.

    2001-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to affect the carbon balance of forests. A change in the carbon balance would give a positive or negative feedback to the greenhouse effect, which would affect global warming. The effects of long-term soil warming on growth, nutrient and soil-surface CO 2 flux (R) dynamics were studied in irrigated (I) and irrigated-fertilised (IL) stands of Norway spruce in northern Sweden. Soil temperature on heated plots (Ih and ILh) was maintained 5 deg C above that on unheated plots (Ic and ILc) from May to October, by heating cables. After six years' soil warming, stemwood production increased by 100% and 50% in the I and IL treatment, respectively. The main production increase occurred at the beginning of the season, probably as an effect of the earlier increase in soil temperature. In the 1h treatment, however, the growth increase was evident during the entire season. The effect of increased nitrogen (N) mineralisation on annual growth appeared to be stronger than the direct effect of warming. From 1995-2000, the total amount of N stored in aboveground tree parts increased by 100 and 475 kg N/ha on Ic and ILc plots, respectively. During the same period, 450 kg N fertiliser was added to the ILc plot. Soil warming increased the total amount of N stored in aboveground tree parts by 50 kg N/ha, independently of nutrient treatment. Soil warming did not significantly increase R, except in early spring, when R was 30-50% higher on heated compared to unheated plots. The extended growing season, however, increased annual respiration (RA) by 12-30% throughout. RA losses were estimated to be 0.6-0.7 kg C/ha/year. Use of relationships between R and soil temperature, derived from unheated plots, overestimated RA on heated plots by 50-80%. These results suggest that acclimation of root or microbial respiration or both to temperature had occurred, but the exact process(es) and their relative contribution are still unclear. In conclusion, the study showed that

  15. Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main process variable was the detoxification strategy applied to the pretreated feedstock material. The results of the assessment show that a process configuration, in which washing of the pretreated slurry is the detoxification strategy, leads to the lowest environmental impact of the process. Enzyme production and use are the main contributors to the environmental impact in all process configurations, and strategies to significantly reduce this contribution are enzyme recycling and on-site enzyme production. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between the ethanol yield of a configuration and its environmental impact is demonstrated, and the selected environmental impacts show a very strong cross-correlation ([Formula: see text] in all cases) which may be used to reduce the number of impact categories considered from four to one (in this case, global warming potential). Lastly, a comparison with results of an LCA of ethanol production under high-gravity conditions using wheat straw shows that the environmental performance does not significantly differ when using spruce wood chips. For this comparison, it is shown that eutrophication potential also needs to be considered due to the fertilizer use in wheat cultivation. The LCA points out the environmental hotspots in the ethanol production process, and thus provides input to the further development of the high-gravity technology. Reducing the number of impact categories based only on cross-correlations should be done with caution. Knowledge of the

  16. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  17. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    100 years in larch CWD. Consequently, the decay of Picea abies and Larix decidua is very low. Several uncertainties, however, remain: 14C dating of CWD from decay classes 4 and 5 and having a pre-bomb age is often difficult (large age range due to methodological constraints) and fall rates of both European larch and Norway spruce are missing.

  18. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  19. Logging residue removal after thinning in boreal forests: long-term impact on the nutrient status of Norway spruce and Scots pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiro, Jukka; Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna; Tamminen, Pekka; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare how conventional stem harvesting (CH) and whole-tree harvesting (WTH) in the first, and in some cases also in the second, thinning affect the needle nutrient status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in Finland. A series of 12 long-term field experiments was studied. The experiments were established during 1978-86. The effects of logging residue removal after thinnings on the needle nutrient concentrations were generally minor and without any overall trends, but there were differences between experiments. Trees tend to maintain their current needle nutrient concentrations at the same level by re-utilizing the nutrients stored in the older tissues and by changing C allocation in the whole tree. Thus, needle analysis should be combined with stem growth data in order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of WTH on the nutrient status of trees.

  20. Genetic variability and health of Norway spruce stands in the Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Krosno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2015 in six spruce stands situated in different forest districts administratively belonging to the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Krosno. Each spruce population was represented by 30 trees and assessed in terms of their current health status. Genetic analyses were performed on shoot samples from each tree using nine nuclear DNA markers and one mitochondrial DNA marker (nad1. The health status of the trees was described according to the classification developed by Szczepkowski and Tarasiuk (2005 and the correlation between health classes and the level of genetic variability was computed with STATISTICA (α = 0.05.

  1. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1-3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013-2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  2. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio eLinkosalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 13 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013 before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only.We analysed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence.The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 20132014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global warming models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  3. Elevated CO{sub 2} and development of frost hardiness in Norway spruce (picea abies (L.) Karst.); Oekt CO{sub 2} og utvikling av frostherdighet i gran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Lars Sandved

    1998-09-01

    This thesis discusses controlled laboratory experiments carried out to study the effects of CO{sub 2} pollution on Norwegian spruce. It was found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased height growth and biomass production. It slightly increased frost hardiness, but only at high nitrogen values. There was no evidence of adverse effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the phenology of bud set and the development of frost hardiness. Although not statistically significant, there seemed to be a consistently higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates in one-season-old Norway spruce seedlings treated with elevated CO{sub 2}. This was not found in three-year-old seedlings grown in open top chambers, possibly indicating a down-regulation of photosynthesis or a transition from free to predetermined growth, and change in allocation of photosynthates with age. Treatment with high or low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilizer did not affect apoplastic chitinolytic activity during cold acclimation, nor were there any effects on antifreeze activity in these apoplastic extracts from cold acclimated needles. 149 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Dormancy release of Norway spruce under climatic warming: testing ecophysiological models of bud burst with a whole-tree chamber experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Heikki; Slaney, Michelle; Linder, Sune

    2007-02-01

    Ecophysiological models predicting timing of bud burst were tested with data gathered from 40-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees growing in northern Sweden in whole-tree chambers under climatic conditions predicted to prevail in 2100. Norway spruce trees, with heights between 5 and 7 m, were enclosed in individual chambers that provided a factorial combination of ambient (365 micromol mol-1) or elevated (700 micromol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], and ambient or elevated air temperature. Temperature elevation above ambient ranged from +2.8 degrees C in summer to +5.6 degrees C in winter. Compared with control trees, elevated air temperature hastened bud burst by 2 to 3 weeks, whereas elevated [CO2] had no effect on the timing of bud burst. A simple model based on the assumption that bud rest completion takes place on a fixed calendar day predicted timing of bud burst more accurately than two more complicated models in which bud rest completion is caused by accumulated chilling. Together with some recent studies, the results suggest that, in adult trees, some additional environmental cues besides chilling are required for bud rest completion. Although it appears that these additional factors will protect trees under predicted climatic warming conditions, increased risk of frost damage associated with earlier bud burst cannot be ruled out. Inconsistent and partially anomalous results obtained in the model fitting show that, in addition to phenological data gathered under field conditions, more specific data from growth chamber and greenhouse experiments are needed for further development and testing of the models.

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Chris S; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether a detectable impact of climate change is apparent in Austrian forests. In regions of complex terrain such as most of Austria, climatic trends over the past 50 years show marked geographic variability. As climate is one of the key drivers of forest growth, a comparison of growth characteristics between regions with different trends in temperature and precipitation can give insights into the impact of climatic change on forests. This study uses data from several hundred climate recording stations, interpolated to measurement sites of the Austrian National Forest Inventory (NFI). Austria as a whole shows a warming trend over the past 50 years and little overall change in precipitation. The warming trends, however, vary considerably across certain regions and regional precipitation trends vary widely in both directions, which cancel out on the national scale These differences allow the delineation of 'climatic change zones' with internally consistent climatic trends that differ from other zones. This study applies the species-specific adaptation of the biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) across a range of Austrian climatic change zones, using input data from a number of national databases. The relative influence of extant climate change on forest growth is quantified, and compared with the far greater impact of non-climatic factors. At the national scale, climate change is found to have negligible effect on Norway spruce productivity, due in part to opposing effects at the regional level. The magnitudes of the modeled non-climatic influences on aboveground woody biomass increment increases are consistent with previously reported values of 20-40 kg of added stem carbon sequestration per kilogram of additional nitrogen deposition, while climate responses are of a magnitude difficult to detect in NFI data.

  6. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, E Petter; Iason, Glenn R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Whitham, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp.) that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch). Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members respond to host

  7. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Petter Axelsson

    Full Text Available A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp. that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch. Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members

  8. Fluorescence-Detected Linear Dichroism of Wood Cell Walls in Juvenile Serbian Spruce: Estimation of Compression Wood Severity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savić, A.; Mitrović, A.; Donaldson, L.; Radosavljević, J.S.; Pristov, J.B.; Steinbach, Gabor; Garab, G.; Radotić, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 361-367 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell wall * cellulose fibrils * compression wood severity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  9. Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underdal, B.

    1975-01-01

    A short report is given of the activities of Norway in the field of food irradiation. Experiments were performed with a 60 Co γ-source of 30,000 Ci. The chemical changes induced by irradiation were studied in fish and spices. Radiation microbiology studies were dealing with the effect of γ-radiation on Salmonella Senftenberg in solutions and herring meal. (MG) [de

  10. Carbon pools in a montane old-growth Norway spruce ecosystem in Bohemian Forest: Effects of stand age and elevation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seedre, M.; Kopáček, Jiří; Janda, P.; Bače, R.; Svoboda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 346, June (2015), s. 106-113 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carbon dynamics * soil carbon * spruce biomass C * dead root C * unmanaged ecosystem Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2015

  11. Conifer R2R3-MYB transcription factors: sequence analyses and gene expression in wood-forming tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. Results We isolated and characterised full-length cDNAs encoding R2R3-MYB genes from the gymnosperms white spruce, Picea glauca (13 sequences, and loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (five sequences. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic analyses placed the spruce and pine sequences in diverse subgroups of the large R2R3-MYB family, although several of the sequences clustered closely together. We searched the highly variable C-terminal region of diverse plant MYBs for conserved amino acid sequences and identified 20 motifs in the spruce MYBs, nine of which have not previously been reported and three of which are specific to conifers. The number and length of the introns in spruce MYB genes varied significantly, but their positions were well conserved relative to angiosperm MYB genes. Quantitative RTPCR of MYB genes transcript abundance in root and stem tissues revealed diverse expression patterns; three MYB genes were preferentially expressed in secondary xylem, whereas others were preferentially expressed in phloem or were ubiquitous. The MYB genes expressed in xylem, and three others, were up-regulated in the compression wood of leaning trees within 76 hours of induction. Conclusion Our survey of 18 conifer R2R3-MYB genes clearly showed a gene family structure similar to that of Arabidopsis. Three of the sequences are likely to play a role in lignin metabolism and/or wood formation in gymnosperm trees, including a close homolog of the loblolly pine PtMYB4, shown to regulate lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco.

  12. Copper Leaching from Copper-ethanolamine Treated Wood: Comparison of Field Test Studies and Laboratory Standard Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Nejc Thaler; Miha Humar

    2014-01-01

    Copper-based compounds are some of the most important biocides for the protection of wood in heavy duty applications. In the past, copper was combined with chromium compounds to reduce copper leaching, but a recent generation of copper-based preservatives uses ethanolamine as a fixative. To elucidate the leaching of copper biocides from wood, Norway spruce (Picea abies) wood was treated with a commercial copper-ethanolamine solution with two different copper concentrations (cCu = 0.125% and 0...

  13. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  14. Accumulation of logging residue in first thinnings of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Impact of top bucking diameter of roundwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, T.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail: tommi.raisanen@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of changes in the minimum top diameter of roundwood on the accumulation of logging residue. The aim was also to compare estimates of residue accumulation calculated by tree-specific biomass models with field measurements from thinnings. Felling experiments were performed in first thinnings of pine and spruce to evaluate the model calculations. In the felling, mean relative masses of the tree tops of spruce were nearly doubled with each increment of 2 cm in the top diameter. Respectively in pine, the mean relative tree top mass was increased by 50-60 % when the top diameter was increased by 2 cm. The mass of total residue (tree top and all delimbed branches) was similarly increased, but the differences were not as large. Compared to pine, a lesser variation in the crown mass of the spruce sample resulted in a more accurate model prediction of masses of tree tops and total residue. The results indicate that the residue accumulation from a small group of trees cannot be predicted very reliably, but when a larger tree population or area is considered, the model predictions are enhanced to a more practicable level. (orig.)

  15. Effects of wood-ash addition on nitrogen turnover in a highly nitrogen loaded spruce site. Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten

    2000-04-01

    During two consecutive years, it was studied how a fertilization with 4.2 tonnes pelleted bark ash per ha, made six-seven years earlier, affected soil chemistry, nitrogen turnover and soil-water chemistry on a Norway spruce site in SW Sweden. The actual site has a very acidic soil. At the same time, the supply of inorganic N is rich. Measures against soil acidification, e. g. addition of ash or lime, may significantly influence the turnover of N with a subsequent risk for increased leaching. Thus, there is a potential conflict between two urgent environmental goals, i. e. to decrease acidification and to decrease the N load on aquatic ecosystems. In the humus layer and the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH(H 2 O) had increased with at the most 0.2 units because of the ash addition. The easily extractable amounts of Mg, P and nitrate were slightly increased. The potential nitrification in the humus layer was generally higher in the ash treatment, but the difference. was not statistically significant. The soil water at 50 cm depth was 0.1-0.2 pH-units more acidic where ash had been applied. Simultaneously, there were tendencies for higher concentrations of nitrate, Al and K. This is the first time in Sweden that ash fertilization of a closed forest has given clear indications of an increased N leaching. As expected, the ash fertilization decreased the acidity of the top soil. On the contrary, the runoff became more acidic and more rich in Al. Thus, the ash fertilization has counteracted one of its primary goals, i. e. to produce a runoff less toxic to aquatic life. The acidification of the runoff may partially be because of acid production during nitrification

  16. Defence reactions of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies before and after inoculation of the blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica in a drought stress experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netherer Sigrid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an inoculation experiment using the blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica at the Rosalia Roof study site, which was set up to study drought effects on Norway spruce susceptibility to attacks by the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Tree resistance parameters such as resin flow rate and extent of hypersensitive wound reaction in the phloem were investigated prior to and after fungal infection. Sample trees with different drought treatments (trees fully covered or semi-covered by roofs, control trees were inoculated with E. polonica in July 2014. In order to check for areas of phloem necrosis, the outer bark around the inoculation holes was scratched off 6 weeks later. We recorded the amount of resin exudation within 12 hours overnight in August and September 2013 and 2014. Although wound reaction zones did not differ in size between tree collectives of the various treatments, fully covered trees tended to exhibit larger necrotic areas compared to control trees. The least water supplied trees showed lowest resin flow rates prior to fungal inoculation, but were the only group to show significantly enhanced resin flow five weeks after the evaluation of defence reactions. Our results agree with earlier findings that wounding and few fungal inoculations can increase tree resistance in the medium term given not too severe water stress. Further investigations will clarify how water stress affects the availability of non-structural carbohydrates for secondary metabolism, when depletion of resources eventually occurs, and at which point trees are most susceptible to bark beetle attack.

  17. Determination of the moisture content of Nordic spruce wood through cone heater experiments and an integral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony; Jørgensen, M.; Svensson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The combination of cone heater experiments and an integral model was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. Nine specimens of Nordic spruce were pre-heated to 105°C in a convective oven for durations ranging from 0 days (no drying) and up to 63 days...

  18. Detection of Spatio-Temporal Changes of Norway Spruce Forest Stands in Ore Mountains Using Landsat Time Series and Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mišurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on spatio-temporal changes in the physiological status of the Norway spruce forests located at the central and western parts of the Ore Mountains (northwestern part of the Czech Republic, which suffered from severe environmental pollution from the 1970s to the 1990s. The situation started improving after the pollution loads decreased significantly at the end of the 1990s. The general trends in forest recovery were studied using the tasseled cap transformation and disturbance index (DI extracted from the 1985–2015 time series of Landsat data. In addition, 16 vegetation indices (VIs extracted from airborne hyperspectral (HS data acquired in 1998 using the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS and in 2013 using the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX were used to study changes in forest health. The forest health status analysis of HS image data was performed at two levels of spatial resolution; at a tree level (original 2.0 m spatial resolution, as well as at a forest stand level (generalized to 6.0 m spatial resolution. The temporal changes were studied primarily using the VOG1 vegetation index (VI as it was showing high and stable sensitivity to forest damage for both spatial resolutions considered. In 1998, significant differences between the moderately to heavily damaged (central Ore Mountains and initially damaged (western Ore Mountains stands were detected for all the VIs tested. In 2013, the stands in the central Ore Mountains exhibited VI values much closer to the global mean, indicating an improvement in their health status. This result fully confirms the finding of the Landsat time series analysis. The greatest difference in Disturbance Index (DI values between the central (1998: 0.37 and western Ore Mountains stands (1998: −1.21 could be seen at the end of the 1990s. Nonetheless, levelling of the physiological status of Norway spruce was observed for the central and western parts of the Ore Mountains in

  19. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  20. Molecular control of normal and acrocona mutant seed cone development in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the evolution of conifer ovule-bearing organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens F; Englund, Marie; Uddenberg, Daniel; Izquierdo, Liz; Kvarnheden, Anders; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Engström, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Reproductive organs in seed plants are morphologically divergent and their evolutionary history is often unclear. The mechanisms controlling their development have been extensively studied in angiosperms but are poorly understood in conifers and other gymnosperms. Here, we address the molecular control of seed cone development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. We present expression analyses of five novel MADS-box genes in comparison with previously identified MADS and LEAFY genes at distinct developmental stages. In addition, we have characterized the homeotic transformation from vegetative shoot to female cone and associated changes in regulatory gene expression patterns occurring in the acrocona mutant. The analyses identified genes active at the onset of ovuliferous and ovule development and identified expression patterns marking distinct domains of the ovuliferous scale. The reproductive transformation in acrocona involves the activation of all tested genes normally active in early cone development, except for an AGAMOUS-LIKE6/SEPALLATA (AGL6/SEP) homologue. This absence may be functionally associated with the nondeterminate development of the acrocona ovule-bearing scales. Our morphological and gene expression analyses give support to the hypothesis that the modern cone is a complex structure, and the ovuliferous scale the result of reductions and compactions of an ovule-bearing axillary short shoot in cones of Paleozoic conifers. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Recovery of photosynthesis in 1-year-old needles of unfertilized and fertilized Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, M; Lundmark, T

    1995-03-01

    Photosynthetic O(2) evolution and chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured in 1-year-old needles of unfertilized and fertilized trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) during recovery of photosynthesis from winter inhibition in northern Sweden. Measurements were made under laboratory conditions at 20 degrees C. In general, the CO(2)-saturated rate of O(2) evolution was higher in needles of fertilized trees than in needles of unfertilized trees over a wide range of incident photon flux densities. Furthermore, the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II, as indicated by the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (F(V)/F(M)) was higher in needles of fertilized trees than in needles of unfertilized trees. The largest differences in F(V)/F(M) between the two treatments occurred before the main recovery of photosynthesis from winter inhibition in late May. The rate of O(2) evolution was higher in needles of north-facing branches than in needles of south-facing branches in the middle of May. Simultaneous measurements of O(2) exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that differences in the rate of O(2) evolution between the two treatments were paralleled by differences in the rate of PS II electron transport determined by chlorophyll fluorescence. We suggest that, during recovery of photosynthesis from winter inhibition, the balance between carbon assimilation and PS II electron transport was maintained largely by adjustments in the nonphotochemical dissipation of excitation energy within PS II.

  2. Growth of mature boreal Norway spruce was not affected by elevated [CO(2)] and/or air temperature unless nutrient availability was improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Medhurst, Jane L; Wallin, Göran; Eggertsson, Olafur; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    The growth responses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (CE; 670-700 ppm) and long-term optimized nutrient availability or elevated air temperature (TE; ±3.9 °C) were studied in situ in northern Sweden in two 3 year field experiments using 12 whole-tree chambers in ca. 40-year-old forest. The first experiment (Exp. I) studied the interactions between CE and nutrient availability and the second (Exp. II) between CE and TE. It should be noted that only air temperature was elevated in Exp. II, while soil temperature was maintained close to ambient. In Exp. I, CE significantly increased the mean annual height increment, stem volume and biomass increment during the treatment period (25, 28, and 22%, respectively) when nutrients were supplied. There was, however, no significant positive CE effect found at the low natural nutrient availability. In Exp. II, which was conducted at the natural site fertility, neither CE nor TE significantly affected height or stem increment. It is concluded that the low nutrient availability (mainly nitrogen) in the boreal forests is likely to restrict their response to the continuous rise in [CO(2)] and/or TE.

  3. Effect of 3 years' free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Kevin E.; Manninen, Sirkku; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Heerdt, C.; Werner, H.; Henderson, Gary W.; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of ozone (O 3 ) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2x ambient O 3 ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 μl O 3 l -1 h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O 3 l -1 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O 3 concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2x O 3 . Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O 3 treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2x O 3 . Exposure to 2x O 3 increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O 3 on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O 3 -induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees. - Free-air ozone exposure induced changes in needle wax characteristics of mature Picea abies.

  4. Regeneration of Mature Norway Spruce Stands: Early Effects of Selective Cutting and Clear Cutting on Seepage Water Quality and Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Weis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting of trees influences element turnover in the forest ecosystem. The reduction of plant uptake, as well as an increased mineralization and nitrification due to higher soil temperature and soil moisture, can lead to considerable losses of nutrients from the main rooting zone. This may result in a reduced soil fertility and a decrease in drinking water quality due to high nitrate concentrations in the seepage water. In Bavaria (Germany selective cutting is preferred to clear cutting when initiating the regeneration of Norway spruce stands with European beech. This paper summarizes the early effects of both forest management practices on soil fertility and seepage water quality for three different sites. Shown are the concentrations of nitrogen and base cations in the seepage water as well as the water and ion fluxes during the first year after tree cut. Nutrient inputs decreased on thinned plots and even more at clear-cuts. Nitrate concentrations in the seepage water are hardly affected by moderate thinning; however, on clear-cuts, the nitrate concentration increases significantly, and base cations are lost from the upper mineral soil. This effect is less obvious at sites where a dense ground vegetation, which is able to take up excess nitrogen, exists.

  5. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings - impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  6. Effect of 3 years' free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, Kevin E., E-mail: kpercy@nbnet.nb.c [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5P7 (Canada); Manninen, Sirkku [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 56, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Heerdt, C.; Werner, H. [Ecoclimatology, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Henderson, Gary W. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5P7 (Canada); Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We examined the effect of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2x ambient O{sub 3} ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 mul O{sub 3} l{sup -1} h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O{sub 3} l{sup -1} 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O{sub 3} concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2x O{sub 3}. Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O{sub 3} treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2x O{sub 3}. Exposure to 2x O{sub 3} increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O{sub 3} on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O{sub 3}-induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees. - Free-air ozone exposure induced changes in needle wax characteristics of mature Picea abies.

  7. Seasonal and within-canopy variation in shoot-scale resource-use efficiency trade-offs in a Norway spruce stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Räntfors, Mats; Wallin, Göran

    2015-11-01

    Previous leaf-scale studies of carbon assimilation describe short-term resource-use efficiency (RUE) trade-offs where high use efficiency of one resource requires low RUE of another. However, varying resource availabilities may cause long-term RUE trade-offs to differ from the short-term patterns. This may have important implications for understanding canopy-scale resource use and allocation. We used continuous gas exchange measurements collected at five levels within a Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) karst., canopy over 3 years to assess seasonal differences in the interactions between shoot-scale resource availability (light, water and nitrogen), net photosynthesis (An ) and the use efficiencies of light (LUE), water (WUE) and nitrogen (NUE) for carbon assimilation. The continuous data set was used to develop and evaluate multiple regression models for predicting monthly shoot-scale An . These models showed that shoot-scale An was strongly dependent on light availability and was generally well described with simple one- or two-parameter models. WUE peaked in spring, NUE in summer and LUE in autumn. However, the relative importance of LUE for carbon assimilation increased with canopy depth at all times. Our results suggest that accounting for seasonal and within-canopy trade-offs may be important for RUE-based modelling of canopy carbon uptake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, four Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Branch enclosure based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris and one Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition and in emission strength were observed between the different trees, which confirmed that they represented different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ-3-carene. The "non-Δ-3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive monoterpene, was the dominant species accounting for more than 32 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by β-phellandrene (~27%. Myrcene fluxes ranged from 0.8 to 24 μg g−1 (dw h−1. α-Farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with average emission rates of 318 ng g−1 (dw h−1. In the high Δ-3-carene chemotype, more than 48% of the total monoterpene emission was Δ-3-carene. The average Δ-3-carene emission rate (from chemotype 3, circa 609 ng g−1 (dw h−1 reported here is consistent with the previously reported summer season value. Daily maximum temperatures varied between 20 and 35 °C during the measurements. The monoterpene emissions from spruce were dominated by limonene (35%, β-phellandrene (15%, α-pinene (14% and eucalyptol (9%. Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.55 up to 12.2 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes from all studied tree species varied from 230 ng g−1 (dw h−1 up to 66 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ-3-carene, β-pinene and β-myrcene measured during the campaign

  9. Role of bark and wood destroying insect pests in drying off of spruce and pines in planting weakened by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudela, M; Wolf, R

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed study made in 1958-62, indicating the part played by smoke and the various groups and individual species of insects, in the mortality in middle-aged and mature Pine and Spruce stands.

  10. Climate sensitivity of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) under different CO2 concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aysan Badraghi, Naghimeg; Pokorný, Radek; Novosadová, Kateřina; Pietras, Justyna; Marek, Michal V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2017), s. 43-56 ISSN 1736-8723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ambient CO2 * elevated CO2 * wood formation * radial increment * carbon relations * conifers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  11. Rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum and its spread through the Norway spruce stem in the LHC Obrova noha management-plan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čermák

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the LHC Obrova noha management-plan area (Municipal Forests Prostějov, peeling and browsing damage to spruce (Picea abies caused by red deer was monitored. In total, 20 plots of an area of 25 × 25 m were monitored in stands aged 26–65 years. On the whole, 56% of 1561 trees were damaged by peeling and browsing, 82% of the damaged trees were attacked by Stereum sanguinolentum (Alb. et Schw.: Fr. Fr. Trees in the 3rd age class affected by rot show the highest proportion, viz 92% trees damaged by peeling. In the plots, in total 90 sample trees with the presence of rot were cut down. Peeling damage happened 6 to 41 years ago. The rot affected 10 to 94% of the sample tree stem volume (on average 39%. The volume of devalued wood is in positive correlation with a time elapsed after peeling damage (r = 0.683. The rot spread vertically through the tree stem by an average speed of 10.5 cm.year– 1 (from 1.3 to 28.1 cm.year–1. The progress rate negatively correlated with a period elapsed after the stem damage (r = –0.723.

  12. Spatial distribution of hydroxylamine and its role in aerobic N2O formation in a Norway spruce forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Weymann, D.; Gottselig, N.; Wiekenkamp, I.; Vereecken, H.; Brueggemann, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxylamine (HA) as a crucial intermediate in the microbial oxidation of ammonium to nitrite (nitrification) is a potential precursor of abiotic N2O formation in the soil. However, the determination of HA concentration in natural soil samples has not been reported until now. Here, we determined the HA concentrations in organic (Oh) and mineral (Ah) layers of 135 soil samples collected from a spruce forest (Wüstebach, Eifel National Park, Germany) using a novel approach, based on the fast extraction of HA from the soil at a pH of 1.7, the oxidation of HA to N2O with Fe3+, and the analysis of produced N2O using gas chromatography (GC). Meanwhile, N2O emission rates were determined by means of aerobic laboratory incubations of 3-g soil in 22-mL vials. Subsequently, the spatial distribution of soil HA concentrations and N2O emission rates in the Oh and Ah layers of the whole sampling area were analyzed using a geostatistical approach. The correlations among soil HA, N2O emission rate, pH, soil C, N, Fe, Mn and soil water content (SWC) were further explored. The HA concentrations ranged from 0.3-44.6 μg N kg-1 dry soil and 0.02-16.2 μg N kg-1 dry soil in the Oh and the Ah layer, respectively. The spatial distribution of HA was similar in both layers, with substantial spatial variability dependent on soil type, tree density and distance to a stream. For example, HA concentration was greater at locations with a thick litter layer or at locations close to the stream. The average N2O emission rate in the Oh layer was 0.38 μg N kg-1 dry soil h-1, 10-fold larger than in the Ah layer. Interestingly, N2O emission rate exhibited high correlation with soil HA content in the Oh (R2 = 0.65, p < 0.01) and Ah (R2 = 0.45, p < 0.05) layer. The results demonstrated that HA is a crucial component for aerobic N2O formation and emission in spruce forest soils. Moreover, HA concentration was negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with SWC in the Oh layer, while

  13. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids...

  14. The effects of acid irrigation and compensation liming on soil and trees in a mature Norway spruce stand (Hoeglwald project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutzer, K.; Schierl, R.; Goettlein, A.; Proebstle, P.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1984 the soil of an around 80 years old spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) was irrigated with acidified water (pH 2.7 - 2.8 by H 2 SO 4 resp. pH 5 - 5.5 by H 2 CO 3 ) in 15 to 18 events a 10 - 12 mm per year additionally to natural rain of 500 to 700 mm below canopy with pH mostly between 4.5 - 5.2. The main part of the added acidity was buffered in the mineral top soil by reactions releasing Al (H 2 O) 6 3+ . A small part was consumed in the surface humus layer by exchange of Ca, Mg, Mn and K. Up to now the trees do not show any signs of growth reductions, needle losses or discolourations. It seems that defensive mechanisms in the fine root system are responsible for that as active raise of pH on the rhizoplane of fine roots, possibly due to nitrate uptake. Liming, carried out once in April 1984 with 4 x 10 3 kg ground dolomite per ha, produced a strong increase of the pH only in the upper part of the humus layer, forming a steep pH gradient by depth. That gradient marking the deacidification front is moving downward very slowly with time (around 1 cm/year). Although nitrification was already very active before lime was brought out liming enhanced the nitrate production markedly. At a depth of 20 cm the nitrate concentrations reached 280 mg/l in the soil solution. Liming also enhanced the release of water soluble humic substances. Because of their ability to form stable metal organic complexes with Fe, Cu, Pb and Al, the contents of these metals increased in the soil solutions. (orig.)

  15. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  16. Factors affecting the accuracy of genomic selection for growth and wood quality traits in an advanced-breeding population of black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Patrick R N; Beaulieu, Jean; Mansfield, Shawn D; Clément, Sébastien; Desponts, Mireille; Bousquet, Jean

    2017-04-28

    Genomic selection (GS) uses information from genomic signatures consisting of thousands of genetic markers to predict complex traits. As such, GS represents a promising approach to accelerate tree breeding, which is especially relevant for the genetic improvement of boreal conifers characterized by long breeding cycles. In the present study, we tested GS in an advanced-breeding population of the boreal black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) for growth and wood quality traits, and concurrently examined factors affecting GS model accuracy. The study relied on 734 25-year-old trees belonging to 34 full-sib families derived from 27 parents and that were established on two contrasting sites. Genomic profiles were obtained from 4993 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) representative of as many gene loci distributed among the 12 linkage groups common to spruce. GS models were obtained for four growth and wood traits. Validation using independent sets of trees showed that GS model accuracy was high, related to trait heritability and equivalent to that of conventional pedigree-based models. In forward selection, gains per unit of time were three times higher with the GS approach than with conventional selection. In addition, models were also accurate across sites, indicating little genotype-by-environment interaction in the area investigated. Using information from half-sibs instead of full-sibs led to a significant reduction in model accuracy, indicating that the inclusion of relatedness in the model contributed to its higher accuracies. About 500 to 1000 markers were sufficient to obtain GS model accuracy almost equivalent to that obtained with all markers, whether they were well spread across the genome or from a single linkage group, further confirming the implication of relatedness and potential long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the high accuracy estimates obtained. Only slightly higher model accuracy was obtained when using marker subsets that were

  17. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, different Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, N.; Williams, J.; Song, W.; Vanhatalo, A.; Bäck, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Cuvette based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four chemotypes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and one chemotype of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition as well as in emission strength were observed between the different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ3-carene. The "no- Δ3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive organic gas, was the dominant species accounting for more than 35 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by ß-phellandrene (~34%). Myrcene emission rates ranged from 0.8 up to 24 µg/g (dw)/h. α-farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with measured average emission rates of 318 ng/g (dw)/h. In the high Δ3-carene chemotype, which is the most studied in Hyytiälä, Δ3-carene was more than 48 % of the total monoterpene emission. The mean Δ3-carene emission rate, circa 609 ng/g (dw)/h reported here is consistent with the previously reported value during the same season. The terpene emission from spruce was dominated by limonene (35%), ß-phellandrene (15%), α-pinene (14 %) and eucalyptol (9%). Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.549 up to 12.2 µg/g (dw)/h. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes) from all studied plant species varied from 230 ng/g (dw)/h up to 66 µg/g (dw)/h. The total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ3-carene, ß-pinene and ß-myrcene) measured during the campaign varied in mixing ratio from a few ppt to over one ppb. The most abundant biogenic VOCs measured above the canopy were α-pinene and Δ3-carene and these two compounds together contributed more than 50% of the total monoterpenes. The diel cycles of isoprenoid mixing ratios

  18. The mobility of nitrogen across tree-rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and the effect of extraction method on tree-ring δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, G; Siegwolf, R T W; Buchmann, N; Schleppi, P; Waldner, P; Weber, P

    2014-06-15

    The use of stable nitrogen (N) isotope ratios (δ(15)N values) in dendroecological studies is often preceded by an extraction procedure using organic solvents to remove mobile N compounds from tree-rings. Although these mobile N compounds may be capable of distorting potential environmental signals in the tree-ring δ(15)N values, recent investigations question the necessity of such an extraction. We used an on-going experiment with simulated elevated N deposition previously labelled with (15)N, in conjunction with control trees, to investigate the necessity of extracting mobile N compounds (using a rapid extraction procedure) for tree-ring δ(15)N and δ(13)C studies, as well as N and C concentration analyses. In addition, we examined the magnitude of radial redistribution of N across tree-rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The (15)N label, applied in 1995/96, was found in tree-rings as far back as 1951, although the increased N availability did not cause any significant relative increase in tree growth. The rapid extraction procedure had no significant effect on tree-ring δ(15)N or δ(13)C values in either labelled or control trees, or on N concentration. The C concentrations, however, were significantly higher after extraction in control samples, with the opposite effect observed in labelled samples. Our results indicate that the extraction of mobile N compounds through the rapid extraction procedure is not necessary prior to the determination of Norway spruce δ(15)N or δ(13)C values in dendrochemical studies. δ(15)N values, however, must be interpreted with great care, particularly when used as a proxy for the N status of trees, due to the very high mobility of N within the tree stem sapwood of Norway spruce over several decades. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A study by non-isothermal thermal methods of spruce wood bark materialss after their application for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA DULMAN

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of some materials obtained from spruce bark (Picea abies, Romania, after retention of some dyes frequently used in dyeing processes in the textile industry and waste water treatment. These materials obtained by dye retention exhibit a particular thermal behavior which is different from that of the blank sample (spruce bark. The characteristic temperatures, weight losses, the residue remaining after thermo-oxidative degradation, as well as the activation energies of the significant thermo-destruction stages, estimated from non-isothermal thermogravimetric data, together with the thermal quantities calculated from DTAdata support the conclusion presented in a previous study on dye retention from aqueous solution. The obtained results made evident that, under optimal retention conditions, spruce bark shows the highest retention capacity for the Basic Blue dye, followed by Direct Brown 95 and Direct Brown 2.

  20. Carbon dioxide exchange of buds and developing shoots of boreal Norway spruce exposed to elevated or ambient CO2 concentration and temperature in whole-tree chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marianne; Räntfors, Mats; Slaney, Michelle; Linder, Sune; Wallin, Göran

    2009-04-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on CO2 assimilation rate and the structural and phenological development of shoots during their first growing season were studied in 45-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) enclosed in whole-tree chambers. Continuous measurements of net assimilation rate (NAR) in individual buds and shoots were made from early bud development to late August in two consecutive years. The largest effect of elevated temperature (TE) was manifest early in the season as an earlier start and completion of shoot length development, and a 1-3-week earlier shift from negative to positive NAR compared with the ambient temperature (TA) treatments. The largest effect of elevated [CO2] (CE) was found later in the season, with a 30% increase in maximum NAR compared with trees in the ambient [CO2] treatments (CA), and shoots assimilating their own mass in terms of carbon earlier in the CE treatments than in the CA treatments. Once the net carbon assimilation compensation point (NACP) had been reached, TE had little or no effect on the development of NAR performance, whereas CE had little effect before the NACP. No interactive effects of TE and CE on NAR were found. We conclude that in a climate predicted for northern Sweden in 2100, current-year shoots of P. abies will assimilate their own mass in terms of carbon 20-30 days earlier compared with the current climate, and thereby significantly contribute to canopy assimilation during their first year.

  1. Heterobasidion annosum root and butt rot of Norway spruce, Picea abies: Colonization by the fungus and its impact on tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1997-12-31

    Diameter growth losses associated with decay were quantified on a nationwide scale, and volume growth losses were measured in two stands. Diameter growth losses were 8-10% during a 5-year period in the nationwide study and 23% in one of the stands, whereas in the other stand, no volume losses could be attributed to decay. The effects of stump moisture content, temperature and time elapsed between felling and inoculation on the establishment of H. annosum spore infections in stumps were investigated among stumps resulting from thinnings and clear-cuttings. Furthermore, inoculations with H. annosum conidia were made between 0 hours and 4 weeks after thinning. The incidence of stump infections was lower on clear-cut areas than in thinned stands, but high enough to warrant stump treatment on clear-cuttings. A positive relation was found between heartwood moisture content and the proportion of heartwood infected, whereas the opposite relation was found for sapwood. The establishment of new conidiospore infections decreased with time, and it appeared that stumps were no longer susceptible to infection after 3 weeks had elapsed since felling. Roots of stumps and trees on forest land or former arable land were inoculated with H. annosum treated sawdust. The growth rate of H. annosum in roots of stumps was 25 cm/year, corresponding to 2.5 to 3 times the growth rate in tree roots. Previous land use did not affect the fungal rate of spread. Also, the average initial spread rate of H. annosum in naturally infected Norway spruce stems was estimated at 30 cm/year 156 refs, 9 figs

  2. Significant mean and extreme climate sensitivity of Norway spruce and silver fir at mid-elevation mesic sites in the Alps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carrer

    Full Text Available Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies and silver fir (Abies alba. We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846-1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1 assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2 extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited.

  3. Impact of traffic on δ15N, δ13C and δ18O of needles and annual tree rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of nitrogen depositions, as oxidized (NOx and reduced (NHx compounds, has important implications on ecosystem nitrogen cycle. NOx comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion in car engines and industrial processes, while agricultural activities (cattle farming, fertilizations are the main sources for NHx emissions. Such fertilisations could stimulate growth and, therefore, productivity of forests, especially in temperate forests, where nitrogen is a limiting factor. On the other hand an excess of nitrogen can lead to an acidification of the soil and have a negative impact on the microbial fauna and structure of plants. NOx and NHx depositions can be separated with the help of stable isotopes with different 15N-values reported for NOx originating from combustion sources. Consequently it was observed that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the vegetation reflects the isotopic signature of nitrogen sources. Our preliminary results on needles of Norway spruce trees exposed to NOx emissions along a transect perpendicular to a highway close to Faido and Brittnau show a clear isotopic enrichment in 15N in trees growing closer to traffic pollution, indicating an uptake of atmospheric nitrogen by stomatal pathway. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition measured in tree rings reveals the physiological response in plants. Trees more exposed to air pollution from traffic show an increase in δ13C and δ18O in tree rings, since mid sixties next to Erstfeld. This could mean a higher photosynthetic activity, enhanced by NOx traffic emissions, under low or not changed stomatal conductance. Our results confirm that stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen measured in needles and tree rings represent an important tool to monitor the impact of NOx load on tree physiology.

  4. The influence of red wood ants .i.Formica polyctena./i. on nutrient availability ant growth of spruce tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Rybníček, M.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2007) ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007. 15.04.2007-20.04.2007, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Formica polyctena * nutrient availability * growth of spruce tree Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Optimizing the Wood Value Chain in Northern Norway Taking Into Account National and Regional Economic Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Johansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of past decades of extensive afforestation in Norway, mature forest volumes are increasing. National forestry politics call for sustainable and efficient resource usage and for increased regional processing. Regional policies seek to provide good conditions for such industries to be competitive and to improve regional value creation. We demonstrate how methods from operations research and regional macro-economics may complement each other to support decision makers in this process. The operations research perspective is concerned with finding an optimally designed wood value chain and an aggregated planning of its operations, taking a holistic perspective on strategic-tactical level. Using Input-Output analysis methods based on statistics and survey data, regional macro-economics helps to estimate each industry actor’s value creation and impact on society beyond immediate value chain activities. Combining these approaches in a common mathematical optimization model, a balance can be struck between industry/business and regional political interests. For a realistic case study from the northern part of coastal Norway, we explore this balance from several perspectives, investigating value chain profits, economic ripple effects and regional resource usage.

  6. Predictive Modeling of Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. Wood Density Using Stand Structure Variables Derived from Airborne LiDAR Data in Boreal Forests of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Pokharel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to model the average wood density in black spruce trees in representative stands across a boreal forest landscape based on relationships with predictor variables extracted from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR point cloud data. Increment core samples were collected from dominant or co-dominant black spruce trees in a network of 400 m2 plots distributed among forest stands representing the full range of species composition and stand development across a 1,231,707 ha forest management unit in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Wood quality data were generated from optical microscopy, image analysis, X-ray densitometry and diffractometry as employed in SilviScan™. Each increment core was associated with a set of field measurements at the plot level as well as a suite of LiDAR-derived variables calculated on a 20 × 20 m raster from a wall-to-wall coverage at a resolution of ~1 point m−2. We used a multiple linear regression approach to identify important predictor variables and describe relationships between stand structure and wood density for average black spruce trees in the stands we observed. A hierarchical classification model was then fitted using random forests to make spatial predictions of mean wood density for average trees in black spruce stands. The model explained 39 percent of the variance in the response variable, with an estimated root mean square error of 38.8 (kg·m−3. Among the predictor variables, P20 (second decile LiDAR height in m and quadratic mean diameter were most important. Other predictors describing canopy depth and cover were of secondary importance and differed according to the modeling approach. LiDAR-derived variables appear to capture differences in stand structure that reflect different constraints on growth rates, determining the proportion of thin-walled earlywood cells in black spruce stems, and ultimately influencing the pattern of variation in important wood quality attributes

  7. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  8. Which are the most important parameters for modelling carbon assimilation in boreal Norway spruce under elevated [CO(2)] and temperature conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marianne; Medlyn, Belinda E; Abramowitz, Gab; Franklin, Oskar; Räntfors, Mats; Linder, Sune; Wallin, Göran

    2013-11-01

    Photosynthesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological variables, including phenology, foliage nitrogen (N) content, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]), irradiation (Q), air temperature (T) and vapour pressure deficit (D). Each of these responses is likely to be modified by long-term changes in climatic conditions such as rising air temperature and [CO2]. When modelling photosynthesis under climatic changes, which parameters are then most important to calibrate for future conditions? To assess this, we used measurements of shoot carbon assimilation rates and microclimate conditions collected at Flakaliden, northern Sweden. Twelve 40-year-old Norway spruce trees were enclosed in whole-tree chambers and exposed to elevated [CO2] and elevated air temperature, separately and in combination. The treatments imposed were elevated temperature, +2.8 °C in July/August and +5.6 °C in December above ambient, and [CO2] (ambient CO2 ∼370 μ mol mol(-1), elevated CO2 ∼700 μ mol mol(-1)). The relative importance of parameterization of Q, T and D responses for effects on the photosynthetic rate, expressed on a projected needle area, and the annual shoot carbon uptake was quantified using an empirical shoot photosynthesis model, which was developed and fitted to the measurements. The functional form of the response curves was established using an artificial neural network. The [CO2] treatment increased annual shoot carbon (C) uptake by 50%. Most important was effects on the light response curve, with a 67% increase in light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and a 52% increase in the initial slope of the light response curve. An interactive effect of light saturated photosynthetic rate was found with foliage N status, but no interactive effect for high temperature and high CO2. The air temperature treatment increased the annual shoot C uptake by 44%. The most important parameter was the seasonality, with an elongation of the growing season by almost 4

  9. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substitutes for leaf area which could be collected in a non-destructive way, namely crown surface area and crown projection area. In 8 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), divided into three age classes and two thinning treatments, a total of 156 trees were felled in order to test the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area and crown projection area, respectively. Individual tree leaf area of the felled sample trees was estimated by 3P-branch sampling with an accuracy of ±10%. Crown projection area and crown surface area were compared with other, more commonly used, but destructive predictors of leaf area, namely sapwood area at different heights on the bole. Our investigations confirmed findings of several studies that sapwood area is the most precise measure for leaf area because of the high correlation between sapwood area and the leaf area. But behind sapwood area at crown base and sapwood area at three tenth of the tree height the predictive ability of crown surface area was ranked third and even better than that of sapwood area at breast height (R2 = 0.656 compared with 0.600). Within the stands leaf area is proportional to crown surface area. Using the pooled data of all stands a mixed model approach showed that additionally to crown surface area dominant height and diameter at breast height (dbh) improved the leaf area estimates. Thus, taking dominant height and dbh into account, crown surface area can be recommended for estimating the leaf area of

  10. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  11. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-09-30

    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substitutes for leaf area which could be collected in a non-destructive way, namely crown surface area and crown projection area. In 8 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), divided into three age classes and two thinning treatments, a total of 156 trees were felled in order to test the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area and crown projection area, respectively. Individual tree leaf area of the felled sample trees was estimated by 3P-branch sampling with an accuracy of ±10%. Crown projection area and crown surface area were compared with other, more commonly used, but destructive predictors of leaf area, namely sapwood area at different heights on the bole. Our investigations confirmed findings of several studies that sapwood area is the most precise measure for leaf area because of the high correlation between sapwood area and the leaf area. But behind sapwood area at crown base and sapwood area at three tenth of the tree height the predictive ability of crown surface area was ranked third and even better than that of sapwood area at breast height (R(2) = 0.656 compared with 0.600). Within the stands leaf area is proportional to crown surface area. Using the pooled data of all stands a mixed model approach showed that additionally to crown surface area dominant height and diameter at breast height (dbh) improved the leaf area estimates. Thus, taking dominant height and dbh into account, crown surface area can be recommended for estimating the leaf area

  12. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    ), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), is a major environmental concern. This work is part of the project ASHBACK (www.ashback.dk) which addresses the potentials and possible problems in re-distributing wood ash to the forest. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effects of biomass ash application...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  13. Particulate Matter 2.5 Exposure and Self-Reported Use of Wood Stoves and Other Indoor Combustion Sources in Urban Nonsmoking Homes in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah B Wyss

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined particulate matter (PM exposure from self-reported use of wood stoves and other indoor combustion sources in urban settings in developed countries. We measured concentrations of indoor PM < 2.5 microns (PM2.5 for one week with the MicroPEM™ nephelometer in 36 households in the greater Oslo, Norway metropolitan area. We examined indoor PM2.5 levels in relation to use of wood stoves and other combustion sources during a 7 day monitoring period using mixed effects linear models with adjustment for ambient PM2.5 levels. Mean hourly indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher (p = 0.04 for the 14 homes with wood stove use (15.6 μg/m3 than for the 22 homes without (12.6 μg/m3. Moreover, mean hourly PM2.5 was higher (p = 0.001 for use of wood stoves made before 1997 (6 homes, 20.2 μg/m3, when wood stove emission limits were instituted in Norway, compared to newer wood stoves (8 homes, 11.9 μg/m3 which had mean hourly values similar to control homes. Increased PM2.5 levels during diary-reported burning of candles was detected independently of concomitant wood stove use. These results suggest that self-reported use of wood stoves, particularly older stoves, and other combustion sources, such as candles, are associated with indoor PM2.5 measurements in an urban population from a high income country.

  14. Life cycle assessment of mountain forest wood fuel supply chains : case studies from Norway and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about the fast growth in greenhouse gas emissions have encouraged several countries to increase their use of renewable energy. According to the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED), 20% of all the energy production in the EU should come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Woody biomass can be one choice within bioenergy for mitigating climate change if replacing fossil fuels. However, the demand for wood fuels has increased recently, and in Europe, the demand is predicted to exce...

  15. Incentivizing wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel through financial policy instruments: An economic assessment for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a select set of financial incentive instruments that can be employed by the Norwegian government for encouraging early investment and production experience in wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) technologies as a means to accelerate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) stemming from road-based transport. We start by performing an economic analysis of FTD produced from Norwegian forest biomass at a pioneer commercial plant in Norway, followed with a cost growth analysis to estimate production costs after uncertainty in early plant performance and capital cost estimates are considered. Results after the cost growth analysis imply that the initial production cost estimates for a pioneer producer may be underestimated by up to 30%. Using the revised estimate we then assess, through scenarios, how various financial support mechanisms designed to encourage near-term investment would affect production costs over a range of uncertain future oil prices. For all policy scenarios considered, we evaluate trade-offs between the levels of public expenditure, or subsidy, and private investor profitability. When considering the net present value of the subsidy required to incentivize commercial investment during a future of low oil prices, we find that GHG mitigation via wood-FTD is likely to be considered cost-ineffective. However, should the government expect that mean oil prices in the coming two decades will hover between $97 and 127/bbl, all the incentive policies considered would likely spur investment at net present values ≤$-100/tonne-fossil-CO 2 -equivalent avoided.

  16. Trichloracetic Acid and Norway Spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Gryndler, Milan; Albrechtová, J.; Fuksová, K.; Vágner, Martin; Schröder, P.; Matucha, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2003), s. 15-27 ISSN 0862-6529 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874; GA ČR GA522/99/1465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : carbon-14 labeling * microbial degradation * phyllosphere Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  17. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  18. CO2-gas-exchange and transpiration of open-grown Norway spruce during the year in higher elevations of the Southern Black Forest under local air-conditions with and without ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abetz, P.; Kuenstle, E.; Wolfart, A.

    1993-03-01

    Aim and method: CO 2 -gas-exchange and transpiration of open-grown Norway spruce (about 12 m high) on the top of the Black Forest (1230 m a.s.l.) near Freiburg under local conditions with and without ozone are being continiously measured through the whole year. In the same intensity are registered the temperature of soil, needles, twigs, stem and air, the humidity in soil and air and the diameter-changes of the stem. Nearby other institutions measure the quality of air and depositions. Results: In winter with less snowfall, higher temperature and higher insolation, the youngest twigs of the spruce had a lower net-photosynthesis but a higher respiration at night on the southern part versus nothern part (with more shade). Perhaps it happened an inactivity of the photosynthesis-apparatus because of too high insolation. In the same time the colour of the needles on the southern part changed to yellowish green (on the northern part they remained dark green). During dry summer periods the photosynthesis dropped earlier and deeper. The 'radial-increment' stagnated. There was no difference in the gas-exchange when the ozone concentration had been enlarged, neither in winter nor in summertime. (orig.). 57 figs., 12 tabs., 178 refs [de

  19. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  20. Growth effects after whole-tree harvest in final cut of Scots pine and Norway spruce forest. Final report; Tillvaexteffekternas storlek och uthaallighet efter skogsbraensleuttag i slutavverkning av tall och gran. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2001-12-01

    A great concern in forestry today is whether whole-tree harvesting influence site productivity and whether it is consistent with the principle of sustainable use of forest resources. To evaluate this a randomised field experiment established 24 years ago in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Sweden was used. The field experiment was established in fall 1975 as a naturally regenerated mixed forest with Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with a growing stock of 305 m{sup 3}/ha was clear-cut near Kosta (56 deg 52' N, 15 deg 50' E, 240 m.a.s.l.). The site was a mesic dwarf-shrub type of medium fertility, with an average precipitation of 600 mm yr-1 and the soil was an orthic podzol. Treatments were conventional stem harvest (CH), whole-tree harvest (WTH), and branch and stem harvest (BSH). Scots pine seedlings of local provenance were planted in spring 1977 at the beginning of the second growing season following the harvest. The seedlings were planted in exposed mineral soil in manually scarified patches (40 x 40 cm) at 1.7 m spacing (144 seedlings per assessment plot, i.e. 3 600 seedlings/ha). Based on calliper data, the diameter for the mean basal area per tree (db) was calculated for each plot after 24 years using the formula: db = ({sigma} b{sup 3}/{sigma} b{sup 2}), where b is basal area at breast height for each tree. Three undamaged sample trees with a diameter equal or close to the diameter of the mean basal area per tree were selected on each plot giving 36 stems that were felled for destructive measurements in 2000. Total tree height ({+-} 0.01 m) was measured on every tree felled. Stem biomass was estimated by sampling of stem discs, 2 cm thick, at stump height (1 % of tree height), breast height (1.3 m), and at every meter along the bole. Crown biomass was estimated by sampling live and dead branches on the felled trees. From every whorl of branches one living branch was sampled and all branches were counted. Stem

  1. Changes in mechanical and chemical wood properties by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, Thomas; Huber, Hermann; Grünewald, Tilman A.; Petutschnigg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Changes in wood due to electron beam irradiations (EBI) were evaluated. • Wood components undergo different altering mechanisms due to the irradiation. • Chemical reactions in wood lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood. - Abstract: This study deals with the influence of various electron beam irradiation (EBI) dosages on the Brinell hardness of Norway spruce. The results of the hardness measurements and the FT-IR spectroscopic analysis show different effects of the EBI at dosages of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kGy. It was assumed that the lignin and carbohydrates undergo different altering mechanisms due to the EBI treatment. New cleavage products and condensation reactions of lignin and carbohydrates lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood samples. These results provide a useful basis for further investigations on the changes in wood chemistry and material properties due to electron beam irradiations

  2. Changes in mechanical and chemical wood properties by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schnabel@fh-salzburg.ac.at [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Huber, Hermann [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Grünewald, Tilman A. [BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Physics and Materials Science, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Petutschnigg, Alexander [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenzstraße 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Changes in wood due to electron beam irradiations (EBI) were evaluated. • Wood components undergo different altering mechanisms due to the irradiation. • Chemical reactions in wood lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood. - Abstract: This study deals with the influence of various electron beam irradiation (EBI) dosages on the Brinell hardness of Norway spruce. The results of the hardness measurements and the FT-IR spectroscopic analysis show different effects of the EBI at dosages of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kGy. It was assumed that the lignin and carbohydrates undergo different altering mechanisms due to the EBI treatment. New cleavage products and condensation reactions of lignin and carbohydrates lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood samples. These results provide a useful basis for further investigations on the changes in wood chemistry and material properties due to electron beam irradiations.

  3. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  4. Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) health status on various forest soil ecological series in Silesian Beskids obtained by grid or selective survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Cudlín, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 57-66 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15044; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : spruce decline * survey design * defoliation * forest site ecological series Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0057/

  5. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  6. Schemele de împădurire dese şi stabilitatea monoculturilor de molid – este posibilă realizarea unui echilibru de durată? [Narrow spacing and stability of Norway spruce monocultures - is a long-term equilibrium possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolescu N.-V

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst - one of the most important forest species in both Europe (about 34 million ha and Romania (about 1.4 million ha - has been highly expanded in monocultures outside of its natural range since mid- 19th century. Unfortunately, despite their many advantages (easy establishment, quick growth, high production, multiple uses of timber etc., Norway spruce pure stands are facing many problems being especially subjected to wind and snow damages. Taking into account these facts, the article outlines the most important factors influencing Norway spruce stand stability such as initial spacing (stocking and early silvicultural interventions. It seems obvious that two solutions for a better stability to snow damages at early ages exists: low stocking (wide spacing at planting (maximum 2,000-2,500 plants per ha and high stocking (narrow spacing at planting (4,000-5,000 plants per ha but followed by high intensity cleaningrespacing started no later than end of saplingbeginning of thicket stage. Under present Romanian conditions, facing many economic constraints (e.g., high cost of planting and tending; lack of labour force, the solution of low stocking (wide spacing at planting as already stated at the beginning of 1980’s but never applied on a large scale seems more feasible and realistic

  7. Comparative study on the turnover of quinic- and shikimic acid and of its derivatives in needles of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst., affected by 'Waldsterben' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, P.; Senser, M.; Frielinghaus, J.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study on the incorporation of 14 C into quinic- and shikimic acid in spruce needles was carried out with four different syndroms of Picea abies (L.) Karst: a tree from high altitudes of the Bayerischer Wald with the syndrom of 'acute yellowing', a light-sensitive mutant with yellowish needles (Picea abies Karst. finedonensis), a tree exhibiting 'Lametta' syndrome with a translucent crown and twigs hanging down like tinsel, and a healthy tree for control. The needles of these trees were labelled via photosynthetic fixation of 14 CO 2 in June, and the fate of labelled compounds was monitored over 125 days. In the youngest needles incorporation rates of quinic and shikimic acid reached a dominating level of about 60% of the label of soluble metabolites, which underlines the decisive role of both acids during needle development. The yellow mutant 'finedonensis' and the tree with 'Lametta' syndrome, which exhibit rather identical turnover kinetics of quinate and shikimate, show lower rates and reach, in particular in one- and two-year-old needles, only about 50% of the incorporation rates of the control spruce. The tree with the syndrome of 'acute yellowing' exhibits a significant reduction of incorporation already in the youngest needles; the older needles of this tree virtually suspend metabolism of both acids all together, though apparently high but dormant pools of shikimate and quinate are present. The degree of label incorporation into shikimate and quinate may possibly serve as a measure of needle damage. Exclusively in the yellow mutant a novel spruce constituent, 3-0-p-coumaroylquinic acid, could be detected; a related compound, 3-0-p-caffeoylshikimic acid was identified in the needles of the 'acute yellowing' tree. (orig./MG) [de

  8. The Effect Of Enhanced UV-B Radiation On Norway Spruce (Picea Abies (L.) Karst.) And Consequences For The Mountain Forest; Ucinek Ultravijolicnega Sevanja Na Smreko (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) In Posledice Za Garski Gozdni Ekosistem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trošt Sedej, T.

    2005-07-01

    NaNorway spruce trees from the sub alpine stand are exposed not only to high UV-B radiation but also to a complex of other environmental factors, such as high photosynthetically active radiation, extreme temperature conditions, deficient water and mineral supply, which might cause stress responses. Current year needles from the sub alpine stand exhibited lower photochemical efficiency and total chlorophyll content compared to samples from lower altitudes. The result suggested that young needles were most vulnerable to stress factors, since the protective mechanisms were not fully developed. Current+1 year needles from the sub alpine stand exhibited lower ETSvalues and higher total UV-B absorbing compounds, which may be interpreted as most successful protection against UVB radiation of current+1 year needles among the three needle age classes.Despite the obtained results, the effect of a single stress factor on spruce could not be easily drawn out. Still, we may assume that the spruce is quite tolerant to high UV-B radiation and other extreme environmental factors in the mountains. [Serbian] Rastline, ki uspevajo v gorah, so pogosto izpostavljene stresnim razmeram, predvsem pove ani jakosti sevanja UV-B, skrajnim temperaturnim razmeram ter pomanjkanju vode in hranil. Odziv smreke na okoljske razmere je kompleksen. Pri enoletnih iglicah v visokogorju smo izmerili manjšo fotokemi no u inkovitost in vsebnost klorofilov, kar kaže na ob utljivost mladih iglic, kjer zaš itni mehanizmi še niso dokon no razviti. Pri starejših iglicah razlika ni bila ve statisti no zna ilna, zato sklepamo, da se poškodbe v drugem in tretjem letu prepre ijo ali popravijo. Pri dveletnih iglicah smreke z visokogorskega rastiš a je bil dihalni potencial zna ilno manjši in vsebnost UV-B absorbirajo ih snovi zna ilno ve ja, kar pojasnjujemo s tem, da so dveletne iglice z visokogorskega rastiš a med tremi starostnimi razredi najbolj odporne proti UV-B sevanju. Iz rezultatov sicer ne moremo

  9. Emissions of Sesquiterpenes from Spruce Sawdust During Drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of sawdust are dried for production of particleboard and Pellets. During processing of wood (i.e. drying, densification), volatile organic compounds are emitted. These contribute in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to the formation of ground level ozone and other harmful photo-oxidants. In this study sesquiterpene emissions from the drying of fresh Norway Spruce (Picea abies) sawdust in a continuous spouted bed steam dryer at 140-200 deg C have been investigated, and patterns of covariation between sesquiterpene emissions and drying parameters elucidated. Sesquiterpene emissions was about 20% of the monoterpene emissions. Drying in 200 deg C caused markedly larger sesquiterpene emissions than in 140 deg C or 170 deg C. Whereas a change in moisture content had no notable effect on the amount of sesquiterpenes emitted at high wood moisture contents (25-40%), the sesquiterpene emissions increased considerably as drying proceeded at low wood moisture contents (5-15%). While it has long been known that monoterpenes are a dominant VOC emitted during processing of wood, this study shows that sesquiterpenes are of considerable importance

  10. Biomass market and trade in Norway: Status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troemborg, Erik; Bolkesjoe, Torjus Folsland; Solberg, Birger

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of bioenergy use, prices, markets and markets prospects in Norway. The current energy production based on biomass in Norway is about 50 pJ or 10% of the stationary energy consumption. About one-half is produced and used in forest industries. The main share of bioenergy used by households consists of firewood in stoves. The use of refined, solid biofuels in heat production is hampered by low coverage of water-borne heating systems and historically low end-user prices of electricity. Harvest levels in Norwegian forests are much below annual growth, implying that forest biomass resources steadily accumulate. Decreasing wood prices combined with rising prices of oil and electricity in recent year have improved competitiveness of solid biofuels in the heat market. Projections of future bioenergy use in Norway using a partial equilibrium forest sector model suggest that bioenergy use will increase in some market segments with the current price levels of electricity and oil. However, quite minor improvements of bioenergy competitiveness or increased energy prices may release substantially higher bioenergy use. A net increase in bioenergy use of 5 TWh (18 PJ) by 2010 is realistic, but requires public awareness of the opportunities in bioenergy technologies, as well as significant economic incentives. Wood stoves and replacement of oil-boilers in central heating systems show highest competitiveness, whereas district heating systems need higher energy prices or more subsidies to be competitive. Biomass for combined heat and power projects or domestically produced liquid biofuels seems to have limited competitiveness in the short term. On the raw material side, wood residues, and roundwood from pine and non-coniferous species represent the main potential, whereas spruce continues to be consumed by the forest industries. According to the model projections, imported biomass will take a significant share of the possible increase of wood consumption

  11. The DAL10 gene from Norway spruce (Picea abies) belongs to a potentially gymnosperm-specific subclass of MADS-box genes and is specifically active in seed cones and pollen cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens; Tandre, Karolina; Englund, Marie; Kvarnheden, Anders; Johanson, Urban; Engström, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors encoded by different members of the MADS-box gene family have evolved central roles in the regulation of reproductive organ development in the flowering plants, the angiosperms. Development of the stamens and carpels, the pollen- and seed-bearing organs, involves the B- and C-organ-identity MADS-box genes. B- and C-type gene orthologs with activities specifically in developing pollen- and seed-bearing organs are also present in the distantly related gymnosperms: the conifers and the gnetophytes. We now report on the characterization of DAL10, a novel MADS-box gene from the conifer Norway spruce, which unlike the B- and C-type conifer genes shows no distinct orthology relationship to any angiosperm gene or clade in phylogenetic analyses. Like the B- and C-type genes, it is active specifically in developing pollen cones and seed cones. In situ RNA localization experiments show DAL10 to be expressed in the cone axis, which carry the microsporophylls of the young pollen cone. In contrast, in the seed cone it is expressed both in the cone axis and in the bracts, which subtend the ovuliferous scales. Expression data and the phenotype of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing DAL10 suggest that the gene may act upstream to or in concert with the B- and C-type genes in the establishment of reproductive identity of developing cones.

  12. Air pollution from wood combustion. Measurements at Elverum, Norway during the winters 1981 and 1982. Luftforurensning fra vedfyring. Maalinger i Elverum, Norge vintrene 1981 og 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdahl, T; Schjoldager, J; Hanssen, J E; Moeller, M

    1983-01-01

    Ambient sampling and analysis of air pollutants related to wood combustion have been carried out at the town of Elverum, Norway during the winters of 1981 and 1982. Two measurement sites were selected, Elverum (within the town) and Strandfossen. The concentration of fine particles, PAH and benzene on cold days in Elverum was similar to average winter concentrations in central parts of Oslo. The concentrations in Elverum were highest during a cold period in January, second highest during a cold period in February, and lowest during a mild period between the two cold periods. The same variation was found for mutagenicity. The concentration at the site Elverum was considerably higher than at the site Stranfossen. Organic compounds characteristic of wood smoke have been found in the ambient particulate samples, especially on cold days. The concentration of total particulate carbon and carbon from biomass showed similar variations as fine particles and PAH. The average fraction of carbon from biomass relative to the total carbon concentration was 70 percent, and the fraction was highest on cold days. The average fraction corresponded quite well with an emission estimate of PAH giving an average PAH contribution from wood combustion of 60-70 percent in the winter season. The analyses of lead indicated a contribution of 3-6 percent from gasoline cars to the fine particle concentreration.

  13. Air pollution from wood combustion. Measurements at Elverum, Norway during the winters 1981 and 1982. Luftforurensning fra vedfyring. Maalinger i Elverum, Norge vintrene 1981 og 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdahl, T; Schjoldager, J; Hanssen, J E; Moeller, M

    1983-01-01

    Ambient sampling and anlysis of air pollutants related to wood combustion have been carried out at the town of Elverum, Norway during the winters of 1981 and 1982. Two measurement sites were selected, Elverum (within the town) and Strandfossen. The concentration of fine particles, PAH and benzene on cold days in Elverum was similar to average winter concentrations in central parts of Oslo. The concentrations in Elverum were highest during a cold period in January, second highest during a cold period in February, and lowest during a mild period between the two cold periods. The same variation was found for mutagenicity. The concentration at the site Elverum was considerably higher than at the site Stranfossen. Organic compounds characteristic of wood smoke have been found in the ambient particulate samples, especially on cold days. The concentration of total particulate carbon and carbon from biomass showed similar variations as fine particles and PAH. The average fraction of carbon from biomass relative to the total carbon concentration was 70 percent, and the fraction was highest on cold days. The average fraction corresponded quite well with an emission estimate of PAH giving an average PAH contribution from wood combustion of 60-70 percent in the winter season. The analyses of lead indicated a contribution of 3-6 percent from gasoline cars to the fine particle concentreration, which corresponds well with the emission estimate of PAH, giving an average PAH contribution from automobile traffic of 4-5 percent in the winter season. The study claerly indicates that the combustion of wood contrubutes significantly to the concentration of air pollutants in Elverum on cold days, especially fine particles, PAH and other carbonaceous compounds.

  14. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  15. The Acoustic Properties of Water Submerged Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta and Spruce (Picea spp. Wood and Their Suitability for Use as Musical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Hilde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a common material used for the manufacture of many products, and submerged wood, in particular, has been used in niche markets and musical instruments. In order to examine if submerged wood in British Columbia, Canada, would be appropriate for use as musical instruments, a study was performed in 2007 on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, Canada. The results of that study showed the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. In this paper, the wood samples were allowed to age untouched in a laboratory setting and were then retested under the hypothesis that physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to dry over time. This article describes the density, speed of sound, acoustic constant and characteristic impedance properties for submerged wood and a comparison is made for different applications for musical instruments.

  16. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential

  17. Hygrothermal Simulation of Wood Exposed To the Effect of External Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnal, Jakub; Hradil, Petr; Pencik, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The article is focused on simulation of moisture transfer in wood of norway spruce (Picea abies L.). Experimental specimen was exposed to the northern climatic conditions in Lund University, Sweden. The moisture content of wood was measured 10 mm from the surface for nearly three years. The ABAQUS program was used for numerical modelling of moisture transfer simulation in 3D. The surface sorption of wood was simulated using user defined subroutine DFLUX developed by VTT Research Centre of Finland Ltd. for the needs of European Project Durable Timber Bridges. Climate data for the analysis was used from insitu measurement nearby realized by weather station. The temperature, relative humidity of the air and precipitation data was record each hour. Numerical analysis took into account influence of rain effect on different parts of specimen surface.

  18. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  19. Environment pollution with hexachlorbenzene and mercury in Goertschitztal/Carinthia surveyed with Norway spruce as bioindicators; Erfassung der Umweltbelastung mit Hexachlorbenzol und Quecksilber im Goertschitztal in Kaernten mit Fichten als Bioindikatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, Alfred [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Wald (BFW), Wien (Austria); Hellig, Kurt; Heimburger, Gerhard; Wuggenig, Walter [Amt der Kaerntner Landesregierung, Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To identify the pollution source and for zoning the polluted area in Goertschitztal in Carinthia spruce needles were analyzed for hexachlorbenzene and mercury. Two contamination sources were identified: the cement plant in Wietersdorf and a slaked lime waste deposal site in Brueckl. At the end of 2014 or early 2015 measures against this pollution sites were set up from the local authority as well as from the cement plant. In autumn 2015 all hexachlorbenzene contents in spruce needles were below the quantification limit and nearly all mercury contents decreased despite the hot summer.

  20. Effects of wood-ash addition on nitrogen turnover in a highly nitrogen loaded spruce site. Final project report; Effekter av askaaterfoering paa kvaeveomsaettningen i ett kvaeverikt granbestaand i Halland. Slutrapport foer projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    During two consecutive years, it was studied how a fertilization with 4.2 tonnes pelleted bark ash per ha, made six-seven years earlier, affected soil chemistry, nitrogen turnover and soil-water chemistry on a Norway spruce site in SW Sweden. The actual site has a very acidic soil. At the same time, the supply of inorganic N is rich. Measures against soil acidification, e. g. addition of ash or lime, may significantly influence the turnover of N with a subsequent risk for increased leaching. Thus, there is a potential conflict between two urgent environmental goals, i. e. to decrease acidification and to decrease the N load on aquatic ecosystems. In the humus layer and the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH(H{sub 2}O) had increased with at the most 0.2 units because of the ash addition. The easily extractable amounts of Mg, P and nitrate were slightly increased. The potential nitrification in the humus layer was generally higher in the ash treatment, but the difference. was not statistically significant. The soil water at 50 cm depth was 0.1-0.2 pH-units more acidic where ash had been applied. Simultaneously, there were tendencies for higher concentrations of nitrate, Al and K. This is the first time in Sweden that ash fertilization of a closed forest has given clear indications of an increased N leaching. As expected, the ash fertilization decreased the acidity of the top soil. On the contrary, the runoff became more acidic and more rich in Al. Thus, the ash fertilization has counteracted one of its primary goals, i. e. to produce a runoff less toxic to aquatic life. The acidification of the runoff may partially be because of acid production during nitrification.

  1. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  2. Use of gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging spruce knots by magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Amy H. Herlihy; Po-Wah So

    2006-01-01

    Treatments of knot-containing spruce wood blocks with a paramagnetic salt, gadolinium (III) chloride, in combination with solvent pretreatments, were evaluated as strategies to enhance the visualization of wood features by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial experiments with clear wood and excised knot samples showed differences in moisture uptake after...

  3. Connection between the decline of spruce and occurrence of animal pests, especially nematodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timans, U.

    1986-12-01

    In various regions of Bavaria, affected by the decline of spruce, attack by insects and especially nematodes was examined on diseased and healthy spruces. A connection between harmful forest insects and the decline of spruce did not become evident, neither over wide areas nor by examination of single trees. Attack by nematodes was examined in soil and wood samples and also in fine feeder roots of diseased and healthy trees. Plant-parasitic nematodes were not found in the wood and in feeder roots. Although root-parasitic nematodes were present in soil samples, their density was too little to account for a direct damage to spruce. They occurred likewise in samples from healthy and diseased trees. Plant-parasitic nematodes can thus be excluded as a possible causal agent for the decline of spruce.

  4. Assessment of the radiation field from radioactive elements in a wood-ash-treated coniferous forest in southwest Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of natural and antrophogenic radioactive elements in soil and wood was investigated in a 30-year-old forest stand of Norway spruce. Forest plots treated with a single dose of granulated wood ash in 1989 were compared with untreated control plots. It was observed that the retention of radiocesium and radiostrontium by the forest soil is rather strong in spite of the high annual precipitation (1100 mm a -1 ) and the relatively acidic conditions of the soil. Most of the deposited nuclear weapon fall-out of radiocesium and radiostrontium is still residing in the forest soil. Radiostrontium, but not radiocesium, was found in the intrasoil water collected with lysimeters at soil depths of 20 and 50 cm. Wood xylem radial distributions of radiostrontium indicated a decreased bioavailability with time after deposition of nuclear weapons fall-out, and no major differences could be observed on comparison of wood from ash-treated plots with wood from untreated plots. The activity concentration of radiocesium in tree rings formed prior to 1986 and grown at the ash-treated plot was about two to three times that found in wood from the untreated control plot. (author)

  5. Seasonal flight patterns of the Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrn, Petter

    2012-01-01

    The major bark beetle threat to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Eurasia is the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Beetles cause damage after population build-up in defenseless trees. To minimize attacks, timely removal of these trees is important. This is practiced by clearing of wind throws and sanitation felling. Thus, knowledge about the region-specific flight pattern and voltinism of I. typographus is necessary for efficient pest management. This thesis focuses on the ...

  6. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  7. Instream wood in a steep headwater channel: geomorphic significance of large and small wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galia, Tomáš; Šilhán, Karel; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Tichavský, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Besides the well-known significance of large wood (LW), also small woody pieces (SW; here defined as pieces with dimensions at least 0.5 m length and 0.05 m diameter), can play an important role in steep narrow headwaters. We inventoried instream wood in the 0.4 km long Mazák headwater channel, Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts, Czech Republic (2pieces were European beeches (Fagus sylvatica L.); only two pieces were Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). First results showed an increase in the number of LWs in channel-reaches confined by the steepest adjacent hillslopes (especially at 0.15-0.20 km). Increasing downstream amount of SW most likely reflected transport processes in the stream, and the later deposition of SWs on the lowest channel gradients. Also LWs and SWs in the downstream channel-reaches were more decayed than wood presented in the upper reaches. The orientation of instream wood was connected with its length and stability, and LWs longer than 5 m were usually attached to adjacent hillslopes. Pieces longer than 2 m, which were unattached or were somehow stabilized in the channel bed, had often orientation of 0° or 337°. LWs were mostly unattached in the upstream channel-reaches, while often stabilized by adjacent hillslopes in the middle part. At 0.05-0.10 km, there were also many logs stabilized by bed sediments. By contrast, SWs were mostly unattached in the whole longitudinal profile. We observed higher % of influenced channel width by SWs than LWs. Also, SWs were usually entirely located in the channel, which was significantly different when compared to LWs. Nine small steps (step height ~0.5 m) were created by instream wood; six of them were formed by SWs. Dendrogeomorphic cross dating supported the observed decay status for LW/SW within the longitudinal profile: at the lowest channel gradients with wider higher active channels, the potential for storage of instream wood increased. In these downstream reaches we observed older LW and SW, with

  8. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.

  9. Experimental study of moisture-driven distortion and fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    Moisture-induced fracture and lack of shape stability in solid wood products are well known problems to the saw-milling and building industries. Cracks that initiate during the drying process may cause severe material losses and the building industry may be forced to use alternative building....... An experimental study has been performed to reveal the cracking behaviour of Norway spruce during drying from green moisture content down to equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at a temperature of 22-24°C and a RH of 64%. The moisture related strains and crack widths were measured with a digital image correlation...... than the thinner ones (15 mm) and the crack patterns developed differently. For the thicker discs the early cracks which may partly be caused by the moisture gradient in the longitudinal direction of the log, closed and became invisible later during the drying process. This indicates that sealing...

  10. The Sorption Behavior of Wood Studied by Means of an Improved Cup Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitelberger, Johannes; Svensson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    background of transport processes, a special experimental test setup—the improved cup method—is presented. It allows for separation of sorption from other processes. In this test, a diffusion cup contains a thin specimen of wood, with one side facing outwards to a climate chamber and the opposite side facing...... inwards the cup. In contrast to the common cup method, the herein presented method uses a data logger for relative humidity and temperature placed inside the cup. The use of thin cross-cut specimens allows for explicit separation of the different processes occurring during transient moisture transport....... Mass changes were determined and relative humidity inside the cups was measured for eight specimens of Norway spruce with different specimen thicknesses. Relative humidity was increased in three uniform steps in the test chamber from 4.0 up to 76.5%. The results obtained with this special test setup...

  11. Tracing nitrogen accumulation in decaying wood and examining its impact on wood decomposition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Krista; Chen, Janet; Smolander, Aino; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    Decomposition of dead wood, which is controlled primarily by fungi is important for ecosystem carbon cycle and has potentially a significant role in nitrogen fixation via diazotrophs. Nitrogen content has been found to increase with advancing wood decay in several studies; however, the importance of this increase to decay rate and the sources of external nitrogen remain unclear. Improved knowledge of the temporal dynamics of wood decomposition rate and nitrogen accumulation in wood as well as the drivers of the two processes would be important for carbon and nitrogen models dealing with ecosystem responses to climate change. To tackle these questions we applied several analytical methods on Norway spruce logs from Lapinjärvi, Finland. We incubated wood samples (density classes from I to V, n=49) in different temperatures (from 8.5oC to 41oC, n=7). After a common seven day pre-incubation period at 14.5oC, the bottles were incubated six days in their designated temperature prior to CO2 flux measurements with GC to determine the decomposition rate. N2 fixation was measured with acetylene reduction assay after further 48 hour incubation. In addition, fungal DNA, (MiSeq Illumina) δ15N and N% composition of wood for samples incubated at 14.5oC were determined. Radiocarbon method was applied to obtain age distribution for the density classes. The asymbiotic N2 fixation rate was clearly dependent on the stage of wood decay and increased from stage I to stage IV but was substantially reduced in stage V. CO2 production was highest in the intermediate decay stage (classes II-IV). Both N2 fixation and CO2 production were highly temperature sensitive having optima in temperature 25oC and 31oC, respectively. We calculated the variation of annual levels of respiration and N2 fixation per hectare for the study site, and used the latter data together with the 14C results to determine the amount of N2 accumulated in wood in time. The proportion of total nitrogen in wood

  12. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  13. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  14. Seasonal Changes of Coefficient Q10 in CO2 Flux from Soil Under Spruce Stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 15 (2002), s. 43-48. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/0485 Grant - others:EVK2(XE) CT-1999-00032 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce * Q10 * respiration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  16. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  17. Enhanced thermal stability of the thylakoid membranes from spruce. A comparison with selected angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Václav; Kurasová, Irena; Ptáčková, B.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Špunda, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 130, 1-3 (2016), s. 357-371 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * Thermal stability * Circular dichroism * Photosystem II organization * Thylakoid membrane Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.864, year: 2016

  18. Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tužinský Ladislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC and point of diminished availability (PDA. Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm. The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

  19. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  20. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  1. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  2. The diversity of microhabitats and their impact on the regeneration of spruce and rowan in the mountain forests of the Low Tatras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloncak, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the questions: what is proportion of different types of microhabitats in natural spruce?; which types of microhabitats prefers spruce (Picea abies) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) in the early stages of their development?; what role do ground vegetation and dead wood play?

  3. The diversity of microhabitats and their impact on the regeneration of spruce and rowan in the mountain forests of the Low Tatras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloncak, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation the authors describe the questions: what is proportion of different types of microhabitats in natural spruce?; which types of microhabitats prefers spruce (Picea abies) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) in the early stages of their development?; what role do ground vegetation and dead wood play?

  4. Influence of fiber type, fiber mat orientation, and process time on the properties of a wood fiber/polymer composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Torgilsson, R.; Løgstrup Andersen, T.

    2002-01-01

    involved pre-compression, contact heating to the process temperature under vacuum and then rapid transfer to the press for consolidation and cooling. Composites were tested to determine response to water or water vapor, porosity, fiber volume fraction and tensile properties. The composites absorbed water......A rapid press consolidation technique was used to produce composites from two types of air-laid wood fiber mat, incorporating either mechanically refined or bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] and a bicomponent polymer fiber. The manufacturing technique...... rapidly and showed changes in thickness with fluctuations in relative humidity. Porosity was higher in composites containing mechanically refined (MDF) fibers than in composites containing bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined (CTMP) fibers. Tensile test results suggessted that fiber wetting...

  5. Biosynthesis of the major tetrahydroxystilbenes in spruce, astringin and isorhapontin, proceeds via resveratrol and is enhanced by fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ralph, Steven G; Bohlmann, Joerg; Fenning, Trevor M; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schmidt, Axel

    2011-10-01

    Stilbenes are dibenzyl polyphenolic compounds produced in several unrelated plant families that appear to protect against various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stilbene biosynthesis has been well described in economically important plants, such as grape (Vitis vinifera), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and pine (Pinus species). However, very little is known about the biosynthesis and ecological role of stilbenes in spruce (Picea), an important gymnosperm tree genus in temperate and boreal forests. To investigate the biosynthesis of stilbenes in spruce, we identified two similar stilbene synthase (STS) genes in Norway spruce (Picea abies), PaSTS1 and PaSTS2, which had orthologs with high sequence identity in sitka (Picea sitchensis) and white (Picea glauca) spruce. Despite the conservation of STS sequences in these three spruce species, they differed substantially from angiosperm STSs. Several types of in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that the P. abies STSs catalyze the condensation of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A and three molecules of malonyl-coenzyme A to yield the trihydroxystilbene resveratrol but do not directly form the dominant spruce stilbenes, which are tetrahydroxylated. However, in transgenic Norway spruce overexpressing PaSTS1, significantly higher amounts of the tetrahydroxystilbene glycosides, astringin and isorhapontin, were produced. This result suggests that the first step of stilbene biosynthesis in spruce is the formation of resveratrol, which is further modified by hydroxylation, O-methylation, and O-glucosylation to yield astringin and isorhapontin. Inoculating spruce with fungal mycelium increased STS transcript abundance and tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside production. Extracts from STS-overexpressing lines significantly inhibited fungal growth in vitro compared with extracts from control lines, suggesting that spruce stilbenes have a role in antifungal defense.

  6. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, Petia S.; Andersen, Christian P.; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O 3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ 13 C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O 3 under beech and spruce, and was related to O 3 -stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O 3 on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O 3 regime. δ 13 C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g s of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O 3 in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O 3 effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests. - Drought has the capacity to override the stimulating ozone effect on soil respiration in adult European beech/Norway spruce forest.

  7. Studies on Solid Wood. II. The Influence of Chemical Modifications on Viscoelastic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders; Salmén, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    The relation between the properties of wood polymers and those of the composite material of wood is a subject that has been of interest for a long time. In order to increase oar knowledge in this matter, changes of wood properties have been studied on samples of spruce and birch, subjected to var...

  8. Ground vegetation dynamics in mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) forests recovering after air pollution stress impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, O.; Vavříček, D.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2009), s. 305-321 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest decline * norway spruce * microsite conditions * recovery * understorey layer Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.567, year: 2009

  9. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  10. Composite indicator for monitoring of Norway spruce stand decline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brovkina, Olga; Cienciala, E.; Zemek, František; Lukeš, Petr; Fabiánek, Tomáš; Russ, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2017), s. 550-563 ISSN 2279-7254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Picea abies * airborne hyperspectral * satellite multispectral data * exergy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2016

  11. Spatially explicit basal area growth of Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejza, Jan; Světlík, J.; Pokorný, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 1545-1558 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010945 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : competition * social area * Weighted Voronoi polygons * increment * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  12. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  13. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Albrechtová, J.; Lhotáková, Z.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, 23-24 (2006), s. 5315-5340 ISSN 0143-1161 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1K04121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorophyll content estimation * canopy reflectance models * radiative-transfer models * remote-sensing data * leaf-area index * optical-properties * conifer needles * forest * vegetation * inversion Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry Impact factor: 0.980, year: 2006

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUROPEAN SPRUCE ROOTS (LAT. PICEA ABIES H. KARST, PINACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Guljaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of essential oil extracted from the roots of European Spruce (Lat. Picea abies.The aim is to establish the component composition of the essential oil and the peculiarities of its localization in the roots of European Spruce.Materials and methods. The objects of the study are the roots of European Spruce not longer than two centimeters in diameter, peeled and dried. The study of their anatomical signs was carried out according to the methodology of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation (the XIII-th edition with the”Biomed-6” microscope using the DCN 510 nozzle. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of European Spruce roots using the device of Clevenger by Method 2 of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation (the XIII-th edition. The component composition of the essential oil was determined by an Agilent 7890A gas-liquid chromatograph with an Agilent 5975C mass-selective detector.Results and discussion. As a result of the microscopic examination of the roots of European Spruce, it was established that the essential oil is localized mainly in resinous courses located in the wood of the root. In the central part of the root, resin moves are of a larger diameter. More than 18 components were found in the essential oil of European Spruce roots, 14 of them were identifi ed. The main component of the essential oil is sesquiterpene lactone – tanbergol.Conclusion. The essential oil of European Spruce roots has a unique component composition that includes components not characteristic for the essential oil of spruce greenery. The difference in the component composition indicates the difference in properties and pharmacological activity. Further studies are of interest for determining the prospects of using European Spruce roots.

  15. Seasonal courses of photosynthetic parameters in sun- and shade-acclimated spruce shoots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Otmar; Holub, Petr; Klem, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 49-56 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : CO2 assimilation * gas-exchange * Norway spruce * ontogeny * temperature * vapour pressure deficit * vertical canopy profile Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0049/

  16. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Z.; Homolová, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukeš, Petr; Kaplan, Věroslav; Hanuš, Jan; Gastellu-Etchegory, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 131, APR (2013), s. 85-102 ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll retrieval * Imaging spectroscopy * Continuum removal * Radiative transfer * PROSPECT * DART * Optical indices * Norway spruce * High spatial resolution * AISA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.769, year: 2013

  17. Estimation of Spruce Needle-Leaf Chlorophyll Content Based on DART and PARAS Canopy Reflectance Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yáñez-Rausell, L.; Malenovský, Z.; Rautiainen, M.; Clevers, J G P W.; Lukeš, Petr; Hanuš, Jan; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2015), s. 1534-1544 ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll a plus b estimation * CHRIS-PROBA * coniferous forest * continuum removal * discrete anisotropic radiative transfer model (DART) * needle-leaf * Norway spruce * optical indices * PARAS * PROSPECT * radiative transfer * recollision probability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2015

  18. Increased spruce tree growth in Central Europe since 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Altman, Jan; Doležal, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří; Štěpánek, Petr; Ståhl, Göran; Tumajer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Tree growth response to recent environmental changes is of key interest for forest ecology. This study addressed the following questions with respect to Norway spruce (Picea abies, L. Karst.) in Central Europe: Has tree growth accelerated during the last five decades? What are the main environmental drivers of the observed tree radial stem growth and how much variability can be explained by them? Using a nationwide dendrochronological sampling of Norway spruce in the Czech Republic (1246 trees, 266 plots), novel regional tree-ring width chronologies for 40(±10)- and 60(±10)-year old trees were assembled, averaged across three elevation zones (break points at 500 and 700m). Correspondingly averaged drivers, including temperature, precipitation, nitrogen (N) deposition and ambient CO 2 concentration, were used in a general linear model (GLM) to analyze the contribution of these in explaining tree ring width variability for the period from 1961 to 2013. Spruce tree radial stem growth responded strongly to the changing environment in Central Europe during the period, with a mean tree ring width increase of 24 and 32% for the 40- and 60-year old trees, respectively. The indicative General Linear Model analysis identified CO 2 , precipitation during the vegetation season, spring air temperature (March-May) and N-deposition as the significant covariates of growth, with the latter including interactions with elevation zones. The regression models explained 57% and 55% of the variability in the two tree ring width chronologies, respectively. Growth response to N-deposition showed the highest variability along the elevation gradient with growth stimulation/limitation at sites below/above 700m. A strong sensitivity of stem growth to CO 2 was also indicated, suggesting that the effect of rising ambient CO 2 concentration (direct or indirect by increased water use efficiency) should be considered in analyses of long-term growth together with climatic factors and N

  19. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation and Norway spruce status: is there a causal relationship?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.; Havlíček, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 255-264 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * crown status * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  20. Soil chemistry and nutrition of North American spruce-fir stands: Evidence of recent change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joslin, J.D.; Kelly, J.M.; Van Miegroet, H.

    1992-01-01

    One set of hypotheses offered to explain the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in eastern North America focuses on the effect of acidic deposition on soil chemistry changes that may affect nutrient availability and root function. Long-term soils data suggests that soil acidification has occurred in some spruce stands over the past 50 yr, with plant uptake and cation leaching both contributing to the loss of cations. Studies of tree ring chemistry also have indicated changes in Ca/Al and Mg/Al ratios in red spruce wood, suggesting increases in the ionic strength of soil solution. Irrigation studies using strong acid inputs have demonstrated accelerated displacement of base cations from upper horizons. Spruce-fir (Abies spp.) nutrient budgets indicate that current net Ca and Mg leaching loss rates are of the same order of magnitude as losses to whole tree harvest removals, spread out over a 50-yr rotation. For most cations, red spruce foliar nutrient levels decline with elevation, but it is difficult to assess the contribution of the elevational gradient in atmospheric deposition to this pattern. Compared to northeastern sites, spruce-fir soil solutions in the southern Appalachians have higher nitrate levels and higher Al concentrations, which at times approach the Al toxicity threshold for red spruce seedlings and frequently are at levels known to interfere with cation uptake. There is little evidence that either nutrient deficiencies or Al toxicity are primary causes of red spruce decline in the Northeast, though both may play a role in the Southeast

  1. Sprucing up the site

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    From the Globe to restaurants and meeting rooms, feverish activity is under way on both of the CERN sites to replace old equipment, carry out maitenance on existing facilities and buildings and increase their energy efficiency. Work being carried out on the Globe of Science and Innovation.The visual landmark of CERN, the Globe, has been undergoing maintenance work since July. The 40 m diameter sphere, made entirely of wood, is currently being sanded down and new treatments are being applied to the wood to protect the whole building. The work will continue until the beginning of October. Major work is also under way on some of the most emblematic rooms of the Lab, such as the Conference Room in Building 60 and the Council Chamber: while the first has been completely refurbished, with around 15 extra seats added and new audiovisual facilities installed, in the latter the air conditioning and the main electrical switchboards have been r...

  2. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  3. Revealing organization of cellulose in wood cell walls by Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Anisotropy of cellulose organization in mature black spruce wood cell wall was investigated by Raman imaging using a 1 [mu]m lateral-resolution capable confocal Raman microscope. In these studies, wood cross sections (CS) and radial longitudinal sections (LS) that were partially delignified by acid chlorite treatment were used. In the case of CS where latewood cells...

  4. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Junfeng; Chen Jingwen; Martens, D.; Quan Xie; Yang Fenglin; Kettrup, A.; Schramm, K.-W.

    2003-01-01

    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  5. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B.; Stewart, G.

    1990-01-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH 4 + into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH 4 + feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH 4 + fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of 15 N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the 15 N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited

  6. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  7. Atmospheric and geogenic CO2 within the crown and root of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) growing in a mofette area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodnik, D.; Thomalla, A.; Ferlan, M.; Levanič, T.; Eler, K.; Ogrinc, N.; Wittmann, C.; Pfanz, H.

    2018-06-01

    Mofettes are often investigated in ecology, either as extreme sites, natural analogues to future conditions under climate change, or model ecosystems for environmental impact assessments of carbon capture and storage systems. Much of this research, however, inadequately addresses the complexity of the gas environment at these sites, mainly focusing on aboveground CO2-enrichment. In the current research, the gaseous environment of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) trees growing at the Stavešinske slepice mofette (NE Slovenia) were studied by measuring both soil ([CO2]soil) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]air). Within the studied site (800 m2), soil CO2 enrichment was spatially heterogeneous; about 25% of the area was characterized by very high [CO2]soil (>40%) and hypoxic conditions. Aboveground gas measurements along vertical profiles not only revealed substantially elevated [CO2]air close to the ground (height up to 1.5 m), but also in the upper heights (20-25 m; crown layer). On the basis δ13C of CO2, it was shown that elevated CO2 relates to a geogenic source. Trees grown in high [CO2]soil were characterized by decreased radial growth; the δ13C of their wood was less negative than in trees growing in normal soil. Unfavorable gaseous soil conditions should generally be accepted as being by far the most important factor affecting (i.e. disturbing) the growth of mofette trees.

  8. Analysis of the Soil Organic Matter Stability in Spruce Forests of Krkonose in Czechia on the Basis of the ROMUL Mathematical Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nadporozhskaya, M.A.; Cudlín, Pavel; Novák, František; Bykhovets, S.S.; Chertov, O.G.; Komarov, A.S.; Mikhailov, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2009), s. 657-667 ISSN 1064-2293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Norway spruce * model ROMUL * soil organic matter Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 0.222, year: 2009

  9. Impact of climate change on growth dynamics of Norway spruce in south-eastern Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Rybníček, Michal; Žid, T.; Andreassen, K.; Borja, I.; Kolář, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 1781. ISSN 0037-5330 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : crown condition * decline * Picea abies * tree-ring width * precipitation * Oslofjord Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2016

  10. How to reconcile wood production and biodiversity conservation? The Pan-European boreal forest history gradient as an "experiment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Vladimir; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Priednieks, Janis; Uhlianets, Siarhei; Yamelynets, Taras; Zhivotov, Anton; Angelstam, Per

    2018-07-15

    There are currently competing demands on Europe's forests and the finite resources and services that they can offer. Forestry intensification that aims at mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation is one example. Whether or not these two objectives compete can be evaluated by comparative studies of forest landscapes with different histories. We test the hypothesis that indicators of wood production and biodiversity conservation are inversely related in a gradient of long to short forestry intensification histories. Forest management data containing stand age, volume and tree species were used to model the opportunity for wood production and biodiversity conservation in five north European forest regions representing a gradient in landscape history from very long in the West and short in the East. Wood production indicators captured the supply of coniferous wood and total biomass, as well as current accessibility by transport infrastructure. Biodiversity conservation indicators were based on modelling habitat network functionality for focal bird species dependent on different combinations of stand age and tree species composition representing naturally dynamic forests. In each region we randomly sampled 25 individual 100-km 2 areas with contiguous forest cover. Regarding wood production, Sweden's Bergslagen region had the largest areas of coniferous wood, followed by Vitebsk in Belarus and Zemgale in Latvia. NW Russia's case study regions in Pskov and Komi had the lowest values, except for the biomass indicator. The addition of forest accessibility for transportation made the Belarusian and Swedish study region most suitable for wood and biomass production, followed by Latvia and two study regions in NW Russian. Regarding biodiversity conservation, the overall rank among regions was opposite. Mixed and deciduous habitats were functional in Russia, Belarus and Latvia. Old Scots pine and Norway spruce habitats were only functional in Komi. Thus

  11. Surface properties of thermally treated composite wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Spirchez, Cosmin; Lunguleasa, Aurel; Cristea, Daniel; Roata, Ionut Claudiu; Pop, Mihai Alin; Bedo, Tibor; Stanciu, Elena Manuela; Pascu, Alexandru

    2018-04-01

    Composite finger-jointed spruce and oak wood panels have been thermally treated under standard pressure and oxygen content conditions at two different temperatures, 180 °C and respectively 200 °C for short time periods (3 and 5 h). Due to the thermally-aided chemical restructuration of the wood components, a decrease in water uptake and volumetric swelling values with up to 45% for spruce and 35% for oak have been registered, comparing to the reference samples. In relation to water resistance, a 15% increase of the dispersive component of the surface energy has been registered for the thermal-treated spruce panels, which impedes water spreading on the surface. The thermal-treated wood presents superior resistance to accelerated UV exposure and subsequently, with up to 10% higher Brinell hardness values than reference wood. The proposed thermal treatment improves the durability of the finger-jointed wood through a more economically and environmental friendly method than traditional impregnation, with minimal degradative impact on the structural components of wood.

  12. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength....... This knowledge may be obtained either by adopting a general rule that the characteristic tensile strength is sixty percent of the characteristic bending strength, or by performing tensile tests on an adequate number of laminations representative of the whole population. The present paper presents...... an investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  13. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  14. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  15. Wood-inhabiting beetles in low stumps, high stumps and logs on boreal clear-cuts: implications for dead wood management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Andersson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

  16. Wood-inhabiting beetles in low stumps, high stumps and logs on boreal clear-cuts: implications for dead wood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jon; Hjältén, Joakim; Dynesius, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting) species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

  17. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  18. The use of wood anatomy features for landslide-risk assessment and early warning - an example from Western Carpathians, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, Małgorzata; Malik, Ireneusz; Piątek, Michał; Kojs, Paweł; Kalinowski, Michał; Polowy, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Trees, which grow on active landslide slopes have stems deformed due to the impact of instable ground. Their stems become tilted and bent which results in developing mechanical stresses which influence the structure of wood formed. Deformations occur during the whole life span of a tree and are recorded year-by-year in tree rings. Therefore it is possible to analyse the activity of landslide slopes in the past - through the analysis of tree-ring sequences obtained from living trees. It is also possible to date even small ground movements, otherwise imperceptible without using specialist detectors. Within the studies conducted we have analysed features of wood anatomy of Norway spruce, diagnostic for active landslide slopes: eccentricity and compression wood. The aim of presented study was to check, if it is possible (1) to detect the presence of week, initial ground movements with the use of established dendrochronological approach, (2) to forecast the possible catastrophic landslide event following preparatory phase.In order to fulfill the aim we have analysed the anatomy of spruces growing on landslide slope in Milówska village (foots of Mt Prusów 1020 m a.s.l., southern Poland, flysch Western Carpathians). The slope, basing on geomorphic mapping and observations conducted before 2010, was considered as inactive. However in consequence of heavy rainfalls in May-June 2010 the landslide was abruptly activated. Fast ground movements were catastrophic for inhabitants and buildings in the area. In 2012, in the area affected by landsliding 2 years earlier, we have taken samples (cores) from 25 spruce trees. We have analysed samples in search for growth disturbances: eccentricity and compression wood. We have found that in sampled trees not only the heavy landsliding in 2010 was recorded, but also: (1) symptoms of earlier instability for the last 10-20 years (probable initial landsliding), (2) symptoms of older events from over 50 years ago were detected. Results show

  19. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... optical properties of resultant paper were included to determine the properties of these pulp samples. ... pulping compounds in the kraft method are Na2S and .... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement of pulp.

  20. [Wood transformation in dead-standing trees in the forest-tundra of Central Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortova, L V; Kirdianov, A V; Myglan, V S; Guggenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the composition of wood organic matter in dead-standing spruce and larch trees depending on the period after their death have been studied in the north of Central Siberia. The period after tree death has been estimated by means of cross-dating. The results show that changes in the composition of wood organic matter in 63% of cases are contingent on tree species. Wood decomposition in dead-standing trees is accompanied by an increase in the contents of alkali-soluble organic compounds. Lignin oxidation in larch begins approximately 80 years after tree death, whereas its transformation in spruce begins not earlier than after 100 years. In the forest-tundra of Central Siberia, the rate of wood organic matter transformation in dead-standing trees is one to two orders of magnitude lower than in fallen wood, which accounts for their role as a long-term store of carbon and mineral elements in these ecosystems.

  1. Wood ash and lime. Effects on uptake of nutrients and heavy metals in bilberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Eriksson, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ten km north of Uppsala in eastern Sweden a field plot (2x2 m) experiment, with different ash and lime treatments, was established in June 1993 in a 70-year old mixed stand of Norway spruce and Scots pine on a sandy soil. The experiment included twelve treatments and one control, all with four replicates. The treatments were; a well-combusted loose wood ash, well-hardened ash granules, hardened and then crushed and sieved mixed ash, a mixture of hardened ash and lime, hardened wood ash and finally, lime. The normal dose was 4 tons per hectare. Two and thirteen months after treatment, bilberries were sampled. Bilberries sampled two months after treatment were analyzed for Ca, Mg, K, P, Al, Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn for nine treatments. Two months after treatment, the variation in the contents of different elements was very large, especially for K, P, Mn and Zn. Bilberries in the control had, on an average, lower contents of Ca, Mg, K and Cu than bilberries from the treated plots. Contents of Zn and Cd were, on an average, highest in the control plots. However, no significant differences between treatments were found. Thirteen months after treatment, the variation in content of all the heavy metals analyzed had decreased as well as the content of Pb and Zn. However, the contents of Cd and Cu had increased somewhat. No significant differences between treatments were found. It was concluded that the different treatments had a negligible effect on the content of heavy metals in bilberries the first year after treatment 122 refs, 10 figs, 15 tabs

  2. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  3. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  4. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  5. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  6. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  7. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  8. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.

  9. Individual variation of sap-flow rate in large pine and spruce trees and stand transpiration: a pilot study at the central NOPEX site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čermák, J.; Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Lindroth, A.; Bednářová, E.

    1995-06-01

    Transpiration in a mixed old stand of sub-boreal forest in the Norunda region (central Sweden) was estimated on the basis of direct measurement of sap flow rate in 24 large Scots pine and Norway spruce trees in July and August 1993. Sap flow rate was measured using the trunk tissue heat balance method based on internal (electric) heating and sensing of temperature. Transpiration was only 0.7 mm day -1 in a relatively dry period in July (i.e. about 20% of potential evaporation) and substantially higher after a rainy period in August. The error of the estimates of transpiration was higher during a dry period (about 13% and 22% in pine and spruce, respectively) and significantly lower (about 9% in both species) during a period of sufficient water supply. Shallow-rooted spruce trees responded much faster to precipitation than deeply rooted pines.

  10. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    the most used energy products in Norway, covering more than 70 per cent of the energy consumption for stationary purposes in mainland Norway. Stationary purposes means consumption in households, commercial buildings, manufacturing industry and the energy sector, as opposed to transport, which is referred to as a mobile purpose. In addition to electricity, consumption of gas has also increased substantially since the mid-1970s. In mainland Norway, gas is used primarily in industry and the petroleum sector. The consumption of heating oil has however decreased heavily and has been replaced by electricity and district heating. NVE does not produce forecasts of energy consumption, but analyses carried out by other bodies point to a future trend in stationary energy consumption in mainland Norway that is comparable to recent trends. It is expected a continuing flat trend in energy consumption in households and manufacturing and a low growth in energy consumption in the service industries. In housing and commercial buildings, it is expected that energy efficiencies and strict new building regulations will bring about a significant future reduction in energy consumption per square metre. In manufacturing industries, it its expected that industries such as wood processing and ferroalloy production will find conditions more challenging, while industries such as silicon metal production will grow, resulting in a net flat trend in future energy consumption in the sector as a whole. In the petroleum sector, on the other hand, continued growth in electricity consumption is expected in the next few years, due to the electrification of new platforms and enlargement of existing shore side installations.(au)

  11. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  12. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and aspens in...

  13. Spruce needles used as radioecological biotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.; Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A.

    2009-01-01

    In a two years project spruce needle samples of the Austrian Bioindicator Grid were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in spruce needles of the last 25 years with the main focus on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout 1986. More than 600 spruce needle samples at selected locations of the Bioindicator Grid were analysed for different natural and anthropogenic radionuclides: 137 Cs, 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 238 U. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites to study the soil-to-plant transfer. This radioecological evaluation is an important part of an existing environmental surveillance programme in Upper Austria in order to gain basic information on the impact of environmental changes on the radioecological behaviour of spruce trees. (orig.)

  14. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  15. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  16. Assembly of the Complete Sitka Spruce Chloroplast Genome Using 10X Genomics' GemCode Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Coombe

    Full Text Available The linked read sequencing library preparation platform by 10X Genomics produces barcoded sequencing libraries, which are subsequently sequenced using the Illumina short read sequencing technology. In this new approach, long fragments of DNA are partitioned into separate micro-reactions, where the same index sequence is incorporated into each of the sequencing fragment inserts derived from a given long fragment. In this study, we exploited this property by using reads from index sequences associated with a large number of reads, to assemble the chloroplast genome of the Sitka spruce tree (Picea sitchensis. Here we report on the first Sitka spruce chloroplast genome assembled exclusively from P. sitchensis genomic libraries prepared using the 10X Genomics protocol. We show that the resulting 124,049 base pair long genome shares high sequence similarity with the related white spruce and Norway spruce chloroplast genomes, but diverges substantially from a previously published P. sitchensis- P. thunbergii chimeric genome. The use of reads from high-frequency indices enabled separation of the nuclear genome reads from that of the chloroplast, which resulted in the simplification of the de Bruijn graphs used at the various stages of assembly.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  18. Wood Ash Induced pH Changes Strongly Affect Soil Bacterial Numbers and Community Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T.; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation of wood ash from energy production to forest soil improves the sustainability of this energy production form as recycled wood ash contains nutrients that otherwise would be lost at harvest. In addition, wood-ash is beneficial to many soils due to its inherent acid......-neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...... and the available results are ambiguous and remain at a general taxonomic level. Here we investigate the response of bacterial communities in a spruce forest soil to wood ash addition corresponding to 0, 5, 22, and 167 t wood ash ha(-1). We used culture-based enumerations of general bacteria, Pseudomonas...

  19. Possibilities for the Use of Wood Ashes in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Symanowicz; Marcin Becher; Dawid Jaremko; Korneliusz Skwarek

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the agricultural usefulness of the ashes obtained following the combustion of wood of fourteen tree species (pear tree, apple tree, aspen, ash, alder, birch, poplar, hornbeam, pine, common walnut, oak, hazel, bird cherry and spruce) in home fireplaces. The following physical properties of the ashes were determined: colour, solubility, porosity, absorbability, compression strength, degree of fineness, moisture content and spreadability. In the ashes...

  20. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Wood Anatomical Traits Reveals a Recent Extension in Tree Cambial Activity in Two High-Elevation Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Marco; Castagneri, Daniele; Prendin, Angela L; Petit, Giai; von Arx, Georg

    2017-01-01

    The study of xylogenesis or wood formation is a powerful, yet labor intensive monitoring approach to investigate intra-annual tree growth responses to environmental factors. However, it seldom covers more than a few growing seasons, so is in contrast to the much longer lifespan of woody plants and the time scale of many environmental processes. Here we applied a novel retrospective approach to test the long-term (1926-2012) consistency in the timing of onset and ending of cambial activity, and in the maximum cambial cell division rate in two conifer species, European larch and Norway spruce at high-elevation in the Alps. We correlated daily temperature with time series of cell number and lumen area partitioned into intra-annual sectors. For both species, we found a good correspondence (1-10 days offset) between the periods when anatomical traits had significant correlations with temperature in recent decades (1969-2012) and available xylogenesis data (1996-2005), previously collected at the same site. Yet, results for the 1926-1968 period indicate a later onset and earlier ending of the cambial activity by 6-30 days. Conversely, the peak in the correlation between annual cell number and temperature, which should correspond to the peak in secondary growth rate, was quite stable over time, with just a minor advance of 4-5 days in the recent decades. Our analyses on time series of wood anatomical traits proved useful to infer on past long-term changes in xylogenetic phases. Combined with intensive continuous monitoring, our approach will improve the understanding of tree responses to climate variability in both the short- and long-term context.

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Wood Anatomical Traits Reveals a Recent Extension in Tree Cambial Activity in Two High-Elevation Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of xylogenesis or wood formation is a powerful, yet labor intensive monitoring approach to investigate intra-annual tree growth responses to environmental factors. However, it seldom covers more than a few growing seasons, so is in contrast to the much longer lifespan of woody plants and the time scale of many environmental processes. Here we applied a novel retrospective approach to test the long-term (1926–2012 consistency in the timing of onset and ending of cambial activity, and in the maximum cambial cell division rate in two conifer species, European larch and Norway spruce at high-elevation in the Alps. We correlated daily temperature with time series of cell number and lumen area partitioned into intra-annual sectors. For both species, we found a good correspondence (1–10 days offset between the periods when anatomical traits had significant correlations with temperature in recent decades (1969–2012 and available xylogenesis data (1996–2005, previously collected at the same site. Yet, results for the 1926–1968 period indicate a later onset and earlier ending of the cambial activity by 6–30 days. Conversely, the peak in the correlation between annual cell number and temperature, which should correspond to the peak in secondary growth rate, was quite stable over time, with just a minor advance of 4–5 days in the recent decades. Our analyses on time series of wood anatomical traits proved useful to infer on past long-term changes in xylogenetic phases. Combined with intensive continuous monitoring, our approach will improve the understanding of tree responses to climate variability in both the short- and long-term context.

  3. Cytophotometric differentiation of high elevation spruces: physiological and ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlyn, G.P.; Royte, J.L.; Anoruo, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    Red and black spruce and their hybrids can be determined by morphological indices; however, the criteria are somewhat subjective and increasingly difficult to use at higher elevations. Although the chromosome number is identical (2n = 24), red spruce has twice as much nuclear DNA (48 pg) than black spruce (24 pg) and thus the species and their hybrids can also be separated by cytophotometry. This is relevant to spruce decline studies because black spruce is much more resistant to high elevation environmental stresses, both natural and anthropogenic. It also has implications for the effect of climatic changes on the composition of high elevation spruce-fir forests because red spruce can outcompete black spruce under more mesic conditions. Four elevation transects sampling spruce on the east and west sides of Mount Washington (New Hampshire) and Camels Hump (Vermont) and a single transect on the southwest side of Whiteface Mountain (New York) were made to investigate the degree of hybridization and introgression between these two species. A positive correlation was found between increased elevation and increased black spruce genes on Mount Washington and Camels Hump. Pure black spruce was found on Mount Washington from 1356 m to 1582 m. No pure black or red spruce was found on Camels Hump although the proportion of red spruce alleles was significantly greater on Camels Hump. All trees sampled at all elevations on Whiteface Mountain were pure red spruce. Thus the proportion of black spruce alleles in high elevation spruce populations decreases from east to west. This closely parallels the increase in spruce decline which increases from east to west. (author)

  4. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  5. Afforestation, seasalt episodes and acidification - A paired catchment study in western Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Thorjorn; Holme, Jorun

    2006-01-01

    As acid deposition has declined during the past 15-20 years in western Norway, afforestation and episodic seasalt deposition have become factors of increasing importance in explaining the mobilization of toxic aluminum (Al n+ ) to rivers and lakes. We conducted a paired catchment at four sites in western Norway across a gradient in acid deposition to evaluate the importance of afforestation and seasalt episodes. Streamwater was sampled intensively before, during and after seasalt episodes over a three-year period. A seasalt episode in January 2003 caused considerable impact on the streamwater chemistry. pH dropped and concentrations of Al n+ increased due to cation exchange of Na + ions for H + and Al n+ in the soil. The response was larger in streams draining the catchments which receive high acid deposition and in those afforested with spruce as compared with adjacent catchments in native birch. The results indicate that acid pulses induced by episodic inputs of seasalts are exacerbated by land use change from native birch to planted spruce. - Seasalt episodes cause higher mobilization of toxic aluminum in sites afforested with spruce

  6. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1995-01-01

    Review of activities and objectives in the area of creating operator support systems in nuclear power plants in Norway is presented. Development of a computerised alarm system for HAMMLAB (CASH) is described. A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state is discussed

  7. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  8. Energy requirement for fine grinding of torrefied wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repellin, Vincent; Govin, Alexandre; Guyonnet, Rene [Department of Powder and Multi-Components Materials (PMMC), SPIN Research Center, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne (EMSE), 158 Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rolland, Matthieu [Process Developments and Engineering Division, Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP-Lyon), F-69390 Vernaison (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of torrefaction on wood grinding energy. Wood chips were torrefied at different temperatures and durations. The energy required to obtain fine powder was measured. Particle size analyses were carried out on each powder sample. It is showed that torrefaction decreases both grinding energy and particle size distribution. A criterion to compare grindability of natural and torrefied wood is proposed. It takes into account both grinding energy and particle size distribution. It accounts the energy required for grinding particles to sizes inferior to 200 {mu}m, for given grinding conditions. Torrefaction is characterised by the anhydrous weight loss (AWL) of wood. For AWL inferior to around 8%, grinding energy decreases fast. Over 8%, grinding energy decreases at a slow rate. Particle size distribution decreases linearly as the AWL increases. Both for spruce and beech, the grinding criterion is decreased of 93% when the AWL is around 28%. (author)

  9. Spruce colonization at treeline: where do those seeds come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Piovani, P; Scalfi, M; Menozzi, P

    2009-08-01

    At treeline, selection by harsh environmental conditions sets an upward limit to arboreal vegetation. Increasing temperatures and the decline of traditional animal raising have favoured an upward shift of treeline in the last decades. These circumstances create a unique opportunity to study the balance of the main forces (selection and gene flow) that drive tree migration. We conducted a parentage analysis sampling and genotyping with five microsatellite markers in all Norway spruce individuals (342 juveniles and 23 adults) found in a recently colonized treeline area (Paneveggio forest, Eastern Alps, Italy). Our goal was to evaluate local reproductive success versus gene flow from the outside. We were able to identify both parents among local adults for only 11.1% of the juveniles. In the gamete pool we sampled, two-thirds were not produced locally. Effective seed dispersal distance distribution was characterized by a peak far from the seed source (mean 344.66 m+/-191.02 s.d.). Reproductive success was skewed, with six local adults that generated almost two-thirds (62.4%) of juveniles with local parents. Our findings indicate that, although a few local adults seem to play an important role in the colonization process at treeline, large levels of gene flow from outside were maintained, suggesting that the potential advantages of local adults (such as local adaptation, proximity to the colonization area, phenological synchrony) did not prevent a large gamete immigration.

  10. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

  11. Do saproxylic beetles respond numerically to rapid changes in dead wood availability following moth outbreaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of defoliating insects periodically cause mass mortality of trees, thereby generating pulses of dead wood resources for saproxylic (i.e. dead-wood dependent) organisms. This study investigated the responses of saproxylic beetles to a dead wood resource pulse caused by recent (2001-2009) outbreaks of geometrid moths in the subarctic mountain birch forest of the Varanger region in northern Norway. A large scale (20 km) transect design, implementing window (flight interception) traps a...

  12. Pollution control enhanced spruce growth in the “Black Triangle” near the Czech–Polish border

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Čermák, P.; Oulehle, Filip; Trnka, Miroslav; Štěpánek, Petr; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruška, Jakub; Büntgen, Ulf; Rybníček, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 538, 15 Dec (2015), s. 703-711 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0265; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA ČR GA13-04291S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08124S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : air pollution * Central Europe * dendroecology * forest growth * Norway spruce Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.976, year: 2015

  13. LNG imports from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is organized as follows: The first section outlines Norway's petroleum reserves and relates reserves of natural gas to potential markets. Then the paper focuses on specific fields or areas that could be devoted partly or mainly to service the US natural gas market. Finally, some indications are given of costs involved in field development, liquefaction and transportation and some very preliminary conclusions are arrived upon

  14. Nursing education in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkjebø, Jane Mikkelsen; Mekki, Tone Elin; Hanestad, Berit Rokne

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe nursing education in Norway and some essential questions and challenges regarding the undergraduate and newly graduated nurses' competencies and functionally preparedness. The first formal training of nurses in Norway started in Oslo in 1886. Since then the education has changed considerably. As long as society is changing, and nurses are going to meet and adapt to societies needs, the education of nurses will also have to change continuously. The present general plan of nursing education has gone through a long process. The discussions have concerned the content of medical and natural science subjects, the practical part of the training and the relation between theory and practice. There are challenges in nursing education in Norway today. We have seen that recruitment has decreased, and that nurses seek jobs where they are better paid. To increase the accessibility distance and part-time education has been established. The theory-practice gap will always exist. Therefore we should aim to prepare the students to minimize this gap in a way that they can combine training of nursing with training in improvement. The demand of a masters degree to be a nursing teacher has reduced the teachers' ability to keep up their practical skills. The government pays nursing teachers who want to practice as nurses for several months to maintain their salary level during that period. There are many possibilities to improve nursing education in Norway. We are on our way with highly qualified teachers and students, and we still have enough good applicants. The new general plan and new law for universities and university colleges offer great opportunities. However, the shortage of nurses is a great challenge for further quality improvement both in clinical practice and in education.

  15. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  16. Effectiveness of polyethylene sheeting in controlling spruce beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in infested stacks of spruce firewood in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner

    1993-01-01

    Covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central...

  17. Drying of firewood - the effect of harvesting time, tree species and shelter of stacked wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Bergstedt, Andreas; Farver, Ole; Heding, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Firewood represents a renewable source of energy and is the main source of energy for about half the World's population. When burning firewood in domestic stoves, combustion and thus energy efficiency is dependent on the moisture content of the wood. In Denmark, it is generally recommended that moisture content should be no more than 180 g kg -1 total weight. This study aims to assess the effect of species, harvesting time and shelter on the drying of stacked firewood. After felling, the moisture content declined to a relative stable level for all species. The rate of drying depended on the felling time, tree species, and the presence of shelter. The lower asymptotic moisture content depended mainly on the presence of shelter and averaged 188 g kg -1 total weight for frames left in the open and 154 g kg -1 total weight for frames covered by a shelter. It is concluded that Norway spruce felled during the early summer may obtain an acceptable moisture content at the onset of the heating season. Deciduous trees should be felled during the winter or early spring and stored under shelter to be suitable for burning before the heating season. Shelter was found to be of great importance to maintain an acceptable moisture content of firewood in storage during winter. -- Highlights: → Firewood is the main source of energy for about half the World's population. → The moisture content of firewood should be no more than 18% of total weight. → Drying rate depended on the felling time, tree species, and the presence of shelter. → Lower asymptotic moisture content depended mainly on the presence of a shelter. → Sheltered storage is very important to maintain an acceptable moisture content of the firewood.

  18. Heavy metal distribution in a spruce ecosystem in the Solling mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.; Lamersdorf, N.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation the distribution of Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb was studied in a spruce forest. Heavy metal content was analysed in different compartments of the ecosystem. Inventory of these elements was calculated for tree layer, humus layer and upper soil. A decrease in meter concentration in wood from root to shoot showed strong immobilization of heavy metals in roots. Increasing content of Cu in wood of branches can be explained as storage of this micronutrient. Atmospherically deposited Cr, Cu and Pb were strongly adsorbed to organic substances and accumulate in bark, dead fine roots and humus layer. On the other hand Zn and Cd are more mobile in the ecosystem. High amounts of these elements were found in biomass. Accumulation in bark probably can be a strategy of the tree to store these elements in physiologically inactive forms. Increasing mobilization of Zn, Cd and Co in soil led to intensified root uptake and to higher seepage output. (orig.)

  19. Energy wood resources availability and delivery cost in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Karjalainen, Timo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi

    2013-10-01

    Availability of solid by-products from wood harvesting and mechanical wood processing was estimated as sources for energy production based on recent actual harvesting, sawmill, and plywood production in Northwest Russia at 30 million m{sup 3}. Nearly 70% of the energy wood, 20 million m{sup 3}, was from harvesting, consisting of non-industrial round wood, unused branches and tops, defective wood resulting from logging, and spruce stumps removed after final felling. Over 30%, 10 million m{sup 3}, of the available volume was from sawmills and plywood mills, i.e. wood chips, sawdust, and bark. Due to current low utilization of energy wood for bioenergy in Northwest Russia, delivery cost of energy wood to the potential border-crossing points in Finland was analyzed for three means of transport: railways, roadways, and waterways. Nearly 28 million m{sup 3} of the energy wood could be transported by railways and 2 million m{sup 3} by roadways and waterways. The costs were lowest by roadways from the nearby border areas (10-15 Euro/m{sup 3} for wood processing by-products and 16-22 Euro/m{sup 3} for forest chips). The costs by railways varied from 12 to 27 Euro/m{sup 3} on shorter distances to 47-58 Euro/m{sup 3} on longer distances. Waterway transportation was the most expensive, about 28-48 Euro/m{sup 3}. It should be emphasized that we have estimated availability and delivery costs of energy wood, not prices which are defined by the market based on supply and demand.

  20. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  1. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Energy taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg, E.

    1991-01-01

    A rough survey is given of the most important areas of Norwegian taxation and tariff policy within the energy sector. Planning is still in progress for regulations on taxing and duties on electric power and fossil fuels. This comprises part of the work on improving the economy and resource consumption, partly through giving higher priority to environmental issues. It is suggested that it could take some time before national goals for the development of an energy taxation system can be reached. There must be a balance between short and long-time issues. Norway will look to experiences gained in other countries. (AB)

  3. Agent-based modelling of heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper introduces agent-based modelling as a methodological approach to understand the effect of decision making mechanism on the adoption of heating systems in Norway. The model is used as an experimental/learning tool to design possible interventions, not for prediction. The intended users of the model are therefore policy designers. Primary heating system adoptions of electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were selected. Random topology was chosen to represent social network among households. Agents were households with certain location, number of peers, current adopted heating system, employed decision strategy, and degree of social influence in decision making. The overall framework of decision-making integrated theories from different disciplines; customer behavior theory, behavioral economics, theory of planned behavior, and diffusion of innovation, in order to capture possible decision making processes in households. A mail survey of 270 Norwegian households conducted in 2008 was designed specifically for acquiring data for the simulation. The model represents real geographic area of households and simulates the overall fraction of adopted heating system under study. The model was calibrated with historical data from Statistics Norway (SSB). Interventions with respects to total cost, norms, indoor air quality, reliability, supply security, required work, could be explored using the model. For instance, the model demonstrates that a considerable total cost (investment and operating cost) increase of electric heating and heat pump, rather than a reduction of wood pellet heating's total cost, are required to initiate and speed up wood pellet adoption. (Author)

  4. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  5. Ant-mediated effects on spruce litter decomposition, solution chemistry, and microbial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, B.; Schramm, Andreas; Kalbitz, K.

    2006-01-01

    the effects of ants and aphid honeydew on litter solution of Norway spruce, microbial enzyme activities, and needle decomposition in a field and greenhouse experiment during summer 2003. In the field, low ant densities had relatively little effects on litter solution 30 cm away from a tree trunk...... and %N were not affected by ants or honeydew. Our results suggest that ants have a distinct and immediate effect on solution composition and microbial activity in the litter layer indicating accelerated litter decay whereas the effect of honeydew was insignificant. Keywords: Ants; Decomposition; Formica......Forest management practices often generate clear-cut patches, which may be colonized by ants not present in the same densities in mature forests. In addition to the associated changes in abiotic conditions ants can initiate processes, which do not occur in old-growth stands. Here, we analyse...

  6. Consequences of bioenergy wood extraction for landscape-level availability of habitat for dead wood-dependent organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiron, Matthew; Jonsell, Mats; Kubart, Ariana; Thor, Göran; Schroeder, Martin; Dahlberg, Anders; Johansson, Victor; Ranius, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Stumps and slash resulting from forest clearcutting is used as a source of low-net-carbon energy, but there are concerns about the consequences of biofuel extraction on biodiversity. Logging residues constitute potentially important habitats, since a large part of forest biodiversity is dependent on dead wood. Here we used snapshot field data from a managed forest landscape (25 000 ha) to predict landscape scale population changes of dead wood dependent organisms after extraction of stumps and slash after clearcutting. We did this by estimating habitat availability for all observed dead wood-dependent beetles, macrofungi, and lichens (380 species) in the whole landscape. We found that 53% of species occurred in slash or stumps. For most species, population declines after moderate extraction (≤30%) were small (dead wood types. However, some species were only recorded in slash and stumps. Red listed species were affected by slash and stump extraction (12 species), but less often than other species. Beetles and fungi were more affected by stump extraction, while lichens were more affected by slash extraction. For beetles and lichens, extraction of a combination of spruce, pine and birch resulted in larger negative effects than if only extracting spruce, while for fungi tree species had little effect. We conclude that extensive extraction decreases the amount of habitat to such extent that it may have negative consequences on species persistence at the landscape level. The negative consequences can be limited by extracting only slash, or only logging residues from spruce stands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromagnetic characterization of white spruce at different moisture contents using synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemi, Christopher M.; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Detection and quantification of moisture content inside wood (timber) is key to ensuring safety and reliability of timber structures. Moisture inside wood attracts insects and fosters the development of fungi to attack the timber, causing significant damages and reducing the load bearing capacity during their design life. The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (e.g., microwave/radar, ultrasonic, stress wave, and X-ray) for condition assessment of timber structures is a good choice. NDE techniques provide information about the level of deterioration and material properties of timber structures without obstructing their functionality. In this study, microwave/radar NDE technique was selected for the characterization of wood at different moisture contents. A 12 in-by-3.5 in-by-1.5 in. white spruce specimen (picea glauca) was imaged at different moisture contents using a 10 GHz synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor inside an anechoic chamber. The presence of moisture was found to increase the SAR image amplitude as expected. Additionally, integrated SAR amplitude was found beneficial in modeling the moisture content inside the wood specimen.

  8. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl., hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry, and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton as well as from two wood chipping sites using mixes of lodgepole pine and hybrid or black spruce. Leachate was generated using rainfall simulation, a static 28-day laboratory assay, and a field-based exposure. Leachate generated by these exposures was analyzed for organic matter content, phenols, ammonia, pH, and toxicity. Findings indicate that all wood chip types produced a toxic leachate despite differences in their chemistry. The consistent toxicity response highlights the need for runoff management that will disconnect processing sites from aquatic environments.

  9. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  10. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  11. The dynamics of aerosol behaviour and fate within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni

    1996-01-01

    The current work was intended to provide data on aerosol inputs to forest ecosystems and their subsequent fate. The background to the project was the Chernobyl accident which highlighted the importance of forests and other semi-natural ecosystems as a link in the transfer of radioactivity to man. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, forests were identified as a specific type of semi-natural ecosystem for which radioecological data were almost completely absent within the countries of the European Union. Information on radionuclide behaviour and transfer in forest ecosystems was therefore needed to establish and test radiological assessment models which can be used to evaluate the likely contribution to radiological dose-to-man contaminated forests may make. The objective of this study was thus to provide data on dry deposition, resuspension and field loss of aerosols to forest canopies, in particular those of Norway spruce (Picea abies), from wind tunnel experiments conducted with small scale 'model' canopies. An aerosol generation system was developed to produce aerosol particles in the size range of 0.13-1.37 μm (VMD). Particle size distributions can be controlled within desired limits and with sufficient stability over time allowing the technique to be suitable for use in extended aerosol deposition studies. A full scale dry deposition experiment using 0.82 μm (VMAD) uranium particles was performed in the wind tunnel using Norway spruce saplings of approximately 45 cm height. Deposition velocities (V g ) were obtained and these were related to meteorological measurements (wind speed, friction velocity, turbulence intensity) inside the wind tunnel and LAI of the canopy. The latter was divided into five horizontal layers and both horizontal and vertical variations in deposition were assessed. A V g value of 0.497 cm s -1 was obtained for the canopy as a whole with the highest and lowest fluxes of 2.85 x 10 -8 and 8.14 x 10 -9 μgU cm -2 s -1 occurring at

  12. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1993-01-01

    The only activity in Norway that is directly relevant for the present CRP is performed by Institutt for energiteknikk, the Norwegian Energy Research Institute. This institute is responsible for conducting the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This research project has as one of its main items a programme on ''Man-Machine Systems Research (MMSR)''. The main objective with this programme is to improve operational safety and efficiency of nuclear plants through introduction of new technology in the control room. This activity is divided into four main chapters; Development of computerised operator support systems; development of advanced control rooms; human factors activities related to introduction of new technology in the control room; software verification and validation. All these activities are relevant to the present CRP. A short description of each item is therefore given. 1 fig

  13. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  14. Sustainable Development Discourse in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Audun

    2009-01-01

    Norway represents the case of an early-mover transforming into a recalcitrant average player. There is currently no active public SD debate, and if any, the environmental dimension remains the most prevalent. Climate change is the core issue. In spite of this political focus and new, ambitious objectives (i.e. that Norway is to be carbon neutral by 2030), and despite the fact that Norway has huge potentials for renewable energy production and export to Europe, there are few indications of any more substantial policy changes at a sectoral level

  15. Linear equations on thermal degradation products of wood chips in alkaline glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2004-01-01

    Wood chips of 0.3 and 2 mm depth from poplar and spruce wood samples, respectively, were degraded by using glycerol as a solvent and alkaline glycerol with and without Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH catalysts at different degradation temperatures: 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490 and 500 K. By products from the degradation processes of the ligno celluloses include lignin degradation products. Lignin and its degradation products have fuel values. The total degradation degree and cellulose degradation of the wood chips were determined to find the relationship, if any, between the yields of total degradation degree (YTD) and degradation temperature (T). There is a good linear relationship between YTD or the yields of cellulose degradation (YCD) and T (K). For the wood samples, the regression equations from NaOH (10%) catalytic runs for 0.3 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm chip size are: For poplar wood: (YTD=0.7250T-267.507) (YCD=0.1736T-71.707) For spruce wood: (YTD=0.2650T-105.979) (YCD=0.0707T-27.507) For Eqs., the square of the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) were 0.9841, 0.9496, 0.9839 and 0.9447, respectively

  16. Organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, G.; Johansen, C.; Grøn, C.

    1998-01-01

    . No relationship between the position of the collectors and the forest edge or dominating wind-direction was found, suggesting that dry deposition was not a major source. The concentration of organic halogens was related to that of organic carbon and decreased from the tree-trunk and outwards. In addition......, the concentrations were higher during the growing season than during the dormant season. This indicates that the major part of the organic carbon and organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall originates from canopy leachates or other internal sources. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.......Deposition of dissolved organic halogens by throughfall was determined in a small spruce forest site in Denmark (56 degrees 28'N, 8 degrees 24'E). The mean annual deposition of dissolved organic halogens was 377 g ha(-1)yr(-1), and larger than the general deposition by precipitation...

  17. Radioecological investigations on tree rings of spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, G.; Mueller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tree ring analysis contributes essentially to the explanation of physiological and element-specific transport phenomena in trees. After the accident in Chernobyl the behaviour of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in trees is most informative for the prediction of the future development of the distribution of these elements. In this study the uptake and the long term behaviour of Cs-134, Cs-137, Pb-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40, Th-228, Th-230, Th-232, U-234 and U-238 in tree rings of spruce are examined by α- and γ-spectrometry. All samples are dried at 105C and ashed at 450C in a muffle furnace. The distributions found in the tree rings vary for different radionuclides. A soil profile from the spruce stand provides additional information

  18. European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, L.) green attack affects foliar reflectance and biochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Haidi; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Heurich, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, L. (hereafter bark beetle), causes major economic loss to the forest industry in Europe, especially in Norway Spruce (Picea abies). To minimise economic loss and preclude a mass outbreak, early detection of bark beetle infestation (so-called ;green attack; stage - a period at which trees are yet to show visual signs of infestation stress) is, therefore, a crucial step in the management of Norway spruce stands. It is expected that a bark beetle infestation at the green attack stage affects a tree's physiological and chemical status. However, the concurrent effect on key foliar biochemical such as foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll as well as spectral responses are not well documented in the literature. Therefore, in this study, the early detection of bark beetle green attacks is investigated by examining foliar biochemical and spectral properties (400-2000 nm). We also assessed whether bark beetle infestation affects the estimation accuracy of foliar biochemicals. An extensive field survey was conducted in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), Germany, in the early summer of 2015 to collect leaf samples from 120 healthy and green attacked trees. The spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between healthy and infested needle samples were found in the mean reflectance spectra, with the most pronounced differences being observed in the NIR and SWIR regions between 730 and 1370 nm. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the biochemical compositions (chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration) of healthy versus green attacked samples. Our results further demonstrate that the estimation accuracy of foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, utilising partial least square regression model, was lower for the infested compared to the healthy trees. We show that early stage of infestation reduces not only

  19. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Oddmund Søvika; Henrik Underthun Irgens; Janne Molnes; Jørn V. Sagena; Lise Bjørkhaug; Helge Ræder; Anders Molveng; Pål R. Njølstad

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3) were detected in a...

  20. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  1. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  2. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  3. Coarse root topology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and its effects on slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lith, Aniek; Schmaltz, Elmar; Bogaard, Thom; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    The structural distribution of coarse roots and its beneficial effects on soil reinforcement has widely been assessed. However, it is still not fully understood how topological features of coarse roots (e.g. branching patterns) are affected by slope inclination and further influence the ability of young trees to reinforce soil. This study aims to analyse empirically the impact of slope gradient on the topological development of coarse roots and thus to assess its effects on soil reinforcement. We performed root system excavations on two young Picea abies: tree A on a gently inclined plane (β ≈ 12°) where slope failures are not expected; tree B on a slope (β ≈ 35°) with failure potential. The diameter (d) of the segments between distinct root nodes (root ends, branching locations, direction changes and attachments to stem) of coarse roots (d > 2mm) were measured in situ. The spatial coordinates (x,y,z) of the nodes and surface were measured on a plane raster grid, from which segment length (ls), direction and inclination towards the surface (βr) were derived. Roots and segments were classified into laterals (βr classifications (FSC), to obtain quantitative relations between the topological order and number of segments, total and average ls. The maximal root cohesion (cr) of each segment was assessed using material specific tensile forces (Tr), root area ratio (RAR) and βr, assuming that a potential slip surface would cross the root system parallel to the slope. Laterals depicted the majority of roots (57 %) for tree A orientated rather in upslope direction (76.8 %), whereas tree B showed mostly obliques (54 %) orientated rather in downslope direction (55.4 %). Vertical roots were scarcely observable for both trees. DSC showed a high r2 (> 0.84) for the segments and ls. FSC showed high r2 (> 0.95) for the number of segments and the total length. RAR values of tree B are distributed rather upslope (76.8 % of RARtot), compared to 44.5 % of RARtot for tree A. The average cr (0.15) of each segment of tree B was remarkably higher than of tree A (0.10), leading to the conclusion that the slope has a strong influence on cr itself. This is supported by comparing the distribution of cr for both trees, where tree B tends to produce a higher cr in upslope direction (68.7 % of total cr) than tree A (37.7 %). In contrast to our expectations, tree B shows generally a higher cr compared to tree A, despite lower subsurface biomass. The findings indicate that the distinct branching patterns of coarse roots might determine the distribution of the RAR and thus lead to a higher reinforcement potential of young Picea abies on slopes.

  4. Measurements methods and variability assesment of the Norway spruce total leaf area. Implications for remote sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, L.; Lukeš, Petr; Malenovský, Z.; Lhotáková, Z.; Kaplan, Věroslav; Hanuš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2013), s. 111-121 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/ 1989 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chlorophyll content * conversion factor * Picea abies * projected leaf area * remote sensing * total leaf area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2013

  5. Oxidative biodegradation of tetrachloroethene in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weissflog, L.; Krüger, G.H.J.; Forczek, Sándor; Lange, Ch.A.; Kotte, K.; Pfennigsdorff, A.; Rohlenová, Jana; Fuksová, Květoslava; Uhlířová, H.; Matucha, Miroslav; Schröder, P.; Krueger, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2007), s. 89-96 ISSN 0254-6299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Biodegradation * Chloroplasts * Drought stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2007

  6. Trichloroacetic acid in Norway spruce/soil-system I. Biodegradation in soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Forczek, Sándor; Gryndler, Milan; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, K.; Schröder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2003), s. 303-309 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/1465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903; CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Microbial degradation * Trichloroacetic acid * Forest soil Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2003

  7. Stem respiration of Norway spruce trees under elevated CO2 concetration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 773-776 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : glass lamellas domes * tree growth * R10 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  8. Climate drivers of bark beetle outbreak dynamics in Norway spruce forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Økland, Bjørn; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    of warming temperatures and rainfall deficit. The large surplus of breeding material likely boosted I. typographus population size above the density threshold required to colonize and kill healthy trees irrespective of other climate triggers. Importantly, we found strong negative density dependence in I....... typographus that may provide a mechanism for population decline after population eruptions. Generality in the effects of complex climatic events across different geographical areas suggests that the large-scale drivers can be used as early warning indicators of increasing local outbreak probability....

  9. Conditions of natural regeneration of Norway spruce ecosystems in the Krkonose Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Goldbold, L D.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, S.; Fritz, W H.; Gonthier, P.; Chmelíková, Ewa; Kowalik, P.; Martinotti, M G.; Moravec, Ivo; Nicolotti, G.; Varese, C.; Peter, M.; Zanini, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 66-79 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : forest decline * acid precipitation * natural regeneration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  10. Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce embryogenic tissues using somatic embryo explants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavingerová, Daniela; Bříza, Jindřich; Niedermeierová, Hana; Vlasák, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2011), s. 277-280 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Agrobacterium tumefaciens * genetic engineering * GUS activity * Picea abies (L.) Karst Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology

  11. Response of Norway spruce root system to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, I.; Marek, Michal V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2013), s. 1807-1816 ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biomass * elevated CO2 * Picea abies * root structure * secondary roots Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2013

  12. Histological and biochemical response of Norway spruce somatic embryos to UV-B irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, Kateřina; Vondráková, Zuzana; Malbeck, Jiří; Trávníčková, Alena; Pešek, Bedřich; Vágner, Martin; Cvikrová, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2017), s. 1279-1293 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13050; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13051 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Oxidative stress * Phenolic acids * Phenylpropanoids * Picea abies (L.) Karst * Polyamines * Somatic embryogenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2016

  13. Comparing carbohydrate status during norway spruce seed development and somatic embryo formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gösslová, M.; Svobodová, H.; Lipavská, H.; Albrechtová, J.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2001-01-01

    The carbohydrate status of developing seeds of Picea abies was examined in order to provide a frame of reference for the evaluation of changes in carbohydrate content in maturing somatic embryos of the same species. Samples were taken at weekly intervals from 12 May 1998 (estimated time of

  14. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřek, J.; Zítka, O.; Adam, V.; Bartušek, Karel; Anjum, N. A.; Pereira, E.; Havel, L.; Kizek, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0144093:1-16 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * biochemical parameters Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  15. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Růžek, M.; Tahovská, K.; Bárta, J.; Myška, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 282. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies * carbon * nitrogen * budget * respiration * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  16. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Cudlín, Pavel; Chroust, P.; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Edwards, Magda; Czerný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Paoletti, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 5 (2011), s. 1024-1034 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ozone deposition * stomatal conductance * deposition velocity * friction velocity * gradient method * tropospheric ozone * net ecosystem production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.746, year: 2011

  17. Modelling of stomatal conductance and ozone deposition flux of Norway Spruce using deposition model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Chroust, P.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, 2-3 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 1335-339X R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ozone concentration * ozone deposition * stomatal conductance * deposition velocity * resistance model * tropo-spheric ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  18. Light Use Efficiency of Aboveground Biomass Production of Norway Spruce Stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellan, Michal; Marková, I.; Zaika, A.; Krejza, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2017), s. 9-16 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010945 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : absorbed photosynthetically active radiation * aboveground biomass increment * allometric relation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection

  19. Shoot growth processes, assessed by bud development types, reflect Norway spruce vitality and sink prioritization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, T.; Rock, B. N.; Campbell, P.E.; Soukupová, J.; Šolcová, Blanka; Zvára, K.; Albrechtová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 225, 1-3 (2006), s. 337-348 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 658 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova v Praze / Přírodovědecká fakulta(CZ) KJB6111307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : tree vitality * buds * carbon allocation * sink/source concept Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.839, year: 2006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.01.027

  20. Trichloroacetic acid in Norway spruce/soil-system. II. Distribution and degradation in the plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Gryndler, Milan; Albrechtová, J.; Fuksová, K.; Vágner, Martin; Schröder, P.; Matucha, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2004), s. 327-333 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874; GA ČR GA522/99/1465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : C-14 labeling * microbial degradation * phyllosphere Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2004

  1. Uptake, translocation and fate of trichloroacetic acid in a Norway spruce/soil system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schröder, P.; Matucha, Miroslav; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, K.; Albrechtová, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2003), s. 437-442 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/1465 Grant - others:German-Czech Future Fund(DE) 3/01/270 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Coniferous forest injury * Chlorinated solvents * Secondary air pollutants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2003

  2. Fluxes of inorganic and organic arsenic species in a Norway spruce forest floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.-H. [Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)], E-mail: jenhow.huang@uni-bayreuth.de; Matzner, Egbert [Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    To identify the role of the forest floor in arsenic (As) biogeochemistry, concentrations and fluxes of inorganic and organic As in throughfall, litterfall and forest floor percolates at different layers were investigated. Nearly 40% of total As{sub total} input (5.3 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) was retained in Oi layer, whereas As{sub total} fluxes from Oe and Oa layers exceeded the input by far (10.8 and 20 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively). Except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), fluxes of organic As decreased with depth of forest floor so that <10% of total deposition (all <0.3 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) reached the mineral soil. All forest floor layers are sinks for most organic As. Conversely, Oe and Oa layers are sources of As{sub total}, arsenite, arsenate and DMA. Significant correlations (r {>=} 0.43) between fluxes of As{sub total}, arsenite, arsenate or DMA and water indicate hydrological conditions and adsorption-desorption as factors influencing their release from the forest floor. The higher net release of arsenite from Oe and Oa and of DMA from Oa layer in the growing than dormant season also suggests microbial influences on the release of arsenite and DMA. - The forest floor layers are generally a source for inorganic arsenic species but a sink for most organic arsenic species under the present deposition rate.

  3. Norway spruce (Picea abies) genetic transformation with modified Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2013), s. 395-400 ISSN 0001-527X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290; GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/11/1471 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cry3A gene modification * Picea abies * Agrobacterium tumefaciens Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2013

  4. Leaf area index of Norway spruce stands in relation to age and defoliation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Stojnič, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2012), s. 173-180 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA TA ČR TA02010945 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : health status * LAI * needle * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  5. Competitiveness of endophytic Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata strains in Norway spruce roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroheker, Sophie; Dubach, Vivanne; Sieber, Thomas N

    2018-05-01

    Dark septate endophytes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are presumed to be the most abundant root colonizing endophytes of conifers across the Northern hemisphere. To test the competitiveness of different PAC strains, PAC-free Picea abies saplings were inoculated with five different PAC strains by planting them in pre-colonized substrates. Saplings were left to grow for six weeks and then transplanted crosswise into a substrate colonized by one of the other four strains for a further two weeks. PAC were isolated and genotyped using microsatellite markers. The power of colonization, i.e. the ability of colonizing roots already colonized by another PAC strain, and the power of retention, i.e. the ability of a resident strain of not being suppressed by an invading PAC strain, were calculated for each strain in every combination. The experiment was run twice under two different climatic conditions. Our results show that PAC strains differ (1) in their ability to colonize PAC-free, non-sterile roots, (2) in resistance against being suppressed by another PAC strain and (3) in their ability to invade roots already colonized by another PAC strain. In addition, both the PAC-PAC and the PAC-host interactions depend on the climatic conditions. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth and transpiration of Norway spruce trees under atmosphere with elevated CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Šalanská, Petra; Janouš, Dalibor

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2001), s. 14-28 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/0085; GA ČR GA205/99/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  7. The effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on Norway spruce needle parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Marek, Michal V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2011), s. 2269-2277 ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : carbon dioxide * morphology * long-term experiment * Pieca abies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  8. Anatomical and Histochemical Changes of Norway Spruce Buds Induced by Simulated Acid Rain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukupová, J.; Albrechtová, J.; Svobodová, H.; Opatrná, Jana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2002), s. 77-84 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : histochemistry * image analysis * non specific esterase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2002

  9. Allometric relationships for surface area and dry mass of young Norway spruce aboveground organs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana

    53 2007, č. 12 (2007), s. 548-554 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : allometry * biomass, * Picea abies * sapwood * surface area Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  10. The effect of air elevated [CO2] on crown architecture and aboveground biomass in Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Slípková, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 2-11 ISSN 1392-1355 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : thinning * secondary shoots * biomass allocation * long-term experiment * dendrometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2012

  11. Divergent growth of Norway spruce on Babia Góra Mountain in the western Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buras, Allan; Spyt, Barbara; Janecka, Karolina; Kaczka, Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    Growth divergence – i.e. the expression of divergent growth trends of neighboring trees – has certain implications for dendrochronological research, for instance in the context of climate reconstructions but also in terms of estimating net ecosystem productivity. Thus, understanding the underlying

  12. Acclimation of Norway spruce photosynthetic apparatus to the combined effect of high irradiance and temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štroch, M.; Vrábl, D.; Podolinská, J.; Kalina, J.; Urban, Otmar; Špunda, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 8 (2010), s. 597-605 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : diurnal courses * picea abies * thermal acclimation * thermal energy dissipation * xanthophyll cycle Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2010

  13. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent......, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h....

  14. The role of actin isoforms in somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzerová, K.; Vondráková, Zuzana; Fischer, L.; Boříková, P.; Bellinvia, E.; Eliášová, Kateřina; Havelková, L.; Fišerová, J.; Vágner, Martin; Opatrný, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 89 (2010), s. 1-13 ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA MŠk OC 158; GA MŠk ME 668 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH * GENE FAMILY * F-ACTIN Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  15. Dynamics of temperature normalized stem CO2 efflux in Norway Spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2011), s. 121-125 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA AV ČR IAA300420803; GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * R10 * Picea abies * precipitations * stem growth Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Water relations in Norway spruce trees growing at ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupper, P.; Sellin, A.; Klimánková, Zdeňka; Pokorný, Radek; Puértolas, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 603-609 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : global change * sap flux * shoot water potential Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  17. Water availability effect on transpiration of the Norway spruce forest stand: a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bužková, Romana; Pokorný, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 67-74 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : sap flow * tree dominance classes * volumetric soil moisture content * specific sap flux Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  18. Trichloroacetic acid of different origin in Norway spruce needles and chloroplasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forczek, Sándor; Schröder, P.; Weissflog, L.; Krüger, G.; Rohlenová, Jana; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2008), s. 177-180 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : 14C-14 labelling * subcellular level * tetrachloroethene Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2008

  19. Restoration of Central-European mountain Norway spruce forest 15 years after natural and anthropogenic disturbance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, M. H.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 144, 15 May (2015), s. 120-130 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Picea abies forest * disturbance * bark beetle * salvage logging * natural regeneration * Herb-layer vegetation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2015

  20. Soil properties associated with net nitrification following watershed conversion with Appalachian hardwoods to Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlene N. Kelly; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Mary Beth Adams

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3-N) in soil solution and streamwater can be an important vector of nitrogen (N) loss from forested watersheds, and nitrification is associated with negative consequences of soil acidification and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to identify vegetation-mediated soil properties that may control...

  1. Reflectance continuum removal spectral index tracking the xanthophyll cycle photoprotective reactions in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, Daniel; Navrátil, M.; Malenovský, Z.; Štroch, Michal; Špunda, Vladimír; Urban, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2012), s. 987-998 ISSN 1445-4408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : diurnal course * growth chambers * photosynthetic pigments composition * Picea abies * reflectance continuum removal * xanthophyll cycle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.471, year: 2012

  2. Ecosystem water use efficiency of norway spruce monoculture from eddy-covariance and ecophysiological measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Slípková, Romana; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 951, č. 1 (2012), s. 301-308 ISSN 0567-7572. [International Workshop On Sap Flow /8./. Volterra, 08.05.2011-12.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : eddy-covariance * evaporation * Picea abies * sap flow * transpiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Influence of road salting on the adjacent Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forczek, Sándor; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Sigler, Karel; Matucha, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2011), s. 344-350 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636; GA ČR GP522/09/P394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : deicing * radiotracer methods * salinity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2011 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/43290.pdf

  4. Comparison of different approaches of radiation use efficiency of biomass formation estimation in Mountain Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupková, Lenka; Marková, I.; Havránková, Kateřina; Pokorný, Radek; Urban, Otmar; Šigut, Ladislav; Pavelka, Marian; Cienciala, E.; Marek, Michal V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2017), s. 325-337 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Solar radiation * Biomass increment * Carbon flux * light use efficiency Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2016

  5. Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds above temperate Norway spruce forest of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juráň, Stanislav; Pallozi, E.; Guidolotti, G.; Fares, S.; Šigut, Ladislav; Calfapietra, Carlo; Alivernini, A.; Savi, F.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Křůmal, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232, JAN (2017), s. 500-513 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13031; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : Monoterpenes * Isoprene * Proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) * Fluxes * Lagrangian model * MEGAN Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UIACH-O) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Analytical chemistry (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  6. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Frank; Christoph Sperisen; Glenn Thomas Howe; Peter Brang; Lorenz Walthert; John Bradley St.Clair; Caroline Heiri

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important...

  7. Growth trends and climate responses of Norway spruce along elevational gradients in East-Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponočná, T.; Spyt, B.; Kaczka, R. J.; Büntgen, Ulf; Treml, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 1633-1646 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : abies l. karst. * tree-ring chronologies * basal area increment * radial growth * forest growth * altitudinal gradient * sudetes mountains * northern europe * tatra mountains * alps * climate change * mountain forests * picea abies * radial growth * rree rings * trend preservation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2016

  8. Increasing Water Use Efficiency Comes at a Cost for Norway Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Sanders

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi in trees is an indication of the ratio of carbon assimilation to the rate of transpiration. It is generally assumed that it is a response to water availability. In agricultural research, the question of drought tolerance by increased WUEi has been well studied. In general, the increase is a trade-off for productivity and is therefore not desired. For forest trees, this question is less clearly understood. Using stable carbon isotopes derived from tree rings combined with productivity as the product of the annual growth increment and annual density measurements, we compared the change in WUEi over a 15 year period. While WUEi increased over this period, the productivity decreased, causing an opposing trend. The gradient of the correlation between WUEi and productivity varies between provenances and sites. Counterintuitively, the populations at the drier site showed low WUEi values at the beginning of the investigation. Slopes vary with the provenance from Poland showing the least decline in productivity. In general, we found that a decline in productivity aligned with an increase in WUEi.

  9. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  10. Study of influence of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves on electrophysical properties of coniferous trees wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahimov, Nursulton; Lagunov, Alexey; Melehov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on changing weather conditions in the Arctic. Wood is a traditional building material in the North of Russia. Supports of communication lines are made of wood. Dry wood is a solid dielectric with a low conductivity. At the same time it is porous material having high hygroscopicity. The presence of moisture leads to wood rotting. To prevent rotting of a support it needs to be impregnated with antiseptics. A tree dried by means of convection drying cannot provide required porosity of wood for impregnation. Our studies of electrophysical properties of coniferous species showed that microwave drying of wood increases the porosity of the wood. Wood dried in this way is easily impregnated with antiseptics. Thorough wood drying requires creating optimal conditions in a microwave oven. During the drying process in a chamber there is a resonant phenomenon. These phenomena depend on electro-physical properties of the material placed in the chamber. Dielectric constant of wood has the most influence. A resonator method to determine the dielectric constant of the wood was used. The values of permittivity for the spruce and pine samples were determined. The measured value of the dielectric constant of wood was used to provide optimal matching of the generator with the resonator in a wood-drying resonator type microwave chamber, and to maintain it in the process of wood drying. It resulted in obtaining the samples with a higher permeability of wood in radial and longitudinal direction. This creates favorable conditions for wood impregnation with antiseptics and flame retardants. Timber dried by means of electromagnetic waves in the 2.4 GHz band has a deeper protective layer. The support made of such wood will serve longer as supports of communication lines.

  11. Some observations on age relationships in spruce-fir regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the ages of seedlings of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L) Mill.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) 15 years after the first harvest of a two-cut shelterwood operation revealed that very few potential crop-tree seedlings in the sample occurred as advance...

  12. Ethanol exposure can inhibit red spruce ( Picea rubens ) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Brittany M. Verrico; Victor Vankus; Stephen R. Keller

    2018-01-01

    Flotation of seeds in solvents is a common means of separating unfilled and filled seeds. While a few protocols for processing red spruce (Picea rubens) seeds recommend ethanol flotation, delayed and reduced germination have been reported. We conducted an ethanol bioassay on seeds previously stored at -20°C to quantify the concentration required to separate red spruce...

  13. Radial Growth Response of Black Spruce Stands Ten Years after Experimental Shelterwoods and Seed-Tree Cuttings in Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Montoro Girona

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial cutting is thought to be an alternative to achieve sustainable management in boreal forests. However, the effects of intermediate harvest intensity (45%–80% on growth remain unknown in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. stands, one of the most widely distributed boreal species with great commercial interest. In this study, we analysed the effect of three experimental shelterwood and one seed-tree treatments on tree radial growth in even-aged black spruce stands, 10 years after intervention. Our results show that radial growth response 8–10 years after cutting was 41% to 62% higher than in untreated plots, with stand structure, treatment, tree position relative to skidding trails, growth before cutting and time having significant interactions. The stand structure conditioned tree growth after cutting, being doubled in younger and denser stands. Tree spatial position had a pronounced effect on radial growth; trees at the edge of the skidding trails showed twice the increase in growth compared to interior trees. Dominant trees before cutting located close to the skidding trails manifested the highest growth response after cutting. This research suggests that the studied treatments are effective to enhance radial wood production of black spruce especially in younger stands, and that the edge effect must be considered in silvicultural management planning.

  14. Estimated contribution from wood combustion to air pollution in Hamar, Lillehammer and Gjoevik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schjoldager, J.

    1996-07-01

    The report analyses the level of air pollution from wood combustion in urban areas in Norway. From the analysis of potassium and soot in samples from January 1992, there were large uncertainties in the estimation of particle contributions from the combustion. Concentration estimates of formaldehyde from wood combustion were comparable to measurements, while estimated PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) concentrations were lower than measurements. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  15. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  16. The Gardnos Impact Structure, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, J. A.; Naterstad, J.

    1992-07-01

    The Gardnos area is situated 9 km north of the village Nesbyen in the county of Buskerud, south-central Norway. The peculiar "Gardnos breccia" was first described in 1945 and ascribed to explosive volcanic activity in Permian time. This conclusion has lately been questioned, and preliminary field and microscopic investigations by the authors in 1990-91 substantiated a theory of impact origin for the breccia and the structure. The Gardnos Impact Structure is the first of its kind to be described from Norway. Its geographical position is lat. 60 degrees 39'N, long. 9 degrees 00'E. The topography surrounding the structure ranges from 200 m.a.s.l. in the main Hallingdalen valley to more than 1000 m.a.s.l. in the high mountains nearby. At heights of 900-1000 m erosion has cut through the important, more or less horizontal boundary between a complex Precambrian crystalline basement and a deformed Caledonian cover sequence of Cambro-Ordovician sediments and overthrust nappes. Rocks of the latter sequence are however, still preserved in outliers no more than 3 km from the Gardnos structure. Erosional remnants of the Gardnos structure rocks are found within a semicircular area of 4-5 km diameter. Topographically the eroded structure now appears as a bowl-shaped, hanging side valley to Hallingdal. Wooded, late-Quaternary moraines and fluvioglacial deposits cover to a great extent the solid rocks, but the beds of many branching creeks provide good exposures. Thus a great variety of rocks formed within the Gardnos structure can be studied from approximately 350 m.a.s.l. up to more than 800 m.a.s.l. A variety of rocks from the Precambrian basement complex have been affected by the impact. This gives a unique opportunity to study shock-metamorphic effects on varying lithologies. Among the impact-produced structures and rock types that can easily be identified is an outer zone of breccia veining in the varied Precambrian lithologies, a lowermost lens of autochthonous breccia, the

  17. The Biomonitoring project – monitoring of forest ecosystems in non-intervention areas of the Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zenáhlíková, J.; Červenka, J.; Čížková, P.; Bečka, P.; Starý, M.; Marek, P.; Křenová, Zdeňka; Svoboda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2015), s. 95-104 ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Bohemian forest * forest inventory * dead wood * natural regeneration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Technological and chemical properties of heat-treated Anatolian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... heat treatment temperature and time justifies these re- sults. Cellulose ..... properties of light-irradiated wood with heat treatment: Part 1. Effect ... Norway spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pubescens) subjected to heat ...

  19. Corporatism in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    The literature of corporatism tends to bypass most Scandinavian countries and ignore state-social partner relations not related to wage bargaining and income policy. This contribution attempts to overcome both these shortcomings. It concludes that corporatism is alive in Denmark and Norway......, in Norway ‘peak-level' corporatism on wage setting remains stronger than in Denmark, whereas ‘meso-level' corporatism (corporatism in specific policy area) is stronger in Denmark than in Norway........ The social partners have, as general rule, been involved in formulating and implementing changes in welfare state policies, and corporatist arrangements are also seen in relation to some industrial relations issues. The two countries share a number of contextual features important for corporatism. However...

  20. Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Faccoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012 on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1 pure spruce plantations; (2 pure spruce reforestations; (3 pure spruce mountain forests; (4 pure spruce alpine forests; (5 spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6 spruce-broadleaf mixed forests; and (7 spruce-conifer-broadleaf mixed forests. The collected data included the amount of I. typographus damage and the location and composition of the infested forests. The results indicate that different forest types are differently susceptible to I. typographus. Plantations, reforestations and mountain spruce forests show mean damage and mean number of infestations higher than other forest types. Within pure spruce forests, alpine forests growing at high elevations (>1300 m suffer low damage. Furthermore, the mean number of infestation spots recorded annually in the different spruce forest types is negatively correlated with a Naturality Index value. The results suggest that forest composition and elevation are the main factors driving the risk of I. typographus damage. A new management strategy for some spruce forest types is needed, with a progressive reduction of pure spruce forests at low altitude and an increase of broadleaf composition.

  1. Norway between tradition and opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This book is a general presentation of Norway: natural and human framework, history, institutions and political life, economy, economic policy and means, foreign relations, and social life. In the chapter devoted to Norway's economy, the energy sources and policies of the country are described: hydro-power, coal, hydrocarbons (petroleum, natural gas and condensates, proven, discovered and undiscovered resources). The production, imports, exports, retail prices and national consumption are given for each energy sources and each economic sector. The chapter focusses on the deterministic role of energy in the Swedish economy: investments, contract management, balance of trade, public finances, employment etc.. (N.K.)

  2. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  3. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  4. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  5. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  6. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  7. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  8. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better

  9. The chiropractic profession in Norway 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvammen, O. C.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chiropractic profession in Norway has increased five-fold in the last two decades. As there is no academic graduate program in Norway, all chiropractors have been trained outside of Norway, in either Europe, America or Australia. This might have given Norwegian chiropractors heter...

  10. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  11. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  12. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  13. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  14. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  15. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  16. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  17. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  18. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  19. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  20. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters