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Sample records for northern sweden pedigree

  1. A novel stroke locus identified in a northern Sweden pedigree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janunger, T.; Nilsson-Ardnor, S.; Wiklund, P.-G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The population of northern Sweden is characterized by reduced genetic diversity and a high incidence of stroke. We sought to reduce genetic variation further, using genealogic analysis in a set of nuclear families affected by stroke, and we subsequently performed a genome-wide scan...... to identify novel stroke susceptibility loci. METHODS: Through genealogy, 7 nuclear families with a common ancestor, connected over 8 generations, were identified. A genome-wide scan using 449 microsatellite markers was performed with subsequent haplotype analyses. RESULTS: A maximum allele-sharing lod score...... of 4.81 on chromosome 9q31-q33 was detected. Haplotype analysis identified a common 2.2-megabase interval in the chromosomal region in 4 of the nuclear families, where an overrepresentation of intracerebral hemorrhage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel susceptibility locus for stroke...

  2. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Socioeconomic, demographic and legal influences on consanguinity and kinship in northern coastal Sweden 1780-1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerbladh, I; Bittles, A H

    2011-07-01

    Most studies on consanguinity have been conducted on contemporary populations and have focused on the prevalence and types of preferred intra-familial marriage. With its comprehensive birth, marriage and deaths records dating back to the late 17th century, and the legal bar on first cousin marriage removed in the mid-19th century, Sweden offers unique opportunities to examine the factors that determine by whom, where and why consanguineous marriages were contracted. The present study covers the period 1780-1899 and presents a detailed portrait of cousin and sibling exchange marriages in the Skellefteå region of northern coastal Sweden. The combined prevalence of first, second and third cousin marriage increased from 2.3% in 1790-1810 to 8.8% in 1880-1899, and multi-generation consanguinity also increased significantly over the study period. The distribution and prevalence of first cousin marriages was strikingly non-random, with a significantly greater propensity for consanguinity among land-owning families, especially involving first-born sons, within specific pedigrees, and in a number of more remote inland communities. Additional factors associated with a greater likelihood of consanguineous marriage included physical or mental disability among males, and among females the prior birth of an illegitimate child. Besides the inherent interest in the social and demographic structure of this region of northern Sweden during the course of the 19th century, in future studies it will be important to determine the degree to which the observed patterns of consanguineous and sibling exchange marriages in these past generations could have influenced present-day genetic structure. © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  4. Neotectonics in northern Sweden - geological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.; Witschard, F.

    1983-05-01

    Fairly large areas around the formerly known quaternary faults have been air photo interpreted. The fault known as the Parvie fault has been found to extend somewhat further towards the south, thereby crossing the valley of the Stora Lule river. Furthermore, another fault has been discovered in the Lansjaerv region, and thus the faults in this area form a better fit to the regional pattern, with a SSW - NNE trend and a relative uplift of the eastern part. The fault scarps have been leveled photogrammatrically, and reproduced on maps on the scales of 1:50000 and 1:100000, and on overview maps on the scale of 1:250000. The highest leveld scarps somewhat exceed 30 m. The total length of the faults is roughly 300 km. During the air photo interpretation, several landslides have been detected, and it seems evident from their location that there is a causal connection between faults and landslides. It seems evident that the different faults are not simultaneously formed, but created at separate events. Representative samples have been collected, and thin sections of these investigated under the microscope. Often, the bedrock shows signs of older tectonic influence, and it seems that the faults largerly have been released along existing zones of weakness in the bedrock. However, striking exceptions, with fracturing through unaltered rock, have been found in several places. The faults illustrated in the maps below undoubtedly represent the most important signs of late quaternary fault activity in Norrbotten east of the Caledonian mountains. The geographic, and very probably also causal connection between faults and landslides seems obvious in both Finland and Sweden. We need a satisfactory tectonic explanation for the faults. Undoubtedly, the glacial - isostatic forces have a central role. The strike of the faults is approximately perpendicular to the direction of plate motion, and compressive forces have acted at the formation of the faults. (author)

  5. 137Cs in the population of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ågren, G.; Björeland, A.; Johansson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Whole-body content of 137 Cs has been measured in both 1991 and 1992 in the population of northern Sweden, with a special interest taken in the Saami population. Measurements were performed in three areas with different deposition levels, using a whole-body counter installed in a mobile container. In this way the expected high refusal frequency caused by the large distances in this part of Sweden could be reduced. Two groups of individuals were randomly chosen, one group representing the total population of the area, and the other the members of the Saami communities. In order to investigate whether 15 year old students could be regarded as a representative sample of the total population, measurements of whole-body content and urine samples were performed on school classes in two of the areas

  6. 137Cs in the population of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, G.; Bjoereland, A.; Johansson, Lennart.

    1996-12-01

    The activity of Cs 137 has been studied in several different population groups in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. Special attention has been given to the Saami (Lapp) population from which we have measured a group of volunteers regularly between 1986 and 1990. In 1991 we started a study on randomly chosen groups from the general population and members of the Saami communities from three regions in northern Sweden with different deposition levels. The results from these measurements have shown an effective half-time of Cs whole-body content in the Saami groups of about five years. The measurements in 1996 show decreasing levels of activities in the different population groups with half-times between 4 and 12 years. Another exposed group is breast-fed babies. We have measured the transfer of Cs from mother to baby via the breast milk in 12 cases. The activity in breast milk was measured to be 14% of the activity in the mother (calculated using specific activity - Bq/kg). The corresponding activity in the baby was 90% of the activity in the mother. 13 refs

  7. Knee injuries in skiing. A prospective study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, G; Gedda, S; Hemborg, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper evaluates 420 ski injuries occurring in Northern Sweden in 1977. Our main aim was to correlate knee injuries with types of skiing and to note a change in incidence with evolution of equipment. Fifty-eight lesions (13.8%) affected the knee joint which is about the same frequency as 10 years earlier nor has introduction of high stiff boots in downhill skiing increased incidence of knee injuries. Cross-country and long-distance skiing produced more knee injuries (24.7%) than downhill skiing (11.4%). Cross-country skiers were older and more women in this group sustained knee injuries. The use of non-release type bindings is probably the main reason for this higher incidence but age and different skiing techniques seem to contribute.

  8. Postglacial faulting and paleoseismicity in the Landsjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1988-10-01

    Post-glacial fault scarps, up to about 20 m in height and forming a 50 km long fault set with a SSW-NNE orientation, occur in the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden. By trenching across the fault scarps it has been possible to date fault movement relative to the Quaternary stratigraphy. It is concluded that the fault scarps generally developed as single event movements shortly after the deglaciation about 9000 years ago. At one location there are indications that minor fault movements may have occurred earlier during a previous glaciation but this is uncertain. The fault scarps are, at least partially, developed in strongly fractured and chemically weathered zones of presumed pre-Quaternary age. To judge from the appearance of the bedrock fault scarps, and the deformation of the Quaternary deposits, the faults are reverse and have dips between some 40-50 0 and the vertical. The faulting was co-seismic and earthquakes in the order of M 6.5-7.0, or higher, are inferred from fault dimensions and the distribution of seismically triggered landslides in a wider region. Distortions in different types of sediment, interpreted as caused by the influence of seismic shock, occur frequently in the area. Examples of these are briefly described. (orig.)

  9. Estimating inbreeding rates in Northern Spotted Owls: insights from pedigrees and spatio-demographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The federally-threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has a substantial influence on management of federal lands. Despite decades of investigation, important details about its status and habits remain unknown. In particular, determining the frequency of inbre...

  10. Life Satisfaction among Outbound Students in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per A.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from one's home country to a university abroad can be demanding. This study is a follow-up study exploring life satisfaction among outbound students. Outbound students at Umeå University, Sweden, were surveyed before and after experiencing studying abroad. Thus, the students' life satisfaction could be compared after an…

  11. Forest regeneration at high latitudes: experience from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo Murray

    1981-01-01

    The problem of obtaining adequate and economical forest regeneration is of major concern among the managers of high-latitude forest lands. In 1979 forest researchers and managers from Scandinavia and North America held the first of three workshops to address this topic by sharing experiences and research from each county. The first workshop was held in Umei, Sweden in...

  12. Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Ahlm, Kristoffer; Näslund, Jonas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-03-23

    Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence of INKV in its mosquito vector and characterize the isolates. About 125,000 mosquitoes were collected during a mosquito-borne virus surveillance in northern Sweden during the summer period of 2015. Of these, 10,000 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation and detection using cell culture and RT-PCR. Virus isolates were further characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic typing of mosquito species was conducted by cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene amplification and sequencing (genetic barcoding). Several Ae. communis mosquitoes were found positive for INKV RNA and two isolates were obtained. The first complete sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments of INKV in Sweden were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the INKV genome was most closely related to other INKV isolates from Sweden and Finland. Of the three INKV genome segments, the INKV M segment had the highest frequency of non-synonymous mutations. The overall G/C-content of INKV genes was low for the N/NSs genes (43.8-45.5%), polyprotein (Gn/Gc/NSm) gene (35.6%) and the RNA polymerase gene (33.8%) This may be due to the fact that INKV in most instances utilized A or T in the third codon position. INKV is frequently circulating in northern Sweden and Ae. communis is the key vector. The high mutation rate of the INKV M segment may have consequences on virulence.

  13. Use of radiography in public dental care for children and adolescents in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Kieri, Catarina; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    . For this retrospective study, 544 adolescents regularly attending three Public Dental Health clinics in the county of Västerbotten, northern Sweden were selected. The number of radiographs exposed each year from 3 to 19 years of age was registered. Information on reason for the radiographic examination was extracted......-oral radiographs with a mean number of 19+/-4 exposures. There was a statistically significant difference (p

  14. Uranium in soil, forest litter and living plant material above three uranium mineralizations in Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, John

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of biogeochemical sampling media in uranium exploration, samples from the most common trees and low bushes together with forest litter were collected over the areas of three uranium mineralizations in Northern Sweden and analyzed for uranium. The results were compared with uranium content of the till and its radioactivity. The average uranium content was low for all sample types and considerably lower in the ash of the organic sample types compared to that of the till. No sample type showed any tendency of having higher uranium concentration above mineralizations compared to background areas. These results suggest that, under conditions prevailing in Sweden, the investigated sample types are not suitable for uranium exploration

  15. Restructuring and risk-reduction in mining: employment implications for northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Pettersson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past, employment in northern Sweden has been largely dependent on natural resources. Shifting demands and price fluctuations for raw materials have caused boom periods as well as times of crisis in local communities. During the first decade of the 21st century, increasing global demand for minerals resulted in substantial investments in the Swedish mining industry. The purpose of this article is to assess the importance of mining for employment in the county of Västerbotten, northern Sweden, by focusing on the time period after 1990. Mining employment constitutes a rather small part of all employment in the study area, due to a restructuring process that started in the 1960s. However, results show that mining employment has increased slightly, especially after 2002. Global demand for minerals and related technology and services make it reasonable to believe that this change will have a deeper significance for employment opportunities in the study area. Restructuring in mining generates new business opportunities in subcontracting, consultancy and equipment production, but also creates new challenges. Consequently, it is important to make strategic decisions on regional and local levels concerning how to make use of the development in the mining industry to stimulate long-term regional employment growth.

  16. Autochamber measurements of Net Ecosystem (CO2) Exchange at a subarctic mire in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walthall, M.; Parker-Smith, X.; Lawrence, R. D.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Northern latitude wetlands (>~50°N) are characterized by cold and wet conditions that result in low decomposition rates for plant litter. This process promotes the sequestration of carbon (C) in the form of organic matter (i.e. peat) and the formation of widespread peatands. Peatlands, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, have accumulated C by removing atmospheric CO2 for approximately the past 10,000 years. Historically, peatlands represent a net C sink; however, increases in the global average temperature could alter peatlands ability to store carbon. With a warming climate and permafrost thaw, the pool of once stable soil organic C available for decomposition is increasing. Like all terrestrial ecosystems, a number of environmental factors (e.g. peat temperature and vegetation) play important roles in governing the fate of C in peatlands. Projected climate change is expected to affect these regulating factors. Subarctic peatlands in zones of discontinuous permafrost are experiencing widespread environmental changes due to climate warming. In this study, we present net ecosystem (CO2) exchange and δ13C-CO2 data from Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden (68°22'N, 19°03'E). Measurements were made using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer connected to automatic chambers placed in the three predominant ecosystems (a dry, elevated Palsa; an intermediate thaw regime dominated by Sphagnum spp. and; a completely thawed, inundated site dominated by Eriophorum angustifolium). Team was mentored by Mr. Ryan Lawrence from The University of New Hampshire.

  17. Speleothem and biofilm formation in a granite/dolerite cave, Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallstedt, T.; Ivarsson, M.; Lundberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Tjuv-Antes grotta (Tjuv-Ante's Cave) located in northern Sweden is a round-abraded sea cave ('tunnel cave'), about 30 m in length, formed by rock-water abrasion in a dolerite dyke in granite gneiss. Abundant speleothems are restricted to the inner, mafic parts of the cave and absent on granite...... incorporated remains of microorganisms. Two types of microbial communities can be distinguished associated with the speleothems: an Actinobacteria-like biofilm and a fungal community. Actinobacteria seem to play an important role in the formation of speleothem while the fungal community acts as both...... a constructive and a destructive agent. A modern biofilm dominated by Actinobacteria is present in the speleothem-free parts of the dolerite and located in cave ceiling cracks. These biofilms may represent sites of early speleothem formation. Because of its unusual position in between two types of host rock...

  18. Predicting grey-sided vole occurrence in northern Sweden at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Magnus; Bergsten, Arvid; Ecke, Frauke; Bodin, Orjan; Bodin, Lennart; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2013-11-01

    Forestry is continually changing the habitats for many forest-dwelling species around the world. The grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) has declined since the 1970s in forests of northern Sweden. Previous studies suggested that this might partly be caused by reduced focal forest patch size due to clear-cutting. Proximity and access to old pine forest and that microhabitats often contains stones have also been suggested previously but never been evaluated at multiple spatial scales. In a field study in 2010-2011 in northern Sweden, we investigated whether occurrence of grey-sided voles would be higher in (1) large focal patches of >60 years old forest, (2) in patches with high connectivity to surrounding patches, and (3) in patches in proximity to stone fields. We trapped animals in forest patches in two study areas (Västerbotten and Norrbotten). At each trap station, we surveyed structural microhabitat characteristics. Landscape-scale features were investigated using satellite-based forest data combined with geological maps. Unexpectedly, the vole was almost completely absent in Norrbotten. The trap sites in Norrbotten had a considerably lower amount of stone holes compared with sites with voles in Västerbotten. We suggest this might help to explain the absence in Norrbotten. In Västerbotten, the distance from forest patches with voles to stone fields was significantly shorter than from patches without voles. In addition, connectivity to surrounding patches and size of the focal forest patches was indeed related to the occurrence of grey-sided voles, with connectivity being the overall best predictor. Our results support previous findings on the importance of large forest patches, but also highlight the importance of connectivity for occurrence of grey-sided voles. The results further suggest that proximity to stone fields increase habitat quality of the forests for the vole and that the presence of stone fields enhances the voles' ability to move between nearby

  19. Prevalence and sensitization of atopic allergy and coeliac disease in the Northern Sweden Population Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Enroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy

  20. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  1. Similar anatomical distributions of childhood naevi and cutaneous melanoma in young adults residing in northern and southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria A; Rodvall, Ylva; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Wiklund, Kerstin; Lindelöf, Bernt

    2015-09-01

    Common melanocytic naevi are considered early biomarkers associated with risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. We sought to investigate if residing at different latitudes in Sweden influences the population's anatomical distribution of naevi in children and melanoma in adults. The nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry 1990-2012 gave cumulative number of invasive melanomas per body site, stratified by sex and age in northern (62-69 °N) (n=2823) and southern (55-58 °N) Sweden (n=24,115). A population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2002 provided the allocation of naevi among 7-year-olds in northern (5695 naevi in 679 children) and southern Sweden (8392 naevi in 681 children). In 2012, northern Sweden had a two-fold lower melanoma incidence: 19.8/100.000 age-standardised population compared with 41.0/100.000 in the south. Similarly, a lower mean naevi density in children was demonstrated: 7.3 (standard deviation (SD) 5.4) in boys and 7.0 (4.7) in girls in the north versus 13.3 (8.4) in boys and 11.9 (8.5) in girls in the south. Across latitudes of residing, gender profiles and proportional body-site distributions of melanoma and naevi, respectively, were largely homogenous, but in southern Sweden slightly higher on the trunk; a body site associated with intermittent sun exposure. Childhood naevi distributions matched with melanomas in young and middle-aged adults. This large population-based study demonstrated that latitude of residing similarly affects the number and anatomical distribution of naevi in children and melanoma in adults. It supports a role of childhood naevi as predictors of overall and subsite risk of melanoma among young adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  3. Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: A dynamic problem in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, S.; Lundgren, J.; Franklin, O.; Dotzauer, E.

    2010-01-01

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 EUR/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand. (author)

  4. Potential and actual geomorphic complexity of restored headwater streams in northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi, Lina E.; Nilsson, Christer; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher

    2014-04-01

    Stream restoration usually relies on ecological theories presuming that increased habitat heterogeneity leads to higher biodiversity. However, to test this hypothesis a quantitative metric of overall geomorphic complexity is needed. We quantified geomorphic complexity using 29 metrics over five dimensions (sediment distribution, longitudinal profile, cross section, planform, and instream wood) of headwater streams in northern Sweden. We examined reaches with four different restoration statuses after a century of timber floating (channelized, restored, demonstration restored, and unimpacted) to determine (1) whether restoration increases complexity in all dimensions, (2) whether a complexity gradient can be quantified and which metrics can serve as proxies for the gradient, and (3) levels of potential complexity based on large-scale controls (drainage area, glacial legacy sediment, valley slope, valley confinement, old-growth forest/buffer zone, and beaver activity). We found a significantly higher complexity in unimpacted and demonstration restoration sites than in channelized sites in all five dimensions except the cross section (based on the two metrics quantifying variability in the cross section). Multivariate analyses were able to elucidate an apparent complexity gradient driven by three complexity metrics: longitudinal roughness, sediment sorting, and cross section chain and tape ratio. The large-scale factors of valley and channel gradient as well as median grain size, along with restoration status, drive differences in complexity composition. Restoring a reach to its potential complexity is beneficial in regions without reference systems or sufficient data to model flow and sediment processes. Unimpacted and demonstration restoration reaches displayed not only more intrareach variability than channelized reaches but also greater interreach heterogeneity in complexity composition, which supports a focus on reach-scale controls on potential complexity and a

  5. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Adolfsson, Annelie Nordin; Lind, Nina; Modig, Lars; Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden. Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed using a land-use regression model with a spatial resolution of 50 m × 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) were used as markers for long-term exposure to air pollution. Out of 1,806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the group with the highest exposure were more likely than those in the group with the lowest exposure to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.998, 2.05 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated with the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A subanalysis that excluded a younger sample that had been retested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than were present in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Change of lifestyle habits - Motivation and ability reported by pregnant women in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright

  7. Source parameters of major earthquakes near Kiruna, Northern Sweden, deduced from synthetic seismogram computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.Y.; Skordas, E.; Zhou, Y.P.; Kulhanek, O.

    1988-06-01

    The earthquakes that have occurred around Kiruna in northern Sweden have been studied in detail in order to determine their source characteristics and to understand the pattern of seismic acticity in the region. All earthquakes with magnitude greater than 3.0 (M L ) that occurred during the period between 1967 and 1985 in the region bounded by 66.5 degrees - 69 degrees N and 19 degrees - 25 degrees E are studied. Relocated epicenters of the events exhibit a cluster of events in a direction NE - SW at at the western side of the region close to Kiruna, Though, the focal depths of the events are not very well constrained, the relocation results suggest that the events in this cluster might have occurred at focal depths between 15 and 25 km. At the easstern side of the region, the epicenters are roughly aligned along an elongated area trending NNW - SSE. The focal depths of the events in this area tend to be shallow and are probably in the upper crust at the depths range from 5 to 16 km. The earthquakes studied show nearly constant source radii of about 0.4 - 0.6 km over the seismic moment range 10 20 to 10 21 dyne-cm. Consequently, the events studied are characterized by a steadily incresing stress drop relative to increasing seismic moment. The source mechanisms obtained for the two largest earthquakes suggest that the mechanisms are dominated by the normal faultings on the near-vertical fault planes trending N - S to NE - SW. (With 26 refs.) (authors)

  8. Carbon Exchange Processes In A Old-Growth Undisturbed Boreal Forest In Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Heliasz, M.; Mölder, M.; Holst, J.

    2015-12-01

    It has been a common and long lasting view that old-growth forests are carbon neutral, i.e., the uptake of CO2 by gross photosynthesis is equal to the release of the same amount through ecosystem respiration. This hypothesis was originally developed by Odum based on theoretical reasoning on the balance between stability and diversity in ecosystems and how this relationship shifted with succession over time. At that time, the theory was underpinned by a relatively scarce empirical material but later supported by the observed decline in net primary productivity (NPP) with increasing stand age. More recently, based on direct measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) Luyssaert et al. showed that old-growth forests still were significant sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide thus challenging the hypothesis that old forests are in balance with respect to uptake and emission of CO2. Most of the forests in Luyssaert et al. analyses were temperate and semi-arid boreal forests and only few were located in the humid boreal zone. In order to shed light on this issue we initiated in 2011 carbon exchange studies in an old (>200 years) undisturbed humid boreal forest in Northern Sweden using EC measurements of NEE and chamber measurements of soil effluxes. The results indicate that the forest is a small sink of CO2 in the order of 20 g C m-2 y-1. The forest floor vegetation contributes significantly to GPP, in the order of 25-40%, depending on time of season. The nighttime ecosystem respiration showed a weak increase with air temperature up to about 15 ºC and then it started to decrease. The reason for this decrease that occurred at a relatively low temperature is still unclear. The small annual sink of -20 g C m-2 observed here is similar in magnitude to changes in soil carbon content on nearby much older forests located on small islands which has not been disturbed for several hundreds of years. Our study thus confirms that old forests can continue to take up carbon although

  9. Spring flood pH decline in northern Sweden: Towards an operational model separating natural acidity from anthropogenic acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, H.

    1999-10-01

    The spring flood is a defining feature of the ecosystem in northern Sweden. In this region, spring flood is an occasion for dramatic hydrochemical changes that profoundly effect the biodiversity of the aquatic ecosystem. Spring flood is also the period most susceptible to anthropogenic acidification. A belief in the anthropogenic component to pH decline during spring flood has been an important factor in spending over half a billion crowns to lime surface waters in Northern Sweden during the last decade. The natural component of episodic pH decline during spring flood, however, has received less attention. The main objective of this work is to present an operational model for separating and quantifying the anthropogenic and natural contributions of episodic acidification during high flow events in Northern Sweden. The key assumptions in this model are that baseflow ANC has not been affected by anthropogenic acidification, that DOC has not changed due to modern land-use practice and that natural dilution during hydrological episodes can be quantified. The limited data requirements of 10-15 stream water samples before and during spring flood make the model suitable for widespread use in environmental monitoring programs. This makes it possible to distinguish trends of human impact as well as natural pH decline in space and time. Modeling results from northern Sweden demonstrate that the natural driving mechanisms of dilution and organic acidity were the dominant factors in the episodic acidification of spring flood in the region. The anthropogenic contribution to spring pH decline was similar in size to the natural contribution in only two of the more than 30 events where this model was applied. Natural factors alone were found to cause pH values below 4.5 in some streams. Anthropogenic sources of acidity can be superimposed on this natural dynamics. In the sites studied, the magnitude of the anthropogenic ANC decline was correlated to the winter deposition of

  10. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. Methods To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958–2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. Results The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. Conclusions If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the ‘uninfected areas’ surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory

  11. Tuberculosis infection and disease in the 2015 cohort of unaccompanied minors seeking asylum in Northern Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Rutger; Eriksson, Margareta

    2017-07-01

    Minors with a stated age asylum-seeking children and many come from countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) incidence. During the 2015 refugee crisis, 35,369 of 162,877 refugees (22%) seeking asylum in Sweden were unaccompanied minors, which gave us the opportunity to study their burden of TB infection and disease. Of the unaccompanied minors seeking asylum in Sweden during 2015, 2936 (8.3%) were allocated to northern Stockholm. Of these, 2422 were from countries with an incidence of TB exceeding 100/10 5 , and were screened for TB infection with a Mantoux tuberculin skin test or a QuantiFERON-TB Gold®. Those from countries with a lower TB incidence were screened only if they had other risk factors for TB exposure. Of those screened, 349 had a positive test and were referred to the northern paediatric TB clinic at Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital. Of these, 16 had TB disease and 278 latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), while we considered 53 uninfected. In addition, eight sought medical attention with symptomatic TB outside the screening system. Cohort rates were 6.8% of LTBI and 0.5% of TB in minors from Afghanistan and 26-32% of LTBI and 3.4-3.5% of TB among those from Eritrea, Ethiopia or Somalia. We conclude that TB infection and disease is common among asylum-seeking unaccompanied minors, especially among those from the Horn of Africa.

  12. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope studies of Late Weichselian lake sediments in southern Sweden and northern Poland, with palaeoclimatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarlund, D.

    1994-04-01

    Late Weichselian lacustrine sediment sequences from southern Sweden and northern Poland were studied by means of stable isotope analysis in order to reconstruct the climatic development and climatically induced environmental changes in the respective regions. The methods used include analyses of the stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of bulk organic material, and the stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ 13 C, δ 18 O) of bulk carbonates and carbonate shells of aquatic organisms. These results were complemented and supported by lithological, chemical and biostratigraphic data (plant macrofossils, insects, molluscs). Chronological data were obtained by AMS radiocarbon dates and correlations based on pollen analysis. At c. 12.400 BP a climatic change from arctic, dry, and continental, to subarctic and more humid and maritime conditions occurred in southern Sweden. The Older Dryas stadial (c.12.200-12.000 BP) is characterized by a temporary return to generally colder , drier, and more continental conditions, followed by generally favourable (subarctic), although unstable, climatic conditions. At c. 11.300 BP a gradual transition towards a colder and more continental climate was initiated, followed by total absence of limnic carbonates during the Younger Dryas stadial (c. 11.000-10.200 BP), indicating arctic and continental conditions. The transition to the Holocene is characterized by a rapid and strong climatic warming. The results from northern Poland point to some important differences compared to this development. A climatic warming around 13.000 BP was followed by generally favourable climatic conditions enabling continuous sedimentation of limnic carbonates during the Late Weichselian. Distinct depletions of 13 C in lacustrine organic material at the transition to the Holocene were recorded in southern Sweden, also demonstrated by decreasing mean values obtained from an extensive compilation of δ 13 C data. A number of processes that may

  13. Establishment of Cladonia stellaris after artificial dispersal in an unfenced forest in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roturier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, fragments and whole thalli of reindeer lichen, mainly Cladonia stellaris, were spread in a typical Scots pine forest in northern boreal Sweden to study the survival and development after artificial lichen dispersal. The forest was not fenced, allowing reindeer access to graze. Lichens were dispersed in intact vegetation in 1 m2 plots by one of two methods: either as an intact lichen mat (patch of 0.25 m2 in the centre of the plot or as fragments scattered (scatter across the whole plot. The lichen was then monitored by photo inventory. In 2006, three years after the first inventory, all patch plots had been partially grazed by reindeer and the lichen cover measured in both patch and scatter plots had decreased severely. In 2008, the lichen cover in the patch and scatter plots had increased by up to 54% and 88%, respectively, of the cover measured during the first inventory in 2003. A significant increase in the number of fragments in the plots was also observed between 2006 and 2008, suggesting that in addition to growing like naturally established thalli, the lichen had spread and slowly colonized the plots. Dispersing lichen by the “patch” method appears to be less costefficient than the “scatter” method, if the area is grazed by reindeer. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal of reindeer lichen could be an effective means of restoring lichen stands, which are important for reindeer husbandry, even if the area is open to reindeer grazing. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Etablering av Cladonia stellaris efter artificiell spridning i ej inhägnad skog i norra Sverige Renlav (främst Cladonia stellaris spreds manuellt 2002 i en talldominerad skog i norra Sverige för att studera lavens etablering efter artificiell spridning. Försöksområdet var inte hägnat utan öppet för renbete. Laven spreds i intakt markvegetation på 1 m2-ytor, antingen i form av intakta lavbålar (0,25 m2 i ytans centrum eller som

  14. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, France

    2000-01-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  15. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulet, France

    2000-07-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  16. Time trends and exposure determinants of lead and cadmium in the adult population of northern Sweden 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2017-11-01

    This study follows cadmium and lead concentrations in blood in the adult population in northern Sweden over 24 years. Concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in single whole blood samples (B-Pb and B-Cd) from 619 men and 926 women participating in the Northern Sweden WHO MONICA Study on one occasion 1990-2014. Associations with smoking and dietary factors were investigated. Consumption of moose meat was asked for in 2014. In the adult population in northern Sweden, the median B-Pb in 2014 was 11.0µg/L in young (25-35 years) men and 9.69µg/L in young women. In an older age-group (50-60 years), the median B-Pb was 15.1µg/L in men and 13.1µg/L in women. B-Pb decreased from 1990 to 2009, after which time no further decrease was observed. B-Pb was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In never-smokers, positive associations were found between B-Pb and consumption of wine and brewed coffee (women only) in 2004-2014. Higher B-Pb with consumption of moose meat was demonstrated in men, but not in women. B-Cd was essentially stable over the whole period, but an increase in B-Cd, of 3% per year, was detected in never-smoking women between 2009 and 2014. In 2014, median B-Cd in never-smokers in the four groups was; 0.11µg/L in younger men, 0.15µg/L in younger women, 0.14µg/L in older men, and 0.21µg/L in older women. B-Cd was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The only positive association between B-Cd and food items in 2004-2014 was with consumption of brewed coffee (men only). The lack of a decrease in B-Cd from 1990 to 2014 and the absence of a further decrease in B-Pb after 2009 are unsatisfactory considering the health risks these metals pose in the general population at current concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pilot project wind power - Large scale wind power in northern Sweden; Pilotprojekt vindkraft - Storskalig vindkraft i norra Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency granted 2009-04-20 Svevind AB financial aid to implement {sup P}ilot project wind power- Large scale wind power in northern Sweden{sup .} The purpose of the aid is to implement pilot sub-projects in wind power, to to increase knowledge for the larger establishments. The Energy Agency said in its decision that the projects Dragaliden and Gabriel Mountain is of 'great importance for future large-scale development of wind power in Sweden'. The special conditions prevailing in the project, forest environment and cold climate, gives the possibility of studies of wind turbines on birds, reindeer herding and hunting and the more technical aspects, such as de-icing and obstacle lighting. The objectives of the project, in addition to the construction and operation of 32 wind turbines, has been to include evaluating the permit process, studying the social effects around the wind power, to study the impact on small game hunting, perform tests of the de-icing system, investigate impacts on reindeer herding and explain the outcome of the project-generated rural funds. Some of the above sub-projects have been completed, which are reported in this report. For the sub-projects still in progress, the report presents the results to date, until the completion.

  18. Physical properties and petrologic description of rock samples from an IOCG mineralized area in the northern Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrin, Alessandro; Edfelt, Å.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2009-01-01

    magnetization, variation of magnetic susceptibility with temperature, Curie temperature and density). The major Cu-prospect in the area has been studied by magnetic and electron microprobe analyses of four selected rock samples. The samples are from an exploration well that intersects the main Cu mineralized......, microprobe observations indicate that Fe-sulfides are present in negligible amounts in the samples from the Tjårrojåkka area. The strong spatial relationship of Cu-minerals (e.g., chalcopyrite) and the oxidation of magnetite to hematite suggest that the presence of rocks with low magnetic susceptibility......The Tjårrojåkka Fe-Cu prospect in northern Sweden is considered an example of a Fe-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) deposit and is hosted in metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic volcanic and intrusive rocks. Rock samples from 24 outcrops were collected for petrophysical analysis (magnetic susceptibility, remanent...

  19. Development and application of sedimentary pigments for assessing effects of climatic and environmental changes on subarctic lakes in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, Nina Steenberg; Leavitt, Peter R.; Hall, Roland I.

    2010-01-01

    vegetation zones (alpine, birch, conifer/birch) were incompletely distinguished by the ordinations. In the RDAs, the primary pigment variability occurred along a production gradient that was correlated negatively to water-column DOC content and d13C signature of sediments. This pattern suggested......A surface-sediment survey of pigments in 100 lakes in the Scandes Mountains, northern Sweden, was combined with a reconstruction of Holocene sedimentary pigments from Lake Seukokjaure to assess the major factors regulating phototrophic communities, and how these controls may have changed during...... to the modern tree line. The spatial survey of sedimentary pigments was analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). PCA explained 73-83% of variance in pigment abundance and composition, whereas RDA explained 22-32% of variation in fossil assemblages. Dissolved organic...

  20. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heléne Zetterström Dahlqvist

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective: To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design: Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288 included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results: Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222. Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions: The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

  1. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  2. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation, while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts.

  3. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinehall Lars

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP, which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992–2005. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. Results The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (± 1,77 MJ among women and 8,71 (± 2,26 MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level. Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". Conclusion More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of

  4. Time trends in burdens of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the population of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennberg, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Hallmans, Goeran; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Custodio, Hipolito M.; Skerfving, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    The time trends of exposure to heavy metals are not adequately known. This is a worldwide problem with regard to the basis for preventive actions and evaluation of their effects. This study addresses time trends for the three toxic elements cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). Concentrations in erythrocytes (Ery) were determined in a subsample of the population-based MONICA surveys from 1990, 1994, and 1999 in a total of 600 men and women aged 25-74 years. The study took place in the two northernmost counties in Sweden. To assess the effect of changes in the environment, adjustments were made for life-style factors that are determinants of exposure. Annual decreases of 5-6% were seen for Ery-Pb levels (adjusted for age and changes in alcohol intake) and Ery-Hg levels (adjusted for age and changes in fish intake). Ery-Cd levels (adjusted for age) showed a similar significant decrease in smoking men. It is concluded that for Pb and maybe also Hg the actions against pollution during recent decades have caused a rapid decrease of exposure; for Hg the decreased use of dental amalgam may also have had an influence. For Cd, the decline in Ery-Cd was seen only in smokers, indicating that Cd exposure from tobacco has decreased, while other environmental sources of Cd have not changed significantly. To further improve the health status in Sweden, it is important to decrease the pollution of Cd, and actions against smoking in the community are important

  5. Atmospheric deposition of persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern at two sites in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Seth; Bidleman, Terry; Bergknut, Magnus; Racine, Jacinthe; Laudon, Hjalmar; Giesler, Reiner; Wiberg, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Bimonthly bulk atmospheric deposition samples (precipitation + dry particle) were taken for one year at an arctic (Abisko, 68°20' N, 19°03' E) and a sub-arctic (Krycklan 64°14' N, 19°46' E) location in northern Sweden using Amberlite IRA-743 as an absorbent for hydrophobic pollutants. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs = hexachlorocyclohexanes and chlordane-related compounds), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging chemicals. Higher deposition rates of most compounds were observed at the more northern site despite its receiving less precipitation and being more remote. HCHs and PCBs made up the bulk of the total deposition at both sites. Five emerging chemicals were detected: the current-use pesticides trifluralin and chlorothalonil; and non-BDE flame retardants 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and Dechlorane Plus (DP). A decrease in the fraction of the anti isomer of DP was observed at the arctic site, indicating isomer-selective degradation or isomerization during long range transport. Air parcel back trajectories revealed a greater influence from air originating over the ocean at the more northern site. The differences in these air sources were reflected in higher ∑HCH to ∑PCB ratios compared to the more southern site, as HCHs are related to volatilization from the ocean and Abisko is located <100 km from the Norwegian coast, while PCBs are emitted from continental sources.

  6. Changes in alcohol availability, price and alcohol-related problems and the collectivity of drinking cultures: what happened in southern and northern Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to study whether alcohol-related self-reported problems follow the same pattern of changes in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, assumed to be affected by a decrease in Danish spirits tax and by an increase in Swedish travellers' import quotas, and to study whether the results obtained for southern and northern Sweden follow the predictions of Skog's theory of collectivity of drinking cultures. Analysis was carried out on a sample from the Swedish general population from southern and northern Sweden separately. Two indices such as impaired self-control/dependent behaviour and extrinsic problems for alcohol-related problems were computed and analysed in terms of sex, age, income and alcohol consumption level. Although there were no huge changes in the number of persons reporting alcohol-related problems, the general trend in data for various subpopulations was a decrease in the southern site and an increase in the northern site. In the northern site, the increase in alcohol consumption among men also showed an increase in alcohol-related problems. However, various population subgroups changed in different directions and did not move in concert over the population distribution. Analysis confirmed that alcohol-related problems, according to the two indices used, followed a similar pattern to alcohol consumption, but less divergent. A version of Skog's theory applied on alcohol-related problems could not confirm that alcohol-related problems did not change collectively within the population.

  7. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate). By using HPLC, 25(OH) vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men. PMID:25976742

  8. Traditional ecological knowledge among Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden about vascular plants grazed by reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Inga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge about how reindeer utilize forage resources was expected to be crucial to reindeer herders. Seventeen Sami reindeer herders in four reindeer herding communities in Sweden (“samebyar” in Swedish were interviewed about plants species considered to be important reindeer food plants in scientific literature. Among 40 plant species, which the informants were asked to identify and indicate whether and when they were grazed by reindeer, they identified a total of 21 plant taxa and five plant groups. They especially recognised species that were used as human food by the Sami themselves, but certain specific forage plants were also identified. Detailed knowledge of vascular plants at the species level was surprisingly general, which may indicate that knowledge of pasture resources in a detailed species level is not of vital importance. This fact is in sharp contradiction to the detailed knowledge that Sami people express for example about reindeer (as an animal or snow (as physical element. The plausible explanation is that observations of individual plant species are unnecessarily detailed information in large-scale reindeer pastoralism, because the animals graze freely under loose herding and border surveillance.

  9. Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramji, Rathi; Arnetz, Judy; Nilsson, Maria; Jamil, Hikmet; Norström, Fredrik; Maziak, Wasim; Wiklund, Ywonne; Arnetz, Bengt

    2015-09-15

    Determinants of waterpipe use in adolescents are believed to differ from those for other tobacco products, but there is a lack of studies of possible social, cultural, or psychological aspects of waterpipe use in this population. This study applied a socioecological model to explore waterpipe use, and its relationship to other tobacco use in Swedish adolescents. A total of 106 adolescents who attended an urban high-school in northern Sweden responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Prevalence rates for waterpipe use were examined in relation to socio-demographics, peer pressure, sensation seeking behavior, harm perception, environmental factors, and depression. Thirty-three percent reported ever having smoked waterpipe (ever use), with 30% having done so during the last 30 days (current use). Among waterpipe ever users, 60% had ever smoked cigarettes in comparison to 32% of non-waterpipe smokers (95% confidence interval 1.4-7.9). The odds of having ever smoked waterpipe were three times higher among male high school seniors as well as students with lower grades. Waterpipe ever users had three times higher odds of having higher levels of sensation-seeking (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and scored high on the depression scales (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.8) than non-users. The odds of waterpipe ever use were four times higher for those who perceived waterpipe products to have pleasant smell compared to cigarettes (95% confidence interval 1.7-9.8). Waterpipe ever users were twice as likely to have seen waterpipe use on television compared to non-users (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.7). The odds of having friends who smoked regularly was eight times higher for waterpipe ever users than non-users (95% confidence interval 2.1-31.2). The current study reports a high use of waterpipe in a select group of students in northern Sweden. The study adds the importance of looking at socioecological determinants of use, including peer pressure and exposure to media marketing

  10. Bedrock stability in southeastern Sweden. Evidence from fracturing in the ordovician limestones of northern Oeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Gee, D.G.

    1992-09-01

    The stability of the bedrock in SE Sweden with regard to radioactive waste disposal has recently been the subject of some controversy. In order to better assess the age and significance of fracturing in the Precambrian basement at the site of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), near Oskarshamn, a detailed analysis of fracturing in the lower Ordovician limestones exposed along the west coast of the neighbouring island of Oeland has been carried out. The limestones form continuously exposed shore platforms, in segments up to 30 m broad and several kilometres long. These, and numerous quarries, provide ideal objects for quantitative analysis (ground and air photo mapping, scanline logging), and unique opportunities for investigating the amount of movement on the fractures, because of well-developed bedding and abundant rod-shaped fossils on the bedding surfaces. The fracture patterns are dominated by two sets of subvertical fractures, a NW trending closely spaced and strongly orientated set and a NNE-ENE trending widely spaced and variably orientated set. Only about 10% of the fractures in both sets show lateral fossil displacement, with maximum movement of 5 cm, and only 3% of the fractures show vertical displacement of bedding (maximum 8 cm). All in all, the lower Ordovician limestones along the exposed shoreline have suffered remarkably little deformation since deposition, i.e. over the last 500 million years. Appreciable bedrock instability, if it occurred, must have been concentrated offshore, or in the unexposed segments of the coastline, where some weak indications of slight movement (changes of a few metres in stratigraphic level) have been observed. Among other recommendations for further work, geophysical investigations to test these indications are suggested. (54 refs.)

  11. Policy Entrepreneurship and Policy Transfer: Flood Risk Governance in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridou Evangelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Central to policies relating to risk governance at the regional and local levels is the interaction between the public and private sectors also referred to as networked governance. At the same time, the role of political actors in general and policy entrepreneurs in particular, in terms of policy change, has gained considerable traction in recent policy scholarship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in governance arrangements resulting in the formation of a coordination network in regional flood risk management-the first of its kind in Sweden. Our research is guided by the following questions: first, would the policy change (the establishment of the networkshave taken place if a policy entrepreneur were not part of the policy transfer process? Second, what is the role of policy entrepreneurship in the implementation of the policy after its nationwide adoption? Third, what other factors played a role in the variation of the results in the implemented policy that is, the enforced networks? We find the role of a policy entrepreneur key in the policy transfer from the regional to the national level. In order to investigate the resultant networks, we draw from B. Guy Peters (1998 and his conceptualization of factors which affect the politics of coordination. In addition to the presence of a policy entrepreneur, we compare: (i pluriformity of network members;(ii member interdependence; (iii redundancy of structures, and (iv degree of formality (in terms of meetings. Our findings suggest that entrepreneurs contribute to the variation in the functionality of the enforced river groups, though other factors play a significant role as well.Most importantly, perhaps, we did not identify entrepreneurs in any of the river groups which were not functional.

  12. Arrival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 to northern Europe: Emergence and outbreaks in wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Ahola, H; Zohari, S; Larsson Pettersson, U; Bröjer, C; Capucci, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2018-02-01

    Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease. Using RHDV2-specific RT-qPCR, sequencing of the VP60 gene and immunological virus typing of archived and prospective case material from the National Veterinary Institute's (SVA) wildlife disease surveillance programme and diagnostic pathology service, we describe the emergence of RHDV2 in Sweden in both wild and domestic rabbits. The earliest documented outbreak occurred on 22 May 2013, and from May 2013 to May 2016, 10 separate incidents of RHDV2 were documented from six different municipalities in the southern half of Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP60 gene shows clear clustering of Swedish isolates into three separate clusters within two different clades according to geographic location and time, suggesting viral evolution, multiple introduction events or both. Almost all cases of RHD examined by SVA from May 2013 to May 2016 were caused by RHDV2, suggesting that RHDV2 may be replacing RHDV as the predominant cause of RHD in Sweden. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Women's preferences and received pain relief in childbirth - A prospective longitudinal study in a northern region of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Annika; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2015-06-01

    A range of alternatives in pain management during childbirth are available in the western countries. Women's preferences for and use of pain relief methods during labour is not fully investigated. The aim of this study was to describe what pain relief methods pregnant women preferred when asked in late pregnancy and to identify factors associated with preferred and received pain relief methods. A prospective longitudinal study in a northern region of Sweden (n = 936). Data were collected by three questionnaires. Odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval were calculated between preferred and received pain relief methods for several explanatory variables. The most preferred pain relief methods were also the most common received pain relief methods; nitrous oxide, bathing, breathing techniques, epidural analgesia and massage. The strongest factors for using different pain relief methods were primiparity and preferences. Women who used epidural analgesia, regardless of preference, were two to four times more likely to have a less positive birth experience. Women's preferences for a certain pain relief method were largely met. Greater differences were seen between background factors and preferences than the received pain relief methods. Preferences and primiparity were the most important factors for actually using pain relief. Epidural analgesia was associated with a less positive birth experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Alina L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 2 5.5-8 kPa. All moose were acidemic (ph2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa. Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen.

  15. Current Microearthquake Activity on the Large Pärvie Endglacial Fault System, Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, E.; Lund, B.; Tryggvason, A.; Uski, M.; Juhlin, C.; Bodvarsson, R.; Kvaerna, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Pärvie fault is one of the largest known endglacial faults in the world. It is situated in northernmost Sweden and extends for over 160 km in a northeastward direction. The fault exhibits reverse faulting throw of more than 10 m and based on studies of Quaternary deposits, landslides and liquefaction structures it is inferred to have ruptured as a one-step event at the time of deglaciation in the area, approximately 10,000 years ago. An earthquake of this size would have had a magnitude of approximately 8. The mechanisms driving the endglacial faults are still not well understood. However, knowledge of the fault geometry at depth would significantly contribute to the understanding. In a seismological study of the Pärvie fault we have acquired both a 23 km long seismic reflection profile across the center of the fault, and deployed eight temporary seismic stations in the vicinity of the fault. The results of the reflection seismic processing images the fault system from the near surface down to about 2-3 km depth. The profile crosses three surface mapped faults where the westernmost, main fault strand, is dipping about 50 degrees to the east, the middle fault dipping 75 degrees east and the easternmost fault dipping 60 degrees to the west. The eight temporary seismic stations have recorded microearthquakes together with the six northernmost permanent stations of the Swedish National Seismic Network and a collaborating Finnish station. The seismic stations have recorded numerous small events, most of which are mining induced microearthquakes from the nearby Kiruna and Malmberget iron ore mines. About 800 microearthquakes are detected from the vicinity of the Pärvie fault system. Based on velocity structures estimated using 3D local earthquake tomography we will present locations, magnitudes and focal mechanisms of the events. The events are concentrated to the east side of the surface trace of the main Pärvie fault and spread along its whole north

  16. Using Python for Pedigree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pedigree is a way of describing a population of people or animals in terms of genetic relationships among individuals. Pedigrees are of interest to many people, including scientists, animal and plant breeders, and genealogists. They are used to assess the diversity of populations, in combination ...

  17. Contrasting trends in hydrologic extremes for two sub-arctic catchments in northern Sweden - Does glacier melt matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Lyon, S. W.; Stedinger, J. R.; Rosqvist, G.; Jansson, P.

    2012-04-01

    Climate warming in the high-latitude environments of Sweden is raising concerns about its impacts upon hydrology. In order to manage future water resources in these snowmelt-dominated high-latitude and altitude catchments there is a need to determine how climatic change will influence glacial meltwater rates and terrestrial hydrology. This uncertainty is particularly acute for hydrologic extremes (flood events) because understanding the frequency of such unusual events requires long records of observation not often available for high-latitude and altitude catchments. This study presents a statistical analysis of trends in the magnitude and timing of hydrologic extremes (flood events) and the mean summer (June-August) discharge in two sub-arctic catchments, Tarfalajokk and Abiskojokk, in northern Sweden. The catchments have different glacier covers of 30% and 1%, respectively. Statistically significant hydrologic trends (at the 5% level) were identified for both catchments on an annual and on a seasonal scale (3-months averages) using the Mann-Kendall trend test and were related to observed changes in the precipitation and air temperature. Both catchments showed a statistically significant increase in the annual mean air temperature over the comparison time period of 1985-2009 (Tarfalajokk & Abiskojokk pflood peaks and the mean summer discharge. Hydrologic trends indicated an amplification of the hydrologic response in the highly glaciated catchment and a dampening of the response in the non-glaciated catchment. The glaciated mountain catchment showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the mean summer discharge that is clearly correlated to the decrease in glacier mass balance and the increase in air temperature. However, the catchment showed also a significant increase in the flood magnitudes, which are clearly correlated to the occurrence of extreme precipitation events, indicating a shift of the dominant storm runoff mechanism towards rainfall

  18. A preliminary structural analysis of the pattern of post-glacial faults in Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, C.

    1986-10-01

    The post-glacial kinematics inferred from the structures suggest horizontal NW or WNW compression with lateral relief to the NE at depth below surficial upward relief. These kinematics are sufficiently similar to the kinematics throughout Europe north of the Alps to suspect the neotectonic motion of the Eurasian lithospheric plate over the last 38 or even 58 (+/- 2)Ma as the causative force. Large displacements appear to have occurred within a hundred years or so of the last ice retreating from any particular part of northern Scandinavia. This suggests a sudden relief during glacial unloading (and melting of ground water) of plate tectonic forces accumulated during glacial loading. Recent earthquakes in the region display similar kinematics to the post-glacial fractures on a regional scale but indications of ground movement along the forested fault scarps in the lifetime of the trees is observed at only a few localities. Only geodetic strain measurements or small-earthquake monitoring will resolve whether current ductile or seismic motion is occuring along the most obvious post-glacial scarps. Such investigations are under way. (orig./DG)

  19. Factors influencing caesium-137 levels in moose (Alces alces) and small game in Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelin, P.; Palo, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    In the third annual hunting season after the Chernobyl accident the concentration of Cs-137 in meat of northern Swedish moose was significantly higher than in the first one (1986). In September 1986 the mean Cs concentration was 500 Bq/kg in calves but in September 1988 it has risen 1300 Bq/kg. This increase was only temporary and a rapid decline occured after September and by December 1988 the concentration of Cs was the same as in late 1986. Adult moose showed the same increase during the hunt 1988 but to a lower magnitude. Typical food plants of moose such as bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus) and birch (Betula pubescens) showed, contradictory to expected by the level in moose, a decline of concentration caesium from 1986 to 1988. A probable explanation to the dramatically increased concentration of Cs in moose is a change in diet selection during 1988. Small mammals such as voles and lemmings showed a variation in concentration of caesium-137 which was more dependent on other factors than on their body size. This emphasize the necessity to study diet selection by herbivores in detail in order to predict uptake and changes in environmental contaminants. (orig.)

  20. Interdisciplinary study of post-glacial faulting in the Lansjaerv area, Northern Sweden 1986-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Stanfors, R.

    1989-12-01

    Post-glacial faults have been recognized in the northern Baltic shield for several decades. It is important to evaluate whether such neotectonic movements can lead to new fracturing or decisively alter the geohydrological or geohydrochemical situation around a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The post-glacial Lansjaerv fault was chosen for interdisciplinary study because of its relative accessibility. The goals of the study were to assess the mechanisms that caused present day scarps, to clarify the extent of any recent fracturing and to clarify the extent of any ongoing movements. All these objectives were reasonable met through a series of studies. This report describes achievements that have been gained since the study was initiated by SKB 1986. Analysis of geology and geophysics over a 150x200 km region supplemented with seismic networks and field studies at outcrops and trenches set a framework for a cored borehole down to depth of 500 m at the fault. The core has been studied in detail with respect to fracture-infillings in order to analyse mineralogical and geochemical alteration. The borehole has been logged for geophysics, stress, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater pressure and the chemical constituents of the groundwater. Numerical modelling has been undertaken in order to understand the effects of glaciation on the behaviour of a blocky rock mass. Several general conclusions have been made by the interdisciplinary research group. One of the major conclusions is that pre-existing old structures were reactivated by tectonic movements, possibly triggered by deglaciation. In spite of a major earthquake that may have occurred during the deglaciation, and in spite of the anomalous tectonic setting compared to study-sites within SKB:s site investigation programme, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater chemistry are comparable with results from those sites. (83 figs., 15 tabs., 150 refs.)

  1. Explaining linkages (and lack of) between riparian vegetation biodiversity and geomorphic complexity in restored streams of northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi, Lina; Maher Hasselquist, Eliza; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-05-01

    Ecological theory suggests that species richness and habitat heterogeneity are positively correlated; therefore stream restoration often relies on increasing geomorphic complexity to promote biodiversity. However, past studies have failed to demonstrate a link between post-restoration biodiversity and geomorphic complexity. These studies have usually relied on only one metric for quantifying complexity, rather than a holistic metric for complexity that represents several aspects of the channel morphology, and have based their observations in catchments with widespread land-use impacts. We use a geomorphic complexity gradient based on five geomorphic aspects (longitudinal, cross-sectional, planform, sediment texture, and instream wood) to determine whether streams with higher levels of complexity also have greater riparian vegetation biodiversity. We also compare biodiversity values with the potential complexity of reaches based on the large-scale controls of valley and channel gradient and the presence of large glacial legacy sediment (boulders). We focus on tributary channels in boreal forests of northern Sweden, where stream modification associated with log-floating from the 1850s to the 1960s created highly simplified channels. Driven by concerns for fish, restoration began in the 1970s by returning large cobbles and boulders into the main channel from the channel edge, and evolved into 'demonstration restoration,' placing very large boulders and trees into the channel, reopening side channels, and constructing fish spawning areas. We evaluate 22 reaches along tributaries of the Vindel River in northern Sweden with four restoration statuses: channelized, restored, demonstration restored, and unimpacted. Detailed morphologic, sediment, and instream wood data allow calculation of 29 metrics of geomorphic complexity, from which a complexity gradient was identified using multivariate statistics. The percent cover of riparian vegetation was identified in 0.5 x 0.5 m

  2. Old age, health and social inequality: Exploring the social patterns of mortality in 19th century northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Edvinsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Social position is one of the major determinants of health. Less is known about its effect in historical contexts. Previous studies have shown surprisingly small effects of social class in working age populations. Not much is known about social differences in health among the elderly in history. OBJECTIVE The present paper analyses social differences in health among the elderly (60+ in the Sundsvall region in northern Sweden during the 19th century. We investigate whether social mortality differences are particularly apparent in old age when unpropertied groups lost their most important asset for survival: their capacity to work. METHODS The data, representing 9,535 fatal events, are analysed using a Cox regression model, assuming proportional hazards. RESULTS Social class had no significant effect for women during the pre-industrial period, while only those with unknown social position had higher mortality among men. During the industrial period female mortality was lowest in the skilled working class and highest in the upper class. Social position was not significant for men in the full model. Urban mortality was 30Š higher for women and 59Š higher for men during the pre-industrial period compared to the peripheral parishes. CONCLUSIONS The results lead us to question the accepted 'fact' of social health differences as a historical constant. Higher social position did not lead to better survival, and social differences in mortality did not increase in old age, despite the fact that the elderly were a highly vulnerable group. Instead, the spatial aspects of mortality were important, particularly during the pre-industrial period.

  3. A cross-sectional and semantic investigation of self-rated health in the northern Sweden MONICA-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Göran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Rated Health (SRH correlates with risk of illness and death. But how are different questions of SRH to be interpreted? Does it matter whether one asks: “How would you assess your general state of health?”(General SRH or “How would you assess your general state of health compared to persons of your own age?”(Comparative SRH? Does the context in a questionnaire affect the answers? The aim of this paper is to examine the meaning of two questions on self-rated health, the statistical distribution of the answers, and whether the context of the question in a questionnaire affects the answers. Methods Statistical and semantic methodologies were used to analyse the answers of two different SRH questions in a cross-sectional survey, the MONICA-project of northern Sweden. Results The answers from 3504 persons were analysed. The statistical distributions of answers differed. The most common answer to the General SRH was “good”, while the most common answer to the Comparative SRH was “similar”. The semantic analysis showed that what is assessed in SRH is not health in a medical and lexical sense but fields of association connected to health, for example health behaviour, functional ability, youth, looks, way of life. The meaning and function of the two questions differ – mainly due to the comparing reference in Comparative SRH. The context in the questionnaire may have affected the statistics. Conclusions Health is primarily assessed in terms of its sense-relations (associations and Comparative SRH and General SRH contain different information on SRH. Comparative SRH is semantically more distinct. The context of the questions in a questionnaire may affect the way self-rated health questions are answered. Comparative SRH should not be eliminated from use in questionnaires. Its usefulness in clinical encounters should be investigated.

  4. Transfer of radiocaesium from soil to vegetation and to grazing lambs in a mountain area in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Loensjoe, H.; Andersson, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the northern Arctic and boreal regions many radioecological problems appear in the terrestrial environment. The climate and the soil, and as a consequence also the vegetation types, favour a high transfer of radionuclides to the food chain. Consequently there is a risk for high transfer to domestic animals grazing in these environments. As most of the lamb production in the Nordic countries is carried out on permanent pasture and in semi-natural environments the radioecological and economic effects are evident. This investigation was initiated and supported by the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS), working group RAD-3, as a part of an inter Nordic research programme. All the Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, have participated in the project. The sampling technique for soil, herbage and lamb was to be the same in all countries, in areas where no countermeasures had been applied after the Chernobyl fallout. The main results of these common Nordic studies will be summarized by Hove et al., 1994. The Swedish part of the study has also been financially supported by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm. The purpose was to study the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants and further to lamb meat in natural or semi-natural areas over the years. This paper is an extended summary of a work (Rosen et al., 1994) to be published in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. In the present report only results of soil and transfer from soil to vegetation and lambs are given. (author)

  5. The moderating effect of income on the relationship between body mass index and health-related quality of life in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Royasia Viki; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether this relationship is influenced by the level of income in Northern Sweden. Overweight and obesity are rising major public health problems which also affect HRQoL. While socioeconomic inequalities in health are persisting or increasing in many countries, including Sweden, little attention has been paid to the more complex roles of income in relation to health. Data were drawn from a 2014 cross-sectional survey from Northern Sweden (Health on Equal Terms), comprising individuals aged 20-84 years ( N = 20,082 individuals included for analysis). BMI and HRQoL were self-reported and individual disposable income in 2012 was retrieved from population registers. Multiple linear regressions were performed with HRQoL scores regressed on BMI and income, their interaction and additional covariates. The underweight, overweight and obesity groups reported significantly lower HRQoL compared to the normal weight group. Moreover, the relationship between BMI and HRQoL varied significantly by level of income, with a stronger association among those with the lowest level of income. Income has a role as an effect modifier in the relationship between BMI and HRQoL that can be construed as an indirect income inequality. Efforts to promote HRQoL in populations should consider the different impact of being overweight and obese in different socioeconomic groups.

  6. Neotectonics in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, H.; Hult, K.; Eriksson, L.

    1983-05-01

    The report treats the geophysical aspects of the late quartenary faults and the connection between these faults and older fracture zones. Around the Lansjaerv fault, older regional and local faults systems have been mapped out by aeromagnetic interpretation. The interpretation in the vicinity of the fault was made from high resolution aeromagnetic data, augmented with ground geophysical surveys. It has been found that the late quartenary faults at Lansjaerv are largely influenced by the older quartenary faults but that fracturing outside of these zones are quite common. Possible mechanisms, i.e. post-glacial uplift and plate tectonic motion, of the late quartenaily fault are preliminary discussed. Also around the Kaerkejaure fault, aeromagnetic interpretation from high resolution data has been made. This has revealed that the fault entirely follows the older fault zone, that previously has escaped detection. It has also been found that the late quartenary fault has been influenced by the local fracture system belonging to the Kaerkejaure gabbro. At the Lansjaerv fault, seismic refraction investigations has been made. The results indicate that late quartenary block motion has occured at several events. Airborne electromagnetic (RAMA) surveys over late quartenary faults are discussed and compared with ground electromagnetic methods. It is shown that the late quartenary faults genarally are represented by conductive zones in the bedrock, i.e. water-bearing fracture zones. Ground and geophysical data from earlier ore prospecting have been used, toghether with supplementary surveys, for the investigation of the faults of the Paervie complex. It has been found that at Tjaarrojaakka, the Paervie fault coincides with an older tectonic zone. The seismic survey undertaken indicates that substantial preglacial displacement has occured at the zone. (BoK)

  7. Contrasting trends in floods for two sub-arctic catchments in northern Sweden – does glacier presence matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Dahlke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding is limited to how transient changes in glacier response to climate warming will influence the catchment hydrology in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic. This understanding is particularly incomplete for flooding extremes because understanding the frequency of such unusual events requires long records of observation not often available for the Arctic and Sub-Arctic. This study presents a statistical analysis of trends in the magnitude and timing of flood extremes and the mean summer discharge in two sub-arctic catchments, Tarfala and Abisko, in northern Sweden. The catchments have different glacier covers (30% and 1%, respectively. Statistically significant trends (at the 5% level were identified for both catchments on an annual and on a seasonal scale (3-months averages using the Mann-Kendall trend test. Stationarity of flood records was tested by analyzing trends in the flood quantiles, using generalized least squares regression. Hydrologic trends were related to observed changes in the precipitation and air temperature, and were correlated with 3-months averaged climate pattern indices (e.g. North Atlantic oscillation. Both catchments showed a statistically significant increase in the annual mean air temperature over the comparison time period of 1985–2009 (Tarfala and Abisko p<0.01, but did not show significant trends in the total precipitation (Tarfala p = 0.91, Abisko p = 0.44. Despite the similar climate evolution over the studied period in the two catchments, data showed contrasting trends in the magnitude and timing of flood peaks and the mean summer discharge. Hydrologic trends indicated an amplification of the streamflow and flood response in the highly glacierized catchment and a dampening of the response in the non-glacierized catchment. The glacierized mountain catchment showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the flood magnitudes (p = 0.04 that is clearly correlated to the

  8. Contrasting trends in floods for two sub-arctic catchments in northern Sweden - does glacier presence matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Lyon, S. W.; Stedinger, J. R.; Rosqvist, G.; Jansson, P.

    2012-07-01

    Our understanding is limited to how transient changes in glacier response to climate warming will influence the catchment hydrology in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic. This understanding is particularly incomplete for flooding extremes because understanding the frequency of such unusual events requires long records of observation not often available for the Arctic and Sub-Arctic. This study presents a statistical analysis of trends in the magnitude and timing of flood extremes and the mean summer discharge in two sub-arctic catchments, Tarfala and Abisko, in northern Sweden. The catchments have different glacier covers (30% and 1%, respectively). Statistically significant trends (at the 5% level) were identified for both catchments on an annual and on a seasonal scale (3-months averages) using the Mann-Kendall trend test. Stationarity of flood records was tested by analyzing trends in the flood quantiles, using generalized least squares regression. Hydrologic trends were related to observed changes in the precipitation and air temperature, and were correlated with 3-months averaged climate pattern indices (e.g. North Atlantic oscillation). Both catchments showed a statistically significant increase in the annual mean air temperature over the comparison time period of 1985-2009 (Tarfala and Abisko pflood peaks and the mean summer discharge. Hydrologic trends indicated an amplification of the streamflow and flood response in the highly glacierized catchment and a dampening of the response in the non-glacierized catchment. The glacierized mountain catchment showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the flood magnitudes (p = 0.04) that is clearly correlated to the occurrence of extreme precipitation events. It also showed a significant increase in mean summer discharge (p = 0.0002), which is significantly correlated to the decrease in glacier mass balance and the increase in air temperature (p = 0.08). Conversely, the non-glacierized catchment showed a

  9. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Poléo, Antonio B S; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn; Bishop, Kevin

    2005-05-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated.

  10. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender - a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Maria; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt; Ohman, Ann; Bergström, Erik; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2012-11-16

    Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16-18 year olds (n = 1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71) and anxiety (r = 0.71). The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order to prevent negative strain and stress

  11. Pedigree Analysis of Children with Phonology Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined 87 pedigrees of individuals with histories of preschool phonology disorders. Significantly more family members with dyslexia and learning disabilities, but not stuttering or hearing impairment, were found in pedigrees of individuals with phonology disorders than in pedigrees of nondisabled individuals. (Author/JDD)

  12. Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Ingegerd

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI. Results Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women or 2004 (men. A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking. Conclusions Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986–1992 of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders

  13. Functions for biomass estimation of young Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula spp. from stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Svante; Sahlen, Kenneth; Lundmark, Tomas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture, Vindeln Experimental Forests

    2001-07-01

    New silvicultural regimes with high within-stand competition require new functions for estimation of standing stock and growth of biomass components, since the allometry of trees is changed by light competition. This paper presents functions for estimation of the above-ground biomass dry weights for stem wood, stem bark, branches and leaves of young (diameter at breast height < 10 cm) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and birch (Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees growing in dense mixed stands. The functions were derived from a sample consisting of 84 Scots pine, 43 Norway spruce and 66 birch trees from six stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities ( > 10 000 st ha{sup -1}). The logarithmically transformed power function displayed a good ability to stabilize the variance of dry weights and showed a good fit to the material (0.37 < R{sup 2} < 0.99). A comparison with the most commonly used biomass functions in Sweden today showed that they overestimated the weight of stem wood and branches, while the weight of foliage was underestimated. The nature of these discrepancies suggested that the precision of biomass estimations might also be improved for young trees at wider spacing.

  14. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus feeding on lichens and mushrooms: traditional ecological knowledge among reindeer-herding Sami in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Inga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed in four reindeer-herding districts (Sami villages in northern Sweden. Reindeer herding Sami, born in 1950 or earlier, were interviewed about reindeer foraging behaviour on lichens and mushrooms, especially relating to non-summer grazing habits, and about characteristics of a good winter feeding ground. The informants claimed that lichens are preferably grazed in the wintertime, but that they also may be eaten in the summertime when the weather is cold and humid. Mushrooms were chosen in the autumn months August and September, but according to some informants mushrooms may also be eaten during late autumn (from Oct. when frozen and under the snow. The reindeer herders had different names for lichens, which in general terms describe their appearance and habitat. For mushrooms they only used one Sami name. Ground lichens preferred by reindeer are Cladonia species, while the nitrogen-fixing lichen species such as Nephroma arcticum and Stereocaulon pascale were said not to be preferred by the reindeer. Snow conditions are very important, and the less snow (and the softer it is, the better. Habitats where reindeer herders know from experience that snow conditions tend to be problematic, e.g. in moist and open areas with small trees, are used early in the winter (Oct.–Jan., before too much snow has accumulated. A good winter grazing area should have lichens. It is preferably a dry pine (Pinus sylvestris forest heath with large, old and wide-crowned trees to shelter the ground from snow and thereby ease the cratering by reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Renens (Rangifer tarandus tarandus bete av lavar och svampar: Traditionell ekologisk kunskap bland renskötande samer i norra Sverige Studien genomfördes i fyra renskötseldistrikt (samebyar i norra Sverige. Totalt 22 renskötande samer, födda 1950 eller tidigare, blev intervjuade om renens betande av lavar och svampar, renens vinterbete och om vad som karakt

  15. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027, boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71 and anxiety (r = 0.71. Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the

  16. Sweden - Physics in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In its continual monitoring of physics in its Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) recently visited Sweden, where it met at the University of Lund in September. Physics in Sweden is flourishing, with both a long CERN tradition and excellent prospects for future collaboration. On the experimental side, about 80 researchers, including about 30 graduate students, out of a total of 110 (including 50 graduate students), concentrate on CERN for their work. The main centres of experimental activity are: Chalmers- Goteborg; Lund (particle physics and relativistic heavy ion groups), the Royal Institute of Technology - KTH - Stockholm, the University of Stockholm, and Uppsala. Engineering support staff in particle and highenergy nuclear physics number about 25. There is a strong Swedish participation (34 researchers from Lund, Stockholm, and Uppsala) in the Delphi experiment at LEP with a full commitment to higher energy running at LEP2, in the CP-LEAR experiment, JETSET studies at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring and in a LEAR hyperon experiment. Sweden is also well represented in CERN's extensive programme of nuclear and heavy ion physics, with 12 researchers active in the heavy ion programme, and a contingent in the SMC muon beam experiment. The strong Swedish interest in CERN's heavy ion programme was underlined by a special national contribution of 1.5M Swiss francs to the new lead ion injector. At lower energies, there is also good Swedish participation (mainly from the Chalmers Institute) in the Isolde online isotope separator. The national physics community has always appreciated CERN's diversified programmes and has greatly benefited as a result. For the future, there is an important involvement (some 40 physicists) in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's LHC collider. Swedish groups have been active in 11 research and development project for LHC physics. Sweden's heavy ion activity will continue at the RHIC

  17. Injuries in children and adolescents--analysis of 41,330 injury related visits to an emergency department in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Erik M; Bergström, Ulrica; Michno, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the injuries seen at the emergency department of a regional hospital in northern Sweden and the variations in the injury pattern with age, sex and time. Data consisting of all injuries sustained by those 0-19 years of age seen at the emergency department of Umeå University Hospital between 1998 and 2008 (41,330 injury events) were analysed with respect to injury type, mechanism, activity, age and sex. Rates were calculated using population data from Statistics Sweden. The rate of injury related visits to the emergency department was 110/1000 person years. The most common causes of visits to the emergency department were minor injuries such as contusions, abrasions and open wounds. 12% of the injuries resulted in admission to a ward. Variations in type of injury, mechanism and activity at injury were noted, in particular with age, but also with sex. We noted a 31% rate increase of visits to the hospital's emergency department between 1998 and 2008, rate ratio 1.31 (1.27-1.38). There was no significant increase in the rate of injuries resulting in hospitalisation. Our results give an estimate of the rate of all injuries and subsets of injuries resulting in visits to the only hospital emergency department within a well defined catchment area. It was not possible to determine whether the increased rate of visits to the ED was due to an increase in the actual rate of injuries within the catchment area. The variations seen in different age groups reflect the hazards associated with different periods in growth and the ability to cope with these. The results point to areas where improved preventive measures may be implemented or where further research may be of value. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparisons of weight change, eating habits and physical activity between women in Northern Sweden and Rural New York State- results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall, Kristina; Jenkins, Paul; Scribani, Melissa; Emmelin, Maria; Larsson, Christel; Norberg, Margareta; Weinehall, Lars

    2015-08-29

    Previous research has focused exclusively on weight loss or weight maintenance following weight loss, i.e. secondary weight maintenance (SWM). The long-term results of SWM have been modest, suggesting that preventing initial weight gain among normal weight or overweight individuals, i.e. primary weight maintenance (PWM), may be more successful. The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of weight change between Swedish and US women and to contrast eating and physical activity between the two countries. A questionnaire of attitudes, strategies and behaviours regarding physical activity, food habits, body image and demands to maintain weight was mailed to 4021 Swedish and 3199 US individuals. Subjects had weight measurements taken 10 years apart in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in northern Sweden, and self-reported weight as part of the Upstate Health and Wellness Study in Upstate New York. The mean 10-year percent weight change, and weight change in kilograms, were calculated between the two countries for nine female age (30, 40, 50 years at baseline) by BMI (20-25, 25-30, 30-35) groups. For the Swedish/US pair showing the largest differences in these two endpoints, analysis of variance, correlations and chi-square tests identified likely contributors to the observed differences in weight change. For all subgroups combined, the mean percent weight changes for Swedish women and US women were 4.9% (SD = 5.8) and 9.1% (SD = 13.7) respectively (pweight change between the two countries were largest among normal weight 30 year olds. Eight variables were identified as likely contributors to this difference. A significantly higher proportion of Swedish women selected the healthy alternatives for these eight variables. Percent weight change varied considerably over healthy versus unhealthy response levels in the US, but not in Sweden. The prevalence of obesity among the Swedish women did not progress as rapidly as among the US. The greatest weight gain

  19. Demonstration cultivation of Salix in northern Sweden with a focus on frost resistance; Demonstrationsodling av Salix i Norrland med frosttolerans i fokus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, Yvonne

    2010-06-15

    This project is part of the Thermal Engineering Research Association's (Vaermeforsk) programme 'Crops from field to energy production' and the goal is to convince growers to begin cultivating Salix in the northern part of Sweden. The project will demonstrate whether it is possible to grow Salix and examine what type of Salix (the report refers to the different types as Tora, Karin and Gudrun) is most frost-resistant and resistant to insects, fungal infections and animals. The project is aimed primarily at landowners and energy companies. The results showed that growth at the demonstration plots was moderate and the establishment rate was considered good. Growth has been uneven across the fields. At Eriksgaard, about 75% of the plants survived the winter. Survival was determined by the number of plants missing and dead. Additional plants were planted at the sites in 2009. No major insect or leaf fungus attacks were noted at either Eriksgaard or Soergaard, but they both experienced grazing from deer and elk. The rating showed that the herbicide treatment was not sufficient on the demonstration fields. For this reason, a comparison of average lengths was performed of Gudrun in Bodum, where the weeds had not grown as much. The comparison showed that the difference in growth was not significant in the autumn 2008, but the plants in Bodum had grown more by autumn 2009. Topping was not performed in the spring 2009 so that the plants would have an opportunity to grow higher than the weeds and the plants would have an opportunity to have a growth spurt. A comparison of Tora, Karin and Gudrun in Roedoen showed moderate growth for the three types. There were variations in the rows and across the field, mostly for Tora and Karin. Gudrun had lower, but more consistent growth across the field. During the summer 2009, survival was rated for the plants in Roedoen. This rating showed that 90% of Tora, 60% of Karin and 70% of Gudrun had survived the winter. The Salix

  20. Wolf and Bear Depredation on Livestock in Northern Sweden 1827–2014: Combining History, Ecology and Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Axelsson Linkowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the twenty-first century, large carnivores have increased in human dominated landscapes after being extinct or nearly extinct. This has resulted in increasing numbers of livestock killed by large carnivores. The intent of this paper is to give a land use-historical perspective on the recent livestock–carnivore conflict in boreal Sweden. More specifically we address: (1 depredation risks (livestock killed by carnivores and (2 local knowledge of how to protect livestock from predation and whether it survived among pastoralists until the present. This study provides numeric information on carnivores, livestock and depredation, combined with oral information from summer farmers about livestock protection. We compare recent (since 1998 and historical (late nineteenth century depredation rates in two Swedish counties. In Dalarna recent depredation rates are higher than historical rates while the opposite pattern is seen in Jämtland. Recent depredation rates in Dalarna are twice the recent rates in Jämtland, in contrast to the historical situation. Recent and historical depredation rates are of the same order. Summer farmers traditionally graze their livestock in forested areas where carnivores reside. Interviews show that traditional knowledge of how to protect livestock from carnivores was lost during the twentieth century, but recently new knowledge has developed leading to changes in summer farming practices. The carnivore–livestock situation today differs from the historical situation, not so much in levels of depredation, but mainly regarding the possibilities of farmers to face challenges associated with increasing carnivore populations.

  1. ON PEDIGREE POLYTOPE AND ITS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiru S. Arthanari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that linear optimization over a polytope can be done in polynomial time in the input size of the instance, has created renewed interest in studying 0-1 polytopes corresponding to combinatorial optimization problems. Studying their polyhedral structure has resulted in new algorithms to solve very large instances of some difficult problems like the symmetric traveling salesman problem. The multistage insertion formulation (MI given by the author, in 1982, for the symmetric traveling salesman problem (STSP, gives rise to a combinatorial object called the pedigree. The pedigrees are in one-to-one correspondence with Hamiltonian cycles. Given n, the convex hull of all the pedigrees is called the corresponding pedigree polytope. In this article we bring together the research done a little over a decade by the author and his doctoral students, on the pedigree polytope, its structure, membership problem and properties of the MI formulation for the STSP. In addition we summarise some of the computational and other peripheral results relating to pedigree approach to solve the STSP. The pedigree polytope possesses properties not shared by the STSP (tour polytope, which makes it interesting to study the pedigrees, both from theoretical and algorithmic perspectives.

  2. 9 CFR 151.4 - Pedigree certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... record of transfers of ownership from the breeder to and including the United States importer, or a complete record of transfers of ownership from the breeder to and including the person who owns the animal... English in the pedigree certificate for the animal or in a separate certificate appended to the pedigree...

  3. Health care access for rural youth on equal terms? A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Carson, Dean; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Wiklund, Maria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2018-01-11

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population. The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care. The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

  4. Post-infection symptoms following two large waterborne outbreaks of Cryptosporidium hominis in Northern Sweden, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Moa; Wallensten, Anders; Widerström, Micael; Lilja, Mikael; Grunewald, Maria; Stenmark, Stephan; Kark, Malin; Lindh, Johan

    2015-06-04

    In 2010-2011, two large waterborne outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium hominis affected two cities in Sweden, Östersund and Skellefteå. We investigated potential post-infection health consequences in people who had reported symptoms compatible with cryptosporidiosis during the outbreaks using questionnaires. We compared cases linked to these outbreaks with non-cases in terms of symptoms present up to eleven months after the initial infection. We examined if cases were more likely to report a list of symptoms at follow-up than non-cases, calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) obtained through logistic regression. A total of 872 (310 cases) and 743 (149 cases) individuals responded to the follow-up questionnaires in Östersund and Skellefteå respectively. Outbreak cases were more likely to report diarrhea (Östersund OR: 3.3, CI: 2.0-5.3. Skellefteå OR: 3.6, CI: 2.0-6.6), watery diarrhea (Östersund OR: 3.4, CI: 1.9-6.3. Skellefteå OR: 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.1) abdominal pain (Östersund OR: 2.1, CI: 1.4-3.3, Skellefteå OR: 2.7, CI: 1.5-4.6) and joint pain (Östersund OR: 2.0, CI: 1.2-3.3, Skellefteå OR: 2.0, CI: 1.1-3.6) at follow-up compared to non-cases. Our findings suggest that gastrointestinal- and joint symptoms can persist several months after the initial infection with Cryptosporidium and should be regarded as a potential cause of unexplained symptoms in people who have suffered from the infection.

  5. The confidence in health care and social services in northern Sweden--a comparison between reindeer-herding Sami and the non-Sami majority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daerga, Laila; Sjölander, Per; Jacobsson, Lars; Edin-Liljegren, Anette

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the confidence in primary health care, psychiatry and social services among the reindeer-herding Sami and the non-Sami population of northern Sweden. A semi-randomized, cross-sectional study design comprising 325 reindeer-herding Sami (171 men, 154 women) and a control population of 1,437 non-Sami (684 men, 753 women). A questionnaire on the confidence in primary health care, psychiatry, social services, and work colleagues was distributed to members of reindeer-herding families through the Sami communities and to the control population through the post. The relative risk for poor confidence was analyzed by calculating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age and level of education. The confidence in primary health care and psychiatry was significantly lower among the reindeer-herding Sami compared with the control group. No differences were found between men and women in the reindeer-herding Sami population. In both the reindeer-herding Sami and the control population, younger people (≤ 48 years) reported significantly lower confidence in primary health care than older individuals (>48 years). A conceivable reason for the poor confidence in health care organizations reported by the reindeer-herding Sami is that they experience health care staff as poorly informed about reindeer husbandry and Sami culture, resulting in unsuitable or unrealistic treatment suggestions. The findings suggest that the poor confidence constitutes a significant obstacle of the reindeer-herding Sami to fully benefit from public health care services.

  6. Energy Supply Potentials in the Northern Counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden towards Sustainable Nordic Electricity and Heating Sectors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fischer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The lands in the northernmost corner of Europe present contradictory aspects in their social and economic development. Urban settlements are relatively few and small-sized, but rich natural resources (minerals, forests, rivers attract energy-intensive industries. Energy demand is increasing as a result of new investments in mining and industries, while reliable energy supply is threatened by the planned phase out of Swedish nuclear power, the growth of intermittent power supplies and the need to reduce fossil fuel consumption, especially in the Finnish and Norwegian energy sectors. Given these challenges, this paper investigates the potentials of so far unexploited energy resources in the northern counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden by comparing and critically analyzing data from statistic databases, governmental reports, official websites, research projects and academic publications. The criteria for the technical and economic definition of potentials are discussed separately for each resource. It is concluded that, despite the factors that reduce the theoretical potentials, significant sustainable techno-economic potentials exist for most of the resources, providing important insights about the possible strategies to contribute to a positive socio-economic development in the considered regions.

  7. “It is a challenge to do it the right way”: an interpretive description of caregivers’ experiences in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkulu Kalengayi Faustine Kyungu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiences from nations with population diversity show extensive evidence on the need for cultural and linguistic competence in health care. In Sweden, despite the increasing diversity, only few studies have focused on challenges in cross-cultural care. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of caregivers in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden in order to understand the challenges they face and generate knowledge that could inform clinical practice. Methods We used an interpretive description approach, combining semi-structured interviews with 10 caregivers purposively selected and participant observation of patient-provider interactions in caring encounters. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis approach. Field notes were also used to orient data collection and confirm or challenge the analysis. Results We found complex and intertwined challenges as indicated in the three themes we present including: the sociocultural diversity, the language barrier and the challenges migrants face in navigating through the Swedish health care system. The caregivers described migrants as a heterogeneous group coming from different geographical areas with varied social, cultural and religious affiliations, migration histories and statuses, all of which influenced the health care encounter, whether providing or receiving. Participants also described language as a major barrier to effective provision and use of health services. Meanwhile, they expressed concern over the use of interpreters in the triad communication and over the difficulties encountered by migrants in navigating through the Swedish health care system. Conclusions The study illuminates complex challenges facing health care providers caring for migrant populations and highlights the need for multifaceted approaches to improve the delivery and receipt of care. The policy implications of these challenges are

  8. Longer pre-hospital delay in first myocardial infarction among patients with diabetes: an analysis of 4266 patients in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reperfusion therapy reduces both morbidity and mortality in myocardial infarction, but the effectiveness depends on how fast the patient receives treatment. Despite the time-dependent effectiveness of reperfusion therapy, many patients with myocardial infarction have delays in seeking medical care. The aim of this study was to describe pre-hospital delay in a first myocardial infarction among men and women with and without diabetes and to describe the association between pre-hospital delay time and diabetes, sex, age, symptoms and size of residential area as a proxy for distance to hospital. Methods This population based study was based on data from 4266 people aged 25–74 years, with a first myocardial infarction registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA myocardial infarction registry between 2000 and 2008. Results The proportion of patients with delay times ≥ 2 h was 64% for patients with diabetes and 58% for patients without diabetes. There was no difference in delay time ≥ 2 h between men and women with diabetes. Diabetes, older age and living in a town or rural areas were factors associated with pre-hospital delay times ≥ 2 h. Atypical symptoms were not a predictor for pre-hospital delay times ≥ 2 h, OR 0.59 (0.47; 0.75). Conclusions A higher proportion of patients with diabetes have longer pre-hospital delay in myocardial infarction than patients without diabetes. There are no differences in pre-hospital delay between men and women with diabetes. The largest risk difference for pre-hospital delay ≥ 2 h is between women with and without diabetes. Diabetes, older age and living in a town or rural area are predictors for pre-hospital delay ≥ 2 h. PMID:23356233

  9. Effects of climate, fire and vegetation development on Holocene changes in total organic carbon concentration in three boreal forest lakes in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rosén

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, diatoms, pollen, charcoal, loss-on-ignition (LOI, and nutrient elements in lake sediments were used to assess important factors controlling Holocene changes in the total organic carbon (TOC concentration, pCO2, color and pH of lake water in three boreal forest lakes in northern Sweden. The results suggest that mire formation, fire frequency and humidity are the most important forcing factors on millennial timescales. Mires produce humic acids that become available to the lakes, whereas fires may reduce the pool of carbon in the catchments, and humidity controls the transportation of allochthonous carbon into the lakes. Vegetation development and temperature as sole factors are of minor importance for the TOC concentrations in these lakes on a millennial timescale. Two of the sites indicate that liming and possibly fish introduction and rotenone treatment in recent time has led to increased TOC, color and pH in the lake water, and changed the diatom community composition to an assemblage that has never been present before. Given the predicted climate change scenario that suggests a more humid climate, expanding mires and less frequent fires, our paleolimnological data suggest that TOC concentrations can be expected to increase in boreal forest lakes in the future. Since super-saturation and emission of CO2 from lakes is correlated to the TOC concentration of lake water, higher TOC concentrations may lead to increased emission of CO2 from lakes to the atmosphere.

  10. A genome scan conducted in a multigenerational pedigree with convergent strabismus supports a complex genetic determinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Georges

    Full Text Available A genome-wide linkage scan was conducted in a Northern-European multigenerational pedigree with nine of 40 related members affected with concomitant strabismus. Twenty-seven members of the pedigree including all affected individuals were genotyped using a SNP array interrogating > 300,000 common SNPs. We conducted parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses assuming segregation of an autosomal dominant mutation, yet allowing for incomplete penetrance and phenocopies. We detected two chromosome regions with near-suggestive evidence for linkage, respectively on chromosomes 8 and 18. The chromosome 8 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.80 and a rate of phenocopy of 0.11, while the chromosome 18 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.64 and a rate of phenocopy of 0. Our analysis excludes a simple genetic determinism of strabismus in this pedigree.

  11. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  12. A reassessment of the englacial and subglacial drainage system of Storglaciären in northern Sweden - How much did climate warming change the drainage system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Rosqvist, G. N.; Jansson, P.; Lyon, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    Storglaciären glacier, located in the sub-arctic Tarfala catchment, in northern Sweden is one of the world's longest continuously monitored glaciers which provides a unique research platform for the long-term assessment of climate change impacts on mountain glacier systems. In the presented study we assess signals of climate-induced change in the englacial and subglacial drainage system of the lower ablation area of Storglaciären. Flow velocities and dispersive characteristics of the englacial and subglacial hydraulic system were re-investigated in the 2012 summer melt season using fluorescent dye-tracing tests and compared to previous assessments of from the 1980s and 1990s. Historical hydro-climatic records from Tarfala catchment indicate that there have been significant increases in the cold season air temperature (0.76 °C/decade, 1965-2009) and a doubling of summer event precipitation over the past four decades. These changes contributed to the consistently negative glacier net balance of Storglaciären and significant positive trends in both the mean summer discharge and flood magnitudes over the past 45 years. Six of the eight largest annual maximum flood events occurred during the last decade and meltwater contributions from Storglaciären to the Tarfalajokken stream increased by 15% during the same period. These hydro-climatic trends in conjunction with an isotopic hydrograph separation of present-day samplings indicate that high magnitude rainfall events receive an increasing role in the runoff generation in Tarfala catchment and the glacier systems. This shift towards a greater rainwater contribution to catchment streamflow and glacier runoff indicates fundamental changes in the pathways that water takes through the glacier. The isotopic data suggests that the transit of rainwater via the englacial drainage system is increasing. However, in contrast to the 1980s assessment, dye-tracing tests conducted in 2012 indicate that the majority of meltwater

  13. Geophysical modelling of the central Skellefte district, Northern Sweden; an integrated model based on the electrical, potential field and petrophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saman; Elming, Sten-Åke; Thunehed, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The central Skellefte district (CSD) is a part of a major ore-bearing district in northern Sweden. Studying the depth and patterns of the contact relationship between the two major stratigraphic units of the CSD, the Skellefte Group and the Vargfors Group, is a key issue to understand the geometry and structure of the area and to guide exploration of base metals. In this study, we interpret geoelectrical data collected along two profiles and magnetic and gravity data obtained from the database of the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU) and Boliden Mineral, to reveal contact relationship and depth extension of the major geological structures. Petrophysical analyses of the different lithologies were conducted on samples from the database of the SGU. Electric resistivity, induced polarisation (IP), magnetic susceptibility and density were determined on 154 core samples representing the different lithologies of the area. The resistivity/IP data were acquired to define structural relations down to a maximum depth of ~ 430 m. The major contact between sediments of the Vargfors basin and volcanic rocks of the Skellefte Group were outlined from the inversion of the resistivity/IP sections, suggesting a synform boundary between the Vargfors Group and Skellefte Group. The contact relationship between the felsic and mafic volcanic rocks of the Skellefte Group is also understood with the help of the resistivity/IP data. The resistivity models were tested using the magnetic data and magnetic susceptibility inferred on the resistivity bodies. The result suggests a good correlation between the initial resistivity model and the magnetic and gravity field calculated from that model. The integration and interpretation of geological and geophysical data improved the basic understanding of the geometry of CSD. Based on previous geological investigations, the potential ore deposits are believed to be found along the volcano-sedimentary contact. The result from this study can thus be used

  14. Pedigree analysis of an ostrich breeding flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Pedigree records, maintained from 1978 to 2005 at the Oudtshoorn Research Farm, South Africa, of. 40 074 birds of a pair-breeding ostrich flock were used to estimate the effective number of founders (fe), the effective number of ancestors (fa), the effective population size and the effective genome equivalents (fg).

  15. Composite likelihood method for inferring local pedigrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ko, Amy; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    such as polygamous families, multi-generational families, and pedigrees in which many of the member individuals are missing. Computational speed is greatly enhanced by the use of a composite likelihood function which approximates the full likelihood. We validate our method on simulated data and show that it can...

  16. Pedigree analysis of the Hungarian Thoroughbred population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokor, A.; Jonas, D.; Ducro, B.J.; Nagy, I.; Bokor, J.; Szabari, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the pedigree information of Thoroughbred horses which were participating in gallop races between 1998 and 2010 in Hungary. Among the 3043 individuals of the reference population there were imported animals from foreign countries (e.g. Germany, England or Ireland)

  17. Observations on nivation and its geomorphological effects in mountains at high latitude (with Mt. Njulla Massif in Northern Sweden as example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raczkowska, Zofia

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the geomorphological role of snow patches In the remodeling of mountain slopes in the periglacial zone based on the results of morphological mapping of Mt. Njulla region, Northern Sweden. Effectiveness of nivation is strongly controlled by geological structure. On the Eastern slope, at the foot of the hillside, nivation processes play a critical role in the creation of numerous transverse nival hollows and cryoplanation terraces. On the western slope, meltwater, originating from snow patches, facilitates weathering and transportation of wastes downslope. Vegetation of the studied region is influenced by nivation. Effects of nivation are limited to reshaping of the relief.

    [es] Este trabajo presenta el papel de las manchas de nieve en la evolución de laderas de montaña de la zona periglaciar, apoyándose en los resultados de cartografía geomorfológica de la región de Mt. Njulla, Norte de Suecia. La eficacia de la nivación está fuertemente controlada por la estructura geológica. En la vertiente oriental, al pie de la ladera, los procesos de nivación juegan un papel crítico en la creación de nichos nivales transversales y de terrazas de crioplanación. En la vertiente occidental, el agua de fusión, que surge de las manchas de nieve, facilita la meteorización y el transporte de materiales ladera abajo. La vegetación de la región estudiada también se halla Influida por la vegetación. Sin embargo, los efectos de la nivación se limitan a retoques en el relieve.
    [fr] Dans cette étude on a discuté le rôle géomorphologique des taches de neige dans la transformation du relief dans la zone périglaciére, à la base de l'analyse de la carte morphologique de la région de Njulla, au nord de la Suède. On a constaté un rapport évident entre les effets des processus de nivation et la structure géologique. Sur le versant est formé sur le front de l'escarpement structural, les processus de nivation

  18. Multifactorial disease risk calculator: Risk prediction for multifactorial disease pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Yiming; Sham, Pak C

    2018-03-01

    Construction of multifactorial disease models from epidemiological findings and their application to disease pedigrees for risk prediction is nontrivial for all but the simplest of cases. Multifactorial Disease Risk Calculator is a web tool facilitating this. It provides a user-friendly interface, extending a reported methodology based on a liability-threshold model. Multifactorial disease models incorporating all the following features in combination are handled: quantitative risk factors (including polygenic scores), categorical risk factors (including major genetic risk loci), stratified age of onset curves, and the partition of the population variance in disease liability into genetic, shared, and unique environment effects. It allows the application of such models to disease pedigrees. Pedigree-related outputs are (i) individual disease risk for pedigree members, (ii) n year risk for unaffected pedigree members, and (iii) the disease pedigree's joint liability distribution. Risk prediction for each pedigree member is based on using the constructed disease model to appropriately weigh evidence on disease risk available from personal attributes and family history. Evidence is used to construct the disease pedigree's joint liability distribution. From this, lifetime and n year risk can be predicted. Example disease models and pedigrees are provided at the website and are used in accompanying tutorials to illustrate the features available. The website is built on an R package which provides the functionality for pedigree validation, disease model construction, and risk prediction. Website: http://grass.cgs.hku.hk:3838/mdrc/current. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  19. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Tanvir M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.

  20. Maximum likelihood pedigree reconstruction using integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussens, James; Bartlett, Mark; Jones, Elinor M; Sheehan, Nuala A

    2013-01-01

    Large population biobanks of unrelated individuals have been highly successful in detecting common genetic variants affecting diseases of public health concern. However, they lack the statistical power to detect more modest gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects or the effects of rare variants for which related individuals are ideally required. In reality, most large population studies will undoubtedly contain sets of undeclared relatives, or pedigrees. Although a crude measure of relatedness might sometimes suffice, having a good estimate of the true pedigree would be much more informative if this could be obtained efficiently. Relatives are more likely to share longer haplotypes around disease susceptibility loci and are hence biologically more informative for rare variants than unrelated cases and controls. Distant relatives are arguably more useful for detecting variants with small effects because they are less likely to share masking environmental effects. Moreover, the identification of relatives enables appropriate adjustments of statistical analyses that typically assume unrelatedness. We propose to exploit an integer linear programming optimisation approach to pedigree learning, which is adapted to find valid pedigrees by imposing appropriate constraints. Our method is not restricted to small pedigrees and is guaranteed to return a maximum likelihood pedigree. With additional constraints, we can also search for multiple high-probability pedigrees and thus account for the inherent uncertainty in any particular pedigree reconstruction. The true pedigree is found very quickly by comparison with other methods when all individuals are observed. Extensions to more complex problems seem feasible. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of temperature on forest production in Canada, Finland and Sweden. Predicted effects of a global warming on production of lodgepole pine and Scots pine in the northern boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Anders

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse relationships between forest production and climatic factors under different biogeoclimatic conditions and, thus, to enhance our ability to predict changes in production following temperature increases. Production in the IUFRO 70/71 provenance test series with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) was correlated to climate data from adjacent meteorological stations. Field-tests in Canada (British Columbia and the Yukon) and Scandinavia (Finland and Sweden) were evaluated about 20 years after planting. The temperature regime was strongly correlated to forest production in the northern boreal forest regions. The temperature during the growing season as a whole and the length of it seem to be more important than the maximum summer temperature. The relationship between production and temperature was weaker in Canada than in Scandinavia, and production increased generally more on poor and intermediate sites than on rich sites. According to the presented algorithms, an increase in the temperature sum from 600 to 1200 degree days, would theoretically result in an increase in site index of between 5 and 13 m for lodgepole pine, and slightly lower for Scots pine. The highest increases would occur in Scandinavia. Temperature plots show that, especially in northern Scandinavia, a higher mean temperature would prolong the growing season, and this may make short spells with above 0 deg C-temperatures during the dormant period. Together with drought during the growing season, this may increase the frequency of climate-related frost damage

  2. Nuclear Pedigree Criteria of Suspected HNPCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kładny Józef

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The criteria for the diagnosis of HNPCC established by the ICG-HNPCC are very restrictive as they do not allow for the diagnosis of a large number of "suspected HNPCC" cases - these are families which do no fulfill the strict diagnostic "Amsterdam criteria", but do present with several pedigree and clinical features characteristic for HNPCC. Several series of families suspected of harboring germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been studied for germline changes in DNA mismatch repair genes and a mutation rate of somewhere between 8-60% was found. Therefore a subgroup of members of the ICG-HNPCC has been working on pedigree/clinical diagnostic criteria for suspected HNPCC. Materials and methods Part I The study was based on two series of colorectal cancer (CRC cases: 1 HNPCC - this group comprised 190 patients affected by CRC from randomly selected families which fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria registered in Düsseldorf, Germany (102 cases of CRC, Denmark (18 CRCs, Leiden, Holland (23 CRCs and Szczecin, Poland (47 CRCs. 2 Consecutive CRCs - this group comprised 629 (78.0% of 806 individuals with CRC diagnosed in 1991-1997 in the city of Szczecin (ca. 400,000 of inhabitants, Poland. Nuclear pedigrees in both groups were compared for frequency of occurrence of clinical features, that have been shown to be associated with HNPCC. Part II 52 consecutive CRC cases from Szczecin, matching the criteria recognized in part I as appropriate for diagnosis of cases "suspected of HNPCC" were studied for the occurrence of germline hMSH2/hMLH1 constitutional mutations using "exon by exon" sequencing. Results The combination of features - i.e. the occurrence of an HNPCC associated cancer (CRC or cancer of the endometrium, small bowel or urinary tract in a 1st degree relative of a CRC patient; at least one of the patients being diagnosed under age of 50 - appeared to be strongly associated to HNPCC with an OR - 161. Constitutional

  3. Changes in fine root production and longevity in response to water and nutrient availability in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2003-03-01

    Effects of nutritional availability and soil warming on carbon turnover via fine roots (<2 mm in diameter) were studied at a Norway spruce stand in north Sweden in the following treatments: liquid fertilization (IL), soil warming of treated plots (HIL) and control (C). Minirhizotrons were installed in October 1994 and recorded once a month during the growing season, in 1997. Fine root production increased significantly in I and IL treatments compared with C plots at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. Soil warming enhanced effects of IL. Root mortality was not increased significantly in IL. Soil warming showed almost the similar effect on root mortality at depth 10-20 cm as it was for depth 0-10 cm. The root longevity in IL plots was significantly lower compared with C plots at depth 0-20 cm. The effects of soil warming were more pronounced at depth 10-25 cm. Soil warming increased root biomass three times in HIL plots and this increase. It is concluded that an eventual increase in temperature followed by increased CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, results in an increase in root production and mortality and consequently higher carbon allocation to the soil.

  4. Clast analysis of potential resurge deposits as part of the Vakkejokk Breccia in the Torneträsk area, northern Sweden - a proposed impact ejecta layer

    OpenAIRE

    Minde, Peder

    2017-01-01

    In the northern part of Swedish Caledonides, north of Lake Torneträsk is a 7 km long exposure of a breccia layer. The layer thins westwards and eastwards from the central part where it is up to 27 m thick. It is called the Vakkejokk Breccia after the type section. The breccia has been described in literature since about a century, but its origin is enigmatic. The breccia layer is since the summer of 2012 investigated by three geologists specialized in impact craters, Paleozoic sediments, and ...

  5. Meddling with middle modalities: a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between intersectional gender and economic middle groups in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E. Gustafsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. Objective: This article aimed to 1 examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2 decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression. Design: Participants (N=25,585 came from the cross-sectional ‘Health on Equal Terms’ survey covering 16- to 84-year-olds in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. Six intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men and tertiles (low vs. medium vs. high of disposable income. Mental health was measured through the General Health Questionnaire-12. Explanatory variables covered areas of material conditions, job relations, violence, domestic burden, and healthcare contacts. Analysis of variance (Aim 1 and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis (Aim 2 were used. Results: Significant mental health inequalities were found between dominant (high-income women and middle-income men and subordinate (middle-income women and low-income men middle groups. The health inequalities between adjacent middle groups were mostly explained by violence (mid-income women vs. men comparison; material conditions (mid- vs. low-income men comparison; and material needs, job relations, and unmet medical needs (high- vs. mid-income women comparison. Conclusions: The study suggests complex processes whereby dominant middle groups in the intersectional space of economic affluence and gender can leverage strategic

  6. Meddling with middle modalities: a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between intersectional gender and economic middle groups in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per E; Sebastián, Miguel San; Mosquera, Paola A

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. This article aimed to 1) examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2) decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression. Participants ( N =25,585) came from the cross-sectional 'Health on Equal Terms' survey covering 16- to 84-year-olds in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. Six intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men) and tertiles (low vs. medium vs. high) of disposable income. Mental health was measured through the General Health Questionnaire-12. Explanatory variables covered areas of material conditions, job relations, violence, domestic burden, and healthcare contacts. Analysis of variance (Aim 1) and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis (Aim 2) were used. Significant mental health inequalities were found between dominant (high-income women and middle-income men) and subordinate (middle-income women and low-income men) middle groups. The health inequalities between adjacent middle groups were mostly explained by violence (mid-income women vs. men comparison); material conditions (mid- vs. low-income men comparison); and material needs, job relations, and unmet medical needs (high- vs. mid-income women comparison). The study suggests complex processes whereby dominant middle groups in the intersectional space of economic affluence and gender can leverage strategic resources to gain mental health advantage relative to subordinate

  7. pedigreejs: a web-based graphical pedigree editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Tim; Cunningham, Alex P; Babb de Villiers, Chantal; Lee, Andrew; Hartley, Simon; Tischkowitz, Marc; Walter, Fiona M; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2018-03-15

    The collection, management and visualization of clinical pedigree (family history) data is a core activity in clinical genetics centres. However, clinical pedigree datasets can be difficult to manage, as they are time consuming to capture, and can be difficult to build, manipulate and visualize graphically. Several standalone graphical pedigree editors and drawing applications exist but there are no freely available lightweight graphical pedigree editors that can be easily configured and incorporated into web applications. We developed 'pedigreejs', an interactive graphical pedigree editor written in JavaScript, which uses standard pedigree nomenclature. Pedigreejs provides an easily configurable, extensible and lightweight pedigree editor. It makes use of an open-source Javascript library to define a hierarchical layout and to produce images in scalable vector graphics (SVG) format that can be viewed and edited in web browsers. The software is freely available under GPL licence (https://ccge-boadicea.github.io/pedigreejs/). tjc29@cam.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. High-Resolution Remote Sensing and Stable Isotope Patterns Across Heath-Shrub-Forest Ecotone at Abisko and Vassijaure, Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, M. R.; Herrick, C.; Hobbie, E. A.; Chen, J.; Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Marek, E.; Kashi, N. N.; Smith, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid warming in arctic and sub-arctic environments shifts plant community structure which in turn can alter carbon cycling by releasing large stocks of carbon sequestered in arctic soils. Much work has been done in sub-arctic peatlands to understand how shifts in dominant vegetation cover can ultimately affect global carbon balances, but less focus has been given to upland environments where similar changes are occurring. Recent circumpolar expansion of deciduous shrubs and trees in sub-arctic upland environments may alter carbon cycling due to shrubs and trees sequestering less C in soils than the heath plants they typically replace. In this study we explored the relationship between nutrient and carbon cycling and above-ground vegetation on six transects which traverse an ecotone gradient from heath tundra (dominated by ericoid mycorrhizal plants) through deciduous shrubs to deciduous trees (dominated by ectomycorrhizal plants) in upland environments of sub-arctic Sweden near Vassijaure (~850 mm precipitation) and Abisko (~300 mm precipitation). We collected soil and foliage for analysis of natural abundances of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N), which can be a sensitive indicator of C and N dynamics. We also took high-resolution remote aerial imagery over the transects to calculate percent cover of vegetation types using GIS software. We concurrently estimated percent cover in smaller plots on the ground of three dominant species, Empetrum nigrum, Betula nana, and Betula pubescens, to serve as ground-truthing for the aerial imagery. Analysis of vegetation cover data shows significant differences in vegetation types along the transects. Preliminary multiple regression analysis of isotopes shows that δ13C in organic soil at the Vassijaure site is mostly controlled by distance along the transect, an interaction term between transect distance and soil depth, and δ15N (adjusted r2 = 0.85, p regression analyses, δ15N was primarily controlled by

  9. Longitudinal 10-year changes in dietary intake and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkvist, Anna; Klingberg, Sofia; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Wennberg, Maria; Renström, Frida; Hallmans, Göran; Boman, Kurt; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-03-28

    Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk. In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second visit in multivariable regression analyses. For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%) from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate decrease among 40 year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (highest protein increase among 30 year-olds and highest fat increase among 60 year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E% trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P < 0.05). For men, increases in intake of whole grain and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P < 0.05). Also for men, decreases in intake of trans-fatty acids and increases in Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower systolic blood pressure at second visit (P = 0.002 and P < 0.000). For women, increases in intake of PUFA and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI at second visit (P = 0.01 and P < 0.05). Surprisingly, increases in intake of

  10. Improved maximum likelihood reconstruction of complex multi-generational pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Nuala A; Bartlett, Mark; Cussens, James

    2014-11-01

    The reconstruction of pedigrees from genetic marker data is relevant to a wide range of applications. Likelihood-based approaches aim to find the pedigree structure that gives the highest probability to the observed data. Existing methods either entail an exhaustive search and are hence restricted to small numbers of individuals, or they take a more heuristic approach and deliver a solution that will probably have high likelihood but is not guaranteed to be optimal. By encoding the pedigree learning problem as an integer linear program we can exploit efficient optimisation algorithms to construct pedigrees guaranteed to have maximal likelihood for the standard situation where we have complete marker data at unlinked loci and segregation of genes from parents to offspring is Mendelian. Previous work demonstrated efficient reconstruction of pedigrees of up to about 100 individuals. The modified method that we present here is not so restricted: we demonstrate its applicability with simulated data on a real human pedigree structure of over 1600 individuals. It also compares well with a very competitive approximate approach in terms of solving time and accuracy. In addition to identifying a maximum likelihood pedigree, we can obtain any number of pedigrees in decreasing order of likelihood. This is useful for assessing the uncertainty of a maximum likelihood solution and permits model averaging over high likelihood pedigrees when this would be appropriate. More importantly, when the solution is not unique, as will often be the case for large pedigrees, it enables investigation into the properties of maximum likelihood pedigree estimates which has not been possible up to now. Crucially, we also have a means of assessing the behaviour of other approximate approaches which all aim to find a maximum likelihood solution. Our approach hence allows us to properly address the question of whether a reasonably high likelihood solution that is easy to obtain is practically as

  11. Post-glacial faulting in the Lansjaerv area, Northern Sweden. Comments from the expert group on a field visit at the Molberget post-glacial fault area, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanfors, R.; Ericsson, L.O.

    1993-05-01

    Post-glacial faults have been recognized in the northern Baltic shield for several decades. It is important to evaluate whether such neotectonic movements can lead to new fracturing or decisively alter the geohydrological or geohydrochemical situation around a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The post-glacial Lansjaerv fault was chosen for an interdisciplinary study because of its relative accessibility. The goals of the study were to assess the mechanisms that caused present day scraps, to clarify the extent of any recent fracturing and to clarify the extent of any ongoing movements. All these objectives were reasonably met through a series of studies, which have been performed by SKB during 1986-1992 in two phases. This report gives a summary of the first phase of the Lansjaerv study (1986-1989) and describes achievements that have been gained during the second phase of the study. As a final of the field-work in the Lansjaerv area a meeting combined with a field excursion was arranged by SKB in June 1991 for a group of international experts. Comments from the expert group on the excursion and the overall Lansjaerv project are presented. One of the major conclusions is that the Lansjaerv post-glacial fault reactivated pre-existing old structures and that the causes of the post-glacial movements is a combination of plate tectonics and deglaciation

  12. Epidemiology of lysosomal storage diseases in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Malin; Darin, Niklas; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2014-12-01

    There are more than 50 inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and this study examined the incidence of clinically diagnosed LSDs in Sweden. The number of patients diagnosed during 1980-2009 was compiled from the registries of the two Swedish diagnostic laboratories that cover the whole country. We identified 433 patients during the 30-year period, with a total incidence of one in every 6100 births and identified fairly constant annual diagnoses during the last 20 years. Krabbe disease was the most common (one in 39 000) followed by Gaucher disease (one in 47 000), metachromatic leukodystrophy and Salla disease. Gaucher disease was more frequent in Sweden than other European countries, due to a founder effect of the mutation (p.L444P) in northern Sweden. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was one of the most common LSDs, in common with other countries. Salla disease, which is very rare elsewhere, was the fourth most common, stemming from a founder mutation in the Salla region of northern Finland brought to Sweden by immigration. The collective incidence of LSDs in Sweden was essentially equal to other European countries, but with a somewhat different disease pattern. Our findings have implications for diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ethical and methodological issues in pedigree stroke research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, B B; Chen, D T; Meschia, J F

    2001-06-01

    Stroke is a complex genetic disorder with a variable phenotype. Investigations of heritable factors in complex genetic disorders use pedigree and genetic techniques, which pose different ethical and methodological challenges than those routinely encountered in therapeutic research. Building consensus on acceptable research practices in this field is vital to the success of multicentered collaborations. We review important ethical and methodological concerns related to the collection, storage, and release of pedigree research information. The human studies aspects of pedigree research are complicated methodologically because individuals can be active or passive participants and pedigrees can be proband derived, partially validated, or fully validated. Current research ethics frameworks do not work well outside of a dyadic researcher-subject relationship. Privacy and confidentiality for family members must be considered in pedigree research. Investigators should anticipate potential conflicts of interest among family members when designing a pedigree research protocol. We propose a "proband-initiated contact" methodology in which the proband or the proband's designate allows identification of potential families without breaching the privacy of individuals in the family. In situations in which family history data are collected without direct contact between researchers and individuals in the proband's family, an Institutional Review Board may waive consent by family members after appropriate review of the protocol and application of rules for granting waivers of consent. Certificates of Confidentiality should be considered.

  14. Four-year incidence of allergic sensitization among schoolchildren in a community where allergy to cat and dog dominates sensitization: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo

    2003-10-01

    Exposure to high levels of cat allergen might prevent sensitization. We sought to measure the incidence of allergic sensitization among schoolchildren living in a dust mite- and cockroach-free environment and the associated risk factors. In 1996, a longitudinal cohort was established in northern Sweden, including 2454 children aged 7 to 8 years. Children were skin tested, and the testing was repeated 4 years later. Questionnaires were completed yearly. Participation was 88% both in 1996 and 2000. The prevalence of positive skin test results increased from 20.6% at age 7 and 8 years to 30.4% at age 11 and 12 years, a cumulative incidence of 13.8%, and was significantly higher among boys. The incidence was highest for cat (6.0%), timothy grass (5.9%), dog (4.9%), and birch (3.6%). A family history of allergy was the major risk factor for both a positive skin test response at age 7 and 8 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.36-2.10) and for development of a positive skin test response over the next 4 years (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.23-2.28). A significant inverse association between cat and dog ownership and the prevalence of type 1 allergy was found, particularly for those children who had lived with a cat both before age 7 and 8 years and during the next 4 years (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.61). A similar pattern, although not significant, was found for incident cases. The high incidence of type 1 allergy at this age was similar to reports from communities with mite and cockroach allergen. Despite cat and dog being the most common allergens of sensitization, keeping these animals at home was not associated with an increased risk for sensitization.

  15. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  16. Canvas SPW: calling de novo copy number variants in pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhno, Sergii; Roller, Eric; Colombo, Camilla; Tedder, Philip; Cox, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    Whole genome sequencing is becoming a diagnostics of choice for the identification of rare inherited and de novo copy number variants in families with various pediatric and late-onset genetic diseases. However, joint variant calling in pedigrees is hampered by the complexity of consensus breakpoint alignment across samples within an arbitrary pedigree structure. We have developed a new tool, Canvas SPW, for the identification of inherited and de novo copy number variants from pedigree sequencing data. Canvas SPW supports a number of family structures and provides a wide range of scoring and filtering options to automate and streamline identification of de novo variants. Canvas SPW is available for download from https://github.com/Illumina/canvas. sivakhno@illumina.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Comparison of association mapping methods in a complex pedigreed population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Janss, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Association mapping methods were compared using a simulation with a complex pedigree structure. The pedigree was simulated while keeping the present Danish Holstein population pedigree in view. A total of 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL) with varying effect sizes (10%, 5% and 2% of total genetic...... variance) were simulated. We compared the single-marker test, haplotype-based analysis, mixed model approach, and Bayesian analysis. The methods were compared for power, precision of location estimates, and type I error rates. Results found the best performance in a Bayesian method that included genetic...... background effects and simultaneously fitted all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a variable selection method. A mixed model analysis that fitted genetic background effects and tested one SNP at a time performed nearly as well as the Bayesian method. For the Bayesian method, it proved necessary...

  18. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  19. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  20. Historical Archaeology in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wienberg, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the early origin and later transformations of Medieval Archaeology to Historical Archaeology, both as an antiquarian practice and as an academic subject, focusing on the development in Sweden since the 17th C.

  1. Preliminary report: Pedigree analysis of the Brangus cattle in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedigree analysis can describe the genetic variability and change over time, making it an important tool to be used to assess parameters like generation interval, inbreeding, effective population size and number of animals selected against number born. These traits can be used to make more informed selection decisions in ...

  2. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This probl...

  3. The Pedigree Dog Breeding Debate in Ethics and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Nijland, Hanneke J.

    2017-01-01

    Pedigree dog breeding has been the subject of public debate due to health problems caused by breeding for extreme looks and the narrow genepool of many breeds. Our research aims to provide insights in order to further the animal-ethical, political and society-wide discussion regarding the future of

  4. Reconception in grade and pedigree Africander cows of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of postpartum mass, bodymass gain from calving to the end of the bulling season and month of calving was studied in I 975 grade and 440 pedigree Africander cows that were classified into six size categories according to postpartum mass. Approximately half the number of each breed received protein rich ...

  5. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  6. The bedrock and the soil types in the Finnsjoearea, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.-E.; Ekman, L.; Olkiewicz, A.

    1978-11-01

    This report is a part of a long-term project, started at the request of the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, Sweden. The aim of the project is to claryfy the geohydrological situation of a drainage area close to Finnsjoen in northern Uppland, Sweden. The work comprised bedrock- and soil mapping as well as an investigation of existing literature about the geology of northern Uppland. The area is about 25 km 2 and is limited by its water-shed. The area is relatively flat, rich in outcrops - expecially in the western parts - and often swampy. Big areas of forests and agriculture have been drained by ditches. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the licensing process - Part of Pilot project wind power- Large scale wind power in northern Sweden; Utvaerdering av tillstaandsprocessen - Del av vindpilotprojekt vindkraft - Storskalig vindkraft i norra Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report is designed to improve permitting processes for wind power plants, thereby contributing to the smooth functioning of wind power development in Sweden. This report is designed to improve permitting processes for wind power, thereby contributing to the smooth functioning of wind power development in Sweden. Based on the managing agent authorities and project groups reflections on the pilot projects on Gabrielsberget and Dragaliden has a number of advice and recommendations been compiled for the permit process as a whole and from the process at different stages.

  8. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  9. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite (IOA) type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits. They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Both IOCG and IOA deposits are characterized by abundant low-Ti Fe oxides, an enrichment in REE, and intense sodium and potassium wall-rock alteration adjacent to the ores. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements (REE) or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and 2500 Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date (with grades of 30 to 70 wt.% Fe), the genesis of these deposits is poorly understood: theories of a magmatic vs. a hydrothermal or metasomatic origin have been debated, and the timing of mineralization of the ores in the Norbotten region has never been directly dated. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks, their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. This includes in situ U/Pb geochronology of zircon, monazite, and titanite to constrain the timing between host rock emplacement, alteration and mineralization. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE. Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks, ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U

  10. Measurement of segregating behaviors in experimental silver fox pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Trut, L N; Chase, K; Shepeleva, D V; Vladimirova, A V; Kharlamova, A V; Oskina, I N; Stepika, A; Klebanov, S; Erb, H N; Acland, G M

    2008-03-01

    Strains of silver foxes, selectively bred at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, are a well established, novel model for studying the genetic basis of behavior, and the processes involved in canine domestication. Here we describe a method to measure fox behavior as quantitative phenotypes which distinguish populations and resegregate in experimental pedigrees. We defined 50 binary observations that nonredundantly and accurately distinguished behaviors in reference populations and cross-bred pedigrees. Principal-component analysis dissected out the independent elements underlying these behaviors. PC1 accounted for >44% of the total variance in measured traits. This system clearly distinguished tame foxes from aggressive and wildtype foxes. F1 foxes yield intermediate values that extend into the ranges of both the tame and aggressive foxes, while the scores of the backcross generation resegregate. These measures can thus be used for QTL mapping to explore the genetic basis of tame and aggressive behavior in foxes, which should provide new insights into the mechanisms of mammalian behavior and canine domestication.

  11. Pedigrees, propaganda, and paranoia: family studies in a historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, P A

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the uses of family studies carried out in the early 20th century under the banner of eugenics, a companion discipline to early genetics. It explores how, in an attempt to analyze and quantify purportedly biologic bases of social problems, the eugenicists constructed pedigree charts of notoriously "defective" families. Investigation of individuals with suspect traits formed the basis for instruction of field workers who linked those traits to larger groups. The resulting eugenic family studies provided a "scientific" face for a popular hereditarian mythology that claimed to explain all social failure in systematic terms. The eugenicists were successful in fueling public fear about the growing "army of idiots and imbeciles" graphically depicted in their pedigree charts. Their success was the result of a finely crafted educational program--propaganda that reduced science to simplistic terms. The tendency to oversimplify concepts of genetic causation and the rush to amplify the significance of research findings through the popular media is also apparent today. What begins as publicity has the potential to be transformed into propaganda. Although many in the scientific community are understandably reluctant to revisit the abuses of the past, that community must confront the history of eugenics as a necessary antidote to the genetic hype that surrounds us.

  12. Challenging pancreatic cancer-prone pedigrees: a nosologic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Deters, Carolyn A; Lynch, Jane F; Brand, Randall A

    2002-12-01

    Our objective is to describe 11 pancreatic cancer (PC)-prone families, none of which are consonant with known hereditary cancer syndromes, in an attempt to portray familial aggregations of this disease that might be encountered in a clinical practice setting. We selected 11 families containing two or more first- and/or second-degree relatives affected with PC from a registry of 200 PC-prone kindreds. Each proband and/or key relative(s) was interviewed and completed a detailed family history questionnaire (after providing informed consent) that allowed us to extend the pedigree as far as possible with retrieval of primary medical and pathology documents, whenever available. All of the 11 families show PC features that merit clinical attention and raise questions as to whether this familial clustering could be due to "chance" alone, exposure to certain common environmental factors, such as cigarette smoking, and/or polygenic, multifactorial, or Mendelian inherited factors. It is estimated that about 5% of PC may have a primary hereditary etiology. Because of early death, reduced penetrance, and often profuse phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, particularly with respect to variable age of onset and association with diverse patterns of cancer at different anatomic sites, the pedigrees require extension for ultimate diagnosis. Physician knowledge about PC's natural history and syndrome delineation should ultimately foster earlier diagnoses and possibly prevention of this disease. These high-risk patients may provide a source of DNA for formal linkage analysis in the search for culprit cancer-prone susceptibility loci.

  13. Mortality over two centuries in large pedigree with familial hypercholesterolaemia: family tree mortality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrands, E. J.; Westendorp, R. G.; Defesche, J. C.; de Meier, P. H.; Smelt, A. H.; Kastelein, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    To estimate all cause mortality from untreated familial hypercholesterolaemia free from selection for coronary artery disease. Family tree mortality study. Large pedigree in Netherlands traced back to a single pair of ancestors in the 19th century. Subjects: All members of pedigree aged over 20

  14. Effects of incomplete pedigree on genetic management of the Dutch landrace goat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucha, S.; Windig, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity in the Dutch Landrace goat was investigated based on information from the pedigree with about 6500 animals. Annual inbreeding rate after 1985 was below 0.5% and after 1987 close to 0%. However, pedigree information was incomplete, and 350 animals had unknown parents, while for the

  15. Completeness of pedigree and family cancer history for ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yedong; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang Yoon

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the completeness of pedigree and of number of pedigree analysis to know the acceptable familial history in Korean women with ovarian cancer. Interview was conducted in 50 ovarian cancer patients for obtaining familial history three times over the 6 weeks. The completeness of pedigree is estimated in terms of familial history of disease (cancer), health status (health living, disease and death), and onset age of disease and death. The completion of pedigree was 79.3, 85.1, and 85.6% at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd time of interview and the time for pedigree analysis was 34.3, 10.8, and 3.1 minutes, respectively. The factors limiting pedigree analysis were as follows: out of contact with their relatives (38%), no living ancestors who know the family history (34%), dispersed family member because of the Korean War (16%), unknown cause of death (12%), reluctance to ask medical history of relatives (10%), and concealing their ovarian cancer (10%). The percentage of cancers revealed in 1st (2%) and 2nd degree (8%) relatives were increasing through surveys, especially colorectal cancer related with Lynch syndrome (4%). Analysis of pedigree at least two times is acceptable in Korean woman with ovarian cancer from the first study. The completion of pedigree is increasing, while time to take family history is decreasing during three time survey.

  16. How-to-Do-It. Using Human Pedigrees to Teach Mendelian Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are suggestions for using human pedigrees in the classroom and a generic pedigree that can be modified and used by instructors to provide variants for analysis. Eight single-gene mechanisms of inheritance are defined for use in this activity. (CW)

  17. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  18. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... analyze similarities and differences between the two countries regarding their public sectors and their public sector ER. The analysis focuses on three themes: main public services reforms and New Public Management (NPM), changes in the ER and job levels and the relationship between parliamentary politics...

  19. Energy in Sweden 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important tasks

  20. Reconstructing pedigrees: some identifiability questions for a recombination-mutation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2013-01-01

    Pedigrees are directed acyclic graphs that represent ancestral relationships between individuals in a population. Based on a schematic recombination process, we describe two simple Markov models for sequences evolving on pedigrees--Model R (recombinations without mutations) and Model RM (recombinations with mutations). For these models, we ask an identifiability question: is it possible to construct a pedigree from the joint probability distribution of extant sequences? We present partial identifiability results for general pedigrees: we show that when the crossover probabilities are sufficiently small, certain spanning subgraph sequences can be counted from the joint distribution of extant sequences. We demonstrate how pedigrees that earlier seemed difficult to distinguish are distinguished by counting their spanning subgraph sequences.

  1. Two-level mixed modeling of longitudinal pedigree data for genetic association analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic association analysis on complex phenotypes under a longitudinal design involving pedigrees encounters the problem of correlation within pedigrees which could affect statistical assessment of the genetic effects on both the mean level of the phenotype and its rate of change over the time...... of follow-up. Approaches have been proposed to integrate kinship correlation into the mixed effect models to explicitly model the genetic relationship which have been proven as an efficient way for dealing with sample clustering in pedigree data. Although useful for adjusting relatedness in the mixed...... assess the genetic associations with the mean level and the rate of change in a phenotype both with kinship correlation integrated in the mixed effect models. We apply our method to longitudinal pedigree data to estimate the genetic effects on systolic blood pressure measured over time in large pedigrees...

  2. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  3. Acidification research in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staaf, H.; Bertills, U.

    1992-01-01

    A number of acid rain research programmes have been conducted in Sweden since 1978. The total cost for these programmes has amounted to about 250 million SEK, and during this period an additional 950 million SEK has been used to finance practical countermeasures, mainly lake liming. Acid deposition has caused damage to soil, lakes, groundwater, flora and fauna, buildings and materials. The role of acid rain in causing forest damage is not yet fully elucidated. However, there is strong evidence suggesting that ongoing soil acidification and nutrient imbalances associated with it pose the major threat to Swedish forests. Current ozone levels are damaging trees on the physiological level, but the effects of ozone on forest production in unknown. Liming is an efficient means of counteracting the negative effects of acidic deposition on forest soil, lakes and watercourses. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    as exploring current strengths and opportunities for further development. One of the central issues that the report identifies are problems in terms of proactive verbal and friendly engagement from police ‘front line’ staff. The report goes on to provide a series of recommendations for the future development......”. But Professor Stott and his team go on to highlight an important breakdown in the nationally coordinated policing reforms that took place following the riots in Gothenburg in 2001, referred to as the Special Police Tactic. They assert that “the police can benefit from nationally unified clear and coherent...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  5. First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jenny C; Schäfer, Martina; Lundström, Jan O

    2016-12-07

    Culex mosquitoes are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, was found causing big nuisance in a housing cooperative in Gothenburg in southern Sweden, confirmed by molecular identification. This is the first report of human-biting Culex in Scandinavia, signalling increased risk of arbovirus infection in northern Europe.

  6. VIPER: a visualisation tool for exploring inheritance inconsistencies in genotyped pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Trevor; Graham, Martin; Kennedy, Jessie; Law, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Pedigree genotype datasets are used for analysing genetic inheritance and to map genetic markers and traits. Such datasets consist of hundreds of related animals genotyped for thousands of genetic markers and invariably contain multiple errors in both the pedigree structure and in the associated individual genotype data. These errors manifest as apparent inheritance inconsistencies in the pedigree, and invalidate analyses of marker inheritance patterns across the dataset. Cleaning raw datasets of bad data points (incorrect pedigree relationships, unreliable marker assays, suspect samples, bad genotype results etc.) requires expert exploration of the patterns of exposed inconsistencies in the context of the inheritance pedigree. In order to assist this process we are developing VIPER (Visual Pedigree Explorer), a software tool that integrates an inheritance-checking algorithm with a novel space-efficient pedigree visualisation, so that reported inheritance inconsistencies are overlaid on an interactive, navigable representation of the pedigree structure. This paper describes an evaluation of how VIPER displays the different scales and types of dataset that occur experimentally, with a description of how VIPER's display interface and functionality meet the challenges presented by such data. We examine a range of possible error types found in real and simulated pedigree genotype datasets, demonstrating how these errors are exposed and explored using the VIPER interface and we evaluate the utility and usability of the interface to the domain expert.Evaluation was performed as a two stage process with the assistance of domain experts (geneticists). The initial evaluation drove the iterative implementation of further features in the software prototype, as required by the users, prior to a final functional evaluation of the pedigree display for exploring the various error types, data scales and structures. The VIPER display was shown to effectively expose the range of

  7. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  8. Dieselization in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kågeson, Per

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden the market share of diesel cars grew from below 10 per cent in 2005 to 62 per cent in 2011 despite a closing gap between pump prices on diesel oil and gasoline, and diesel cars being less favored than ethanol and biogas cars in terms of tax cuts and other subsidies offered to “environment cars”. The most important factor behind the dieselization was probably the market entrance of a number of low-consuming models. Towards the end of the period a growing number of diesel models were able to meet the 120 g CO 2 threshold applicable to “environment cars” that cannot use ethanol or biogas. This helped such models increase their share of the diesel car market from zero to 41 per cent. Dieselization appears to have had only a minor effect on annual distances driven. The higher average annual mileage of diesel cars is probably to a large extent a result of a self-selection bias. However, the Swedish diesel car fleet is young, and the direct rebound effect stemming from a lower variable driving cost may show up more clearly as the fleet gets older based on the assumption that second owners are more fuel price sensitive than first owners. - Highlights: ► This paper tries to explain the fast dieselization of the new Swedish car fleet. ► It identifies changes in supply and the impact of tax benefits. ► Finally it studies the impact on the annual average mileage

  9. Nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikdahl, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sweden uses 16,000 kWh of electricity per person, by far the highest consumption in EU. The reason is a well-developed electricity intensive industry and a cold climate with high share of electric heating. The annual power consumption has for several years been about 140 TWh and a normal year almost 50 per cent is produced by hydro and 50 percent by nuclear. A new legislation, giving the Government the right to ordering the closure nuclear power plants of political reasons without any reference to safety, has been accepted by the Parliament. The new act, in force since January 1, 1998, is a specially tailored expropriation act. Certain rules for the economical compensation to the owner of a plant to be closed are defined in the new act. The common view in the Swedish industry is that the energy conservation methods proposed by the Government are unrealistic. During the first period of about five years the import from coal fired plants in Denmark and Germany is the only realistic alternative. Later natural gas combi units and new bioenergy plants for co-production of heat and power (CHP) might be available. (orig.) [de

  10. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  11. Nuclear power in Sweden today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    Realization of the Sweden program concerning the elimination by 2010 of the nuclear power (NP) is discussed. NP rejection causes a 50% increase in cost of electric power for the population and a 100% one - for industrial enterpoises. The power industry structure is going to change. Minor fossil fuel TPPs and wind plants will be mainly developed. The state economy will also be changed as the NP rejection results in NPP decommissioning in industrial regions of Sweden

  12. Mutation detection and prenatal diagnosis of XLHED pedigree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The phenotypic characters of X -linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XLHED are the dysplasia of epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived organs. Ectodysplasin (EDA is the causative gene of XLHED. Methods The current study reported a large Chinese XLHED pedigree. The genomic DNA of adult and fetus was extracted from peripheral blood and shed chorion cell respectively. The nucleotide variation in EDA gene was screened through direct sequencing the coding sequence. The methylation state of EDA gene’s promoter was evaluated by pyrosequencing. Results This Chinese XLHED family had two male patients and three carriers. All of them were with a novel EDA frameshift mutation. The mutation, c.172-173insGG, which leads to an immediate premature stop codon in exon one caused severe structural changes of EDA. Prenatal diagnosis suggested that the fetus was a female carrier. The follow-up observation of this child indicated that she had mild hypodontia of deciduous teeth at age six. The methylation level of EDA gene’s promoter was not related to carriers’ phenotype changes in this family. Discussion We reported a new frameshift mutation of EDA gene in a Chinese family. Prenatal diagnosis can help to predict the disease status of the fetus.

  13. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  14. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  15. The English and northern (Sweden and Norway) systems regarding the questions posed by the white book; Les systemes anglais et nordiques (Suede et Norvege) au regard des questions posees dans le livre blanc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie [ed.] [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie, Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    1999-06-15

    annually a report on market progress. In liberalized systems still two more features are worth to mention, the appearance of actors unknown in centralized systems (as the suppliers, for instance) and the high 'volatility' of the electricity prices that presses both manufacturers and customers to protect themselves against the market's risks. The second part of the report is devoted to the questions raised in the White Book, namely, service's quality, economic efficiency, service continuity, etc. In conclusion, the French conception of Public Service has not an exact analogue but most of its objectives are assigned actually to the Network Authority, the main task of which is promotion of economic efficiency. The networks either privatized, as in United Kingdom, or still public, as in Norway or Swede, are closely controlled by the Network Authority. This is done via price structure establishment and by imposing an upper level on the revenue of the network operators. In UK the action of the Network Authority was highly instrumental in growth of productivity in the monopolistic sectors of electric industry, i.e., transport and distribution. Norway and Swede are in retard from this point of view. The main beneficiaries of the market liberalization were the industries while the profit of domestic customers is still incipient. In the northern countries in spite of early access to competition the profit was so far low. In its second part the document APIS of the Council for Industrial Policy poses questions and presents ways of approach in UK and northern countries relating to: - The directive and its range; - Reinforcing the Public Service; - Revamping the Electric System to support growth; Preserving the networks for overall profit; - Defining of Public Establishment EDF within the new organization; - Developing an efficient network. Ways of approach in UK and northern countries regulation are presented.

  16. Biology and outbreaks of Microdiprion pallipes (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, E. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology)

    1994-01-01

    During outbreaks, Microdiprion pallipes (Fall.) is the most destructive of the pine sawflies in Sweden. Its distribution includes most provinces, but damaging outbreaks have until recently occurred only in two inland areas in northern Sweden. These areas are characterised by high elevation, a harsh climate, and slow tree growth. The four recorded outbreak periods showed a 10 year periodicity. Outside these areas, a lesser outbreak occurred in 1988 to 1990, on the east coast (province of Uppland). Outbreak patterns, life history variation, and mortality factors were studied. Factors that may explain the distribution of outbreaks and the population patterns were identified.Experimental and observational evidence on the potential of various factors to influence fecundity, dispersal, and survival was evaluated. In the outbreak areas, there were few major population factors. Parasitism by Rhorus substitutor (Thunb.) was the largest cause of larval mortality and the only important density-dependent mortality factor. The different diapause strategies of M. pallipes and R. substitutor may contribute to stabilize this system. Different flight periods of the host and the parasitoid may explain a possible correlation between weather and outbreaks. Elsewhere in Sweden, where low population densities prevail, there may be similarities in population processes between M. pallipes and the other widely distributed diprionids with solitary larvae, which never have attained outbreak densities in Sweden. Interactions with other diprionids through shared natural enemies may be an important population process and may influence the distribution of outbreaks. 37 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  17. Utilization of the Tablet Application Proband in Pedigree Construction and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Andrew Joseph; Miller, Jeffrey M; Fecteau, Heather; Pennington, Jeffrey W; Kessler, Lisa

    2018-01-25

    Many medical institutions have converted to a digital model for record keeping due to the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. This Act provides incentives to health care systems to accelerate and encourage the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems. The pedigree as a tool in medicine provides an efficient method to assess and represent an individual's health and family health risks that may otherwise not be apparent in the medical record in a clearly identifiable way (Schuette, J. L., & Bennett 2009). Many clinicians continue to construct pedigrees using pen and paper method despite findings of improved identification of at risk patients with similar electronic intake tools (Arar et al. in Personalized Medicine 2011 8:523-32). The goal of this study was to explore the patient and practitioner experience with electronic pedigree programs using Proband, an application developed at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for genetic counselors to construct pedigrees during genetic counseling sessions directly on iPads. The first part of this study looked at the patient experience and assessed time to take the pedigree and the impact of using an electronic pedigree tool on the relationship between participant and genetic counselor. This involved 50 participants and was compared with the traditional paper method of taking a pedigree. There was no statistical significance found between the two different mediums in accuracy, speed, and rapport with provider. The second part of the study assessed the usability of Proband by ten genetic counselors. Overall, the application received a system usability score of 90/100 with a majority (7/10) of counselors agreeing that they would use this application in their clinic. The positive outcome of this study encourages future work to assess the impact and usability of programs on a larger scale as they continue to integrate into current electronic health records.

  18. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  19. Family Planning in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet explores attitudes in Sweden toward sexuality and childbirth from a historical perspective. After describing the strict social control over abortion and contraception in place 100 years ago, and the gradual easing of those controls in response to the low birth rate, the paper goes on to discuss the 1974 Abortion Act, which…

  20. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (pSweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  1. Next Generation Sequencing Plus (NGS+) with Y-chromosomal Markers for Forensic Pedigree Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoqin; Hou, Jiayi; Wang, Zheng; Ye, Yi; Lang, Min; Gao, Tianzhen; Liu, Jing; Hou, Yiping

    2017-09-12

    There is high demand for forensic pedigree searches with Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) profiling in large-scale crime investigations. However, when two Y-STR haplotypes have a few mismatched loci, it is difficult to determine if they are from the same male lineage because of the high mutation rate of Y-STRs. Here we design a new strategy to handle cases in which none of pedigree samples shares identical Y-STR haplotype. We combine next generation sequencing (NGS), capillary electrophoresis and pyrosequencing under the term 'NGS+' for typing Y-STRs and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). The high-resolution Y-SNP haplogroup and Y-STR haplotype can be obtained with NGS+. We further developed a new data-driven decision rule, FSindex, for estimating the likelihood for each retrieved pedigree. Our approach enables positive identification of pedigree from mismatched Y-STR haplotypes. It is envisaged that NGS+ will revolutionize forensic pedigree searches, especially when the person of interest was not recorded in forensic DNA database.

  2. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  3. Massive genomic variation and strong selection in Arabidopsis thaliana lines from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Alexander; Zhang, Qingrun; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Korte, Arthur; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Voronin, Viktor; Korte, Pamela; Sedman, Laura; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; Seren, Ümit; Hellmann, Ines; Nordborg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in sequencing, the goal of obtaining a comprehensive view of genetic variation in populations is still far from reached. We sequenced 180 lines of A. thaliana from Sweden to obtain as complete a picture as possible of variation in a single region. Whereas simple polymorphisms in the unique portion of the genome are readily identified, other polymorphisms are not. The massive variation in genome size identified by flow cytometry seems largely to be due to 45S rDNA copy number variation, with lines from northern Sweden having particularly large numbers of copies. Strong selection is evident in the form of long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD), as well as in LD between nearby compensatory mutations. Many footprints of selective sweeps were found in lines from northern Sweden, and a massive global sweep was shown to have involved a 700-kb transposition. PMID:23793030

  4. First report of dollar spot disease, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, of Agrostis stolonifera in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most grass species grown as turf, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden...

  5. Late-Holocene human impact and climate change near Umea, Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.; Barke, J.; van Geel, B.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, peat cores were sampled from sites positioned on a north-south transect through Sweden and northern Germany. Only bogs with a similar species composition were selected. The aim of our research is to compare the changes in regional and local species composition with carbon accumulation over

  6. The energy transition in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Sweden has the distinction of having started several major changes to its energy supply at an early stage. The country has no fossil reserves, and so was importing increasing volumes of oil products in the years following World War II. Yet it rapidly perceived the geopolitical risks generated by such oil dependency, and so developed its nuclear capacity, enabling it to reduce quickly the role of oil in its economy after the shocks of the 1970's. Sweden has also managed to exploit its natural resources. Until the 2000's, hydropower was able to enter the market without public assistance. By contrast, wood could not have gained its current market share without a policy combining public aid for investment and penalties for competing energies. The severe economic crisis which hit the country between 1991 and 1993 led such penalties being converted into taxes, notably a tax on CO 2 emissions that came into force in 1991. This helped Sweden reconstruct its tax system, to finance its social model. The challenge highlighted the country's ability to generate consensus policy guidelines. One of these guidelines was to react immediately after initial warnings about climate change. Sweden first strengthened its energy efficiency policy, structuring field actions through a national agency backed up by partner organizations in local communities to help consumers - individuals or industries - technically and economically. Sweden then adopted an unusual instrument to promote renewable electricity, namely its system of green certificates. Implemented in 2003, this system has spurred the development of the cheapest sources of renewable energy, two-thirds coming from onshore wind and one third from biomass. The cost of this support still remains remarkably moderate today. At the end of 2014, Sweden thus only used fossil fuels to provide 30% of its primary energy supplies, while renewables accounted for 52% of final energy consumption. Energy consumption per capita

  7. A penalized linear mixed model for genomic prediction using pedigree structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can; Li, Cong; Chen, Mengjie; Chen, Xiaowei; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 provided a platform for evaluating genomic prediction power based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms from single-nucleotide polymorphism array data and sequencing data. Also, Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 provided a diverse pedigree structure to be explored in prediction. In this study, we attempted to combine pedigree information with single-nucleotide polymorphism data to predict systolic blood pressure. Our results suggested that the prediction power based on pedigree information only could be unsatisfactory. Using additional information such as single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes would improve prediction accuracy. In particular, the improvement can be significant when there exist a few single-nucleotide polymorphisms with relatively larger effect sizes. We also compared the prediction performance based on genome-wide association study data (ie, common variants) and sequencing data (ie, common variants plus low-frequency variants). The experimental result showed that inclusion of low frequency variants could not lead to improvement of prediction accuracy.

  8. [Analysis of clinical characteristics and genetic mutation in a pedigree affected with Chediak-Higashi syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangang; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Liyu; Sun, Hongli; Yang, Ying

    2018-04-10

    To explore the genetic basis for a pedigree affected with Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS). Clinical data of two CHS patients from the pedigree was collected and analyzed. Targeted next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing were conducted to detect potential mutation of the LYST gene. Both patients presented immunodeficiency, oculocutaneous albinism, and acidophilic inclusion body on bone marrow and blood smears. A homozygous c.6077_6078insA (p.Tyr2026Terfs) mutation was detected in the LYST gene in both patients. Genetic testing can play an important role in the diagnosis of CHS.

  9. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides...... species were recorded, of which 30 were new to Sweden. The species recorded, and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites are detailed. Species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus were predominant. (Texte intégral)...

  10. Expansion of spatial and host range of Puumala virus in Sweden: an increasing threat for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, O; Wille, M; Kjellander, P; Bergvall, U A; Lindgren, P-E; Chirico, J; Lundkvist, Å

    2017-06-01

    Hantaviruses are globally distributed and cause severe human disease. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the most common species in Northern Europe, and the only hantavirus confirmed to circulate in Sweden, restricted to the northern regions of the country. In this study, we aimed to further add to the natural ecology of PUUV in Sweden by investigating prevalence, and spatial and host species infection patterns. Specifically, we wanted to ascertain whether PUUV was present in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) further south than Dalälven river, in south-central Sweden, and whether PUUV can be detected in other rodent species in addition to the natural reservoir. In total, 559 animals were collected at Grimsö (59°43'N; 15°28'E), Sala (59°55'N; 16°36'E) and Bogesund (59°24'N; 18°14'E) in south-central Sweden between May 2013 and November 2014. PUUV ELISA-reactive antibodies were found both in 2013 (22/295) and in 2014 (18/264), and nine samples were confirmed as PUUV-specific by focus reduction neutralization test. Most of the PUUV-specific samples were from the natural host, the bank vole, but also from other rodent hosts, indicating viral spill-over. Finally, we showed that PUUV is present in more highly populated central Sweden.

  11. Estimating relatedness and inbreeding using molecular markers and pedigrees: the effect of demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S P; Simmons, L W; Kennington, W J

    2013-12-01

    Estimates of inbreeding and relatedness are commonly calculated using molecular markers, although the accuracy of such estimates has been questioned. As a further complication, in many situations, such estimates are required in populations with reduced genetic diversity, which is likely to affect their accuracy. We investigated the correlation between microsatellite- and pedigree-based coefficients of inbreeding and relatedness in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster that had passed through bottlenecks to manipulate their genetic diversity. We also used simulations to predict expected correlations between marker- and pedigree-based estimates and to investigate the influence of linkage between loci and null alleles. Our empirical data showed lower correlations between marker- and pedigree-based estimates in our control (nonbottleneck) population than were predicted by our simulations or those found in similar studies. Correlations were weaker in bottleneck populations, confirming that extreme reductions in diversity can compromise the ability of molecular estimates to detect recent inbreeding events. However, this result was highly dependent on the strength of the bottleneck and we did not observe or predict any reduction in correlations in our population that went through a relatively severe bottleneck of N = 10 for one generation. Our results are therefore encouraging, as molecular estimates appeared robust to quite severe reductions in genetic diversity. It should also be remembered that pedigree-based estimates may not capture realized identity-by-decent and that marker-based estimates may actually be more useful in certain situations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rooster Semen Cryopreservation: Effect of Pedigree Line and Male Age on Post-Thaw Sperm Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in preservation of commercial genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at the onset and end of production. Semen from 160 roosters (20/line) was...

  13. KinLinks: Software Toolkit for Kinship Analysis and Pedigree Generation from NGS Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-21

    capabilities of the Ion Torrent Proton instrument, which produces ~70 million reads per run. These loci were chosen based on • low minor allele...Ion Torrent Proton instrument. In phase 1 of the project, the pedigree generation algorithm was trained on 1225 pairwise relationships from

  14. PyPedal, an open source software package for pedigree analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open source software package PyPedal (http://pypedal.sourceforge.net/) was first released in 2002, and provided users with a set of simple tools for manipulating pedigrees. Its flexibility has been demonstrated by its used in a number of settings for large and small populations. After substantia...

  15. PRIMAL: Fast and accurate pedigree-based imputation from sequence data in a founder population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren E Livne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Founder populations and large pedigrees offer many well-known advantages for genetic mapping studies, including cost-efficient study designs. Here, we describe PRIMAL (PedigRee IMputation ALgorithm, a fast and accurate pedigree-based phasing and imputation algorithm for founder populations. PRIMAL incorporates both existing and original ideas, such as a novel indexing strategy of Identity-By-Descent (IBD segments based on clique graphs. We were able to impute the genomes of 1,317 South Dakota Hutterites, who had genome-wide genotypes for ~300,000 common single nucleotide variants (SNVs, from 98 whole genome sequences. Using a combination of pedigree-based and LD-based imputation, we were able to assign 87% of genotypes with >99% accuracy over the full range of allele frequencies. Using the IBD cliques we were also able to infer the parental origin of 83% of alleles, and genotypes of deceased recent ancestors for whom no genotype information was available. This imputed data set will enable us to better study the relative contribution of rare and common variants on human phenotypes, as well as parental origin effect of disease risk alleles in >1,000 individuals at minimal cost.

  16. Identification of Mendelian inconsistencies between SNP and pedigree Information of Sibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calus, M.P.L.; Mulder, H.A.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Using SNP genotypes to apply genomic selection in breeding programs is becoming common practice. Tools to edit and check the quality of genotype data are required. Checking for Mendelian inconsistencies makes it possible to identify animals for which pedigree information and genotype

  17. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genomes from Dutch pedigrees with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, Neil; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Bolhuis, Piet A.; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Clarke, Lorne A.; Mackey, David A.; Preston, Gwen; Herrnstadt, Corinna

    2003-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences for 63 Dutch pedigrees with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were determined, 56 of which carried one of the classic LHON mutations at nucleotide (nt) 3460, 11778, or 14484. Analysis of these sequences indicated that there were several

  18. Systematic differences in the response of genetic variation to pedigree and genome-based selection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidaritabar, M.; Vereijken, A.; Muir, W.M.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Cheng, H.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a DNA-based method of selecting for quantitative traits in animal and plant breeding, and offers a potentially superior alternative to traditional breeding methods that rely on pedigree and phenotype information. Using a 60¿K SNP chip with markers spaced throughout the

  19. A population genetics pedigree perspective on the transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delport, Wayne; Cunningham, Michael; Olivier, Brenda; Preisig, Oliver; van der Merwe, Schalk W.

    2006-01-01

    The inference of transmission pathways for medicinally important bacteria is important to our understanding of pathogens. Here we report analyses of transmission in Helicobacter pylori, a major carcinogen. Our study is novel in that the focal community comprises detailed family pedigrees and has a

  20. Distribution of volatile composition in 'marion' ( rubus species hyb) blackberry pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad; Qian, Michael C

    2010-02-10

    The distribution of volatile constituents in ancestral genotypes of 'Marion' blackberry's pedigree was investigated over two growing seasons. Each genotype in the pedigree had a specific volatile composition. Red raspberry was dominated by norisoprenoids, lactones, and acids. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' also had a norisoprenoid dominance but at much lower concentrations. The concentration of norisoprenoids in other blackberry genotypes was significantly lower. Terpenes and furanones were predominant in wild 'Himalaya' blackberry, whereas terpenes were the major volatiles in 'Santiam'. 'Marion', a selection from 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie', contained almost all of the volatile compounds in its pedigree at moderate amount. The chiral isomeric ratios of 11 pairs of compounds were also studied. Strong chiral isomeric preference was observed for most of the chiral compounds, and each cultivar had its unique chiral isomeric distribution. An inherent pattern was observed for some volatile compounds in the 'Marion' pedigree. Raspberry and 'Logan' had a very high concentration of beta-ionone, but was reduced by half in 'Olallie' and by another half in 'Marion' as the crossing proceeded. A high content of linalool in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate content of linalool in their progeny 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol in 'Marion' was higher than in its parents. A high content of (S)-linalool in 'Olallie' and a racemic content of (S)-,(R)-linalool in 'Chehalem' resulted in a preference for the (S)-form in 'Marion'.

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood specific gravity in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Neale

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among...

  2. Identification of Mendelian inconsistencies between SNP and pedigree information of sibs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calus Mario PL

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using SNP genotypes to apply genomic selection in breeding programs is becoming common practice. Tools to edit and check the quality of genotype data are required. Checking for Mendelian inconsistencies makes it possible to identify animals for which pedigree information and genotype information are not in agreement. Methods Straightforward tests to detect Mendelian inconsistencies exist that count the number of opposing homozygous marker (e.g. SNP genotypes between parent and offspring (PAR-OFF. Here, we develop two tests to identify Mendelian inconsistencies between sibs. The first test counts SNP with opposing homozygous genotypes between sib pairs (SIBCOUNT. The second test compares pedigree and SNP-based relationships (SIBREL. All tests iteratively remove animals based on decreasing numbers of inconsistent parents and offspring or sibs. The PAR-OFF test, followed by either SIB test, was applied to a dataset comprising 2,078 genotyped cows and 211 genotyped sires. Theoretical expectations for distributions of test statistics of all three tests were calculated and compared to empirically derived values. Type I and II error rates were calculated after applying the tests to the edited data, while Mendelian inconsistencies were introduced by permuting pedigree against genotype data for various proportions of animals. Results Both SIB tests identified animal pairs for which pedigree and genomic relationships could be considered as inconsistent by visual inspection of a scatter plot of pairwise pedigree and SNP-based relationships. After removal of 235 animals with the PAR-OFF test, SIBCOUNT (SIBREL identified 18 (22 additional inconsistent animals. Seventeen animals were identified by both methods. The numbers of incorrectly deleted animals (Type I error, were equally low for both methods, while the numbers of incorrectly non-deleted animals (Type II error, were considerably higher for SIBREL compared to SIBCOUNT. Conclusions

  3. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  4. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different sources of energy, how hey are

  5. The Pursuit of Metals and the Ideology of Improvement in Early Modern Sápmi, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the ideology of improvement in the context of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century mining in northern Sweden in the province of Sápmi. It discusses how the rhetoric of improvement and “civilizing” projects were intertwined with the mining enterprises; how they informed...... of Sweden, the article suggests that mines and processing works were singled out as suitable places for such transformation due to their spatial and organizational characteristics. The study is informed by contemporary political thinking as well as by Foucauldian perspectives on governmentality and its...

  6. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Sweden, covers an area of approx. 450 000 square kilometers. It has a population of 8 millions. With few exceptions in the northern part the access can be regarded as good. A dense network of motorroads and railroad exists. The results obtained by the exploration works combined with other available geo-information permit a separation of two principal uranium provinces in Sweden. The first one is confined to sediments of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician which appears in Southern Sweden and along the border of the Caledonian mountain range in Central Sweden. The uranium occurrence are stratiform, of blackshale type which occurs in the Peltura zone of Upper Cambrian or they are associated to a phosphatite-bearing unit of Lower Ordovician overlying the Cambrian shale formation. The distribution of uranium in Upper Cambrian rocks is in general dependant on their lithology which itself is related to the paleography. This conditions explain relatively higher uranium content of the shale from Billigen.The potential resources of the province are estimated at about 1 million tonnes uranium. The second uranium province, called Arjeplog-Arvidsjaur, situated immediately south of the Arctic circle, comprises one deposit - Pleutajokk - and a group of more than twenty occurrences of similar characteristics and age (1 700 - 1 800 my.). The results of the past exploration have shown that uranium is present in different types of rocks. Because of the presence of uranium in many of the pegmatites the possibility of the formation of large low grade deposits should be tested. Favourable areas are those regions where the geological conditions are similar to the geology of the Grenville province in Canada or the Damara belt of SW-Africa. Special studies are recommended on this subject

  7. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  8. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  10. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L.; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2 and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5 and 10- fold CV, and that the matched odds ratio is more powerful than prediction error as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. PMID:19697353

  11. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2010-02-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The multifactor dimensionality reduction-pedigree disequilibrium test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1,000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2- and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error (PE) measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio (MOR) for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5- and 10-fold CV, and that the MOR is more powerful than PE as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Clinical characteristics and registry-validated extended pedigrees of germline TP53 mutation carriers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoltze, Ulrik; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Roed, Henriette

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: TP53 mutation carrier (Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, LFS) cohort studies often suffer from lack of extensive pedigree exploration. METHODS: We performed a nation-wide exploration of TP53 mutation carrier families identified through all clinical genetics departments in Denmark. Pedigrees were...... expanded and verified using unique national person identification, cancer, cause of death, pathology, and church registries. RESULTS: We identified 30 confirmed, six obligate and 14 assumed carriers in 15 families harboring 14 different mutations, including five novel and three de novo germline mutations....... All but two (96%) developed cancer by age 54 years [mean debut age; 29.1 y., median 33.0 y., n = 26 (17F, 9M), range 1-54 y

  13. Optimal Genetic Contribution Selection in Danish Holstein Depends on Pedigree Qualtiy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Sørensen, A C; Baumung, R

    2008-01-01

    .D. units at the total merit index. This reduction was obtained when selection was only on reduction of average relationship compared to selection only on genetic merit. Optimal genetic contribution selection is a promising tool for managing breeding schemes for populations facing inbreeding problems....... In the analyses earlier breeding decisions were considered by including all AI waiting- and young bulls and contract matings. Twenty potential sires, 2169 potential dams, 1421 AI-bulls and 754 contract matings plus pedigree animals were included. Results showed that the outcome was very dependent on quality...... of pedigree, also for information going more than 25 years (5-7 generations) back. The analyses showed that EVA works satisfactorily as a management tool for planning of breeding schemes with respect to contributions of sires of sons at population level in maximising the genetic gain, while controlling...

  14. Genetic drift. Descent, lineage, and pedigree of the Trojans in Homer's Iliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, Euterpe

    2007-12-15

    Homer's Iliad, is an epic poem that describes the last 70 days of the Trojan War, which was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans. Here, the descent, lineage, and the pedigree of the Trojans are presented. In the Illiad, they are said to have originated from Zeus. Beginning with him, the Trojan pedigree comprised 17 men in 8 generations with Dardanus, founder of Dardania in the second generation; Tros, King of the Trojans in the fourth generation; and the two heroes Hector and Aeneas in the eighth generation. In the seventh generation, Priam, as King of the Trojans, had a huge family, including 50 sons: 19 children with his wife Hecabe, other sons with many different wives, and some daughters as well. Hector, the first born, became leader of the Trojans. Hector's brother, Paris, in abducting Helen of Sparta, the wife of King Menelaus, caused the Trojan War to break out. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Hierarchical linear modeling of longitudinal pedigree data for genetic association analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; B Hjelmborg, Jacob V; Thomassen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    on the mean level of a phenotype, they are not sufficiently straightforward to handle the kinship correlation on the time-dependent trajectories of a phenotype. We introduce a 2-level hierarchical linear model to separately assess the genetic associations with the mean level and the rate of change......-effect models to explicitly model the genetic relationship. These have proved to be an efficient way of dealing with sample clustering in pedigree data. Although current algorithms implemented in popular statistical packages are useful for adjusting relatedness in the mixed modeling of genetic effects...... associated with blood pressure with estimated inflation factors of 0.99, suggesting that our modeling of random effects efficiently handles the genetic relatedness in pedigrees. Application to simulated data captures important variants specified in the simulation. Our results show that the method is useful...

  16. Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Grégoire

    2011-08-01

    Pedigree analysis constitutes a classical approach for the study of the evolution of genetic diversity, genetic structure, history and breeding practices within a given breed. As a consequence of selection pressure, management in closed populations and historical bottlenecks, many dog breeds have experienced considerable inbreeding and show (on the basis of a pedigree approach) comparable diversity loss compared to other domestic species. This evolution is linked to breeding practices such as the overuse of popular sires or mating between related animals. The popular sire phenomenon is the most problematic breeding practice, since it has also led to the dissemination of a large number of inherited defects. The practice should be limited by taking measures such as restricting the number of litters (or offspring) per breeding animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [A comparison of clinical characteristics between 2 pedigrees of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A with different RET mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Y; Xue, S N; Zhang, S L; Cheng, H; Yan, L

    2018-02-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a hereditary syndrome. Here, two different RET proto-oncogen mutation were identified from family members of two MEN2A pedigrees by genetic screening. One RET mutations were found at codons 1893 and 1895 in exon 11 (1893-1895delCGA) from pedigree 1, which is a novel mutation, the other occurs at codon 634 (Cys634Arg) in exon 11 from pedigree 2. However, the clinical characteristics were similar in the patients of the two pedigrees. All the patients were in middle-age at onset. Most of them were firstly diagnosed with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma with different degrees of thyroid abnormalities (elevated serum calcitonin with or without thyroid mass, or had been diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma). Some family members were with elevated serum parathyroid hormone but with no other evidences for hyperparathyroidism.

  18. Does perfectionism in bipolar disorder pedigrees mediate associations between anxiety/stress and mood symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Fullerton, Janice M.; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and the anxiety disorders are highly comorbid. The present study sought to examine perfectionism and goal attainment values as potential mechanisms of known associations between anxiety, stress and BD symptomatology. Measures of perfectionism and goal attainment values were administered to 269 members of BD pedigrees, alongside measures of anxiety and stress, and BD mood symptoms. Regression analyses were used to determine whether perfectionism and goal attain...

  19. A powerful parent-of-origin effects test for qualitative traits on X chromosome in general pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi-Lei; You, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jian-Long; Fung, Wing Kam; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

    2018-01-05

    Genomic imprinting is one of the well-known epigenetic factors causing the association between traits and genes, and has generally been examined by detecting parent-of-origin effects of alleles. A lot of methods have been proposed to test for parent-of-origin effects on autosomes based on nuclear families and general pedigrees. Although these parent-of-origin effects tests on autosomes have been available for more than 15 years, there has been no statistical test developed to test for parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome, until the parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPAT) and its extensions were recently proposed. However, these methods on X chromosome are only applicable to nuclear families and thus are not suitable for general pedigrees. In this article, we propose the pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPPAT) statistic to test for parent-of-origin effects in the presence of association, which can accommodate general pedigrees. When there are missing genotypes in some pedigrees, we further develop the Monte Carlo pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XMCPPAT) to test for parent-of-origin effects, by inferring the missing genotypes given the observed genotypes based on a Monte Carlo estimation. An extensive simulation study has been carried out to investigate the type I error rates and the powers of the proposed tests. Our simulation results show that the proposed methods control the size well under the null hypothesis of no parent-of-origin effects. Moreover, XMCPPAT substantially outperforms the existing tests and has a much higher power than XPPAT which only uses complete nuclear families (with both parents) from pedigrees. We also apply the proposed methods to analyze rheumatoid arthritis data for their practical use. The proposed XPPAT and XMCPPAT test statistics are valid and powerful in detecting parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome for qualitative traits based on general pedigrees and thus are recommended.

  20. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  1. Genome scan for locus involved in mandibular prognathism in pedigrees from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that genetic components play an important role in the etiology of mandibular prognathism, but few susceptibility loci have been mapped. METHODOLOGY: In order to identify linkage regions for mandibular prognathism, we analyzed two Chinese pedigrees with 6,090 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers from Illumina Linkage-12 DNA Analysis Kit (average spacing 0.58 cM. Multipoint parametric and non-parametric (model-free linkage analyses were used for the pedigrees. PRINCIPAL FINDING: The most statistically significant linkage results were with markers on chromosome 4 (LOD=3.166 and NPL=3.65 with rs 875864, 4p16.1, 8.38 cM. Candidate genes within the 4p16.1 include EVC, EVC2. CONCLUSION: We detected a novel suggestive linkage locus for mandibular prognathism in two Chinese pedigrees, and this linkage region provides target for susceptibility gene identification, a process that will provide important insights into the molecular and cellular basis of mandibular prognathism.

  2. ePedigree Traceability System for the Agricultural Food Supply Chain to Ensure Consumer Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability relies on the environmental, social and economical systems: the three pillars of sustainability. The social sustainability mostly advocates the people’s welfare, health, safety, and quality of life. In the agricultural food industry, the aspects of social sustainability, such as consumer health and safety have gained substantial attention due to the frequent cases of food-borne diseases. The food-borne diseases due to the food degradation, chemical contamination and adulteration of food products pose a serious threat to the consumer’s health, safety, and quality of life. To ensure the consumer’s health and safety, it is essential to develop an efficient system which can address these critical social issues in the food distribution networks. This research proposes an ePedigree (electronic pedigree traceability system based on the integration of RFID and sensor technology for real-time monitoring of the agricultural food to prevent the distribution of hazardous and adulterated food products. The different aspects regarding implementation of the proposed system in food chains are analyzed and a feasible integrated solution is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the proposed ePedigree system’s impact on the social sustainability in terms of consumer health and safety is presented.

  3. [Consensus on clinical diagnosis, treatment and pedigree management of hereditary colorectal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    Hereditary colorectal cancer can be divded into two categories based on the presence or absence of polyps. The first category is characterized by the development of polyposis, which includes familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP); The second category is nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, which is represented by Lynch syndrome. "Consensus on clinical diagnosis, treatment and pedigree management of hereditary colorectal cancer in China" developed by the Genetics Group of the Committee of Colorectal Cancer, Chinese Anti-cancer Association, is composed of three sections, including hereditary nonpolyposis syndrome, polyposis syndrome as well as genetic evaluation of hereditary colorectal cancer. The consensus aims to provide recommendations on management of the respective hereditary syndromes in terms of definition, clinical and pathological features, diagnostic standards, treatment, and follow-ups. In addition to describing diagnostic and treatment strategies, prophylactic treatment as well as genetic screening and pedigree monitoring is highly recommended. Through the establishment of this expert consensus, we hope to promote better understanding of hereditary colorectal cancer for clinicians and encourage standardized treatment through multidisciplinery approaches, eventually improving clinical treatment and pedigree management of hereditary colorectal cancer in China.

  4. Estimating inbreeding rates in natural populations: Addressing the problem of incomplete pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Ballou, Jonathan D.; Steel, E. Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. However, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. We present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. The approach exploits knowledge of pedigree configurations that lead to inbreeding coefficients of F = 0.25 and F = 0.125, allowing for quantification of Pr(I|k): the probability of observing pedigree I given the fraction of known parents (k). We developed analytical expressions under simplifying assumptions that define properties and behavior of inbreeding rate estimators for varying values of k. We demonstrated that inbreeding is overestimated if Pr(I|k) is not taken into consideration and that bias is primarily influenced by k. By contrast, our new estimator, incorporating Pr(I|k), is unbiased over a wide range of values of kthat may be observed in empirical studies. Stochastic computer simulations that allowed complex inter- and intragenerational inbreeding produced similar results. We illustrate the effects that accounting for Pr(I|k) can have in empirical data by revisiting published analyses of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and Red deer (Cervus elaphus). Our results demonstrate that incomplete pedigrees are not barriers for quantifying inbreeding in wild populations. Application of our approach will permit a better understanding of the role that inbreeding plays in the dynamics of populations of threatened and endangered species and may help refine our understanding of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the wild.

  5. A Pipeline for Classifying Relationships Using Dense SNP/SNV Data and Putative Pedigree Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhen; Weeks, Daniel E; Chen, Wei; Mukhopadhyay, Nandita; Feingold, Eleanor

    2016-02-01

    When genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or sequencing studies are performed on family-based datasets, the genotype data can be used to check the structure of putative pedigrees. Even in datasets of putatively unrelated people, close relationships can often be detected using dense single-nucleotide polymorphism/variant (SNP/SNV) data. A number of methods for finding relationships using dense genetic data exist, but they all have certain limitations, including that they typically use average genetic sharing, which is only a subset of the available information. Here, we present a set of approaches for classifying relationships in GWAS datasets or large-scale sequencing datasets. We first propose an empirical method for detecting identity by descent segments in close relative pairs using un-phased dense SNP data and demonstrate how that information can assist in building a relationship classifier. We then develop a strategy to take advantage of putative pedigree information to enhance classification accuracy. Our methods are tested and illustrated with two datasets from two distinct populations. Finally, we propose classification pipelines for checking and identifying relationships in datasets containing a large number of small pedigrees. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  6. Bound volatile precursors in genotypes in the pedigree of 'Marion' blackberry (Rubus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad E; Qian, Michael C

    2010-03-24

    Glycosidically bound volatiles and precursors in genotypes representing the pedigree for 'Marion' blackberry were investigated over two growing seasons. The volatile precursors were isolated using a C18 solid-phase extraction column. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the released volatiles were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct microvial insert thermal desorption GC-MS. The most abundant volatile precursors in the genotypes were alcohols, followed by shikimic acid derivatives. High amounts of furanone glycosides were also detected, while norisoprenoids only existed in a small amount in blackberries. The volatile precursor composition in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree was very similar to their free volatile distribution. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' predominantly had bound norisoprenoids. Wild 'Himalaya' predominated with terpene alcohol and furaneol glycosides, whereas 'Santiam' and 'Chehalem' contained a high level of terpene alcohol glycosides. A similar inheritance pattern was also observed for some volatile precursors in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree. A high content of linalool, hydroxylinalool, and alpha-ionol glycosides in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate level in their offspring 'Marion', while a low content of (E)-linalool oxide precursor in 'Olallie' and a high content in 'Chehalem' also resulted in a moderate level in 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol glycosides in 'Marion' exceeded that of its two parents.

  7. Trends in genetic diversity for all Kennel Club registered pedigree dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T W; Abhayaratne, B M; Blott, S C

    2015-01-01

    Inbreeding is inevitable in closed populations with a finite number of ancestors and where there is selection. Therefore, management of the rate of inbreeding at sustainable levels is required to avoid the associated detrimental effects of inbreeding. Studies have shown some pedigree dog breeds to have high levels of inbreeding and a high burden of inherited disease unrelated to selection objectives, implying loss of genetic diversity may be a particular problem for pedigree dogs. Pedigree analysis of all 215 breeds currently recognised by the UK Kennel Club over the period 1980-2014 was undertaken to ascertain parameters describing the rate of loss of genetic diversity due to inbreeding, and the presence of any general trend across all breeds. The trend over all breeds was for the rate of inbreeding to be highest in the 1980s and 1990s, tending to decline after 2000. The trend was comparable in very common and rarer breeds, although was more pronounced in rarer breeds. Rates of inbreeding over the entire period 1980-2014 were not correlated with census population size. The existence of popular sires was apparent in all breeds. The trends detected over 1980-2014 imply an initial excessive loss of genetic diversity which has latterly fallen to sustainable levels, even with modest restoration in some cases. The theory of genetic contributions, which demonstrates the fundamental relationship of inbreeding and selection, implies that popular sires are the major contributor to high rate of inbreeding.

  8. Chernobyl - its impact on Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    In case of radiological emergency in Sweden, the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) has the responsability of organizing a special task force with experts both from SSI and from other authorities. Reports of increased radiation levels reached SSI around 10 am on April 28, 1986, and the task force convened at 1030 am. A large number of measurements were made all over the country, and temporary grazing restrictions were imposed so as to aviod excessive doses from the food chain grass-cow-milk. Attention is now concentrated on regions with high cesium activity and on foodstuffs in general. A very tentative estimate of the collective dose commiment is 10 000 man.Sv. It turned out that the general public was not always satisfied with the information provided by the authorities, in spite of complete openness (Author)

  9. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on specific activities in building materials, gamma-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On the basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950's, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 x 10 3 man-Gy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 x 10 3 man-Gy for dwellings existing in 1975

  10. Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar, J.; Hock, R.

    2009-01-01

    Energy balance based glacier melt models require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation but direct measurements are often not available. Multi-year near-surface meteorological data from Storglaciären, Northern Sweden, were used to evaluate commonly used longwave radiation parameterizations in a glacier environment under clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Parameterizations depending solely on air temperature performed worse than those which include water vapor pressure. All models te...

  11. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-04-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5-10 generations and 1 000-50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980-2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as 'healthy' (11 breeds) or 'unhealthy' (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy in Sweden. Facts and Figures 2005 contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years (2003 and 2004). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Sweden surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2013. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Sweden consists of a quota system, various tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes. Sweden has a joint support scheme with Norway, thus being the first EU Member State to implement a cooperation mechanism, as defined under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The Swedish coalition government has agreed on a target of 100% renewable electricity production by 2040

  14. Population structure and genetic variability in the Murrah dairy breed of water buffalo in Brazil accessed via pedigree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes; Malhado, Ana Claudia Mendes; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Ramos, Alcides Amorim; Ambrosini, Diego Pagung; Pala, Akin

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the population structure and genetic variability in the Murrah dairy breed of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil. Pedigree analysis was performed on 5,061 animals born between 1972 and 2002. The effective number of founders (fe) was 60, representing 6.32 % of the potential number of founders. The effective number of ancestors (fa) was 36 and the genetic contribution of the 17 most influent ancestors explained 50 % of the genetic variability in the population. The ratio fe/fa (effective number of founders/effective number of ancestors), which expresses the effect of population bottlenecks, was 1.66. Completeness level for the whole pedigree was 76.8, 49.2, 27.7, and 12.8 % for, respectively, the first, second, third, and fourth known parental generations. The average inbreeding values for the whole analyzed pedigree and for inbreed animals were, respectively, 1.28 and 7.64 %. The average relatedness coefficient between individuals of the population was estimated to be 2.05 %-the highest individual coefficient was 10.31 %. The actual inbreeding and average relatedness coefficient are probably higher than estimated due to low levels of pedigree completeness. Moreover, the inbreeding coefficient increased with the addition of each generation to the pedigree, indicating that incomplete pedigrees tend to underestimate the level of inbreeding. Introduction of new sires with the lowest possible average relatedness coefficient and the use of appropriate mating strategies are recommended to keep inbreeding at acceptable levels and increase the genetic variability in this economically important species, which has relatively low numbers compared to other commercial cattle breeds. The inclusion of additional parameters, such as effective number of founders, effective number of ancestors, and fe/fa ratio, provides better resolution as compared to the inclusion of inbreeding coefficient and may help

  15. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... (reindeer and roe deer) comprised the greatest part of the diet, while a regional division indicated that while lynxes from northern regions had a narrower diet niche, they were in better condition than lynxes from south of the reindeer husbandry districts. Lynx gender and status also influenced diet......, predation and condition, while temporal variations in prey density and availability affected seasonal predation rates, as well as between year variations and diet composition. Variable prey species and environmental factors, such as snow and the availability of cover, furthermore affected lynx predatory...

  16. Mechanical properties of granitic rocks from Gideaa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, C.; Stephansson, O.; Alm, O.; Hakami, H.; Mattila, U.

    1985-10-01

    The elastic and mechanical properties were determined for two rock types from the Gideaa study area. Gideaa is located approximately 30 km north-east of Oernskoeldsvik, Northern Sweden. The rock types that were tested were migmatitic gneiss and migmatitic granite. The following tests were conducted: - sound velocity measurements; - uniaxial compression tests with acoustic emission recording; - brazilian disc tests; - triaxial tests; - three point bending tests. All together, 12 rock samples were tested with each test method. Six samples of these were migmatic gneiss and six samples were migmatitic granite. The result shows that the migmatitic gneiss has varying strength properties with low compressive strength in comparison with its high tensile strength. The migmatitic granite, on the other hand, is found to have parameter values similar to other granitic rocks. With 15 refs. (Author)

  17. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states

  18. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1978-04-01

    Studies on the specific activities in building materials, the γ-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950s, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 . 10 3 manGy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 . 10 3 manGy for dwellings existing in 1975. If the building of houses continues as at present it can be estimated that the annual collective dose will be between 25 and 31 . 10 3 manGy for the dwellings of 1985. (author)

  20. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the

  1. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Jaenson, David G E; Eisen, Lars; Petersson, Erik; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2012-01-10

    Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased

  2. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  3. HaploForge: a comprehensive pedigree drawing and haplotype visualization web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekman, Mehmet; Medlar, Alan; Mozere, Monika; Kleta, Robert; Stanescu, Horia

    2017-12-15

    Haplotype reconstruction is an important tool for understanding the aetiology of human disease. Haplotyping infers the most likely phase of observed genotypes conditional on constraints imposed by the genotypes of other pedigree members. The results of haplotype reconstruction, when visualized appropriately, show which alleles are identical by descent despite the presence of untyped individuals. When used in concert with linkage analysis, haplotyping can help delineate a locus of interest and provide a succinct explanation for the transmission of the trait locus. Unfortunately, the design choices made by existing haplotype visualization programs do not scale to large numbers of markers. Indeed, following haplotypes from generation to generation requires excessive scrolling back and forth. In addition, the most widely used program for haplotype visualization produces inconsistent recombination artefacts for the X chromosome. To resolve these issues, we developed HaploForge, a novel web application for haplotype visualization and pedigree drawing. HaploForge takes advantage of HTML5 to be fast, portable and avoid the need for local installation. It can accurately visualize autosomal and X-linked haplotypes from both outbred and consanguineous pedigrees. Haplotypes are coloured based on identity by descent using a novel A* search algorithm and we provide a flexible viewing mode to aid visual inspection. HaploForge can currently process haplotype reconstruction output from Allegro, GeneHunter, Merlin and Simwalk. HaploForge is licensed under GPLv3 and is hosted and maintained via GitHub. https://github.com/mtekman/haploforge. r.kleta@ucl.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Molecular Reconstruction of an Old Pedigree of Diploid and Triploid Hydrangea macrophylla Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hempel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental crop species Hydrangea macrophylla exhibits diploid and triploid levels of ploidy and develops lacecap (wild type or mophead inflorescences. In order to characterize a H. macrophylla germplasm collection, we determined the inflorescence type and the 2C DNA content of 120 plants representing 43 cultivars. We identified 78 putative diploid and 39 putative triploid plants by flow cytometry. In our collection 69 out of 98 flowering plants produced lacecap inflorescences, whereas 29 plants developed mophead inflorescences. Surprisingly, 12 cultivars included diploid as well as triploid plants, while 5 cultivars contained plants with different inflorescence types. We genotyped this germplasm collection using 12 SSR markers that detected 2–7 alleles per marker, and identified 51 different alleles in this collection. We detected 62 distinct fingerprints, revealing a higher genetic variation than the number of cultivars suggested. Only one genotype per cultivar is expected due to the vegetative propagation of Hydrangea cultivars; however we identified 25 cultivars containing 2–4 different genotypes. These different genotypes explained the variation in DNA content and inflorescence type. Diploid and triploid plants with the same cultivar name were exclusively mix-ups. We therefor assume, that 36% of the tested plants were mislabeled. Based on the “Wädenswil” pedigree, which includes 31 of the tested cultivars, we predicted cultivar-specific fingerprints and identified at least 21 out of 31 cultivars by SSR marker-based reconstruction of the “Wädenswil” pedigree. Furthermore, we detected 4 putative interploid crosses between diploid and triploid plants in this pedigree. These interploid crosses resulted in diploid or/and triploid offspring, suggesting that crosses with triploids were successfully applied in breeding of H. macrophylla.

  5. Comparison of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and in major depressive disorder within bipolar disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Philip B; Frankland, Andrew; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Roberts, Gloria; Corry, Justine; Wright, Adam; Loo, Colleen K; Breakspear, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Although genetic epidemiological studies have confirmed increased rates of major depressive disorder among the relatives of people with bipolar affective disorder, no report has compared the clinical characteristics of depression between these two groups. To compare clinical features of depressive episodes across participants with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder from within bipolar disorder pedigrees, and assess the utility of a recently proposed probabilistic approach to distinguishing bipolar from unipolar depression. A secondary aim was to identify subgroups within the relatives with major depression potentially indicative of 'genetic' and 'sporadic' subgroups. Patients with bipolar disorder types 1 and 2 (n = 246) and patients with major depressive disorder from bipolar pedigrees (n = 120) were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Logistic regression was used to identify distinguishing clinical features and assess the utility of the probabilistic approach. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups within the major depressive disorder sample. Bipolar depression was characterised by significantly higher rates of psychomotor retardation, difficulty thinking, early morning awakening, morning worsening and psychotic features. Depending on the threshold employed, the probabilistic approach yielded a positive predictive value ranging from 74% to 82%. Two clusters within the major depressive disorder sample were found, one of which demonstrated features characteristic of bipolar depression, suggesting a possible 'genetic' subgroup. A number of previously identified clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression were confirmed among participants from within bipolar disorder pedigrees. Preliminary validation of the probabilistic approach in differentiating between unipolar and bipolar depression is consistent with dimensional distinctions between the two disorders and offers clinical utility in

  6. Inbreeding and Genetic Diversity in Three Imported Swine Breeds in China Using Pedigree Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity is a potential problem in the modern swine breeds in China. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the pedigrees of Chinese Duroc (CD, Landrace (CL and Yorkshire (CY swine to estimate the past and current rates of inbreeding, and to identify the main causes of genetic diversity loss. Pedigree files from CD, CL and CY containing, 4529, 16,776 and 22,600 records, respectively, were analyzed. Pedigree completeness indexes of the three breeds, accounting for one generation back, were 83.72, 93.93 and 93.59%, respectively. The estimated average annual inbreeding rates for CD, CL and CY in recent three years were 0.21, 0.19 and 0.13%, respectively. The estimated average percentage of genetic diversity loss within each breed in recent three years was about 8.92, 2.19, and 3.36%, respectively. The average relative proportion of genetic diversity loss due to unequal contributions of founders in CD, CL and CY was 69.09, 57.95 and 60.57%, and due to random genetic drift was 30.91, 42.05 and 39.43%, respectively. The estimated current effective population size for CD, CL and CY was 76, 117 and 202, respectively. Therefore, CD has been found to have lost considerable genetic diversity, demanding priority for optimizing the selection and mating to control future coancestry and inbreeding. Unequal contribution of founders was a major cause of genetic diversity loss in Chinese swine breeds and random genetic drift also showed substantial impact on the loss of diversity.

  7. A Study on the Genetic Inheritance of Ankyloglossia Based on Pedigree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Hyung Han

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormallyshort lingual frenum. Its prevalence in the newborn population is approximately 4%. Its modeof inheritance has been studied in some articles, but no conclusion has been established. Also,no relevant report has been published in Korea. This study was conducted to elucidate thegenetic inheritance of ankyloglossia via pedigree analysis.Methods In this study, 149 patients with no other congenital anomaly who underwentfrenuloplasty between March 2001 and March 2010 were studied. Pedigrees were made viapre- or post-operative history taking, and patients with uncertain histories were excluded.In the patient group that showed a hereditary nature, the male-to-female ratio, inheritancerate, and pattern of inheritance were investigated.Results One hundred (67.11% of the patients were male and 49 (32.89% were female(male-female ratio=2.04:1. Ninety-one (61.07% patients reported no other relative withankyloglossia, and 58 (38.93% patients had a relative with this disease. The inheritance ratewas 20.69% in the 58 cases with a hereditary nature. In the group with no family history ofankyloglossia, the male-female ratio was 3.79:1, which significantly differed from that ofthe group with a family history of ankyloglossia. X-chromosome mediated inheritance andvariation in the gene expression was revealed in the pedigree drawn for the groups withhereditary ankyloglossia.Conclusions Ankyloglossia has a significant hereditary nature. Our data suggest X-linkedinheritance. This study with 149 patients, the first in Korea, showed X-linked inheritance inpatients with a sole anomaly.

  8. A Study on the Genetic Inheritance of Ankyloglossia Based on Pedigree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Hyung Han

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAnkyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenum. Its prevalence in the newborn population is approximately 4%. Its mode of inheritance has been studied in some articles, but no conclusion has been established. Also, no relevant report has been published in Korea. This study was conducted to elucidate the genetic inheritance of ankyloglossia via pedigree analysis.MethodsIn this study, 149 patients with no other congenital anomaly who underwent frenuloplasty between March 2001 and March 2010 were studied. Pedigrees were made via pre- or post-operative history taking, and patients with uncertain histories were excluded. In the patient group that showed a hereditary nature, the male-to-female ratio, inheritance rate, and pattern of inheritance were investigated.ResultsOne hundred (67.11% of the patients were male and 49 (32.89% were female (male-female ratio=2.04:1. Ninety-one (61.07% patients reported no other relative with ankyloglossia, and 58 (38.93% patients had a relative with this disease. The inheritance rate was 20.69% in the 58 cases with a hereditary nature. In the group with no family history of ankyloglossia, the male-female ratio was 3.79:1, which significantly differed from that of the group with a family history of ankyloglossia. X-chromosome mediated inheritance and variation in the gene expression was revealed in the pedigree drawn for the groups with hereditary ankyloglossia.ConclusionsAnkyloglossia has a significant hereditary nature. Our data suggest X-linked inheritance. This study with 149 patients, the first in Korea, showed X-linked inheritance in patients with a sole anomaly.

  9. Challenges in inbreeding estimation of large populations based on Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, Ewa; Czarniecki, Łukasz; Strabel, Tomasz

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate observed and future inbreeding level in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle population. In total, over 9.8 mln animals were used in the analysis coming from the pedigree of Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. Inbreeding level, as an average per birth year, was estimated with the method accounting for missing parent information with the assumption of year 1950 as the base year of the population. If an animal had no ancestral records, an average inbreeding level from its birth year was assigned. Twice the average inbreeding level served as relatedness of the animal to the population, which enabled estimation of inbreeding in its offspring. The future inbreeding of potential offspring was estimated as an average of animals (bulls and cows) available for mating in a certain year. It was observed that 30-50% of animals born between 1985 and 2015 had no relevant ancestral information, which is caused by a high number of new animals and/or entire farms entering the national milk recordings. For the year 2015, the observed inbreeding level was 3.30%, which was more than twice the inbreeding with the classical approach (without missing parent information) and higher by 0.4% than the future inbreeding. The average increase of inbreeding in years 2010-2015 was 0.10%, which is similar to other countries monitored by World Holstein-Friesian Federation. However, the values might be underestimated due to low pedigree completeness. The estimates of future inbreeding suggested that observed inbreeding could be even lower and also increase slower, which indicates a constant need to monitor rate of increase in inbreeding over time. The most important aspect of presented results is the necessity to advise individual farmers to keep precise recordings of the matings on their farm in order to improve the pedigree completeness of Polish Holstein-Friesian and to use suitable mating programs to avoid too rapid growth of inbreeding.

  10. Pedigree analysis, diagnosis and treatment in Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: A report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanliang; Liang, Guobiao; Tian, Jing; Wang, Xin; Chen, Anjian; Liang, Tiancai; Du, Yang; Li, Hao; Du, Jiang; Yu, Lang; Chen, Zongping

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the clinical features, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome in order to improve understanding of this disease. A total of 3 cases of VHL syndrome treated at the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College (Zunyi, China) between September 2014 and October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The associated literature was reviewed, and the diagnostic and therapeutic features were discussed. Case 1 was diagnosed as VHL syndrome accompanied by a renal tumor on the right side, and radical tumor resection in the right kidney was performed. Postoperative pathological examination indicated clear cell carcinoma. Case 2 was diagnosed as VHL syndrome accompanied by bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma. The left-side adrenal tumor was removed, and postoperative pathological analysis was suggestive of adrenal pheochromocytoma. Case 3 visited the hospital due to the presence of masses on the left and right sides of the kidney, but did not undergo surgery for personal reasons. Follow-ups were scheduled subsequent to surgery at another hospital. The diagnosis in all 3 cases was confirmed by genetic testing, where VHL mutations were detected in all patients. Following surgery, pedigree and genetic analysis was performed in all 3 pedigrees and VHL mutations were identified in 7 family members. The diagnosis of VHL syndrome should be based on the clinical manifestation of the patients and the results of genetic tests. DNA analysis of mutations is the main method for diagnosis. An appropriate surgical plan should be formulated based on the site, size and number of tumors, and the condition of the patient. Since VHL syndrome is an inheritable genetic disorder and relapse following surgery is common, pedigree analysis of the patient and lifelong follow-ups are essential. Additionally, physicians should pay attention to VHL syndrome in order to avoid missing diagnosis or misdiagnosis.

  11. Phenotypic variation in a large Swedish pedigree due to SNCA duplication and triplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, J; Nilsson, C; Kachergus, J

    2007-01-01

    microsatellite analysis, and high-resolution microarray genotyping. The geographic origin and ancestral genealogy of each pedigree were researched in the medical literature and Swedish Parish records. RESULTS: The proband of the Swedish family branch presented with early dysautonomia followed by progressive...... parkinsonism suggestive of multiple system atrophy. Molecular analysis identified a genomic duplication of identical...... to that previously described for a Swedish American family with an alpha-synuclein triplication. Subsequent genealogic investigation suggested that both kindreds are ancestrally related to the Lister family complex. CONCLUSION: Our findings extend clinical, genetic, and genealogical research on the Lister family...

  12. Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis: First case report from the Indian subcontinent with pedigree analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarang Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is a very rare disorder with less than 28 cases being reported in the literature worldwide and remains a mystery both as far as genetics and the virtue of its pathogenesis is concerned. We present a case of mother and son, both having this disorder with presentations unique in terms of sites involved and try to draw a five generations pedigree chart for the same. We further support its inheritance pattern as autosomal dominant. Also, we propose oral isotretinoin as an effective treatment modality for the same.

  13. Strategies for haplotype-based association mapping in complex pedigreed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boleckova, J; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    increases the number of parameters in the model, resulting in low accuracy of the estimates especially for the low-frequency haplotypes. Modeling of haplotype effects can be improved if they are assumed to be random effects, as only one parameter i.e. haplotype variance needs to be estimated compared......, 4, 6, 10 and 20. The simulated data resembled the Danish Holstein cattle pedigree representing a complex relationship structure and QTL effects of different sizes were simulated. We observed that the random haplotype models had high power and very low type I error rates (after Bonferroni correction...

  14. SeqSIMLA2: simulating correlated quantitative traits accounting for shared environmental effects in user-specified pedigree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Tsai, Wei-Yun; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Hung, Kuan-Yi; Hsiung, Chao A; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Simulation tools that simulate sequence data in unrelated cases and controls or in families with quantitative traits or disease status are important for genetic studies. The simulation tools can be used to evaluate the statistical power for detecting the causal variants when planning a genetic epidemiology study, or to evaluate the statistical properties for new methods. We previously developed SeqSIMLA version 1 (SeqSIMLA1), which simulates family or case-control data with a disease or quantitative trait model. SeqSIMLA1, and several other tools that simulate quantitative traits, do not specifically model the shared environmental effects among relatives on a trait. However, shared environmental effects are commonly observed for some traits in families, such as body mass index. SeqSIMLA1 simulates a fixed three-generation family structure. However, it would be ideal to simulate prespecified pedigree structures for studies involving large pedigrees. Thus, we extended SeqSIMLA1 to create SeqSIMLA2, which can simulate correlated traits and considers the shared environmental effects. SeqSIMLA2 can also simulate prespecified large pedigree structures. There are no restrictions on the number of individuals that can be simulated in a pedigree. We used a blood pressure example to demonstrate that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate realistic correlation structures between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure among relatives. We also showed that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate large pedigrees with large chromosomal regions in a reasonable time frame. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  15. Alcohol Consumption in Southern Sweden after Major Decreases in Danish Spirits Taxes and Increases in Swedish Travellers’ Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2003, Denmark lowered its tax on spirits, and in 2004, Sweden increased its traveller import quotas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether these two changes increased self-reported alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, which is located near Denmark. Method Data were collected through telephone interviews with the general population between 2003 and 2006. Individuals aged 16–80 years were interviewed. Some lived in southern Sweden, others in the northern region, which was assumed to be unaffected by the policy changes and was thus used as a control site. Analyses were performed for the total population as well as by sex, age, socio-economic group and consumption pattern. Results The expected results were not found: alcohol consumption in southern Sweden had not changed. The few statistically significant changes found in southern Sweden indicated decreases. In the north, however, consumption seemed to have increased. Conclusion In addition to the two policy changes mentioned above, other changes seem to have affected alcohol consumption in Sweden. It is possible, however, that the policy changes have affected population groups not reached by the survey, and thus other types of data need to be analysed before drawing any far-reaching conclusions. PMID:20453510

  16. Mapping key economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden by using a geospatial methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyal, Shahid Hussain; Mentis, Dimitris; Howells, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We spatially quantified and visualized the economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden. • Possible land use constraints to wind energy were taken into account. • Economic indicators were estimated on the basis of two wind turbines. • We used a GIS-based methodology for this analysis and found it very useful. • Results suggest that Sweden holds economic feasible wind energy resource, specially in the southern and central regions. - Abstract: Due to modern advancements in renewable energy systems and increasing prices of fossil fuels wind energy is getting a lot of attention all over the world. In this regard, Sweden also fixed motivated targets to get energy supply from local renewable energy resources. So, local wind power could help the country in achieving the targets. In this study, economic indicators of wind energy were spatially estimated for Sweden by using ArcGIS tool. In order to do this, as input data one-year high resolution modeled annual average wind data was processed by means of Rayleigh distribution, wind turbine power curve, land use constraints, technical constraints and economic parameters. Based on the input data, it was concluded that Sweden possesses economically feasible wind energy resource. The results of the study indicate that southern and central regions could produce economically viable wind electricity in all aspects as compared to the northern region of the country. Lastly, it was recommended to speed up wind energy penetration in Sweden, communal awareness and acceptance regarding the resource should be increased to avoid possible misunderstanding. Additionally, the capability of the national electric grid should be enhanced to take up the large scale unpredictable wind energy resource.

  17. Electricity supply in Sweden 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The year 1983 was characterized by a continued decrease in oil consumption and an increase in electricity consumption. Totally the supply of fuels decreased from 278TWh to 264 TWh in 1983. The electricity supply increased from 99.9 TWh in 1982 to 110.8 TWh in 1983. The consumers total energy use decreased from 358 TWh in 1982 to 355 TWh in 1983. Electricity consumption excluding transmission losses increased from 91,4 TWh in 1982 to 101.1TWh in 1983. The increase was due to electric space heating disconnectable electric boilers and to industry. At the end of 1983 the electric heating subscriptions are estimated to corresponds to 45 percent of all one-family houses. Hydropower accounted for 54 percent and nucler power accounted for 34 percent of the total supply of electricity in 1983. The highest hourly load during 1983 amounted to 20862 MW. The lowest load during 1983 amounted to 5185 MW. Ten nuclear power units were in commercial operation during the year. The energy availability figures were as follows: Barsebaeck 1 85 percent, Barsebaeck 2 82 percent, Forsmark 1 84 percent, Forsmark 2 88 percent, Oskarshamn 1 87 percent, Oskarshamn 2 83 percent, Ringhals 1 59 percent and Ringhals 2 68 percent. The production of electricity from conventional thermal power stations was only 4.0 TWh. Back pressure power in industry contributed 2.5 TWh of this figure and combined power and district heating stations 1.3 TWh. Two coal fired combined power and district heating plants were added and sevearl combined power and district heating plants have been rebuilt to be coal fired. The high voltage power grid system permits joint operation by all the power companies in the country, and the major power companies utilize the network for exchanging surplus power with other power companies. An account of the public debate on energy in Sweden during 1983 is also given.(L.E.)

  18. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael

    2004-07-01

    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO 2 , providing that technology for electricity production with CO 2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO 2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO 2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO 2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO 2 -pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies

  19. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  20. Genetic variability in three Italian beef cattle breeds derived from pedigree information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Filippini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic variability in Chianina (CH, Marchigiana (MC and Romagnola (RO breeds using pedigree information. Different approaches based on probability of identity-by-descent (effective population size through an increase in inbreeding Ne or probability of gene origin (total number of founders f, effective number of founders fe, ancestors fa and founder genomes fg were used. Reference populations were defined using female animals born between 1996 and 2000 where both parents are known. Generation intervals were 5.35, 4.93 and 5.15 years for CH, MC and RO, respectively. The total number of founders were 7092, 11947, 3928, for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Complete generation equivalent showed the relative high quality of pedigree information: 5.66 for CH, 4.54 for MC and 4.95 for RO. For CH, MC and RO, respectively, a fe value of 152.1, 70.9 and 89.8, a fa value of 73.6, 48.0 and 59.5 and a fg value of 39.5, 25.0 and 38.5, were calculated. When inbreeding was used effective population sizes were 138, 122 and 124 for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Parameters derived from the probabilities of gene origin were variable among the investigated breeds and the results for MC demonstrate the need to pay specific attention to breeding strategies.

  1. Quantitative trait loci for hip dysplasia in a cross-breed canine pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, Rory J; Mateescu, Raluca; Lust, George; Burton-Wurster, Nancy I; Dykes, Nathan L; Bliss, Stuart P; Williams, Alma J; Vernier-Singer, Margaret; Corey, Elizabeth; Harjes, Carlos; Quaas, Richard L; Zhang, Zhiwu; Gilbert, Robert O; Volkman, Dietrich; Casella, George; Wu, Rongling; Acland, Gregory M

    2005-09-01

    Canine hip dysplasia is a common developmental inherited trait characterized by hip laxity, subluxation or incongruity of the femoral head and acetabulum in affected hips. The inheritance pattern is complex and the mutations contributing to trait expression are unknown. In the study reported here, 240 microsatellite markers distributed in 38 autosomes and the X chromosome were genotyped on 152 dogs from three generations of a crossbred pedigree based on trait-free Greyhound and dysplastic Labrador Retriever founders. Interval mapping was undertaken to map the QTL underlying the quantitative dysplastic traits of maximum passive hip laxity (the distraction index), the dorsolateral subluxation score, and the Norberg angle. Permutation testing was used to derive the chromosome-wide level of significance at p<0.05 for each QTL. Chromosomes 4, 9, 10, 11 (p<0.01), 16, 20, 22, 25, 29 (p<0.01), 30, 35, and 37 harbor putative QTL for one or more traits. Successful detection of QTL was due to the cross-breed pedigree, multiple-trait measurements, control of environmental background, and marked advancement in canine mapping tools.

  2. Power of a Labrador Retriever-Greyhound pedigree for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, Rory J; Casella, George; Bliss, Stuart P; Lust, George; Williams, Alma Jo; Hamilton, Samuel; Dykes, Nathan L; Yeager, Amy E; Gilbert, Robert O; Burton-Wurster, Nancy I; Mellersh, Cathryn C; Acland, Gregory M

    2003-04-01

    To estimate the number of dogs required to find linkage to heritable traits of hip dysplasia in dogs from an experimental pedigree. 147 Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crossbreed offspring. Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia were crossed with unaffected Greyhounds. Age at detection of femoral capital ossification, distraction index (DI), hip joint dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score, and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) were recorded. Power to find linkage of a single marker to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling 100% of the variation in a dysplastic trait in the backcross dogs was determined. For the DI at the observed effect size, recombination fraction of 0.05, and heterozygosity of 0.75, 35 dogs in the backcross of the F1 to the Greyhound generation would yield linkage at a power of 0.8. For the DLS score, 35 dogs in the backcross to the Labrador Retriever generation would be required for linkage at the same power. For OSS, 45 dogs in the backcross to the founding Labrador Retrievers would yield linkage at the same power. Fewer dogs were projected to be necessary to find linkage to hip OA. Testing for linkage to the DLS at 4 loci simultaneously, each controlling 25% of the phenotypic variation, yielded an overall power of 0.7 CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Based on this conservative single-marker estimate, this pedigree has the requisite power to find microsatellites linked to susceptibility loci for hip dysplasia and hip OA by breeding a reasonable number of backcross dogs.

  3. Pedigree studies and evaluation of risk factors of breast cancer in Goa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, N V; Pinto, S; Dias, P; Kolwalkar, D; Chipkar, T

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancer (BC) is increasing in most of the countries, including the areas which have had previously low rates. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the pedigrees of the patients for detecting hereditary factor prevalence and to investigate the possible risk factors associated with BC in a sample population from Goa. A prospective analysis was performed for 95 BC patients between 2011 and 2012. For assessing the risk factors, a proforma was designed and the necessary data was collected by interview. The process of collecting family history for drawing the pedigree included interviewing the informant. Online calculators of statistics were used for standard deviation at www.easycalculation.com and fishers test at www.graphpad.com. High frequency of BC was revealed in the sample population from Goa. This could be attributed to the changes in reproductive patterns, physical inactivity and obesity, or general increase in BC awareness. Factors which did not influence the frequency of BC in the sample population include parity, oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, occupation, exercise, and nutritional supplement. High incidence of family history of 168/1000 individuals was observed in the present study. Proper management of BC is possible after assessment of cumulative risk of BC in females by a thorough study of both environmental and genetic factors. Cumulative risk can be greatly reduced by controlling the environmental risk.

  4. Multigenerational pedigree with STAR syndrome: A novel FAM58A variant and expansion of the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczek, Nicole J; Kruisselbrink, Teresa; Cousin, Margot A; Blackburn, Patrick R; Klee, Eric W; Gavrilova, Ralitza H; Lanpher, Brendan C

    2017-05-01

    STAR syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant disorder characterized by toe Syndactyly, Telecanthus, Anogenital malformations, and Renal malformations, and is caused by loss-of-function variants in FAM58A. Our proband presented with the hallmark features of STAR syndrome, as well as some additional less typical features including tethered cord and hearing loss. The proband's mother and maternal half-sister had similar clinical histories, but had variability in phenotypic severity. Clinical whole exome sequencing revealed a novel pathogenic nonsense variant, c.651G>A (p.Trp217X; NM_152274), in FAM58A in the proband, mother, and maternal half-sister. This pedigree represents the 11-13th patients described with STAR syndrome and the third instance of familial inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first occurrence of a nonsense variant in FAM58A described in individuals with STAR syndrome and the phenotype in this pedigree suggests that tethered cord and hearing loss are features of STAR syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prediction of genetic values of quantitative traits in plant breeding using pedigree and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossa, José; Campos, Gustavo de Los; Pérez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; Burgueño, Juan; Araus, José Luis; Makumbi, Dan; Singh, Ravi P; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Yan, Jianbing; Arief, Vivi; Banziger, Marianne; Braun, Hans-Joachim

    2010-10-01

    The availability of dense molecular markers has made possible the use of genomic selection (GS) for plant breeding. However, the evaluation of models for GS in real plant populations is very limited. This article evaluates the performance of parametric and semiparametric models for GS using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays) data in which different traits were measured in several environmental conditions. The findings, based on extensive cross-validations, indicate that models including marker information had higher predictive ability than pedigree-based models. In the wheat data set, and relative to a pedigree model, gains in predictive ability due to inclusion of markers ranged from 7.7 to 35.7%. Correlation between observed and predictive values in the maize data set achieved values up to 0.79. Estimates of marker effects were different across environmental conditions, indicating that genotype × environment interaction is an important component of genetic variability. These results indicate that GS in plant breeding can be an effective strategy for selecting among lines whose phenotypes have yet to be observed.

  6. Compatibility of pedigree-based and marker-based relationships for single-step genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2012-01-01

    Single-step methods for genomic prediction have recently become popular because they are conceptually simple and in practice such a method can completely replace a pedigree-based method for routine genetic evaluation. An issue with single-step methods is compatibility between the marker-based rel......Single-step methods for genomic prediction have recently become popular because they are conceptually simple and in practice such a method can completely replace a pedigree-based method for routine genetic evaluation. An issue with single-step methods is compatibility between the marker...... that it may be important that a single-step method is based on a model conditional on the observed markers. When data are from routine evaluation systems, selection affects the allele frequencies, and therefore both observed markers and observed phenotypes contain information about allele frequencies...... alpha/2. The parameter alpha should be determined from the markers, but since there is selection in routine evaluation systems the phenotypes in principle also provide information about this parameter. The likelihood function used for inference contains two terms. The first term is the REML...

  7. The value of extended pedigrees for next-generation analysis of complex disease in the rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Prongay, Kamm; Ferguson, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Complex diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, among many others) pose the biggest threat to human health worldwide and are among the most challenging to investigate. Susceptibility to complex disease may be caused by multiple genetic variants (GVs) and their interaction, by environmental factors, and by interaction between GVs and environment, and large study cohorts with substantial analytical power are typically required to elucidate these individual contributions. Here, we discuss the advantages of both power and feasibility afforded by the use of extended pedigrees of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for genetic studies of complex human disease based on next-generation sequence data. We present these advantages in the context of previous research conducted in rhesus macaques for several representative complex diseases. We also describe a single, multigeneration pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques and a sample biobank we have developed for genetic analysis of complex disease, including power of this pedigree to detect causal GVs using either genetic linkage or association methods in a variance decomposition approach. Finally, we summarize findings of significant heritability for a number of quantitative traits that demonstrate that genetic contributions to risk factors for complex disease can be detected and measured in this pedigree. We conclude that the development and application of an extended pedigree to analysis of complex disease traits in the rhesus macaque have shown promising early success and that genome-wide genetic and higher order -omics studies in this pedigree are likely to yield useful insights into the architecture of complex human disease.

  8. Chlorine activation and ozone destruction in the northern lowermost stratosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Bregman, A; Scheeren, HA; Strom, J; Carslaw, KS; Fischer, H; Siegmund, PC; Arnold, F

    1999-01-01

    We report aircraft measurements from the Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) II campaign, performed during February 1995 from Kiruna, northern Sweden, near 67 degrees N latitude. We have measured trace species, e.g., O-3, nitrogen compounds, HCl, hydrocarbons, CO,

  9. Candidate gene resequencing to identify rare, pedigree-specific variants influencing healthy aging phenotypes in the long life family study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druley, Todd E; Wang, Lihua; Lin, Shiow J

    2016-01-01

    : We performed custom hybridization capture sequencing to identify the functional variants in 464 candidate genes for longevity or the major diseases of aging in 615 pedigrees (4,953 individuals) from the LLFS, using a multiplexed, custom hybridization capture. Variants were analyzed individually...... from six pedigrees. OBFC1 (chromosome 10) is involved in telomere maintenance, and falls within a linkage peak recently reported from an analysis of telomere length in LLFS families. Two different algorithms for single gene associations identified three genes with an enrichment of variation...

  10. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Programm. Risti ette me ei löö! Kas Metsatöll on Rabarocki majabänd? Veteranpioneerid Pedigree

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Järvakandis 15.-16. juunini toimuva festivali "Rabarock" programm (info: www.rabarock.delfi.ee / www.rabarock.ee). Sugestiivrockansamblist Kosmikud (www.kosmikud.ee), heliplaatidest "Ei roosid, "Kuidas tuli pimedus", "Pulmad ja matused". Ansamblist Metsatöll (www.metsatoll.ee). Industrial-metalansamblist Pedigree (www.myspace.com/pedigree)

  12. A Consensus Map for Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.). I. Construction and Integration of Individual Linkage Maps From TwoOutbred Three-Generation Pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell M. Sewell; Bradley K. Sherman; David B. Neale

    1998-01-01

    A consensus map for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was constructed from the integration of linkage data from two unrelated three-generation out bred pedigrees. The progeny segregation data from restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and isozyme genetic markers from each pedigree were recoded to reflect the two independent...

  13. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    Energy in Sweden 2004: Facts and Figures contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. Since the year 2001 statistics for the period 1983-1998 are revised compared to data for previous editions. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years. Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts.

  14. Elucidation of the Honeycrisp' pedigree through haplotype analysis with a multi-family integrated SNP linkage map and a large apple (Malus×domestica) pedigree-connected SNP data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Nicholas P.; Weg, van de Eric; Bedford, David S.; Peace, Cameron P.; Vanderzande, Stijn; Clark, Matthew D.; Teh, Soon Li; Cai, Lichun; Luby, James J.

    2017-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica) cultivar Honeycrisp has become important economically and as a breeding parent. An earlier study with SSR markers indicated the original recorded pedigree of Honeycrisp' was incorrect and Keepsake' was identified as one putative parent, the other being unknown. The

  15. Multi-system Component Phenotypes of Bipolar Disorder for Genetic Investigations of Extended Pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C.; Service, Susan K.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Franco, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Patricia; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M.; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B.; Ericson, Marissa; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Luykx, Jurjen J.; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A.; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier; Glahn, David C.; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Risch, Neil; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Thompson, Paul M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genetic factors contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP), yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A focus on measuring multi-system quantitative traits that may be components of BP psychopathology may enable genetic dissection of this complex disorder, and investigation of extended pedigrees from genetically isolated populations may facilitate the detection of specific genetic variants that impact on BP as well as its component phenotypes. OBJECTIVE To identify quantitative neurocognitive, temperament-related, and neuroanatomic phenotypes that appear heritable and associated with severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), and therefore suitable for genetic linkage and association studies aimed at identifying variants contributing to BP-I risk. DESIGN Multi-generational pedigree study in two closely related, genetically isolated populations: the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia, Colombia (ANT). PARTICIPANTS 738 individuals, all from CVCR and ANT pedigrees, of whom 181 are affected with BP-I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Familial aggregation (heritability) and association with BP-I of 169 quantitative neurocognitive, temperament, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) phenotypes. RESULTS Seventy-five percent (126) of the phenotypes investigated were significantly heritable, and 31% (53) were associated with BP-I. About 1/4 of the phenotypes, including measures from each phenotype domain, were both heritable and associated with BP-I. Neuroimaging phenotypes, particularly cortical thickness in prefrontal and temporal regions, and volume and microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum, represented the most promising candidate traits for genetic mapping related to BP based on strong heritability and association with disease. Analyses of phenotypic and genetic covariation identified substantial correlations among the traits, at least some of which share a common underlying genetic architecture. CONCLUSIONS AND

  16. Genomic and pedigree-based prediction for leaf, stem, and stripe rust resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana, Philomin; Singh, Ravi P; Singh, Pawan K; Crossa, Jose; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Lan, Caixia; Bhavani, Sridhar; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Poland, Jesse A; Bergstrom, Gary C; Sorrells, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    Genomic prediction for seedling and adult plant resistance to wheat rusts was compared to prediction using few markers as fixed effects in a least-squares approach and pedigree-based prediction. The unceasing plant-pathogen arms race and ephemeral nature of some rust resistance genes have been challenging for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs and farmers. Hence, it is important to devise strategies for effective evaluation and exploitation of quantitative rust resistance. One promising approach that could accelerate gain from selection for rust resistance is 'genomic selection' which utilizes dense genome-wide markers to estimate the breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits. Our objective was to compare three genomic prediction models including genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), GBLUP A that was GBLUP with selected loci as fixed effects and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces-markers (RKHS-M) with least-squares (LS) approach, RKHS-pedigree (RKHS-P), and RKHS markers and pedigree (RKHS-MP) to determine the BVs for seedling and/or adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (LR), stem rust (SR), and stripe rust (YR). The 333 lines in the 45th IBWSN and the 313 lines in the 46th IBWSN were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. The mean prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31-0.74 for LR seedling, 0.12-0.56 for LR APR, 0.31-0.65 for SR APR, 0.70-0.78 for YR seedling, and 0.34-0.71 for YR APR. For most datasets, the RKHS-MP model gave the highest accuracies, while LS gave the lowest. GBLUP, GBLUP A, RKHS-M, and RKHS-P models gave similar accuracies. Using genome-wide marker-based models resulted in an average of 42% increase in accuracy over LS. We conclude that GS is a promising approach for improvement of quantitative rust resistance and can be implemented in the breeding pipeline.

  17. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  18. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  19. Depression and anxiety in the reindeer-herding Sami population of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Niclas; Sjölander, Per; Liljegren, Annette Edin; Jacobsson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate symptoms and predicting factors of depression and anxiety among reindeer-herding Sami in Sweden. A total of 319 reindeer-herding Sami (168 men, 151 women) were compared with urban and rural reference populations comprising 1,393 persons (662 men, 731 women). A cross-sectional questionnaire study on mental health, which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data were analysed with regard to population, gender, age group, education and work-related stress. The Sami population disclosed higher mean values for both depression and anxiety than the reference groups, with Sami men reporting the highest rates. Work-related stress was associated with anxiety and depression in the Sami group. By comparing Sami men and women with reference groups of men and women living in urban and rural areas in northern Sweden, this study identified that reindeer-herding Sami men require special attention with regard to mental health problems.

  20. A likelihood ratio-based method to predict exact pedigrees for complex families from next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Verena; Kamphans, Tom; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N; Krawitz, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technology considerably changed the way we screen for pathogenic mutations in rare Mendelian disorders. However, the identification of the disease-causing mutation amongst thousands of variants of partly unknown relevance is still challenging and efficient techniques that reduce the genomic search space play a decisive role. Often segregation- or linkage analysis are used to prioritize candidates, however, these approaches require correct information about the degree of relationship among the sequenced samples. For quality assurance an automated control of pedigree structures and sample assignment is therefore highly desirable in order to detect label mix-ups that might otherwise corrupt downstream analysis. We developed an algorithm based on likelihood ratios that discriminates between different classes of relationship for an arbitrary number of genotyped samples. By identifying the most likely class we are able to reconstruct entire pedigrees iteratively, even for highly consanguineous families. We tested our approach on exome data of different sequencing studies and achieved high precision for all pedigree predictions. By analyzing the precision for varying degrees of relatedness or inbreeding we could show that a prediction is robust down to magnitudes of a few hundred loci. A java standalone application that computes the relationships between multiple samples as well as a Rscript that visualizes the pedigree information is available for download as well as a web service at www.gene-talk.de CONTACT: heinrich@molgen.mpg.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Genetic analysis of within-litter variation in piglets’ birth weight using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell, E.B.; Wang, Q.; Mulder, H.A.; Knol, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic variance for within-litter variation of birth weight (BW0) using genomic (GRM) or pedigree relationship matrices (PRM) and to compare the accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBV) for within-litter variation of BW0 using GRM and PRM. The BW0

  2. Inheritance of dermatoglyphic asymmetry in 500 Indian pedigrees: complex segregation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Bibha; Malkin, Ida; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2012-03-01

    The major aim of this study is to determine the mode of inheritance of asymmetry of quantitative dermatoglyphic traits based on principal factors through the application of complex segregation (genetic model fitting) analyses on a large ethnically homogeneous sample of 500 Indian pedigrees (2435 individuals) of two generations. By segregation analysis of the traits- PC1_FA both Mendelian and Environmental models were rejected (< 0.001) with the General model, i.e. that despite presence of significant inheritance (rejection of Environmental model), the nature of inheritance is more complex, than Mendelian one. Although a little genetic effect was observed due to familial correlations on asymmetry traits, no evidence was found of major gene contribution to be involved, but this does not contradict the notion postulated by several earlier authors that asymmetry (fluctuating) provides a measure of developmental instability in human.

  3. [Clinical classification and genetic mutation study of two pedigrees with type II Waardenburg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yang, Fuwei; Zheng, Hexin; Zhu, Ganghua; Hu, Peng; Wu, Weijing

    2015-12-01

    To explore the molecular etiology of two pedigrees affected with type II Waardenburg syndrome (WS2) and to provide genetic diagnosis and counseling. Blood samples were collected from the proband and his family members. Following extraction of genomic DNA, the coding sequences of PAX3, MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes were amplified with PCR and subjected to DNA sequencing to detect potential mutations. A heterozygous deletional mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene has been identified in all patients from the first family, while no mutation was found in the other WS2 related genes including PAX3, MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2. The heterozygous deletion mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene probably underlies the disease in the first family. It is expected that other genes may also underlie WS2.

  4. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and substance abuse in Costa Rica: pedigree- and population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Michael A; Batki, Steven; Reus, Victor I; Spesny, Mitzi; Molina, Julio; Service, Susan; Vinogradov, Sophia; Neylan, Tom; Mathews, Carol; Meza, Luis; Gallegos, Alvaro; Montero, A Patricia; Cruz, Maria L; Neuhaus, John; Roche, Erin; Smith, Lauren; Leon, Pedro; Freimer, Nelson B

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of substance use disorders (substance abuse or substance dependence: SA/SD) in a large sample of Bipolar Type I (BPI) patients drawn from the Costa Rican population and to describe the effects of SA/SD on the course of their bipolar disorder. 110 subjects from two high-risk (for BPI) Costa Rican pedigrees and 205 unrelated Costa Rican BPI subjects were assessed using structured interviews and a best estimate process. Chi(2) and survival analyses were performed to assess the effect of gender on comorbidity risk, and the effect of comorbidity on the clinical course of BPI. SA/SD (primarily alcohol dependence) occurred in 17% of the BPI patients from the population sample and 35% of the BPI patients from the pedigree sample. Comorbid SA/SD was strongly associated with gender chi(2) = 16.84, P = 0.00004). In comorbid subjects, alcohol dependence tended to predate the first manic episode (chi(2) = 6.54, P < 0.025). History of SA/SD did not significantly alter the prevalence of psychosis or age of onset of mania in BPI subjects. These results suggest that SA/SD comorbidity rates are lower in this type of population than in BPI patient populations in the US. Gender is a strong predictor of comorbidity prevalence in BPI patients from this population. Although SA/SD may be a risk factor for precipitating BPI in those at risk, in this population comorbid BPI subjects do not have a different onset or course of BPI in comparison to BPI patients without comorbidity.

  5. A faster pedigree-based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction method for detecting gene-gene interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Bo; Zhu, Jun; Lou, Xiang-Yang

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a faster pedigree-based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction algorithm, called PedG-MDR II (PII), to detect gene-gene interactions underlying complex traits. Inherited from our previous framework of PedGMDR (PI), PII can handle both dichotomous and continuous traits in pedigree-based designs and allows for covariate adjustment. Compared with PI, this faster version can theoretically halve the computing burden and memory requirement. To evaluate the performance of PII, we performed comprehensive simulations across a wide variety of experimental scenarios, in which we considered two study designs, discordant sib pairs and mixed families of varying size, and, for each study design, we considered five common factors that may potentially affect statistical power: minor allele frequency, missing rate of parental genotypes, covariate effect, gene-gene interaction, and scheme to adjust phenotypic outcomes. Simulations showed that PII gave well controlled type I error rates against population admixture. Under a total of 4,096 scenarios simulated, PII, in general, had a higher average power than PI for both dichotomous and continuous traits, and the advantage was more pronounced for continuous traits. PII also appeared to be less sensitive than PI to changes in the other four factors than the magnitude of genetic effects considered in this study. Applied to the Mid-South Tobacco Family study, PII detected a significant interaction with a p value of 5.4 × 10(-5) between two taster receptor genes, TAS2R16 and TAS2R38, responsible for nicotine dependence. In conclusion, PII is a faster supplementary version of our previous PI for detecting multifactor interactions.

  6. Cell organisation in the colonic crypt: a theoretical comparison of the pedigree and niche concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C van der Wath

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is a monolayer of rapidly self-renewing epithelial cells which is not only responsible for absorption of water and nutrients into the bloodstream but also acts as a protective barrier against harmful microbes entering the body. New functional epithelial cells are produced from stem cells, and their proliferating progeny. These stem cells are found within millions of crypts (tubular pits spaced along the intestinal tract. The entire intestinal epithelium is replaced every 2-3 days in mice (3-5 days in humans and hence cell production, differentiation, migration and turnover need to be tightly regulated. Malfunctions in this regulation are strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and to the formation of adenomas and ultimately cancerous tumours. Despite a great deal of biological experimentation and observation, precisely how colonic crypts are regulated to produce mature colonocytes remains unclear. To assist in understanding how cell organisation in crypts is achieved, two very different conceptual models of cell behaviour are developed here, referred to as the 'pedigree' and the 'niche' models. The pedigree model proposes that crypt cells are largely preprogrammed and receive minimal prompting from the environment as they move through a routine of cell differentiation and proliferation to become mature colonocytes. The niche model proposes that crypt cells are primarily influenced by the local microenvironments along the crypt, and that predetermined cell behaviour plays a negligible role in their development. In this paper we present a computational model of colonic crypts in the mouse, which enables a comparison of the quality and controllability of mature coloncyte production by crypts operating under these two contrasting conceptual models of crypt regulation.

  7. Genetic correlations of hip dysplasia scores for Golden retrievers and Labrador retrievers in France, Sweden and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Leroy, G; Malm, S; Lewis, T; Viklund, Å; Strandberg, E; Fikse, W F

    2017-08-01

    In order to reduce the prevalence of inherited diseases in pedigree dogs, the feasibility of implementation of an international breeding program was investigated. One prerequisite is a strong genetic correlation between countries and our objective was to estimate this correlation for canine hip dysplasia (HD) across three countries to evaluate the feasibility of an international genetic evaluation. Data were provided by the Société Centrale Canine (SCC, France), Svenska Kennelklubben (SKK, Sweden) and The Kennel Club (KC, UK) on Golden retriever and Labrador retriever dogs. Trivariate analysis on the three different modes of scoring HD in France, Sweden and the UK was performed using a mixed linear animal model. Heritability, genetic correlation, number of common sires, genetic similarity, selection differentials and accuracy of selection were calculated. The estimated heritabilities of Golden retrievers (Labrador retrievers) for HD scores were 0.28 (0.15), 0.28 (0.29) and 0.41 (0.34) in France, Sweden and the UK, respectively. The feasibility of performing a genetic evaluation of HD across countries was indicated by the favourable genetic correlations estimated between score modes (ranged from 0.48 to 0.99). The accuracy of selection for the most recent birth year cohorts of male dogs was not improved by international evaluation compared to national evaluation. Improvement in genetic progress can however be achieved by selection across populations in different countries, particularly for small populations, which were indicated by the large difference between selection differentials based on the national and international evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutation status of gene CACNA1S and SCN4A in the hypokalemic periodic paralysis pedigree in Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun WU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the mutation status of gene CACNA1S and SCN4A in hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP pedigree of Chinese population, and compare the status with that in Caucasian populations as reported in previous literature. Methods  To define the gene mutation status, the genes CACNA1S and SCN4A were sequenced by PCR and DNA sequencing technology in two familial HPP pedigrees, one hyperthyroid HPP pedigree and four sporadic HPP patients, the findings were then compared with the reference sequences in gene library. A total of nine relevant reports concerning the gene CACNA1S and SCN4A mutation of HPP pedigree published from Jan. 1999 to Dec. 2012 were retrieved from PubMed database. Results  All the probands were suffering from paroxysmal muscle weakness with hypokalemia. As a typical symptom of HPP, muscle weakness often involved the extremities. Auxiliary examination confirmed serum hypopotassemia, electrocardiogram (ECG showed hypokalemic change, and electromyography (EMG showed shortened motor potential duration and low amplitude. All the findings mentioned above were in accordance with clinical diagnosis of HPP. Gene analysis indicated that no mutation of CACNA1S and SCN4A was found in the probands, the family members of the three HPP pedigrees and the four patients of sporadic HPP. The previous literature presented that mutation rate of gene CACN1AS and SCN4A was much higher in Caucasian HPP patients than in Chinese population. Conclusion  The mutation rate of gene CACN1AS and SCN4A is lower in Chinese HPP patients than in Caucasian patients with significant difference.

  9. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  10. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  11. The history of nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power developments in Sweden are reviewed, from the first initiatives to start research in the area in 1945 to the parliament decision in 1979 to phase out nuclear power by 2010. The article is primarily concerned with the political and R and D management aspects in the field. (L.E.)

  12. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...

  13. Aeolian dunes of south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardson, Martin; Alexanderson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    South-central Sweden is home to a number of small, inactive inland dune fields formed on former glaciofluvial deltas. A characteristic of these dune fields is the generally transverse shape of the dunes, in stark contrast to the rest of Sweden where parabolic dunes are the most common type. One of these dune fields is Bonäsheden in the county of Dalarna. It is the largest continuous dune field in Sweden and covers an area of approximately 15.5 km2. The dune field has the last few years been the target of thorough investigations utilising LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar, luminescence dating and sedimentological field investigations. The results show that the dunes of Bonäsheden and the adjacent dune field of Skattungheden formed mainly by north-westerly winds shortly after the deglaciation of this part of Sweden (10.5 ka), and subsequent events of dune formation were uncommon. Some later episodes of sand drift did occur, but only as minor coversand deposition. The dune field has had a more complex formation than previously thought; a shift in the wind pattern around 10 ka seems to have caused subsequent dunes to have formed by more westerly winds. The reason for this is still not determined, but the increased distance to the Scandinavian Ice Sheet would lessen the capacity of katabatic winds to influence the dune field.

  14. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  15. Status and use of PSA in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M.

    1996-05-01

    The performance and use of PSA:s in Sweden goes back about two decades. During all of this time, the field of PSA has been developing intensively, both internationally and within Sweden. The latest years have been characterised by an increased use of PSA models and results, and by major extensions of existing PSA models. The aim of this document is to describe PSA in Sweden with respect to development, scope and maturity, as well as to the contents of the analyses and the use of results. PSA activities will be described from the point of view of both the authorities and the utilities. The report gives an overview of the development within the area of PSA in Sweden both its history and current trends. The aim has been to include a reasonable amount of detail, both on the methods and results in PSA:s performed and on the numerous supporting research programs dealing with various aspects of PSA. 39 refs 39 refs.

  16. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...

  17. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  18. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  19. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  20. Was the C282Y mutation an Irish Gaelic mutation that the Vikings helped disseminate? HLA haplotype observations of hemochromatosis from the west coast of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Karl Sigvard; Konar, Jan; Dufva, Inge Hoegh; Ricksten, Anne; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    The HLA-related hemochromatosis mutation C282Y is thought to have originated in Ireland in a person with HLA-A3-B14 and was spread by Vikings. Irish people with two HLA-A3 alleles had a high risk of hemochromatosis. In this study, from west Sweden, we wanted to test these hypotheses. HFE mutations in controls, bone marrow donors with HLA-A3/A3 and patients with hemochromatosis. HLA haplotypes, extended haplotype analysis and pedigree studies. The allelic C282Y frequency 0.04, (CI 0.01-0.07) was lower (P Vikings may have been involved in the spread of C282Y, but the mutation is probably older and may have been spread in Europe by earlier seafarers. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  2. Determination of maternal pedigree and ewe-lamb spatial relationships by application of Bluetooth technology in extensive farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, R; Trompf, J; Marriott, H; Bervan, A; Godoy, B I; Weerasinghe, M; Desai, A; Jois, M

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to validate the application of Bluetooth technology to determine maternal pedigree and to determine ewe-lamb spatial relationships in extensive farming systems. A total of 35 first-cross Merino ewes (Merino × Border Leicester and East Friesian) and 23 of their lambs aged 1 to 3 wk were fitted with activity monitors equipped with Bluetooth (BT) technology (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT) by means of halters and collars, respectively. The BT devices on lambs were programmed to receive wireless signals once every minute from nearby BT units on ewes, which were programmed as beacons sending BT signals 4 times every second. Ewes and lambs fitted with sensors were dispatched into the paddocks, and after 10 d, the sensor units were retrieved and the BT signals received by lambs were downloaded using the ActiGraph software. The maternal pedigree of the lambs was determined as the ewe from which the lamb received the most BT signals. The distance between the lamb receiving the signal and the ewe sending the signal was estimated from the strength of BT signal received. The pedigree determined by BT was compared with the pedigree determined by DNA profiling and verification. The results showed that the accuracy of maternal pedigree determined by BT signals reached 100% within the first 15 min of returning animals to pasture of ewes and lambs fitted with sensors. Maternal signals (counts/d) received by 1-, 2-, and 3-wk-old lambs were 617 ± 102, 603 ± 54, and 498 ± 36, respectively, and the corresponding nonmaternal signals received were 140 ± 27, 106 ± 30, and 155 ± 39, respectively. Maternal signals received during the dark period were significantly higher than the maternal signals received during the light period ( < 0.05). Maternal signals received during the light period by 3-wk-old lambs were significantly lower when compared with those received by 1- and 2-wk-old lambs. Over 90% of the BT signals received from within 2 m of the lamb were from

  3. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  4. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  5. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  6. A multigenerational pedigree of late-onset Alzheimer's disease implies new genetic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Escrig, Adriano; Gomez-Tortosa, Estrella; Baron, Manuel; Rabano, Alberto; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Palacios, Luis Guillermo; Yusta, Antonio; Anta, Pilar; Perez, Immaculada; Hierro, Margarita; Munoz, David G; Barquero, Sagrario

    2005-07-01

    We describe the clinical phenotype and pathology of a new autosomal dominant late-onset familial form of Alzheimer's disease in four extensive kindred originated in a genetically isolated population. Twelve affected and 16 unaffected members of these kindred were examined clinically, and a brain post-mortem study was carried out in one case. The preliminary genetic assessment included complex segregation analysis, evaluation of the power to detect linkage, and exclusion of candidate genes. Dementia has been recorded for six generations in ancestors of examined cases. Review of death certificates allowed linking of all subjects in four extensive pedigrees. Affected individuals examined had progressive memory loss with onset between 57 and 74 years of age, along with seizures, myoclonus and parkinsonism in advanced stages. The brain of the case examined post-mortem showed widespread neocortical neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (stage VI of Braak), amyloid angiopathy, and Lewy bodies restricted to limbic areas. Sequencing exons 16 and 17 of amyloid precursor protein, and exons 4-12 of presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 genes did not disclose any mutations. Genotyping with markers D21S265, D14S71, D14S77, D1S2850 and D1S479 located 1-3 cM from the previously reported genes further excluded linkage to these genes. Seven out of 12 cases were apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon3/3, although the presence of an APOE epsilon4 allele was associated with an increased risk of dementia (odd ratio 6.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-33.15), but not to an earlier age of onset. Complex segregation analysis showed that the best model fitting the data was that of a major gene (dominant) with a gene frequency close to 3% in this population. Simulation analysis predicted an average logarithm of odds (LOD) of 2.2 at = 0.05. These four families, which seem to be part of a common extended pedigree originated by a founder arriving in this region in the 18th century, represent an

  7. Genome-wide linkage analysis of 972 bipolar pedigrees using single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badner, J A; Koller, D; Foroud, T; Edenberg, H; Nurnberger, J I; Zandi, P P; Willour, V L; McMahon, F J; Potash, J B; Hamshere, M; Grozeva, D; Green, E; Kirov, G; Jones, I; Jones, L; Craddock, N; Morris, D; Segurado, R; Gill, M; Sadovnick, D; Remick, R; Keck, P; Kelsoe, J; Ayub, M; MacLean, A; Blackwood, D; Liu, C-Y; Gershon, E S; McMahon, W; Lyon, G J; Robinson, R; Ross, J; Byerley, W

    2012-07-01

    Because of the high costs associated with ascertainment of families, most linkage studies of Bipolar I disorder (BPI) have used relatively small samples. Moreover, the genetic information content reported in most studies has been less than 0.6. Although microsatellite markers spaced every 10 cM typically extract most of the genetic information content for larger multiplex families, they can be less informative for smaller pedigrees especially for affected sib pair kindreds. For these reasons we collaborated to pool family resources and carried out higher density genotyping. Approximately 1100 pedigrees of European ancestry were initially selected for study and were genotyped by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12 set of 6090 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Of the ~1100 families, 972 were informative for further analyses, and mean information content was 0.86 after pruning for linkage disequilibrium. The 972 kindreds include 2284 cases of BPI disorder, 498 individuals with bipolar II disorder (BPII) and 702 subjects with recurrent major depression. Three affection status models (ASMs) were considered: ASM1 (BPI and schizoaffective disorder, BP cases (SABP) only), ASM2 (ASM1 cases plus BPII) and ASM3 (ASM2 cases plus recurrent major depression). Both parametric and non-parametric linkage methods were carried out. The strongest findings occurred at 6q21 (non-parametric pairs LOD 3.4 for rs1046943 at 119 cM) and 9q21 (non-parametric pairs logarithm of odds (LOD) 3.4 for rs722642 at 78 cM) using only BPI and schizoaffective (SA), BP cases. Both results met genome-wide significant criteria, although neither was significant after correction for multiple analyses. We also inspected parametric scores for the larger multiplex families to identify possible rare susceptibility loci. In this analysis, we observed 59 parametric LODs of 2 or greater, many of which are likely to be close to maximum possible scores. Although some linkage

  8. Genome Wide Linkage Analysis of 972 Bipolar Pedigrees Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badner, Judith A; Koller, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard; Nurnberger, John I; Zandi, Peter P; Willour, Virginia L.; McMahon, Francis J; Potash, James B; Hamshere, Marian; Grozeva, Detelina; Green, Elaine; Kirov, George; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Craddock, Nicholas; Morris, Derek; Segurado, Ricardo; Gill, Mike; Sadovnick, Dessa; Remick, Ronald; Keck, Paul; Kelsoe, John; Ayub, Muhammad; MacLean, Alan; Blackwood, Douglas; Liu, Chun-Yu; Gershon, Elliot S; McMahon, William; Lyon, Gholson; Robinson, Reid; Ross, Jessica; Byerley, William

    2011-01-01

    Because of the high costs associated with ascertainment of families most linkage studies of Bipolar I disorder (BPI) have used relatively small samples. Moreover, the genetic information content reported in most studies has been less than 0.6. While microsatellite markers spaced every 10 centimorgans typically extract most of the genetic information content for larger multiplex families, they can be less informative for smaller pedigrees especially for affected sib pair kindreds. For these reasons we collaborated to pool family resources and carry out higher density genotyping. Approximately 1100 pedigrees of European ancestry were initially selected for study and were genotyped by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12 set of 6090 SNPs. Of the ~1100 families, 972 were informative for further analyses and mean information content was 0.86 after pruning for LD. The 972 kindreds include 2284 cases of BPI disorder, 498 individuals with Bipolar II disorder (BPII) and 702 subjects with Recurrent Major Depression. Three affection status models were considered: ASM1 (BPI and schizoaffective disorder, BP cases (SABP) only), ASM2 (ASM1 cases plus BPII) and ASM3 (ASM2 cases plus Recurrent Major Depression). Both parametric and non-parametric linkage methods were carried out. The strongest findings occurred at 6q21 (Nonparametric Pairs Lod 3.4 for rs1046943 at 119 cM) and 9q21 (Nonparametric Pairs Lod 3.4 for rs722642 at 78 cM) using only BPI and SA, BP cases. Both results met genome-wide significant criteria, although neither was significant after correction for multiple analyses. We also inspected parametric scores for the larger multiplex families to identify possible rare susceptibility loci. In this analysis we observed 59 parametric lods of 2 or greater, many of which are likely to be close to maximum possible scores. While some linkage findings may be false positives the results could help prioritize the search for rare variants

  9. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absenc...

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.

    1979-06-01

    This report is designed to calculate the total risk due to shipping radioactive materials in Sweden. The base case developed is the shipment model that is used now or the best estimate for expected shipments. The model for the calculations and the computer program used has been developed at the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA and is the same that was used for the NUREG-0170 study. The results from the calculations show an annual expected population dose of 30 person-rem due to normal transport conditions. The annual expected dose from accidents were calculated to be between 2.3-20.8 person rem. The higher figure represents the case where plutonium is shipped back to Sweden from reprocessing plants abroad in the form of PuO2 and the lower figure represent the case when plutonium is shipped back in the form of mixed oxide fuel. The total additional population dose in Sweden due to both normal and accident conditions in the transportation of radioactive materials will be 30 - 50 person rem/year. Compared to the natural background radiation that is 8x10 5 person rem per year in Sweden, this figure is very low. If converted to latent cancer fatalities this population dose will add approximately 3.5x10 3 cancers each year. The consequences due to accidents have been calculated and are discussed separately from their probabilities. The most severe accident that was found was an accident involving PuO 2 . This accident would give 82 400 rem as a maximum individual dose and 8.1x10 5 person rem as a population dose. (Auth.)

  11. northern Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam,. P O Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... National Parks and neighbouring villages in northern Tanzania between 1993 and l996 (Kabigumila 1998a). Most of ..... International Congress ofChelonian Conservation. SOPTOM,. Gonfaron France. pp: ...

  12. Uranium recovery in Sweden. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Olsson, G.

    1993-08-01

    In 1945 the potential of nuclear energy for military and peaceful purpose had initiated a strong interest in Sweden to establish a national programme in the field. The Atomic Energy Committee was formed at the end of 1945 and charged the Research Institute of National Defence in January 1946 with the test to investigate possibilities of uranium recovery in Sweden. AB Atomenergi, a semi-state owned body, was formed in November 1947 to take charge of nuclear energy related research and development. The search for and the recovery of uranium from indigenous resources became a dominant objective over the first years of the company. The report gives a broad overview of the efforts to establish a national uranium fuel supply programme in Sweden from the early days of the postwar years of the 1940s. Process and plant development, plant operations at Kvarntorp and Ranstad, and the development of the uranium supply policy are presented against a background of the nuclear power development in the country. The nuclear weapons debate and the decision to sign the non proliferation treaty in 1968 are briefly reported. Special attention has been given an account of the technical development and the various projects related to the Ranstad plant and its final restoration in the 1980s

  13. Shifting Contexts and Practices in Sign Bilingual Education in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanwick, Ruth; Hendar, Nils Ola Ebbe; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews concepts and approaches in bilingual education for deaf children from a Northern European perspective. Changes in thinking and practice are proposed that respond to shifts in educational policy and developments in knowledge and technology in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and the U......This chapter reviews concepts and approaches in bilingual education for deaf children from a Northern European perspective. Changes in thinking and practice are proposed that respond to shifts in educational policy and developments in knowledge and technology in Norway, Sweden, Denmark...

  14. Compatibility of pedigree-based and marker-based relationship matrices for single-step genetic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2012-01-01

    Single-step methods for genomic prediction have recently become popular because they are conceptually simple and in practice such a method can completely replace a pedigree-based method for routine genetic evaluation. An issue with single-step methods is compatibility between the marker...... that it may be important that a single-step method is based on a model conditional on the observed markers. When data are from routine evaluation systems, selection affects the allele frequencies, and therefore both observed markers and observed phenotypes contain information about allele frequencies...... the marker-based relationship matrix is constructed assuming all allele frequencies equal to 0.5 and the pedigree-based relationship matrix is constructed using the unusual assumption that animals in the base population are related and inbreed with relationship coefficient alpha and inbreeding coefficient...

  15. Reverse-namaskar: A new sign in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A family pedigree study of four generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS is a rare group of inheritable connective tissue disorder of defective collagen. Skin, joints and blood vessels are most commonly affected. Clinical signs such as Gorlin sign and Metenier sign have been described in this syndrome. We report another new clinical sign called ′Reverse-Namaskar′ sign as an important clinical finding in EDS, based on the family pedigree study of the proband.

  16. No postcopulatory selection against MHC-homozygous offspring: Evidence from a pedigreed captive rhesus macaque colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, E H M; Bontrop, R E; de Groot, N; de Vos-Rouweler, A J M; Doxiadis, G G M

    2017-07-01

    The heterozygosity status of polymorphic elements of the immune system, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is known to increase the potential to cope with a wider variety of pathogens. Pre- and postcopulatory processes may regulate MHC heterozygosity. In a population where mating occurs among individuals that share identical MHC haplotypes, postcopulatory selection may disfavour homozygous offspring or ones with two MHC haplotypes identical to its mother. We tested these ideas by determining the incidence of MHC-heterozygous and MHC-homozygous individuals in a pedigreed, partially consanguineous captive rhesus monkey colony. Bayesian statistics showed that when parents share MHC haplotypes, the distribution of MHC-heterozygous and MHC-homozygous individuals significantly fitted the expected Mendelian distribution, both for the complete MHC haplotypes, and for MHC class I or II genes separately. Altogether, we found in this captive colony no evidence for postcopulatory selection against MHC-homozygous individuals. However, the distribution of paternally and maternally inherited MHC haplotypes tended to differ significantly from expected. Individuals with two MHC haplotypes identical to their mother were underrepresented and offspring with MHC haplotypes identical to their father tended to be overrepresented. This suggests that postcopulatory processes affect MHC haplotype combination in offspring, but do not prevent low MHC heterozygosity. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Two novel mutations in the PPIB gene cause a rare pedigree of osteogenesis imperfecta type IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Pan, Jingxin; Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jie; Fang, Zishui; Guo, Chunmiao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Weiying; Guo, Yibin

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic skeletal disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. PPIB is identified as a candidate gene for OI-IX, here we detect two pathogenic mutations in PPIB and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation in a Chinese family with OI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the parents of proband. Screening of variation frequency, evolutionary conservation comparisons, pathogenicity evaluation, and protein structure prediction were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate variants. RTQ-PCR was used to analyze the PPIB gene expression. All mutant genes screened out by NGS were excluded except PPIB. Two novel heterozygous PPIB mutations (father, c.25A>G; mother, c.509G>A) were identified in relation to osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and RTQ-PCR analysis revealed downregulated PPIB expression in the two carriers. We report a rare pedigree with an autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI-IX) caused by two novel PPIB mutations identified for the first time in China. The current study expands our knowledge of PPIB mutations and their associated phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Timing of the uv mutagenesis in yeast: a pedigree analysis of induced recessive mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.P.; Kilbey, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanism of uv-induced mutation in eukaryotes was studied in individual yeast cells by a procedure that combined pedigree analysis and tetrad analysis. The technique involved the induction of recessive lethals and semilethals in G1 diploid cells. Induced frequencies were 25 and 61% at survival levels of 90 and 77%, respectively. No evidence of gross chromosome aberrations was detected. Recessive mutations that affect only one strand or that affect both strands of the DNA molecule are induced much at random among a population of cells, and both types can occur within the same cell. However, the data confirm that two-strand mutations are in the majority after a low level of irradiation. The simplest explanation involves a mechanism whereby most mutations are fixed in both strands prior to the first round of post-irradiation DNA replication. The recessive mutational consequences of irradiation are exhausted at the conclusion of the first post-irradiation cell division, although dominant-lethal sectoring continues at a high level through the second post-irradiation division. It is concluded that pyrimidine dimers that persist to the second round of DNA replication are rare or ineffective

  19. Novel pedigree analysis implicates DNA repair and chromatin remodeling in multiple myeloma risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie G Waller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The high-risk pedigree (HRP design is an established strategy to discover rare, highly-penetrant, Mendelian-like causal variants. Its success, however, in complex traits has been modest, largely due to challenges of genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance models. We describe a HRP strategy that addresses intra-familial heterogeneity, and identifies inherited segments important for mapping regulatory risk. We apply this new Shared Genomic Segment (SGS method in 11 extended, Utah, multiple myeloma (MM HRPs, and subsequent exome sequencing in SGS regions of interest in 1063 MM / MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance-a precursor to MM cases and 964 controls from a jointly-called collaborative resource, including cases from the initial 11 HRPs. One genome-wide significant 1.8 Mb shared segment was found at 6q16. Exome sequencing in this region revealed predicted deleterious variants in USP45 (p.Gln691* and p.Gln621Glu, a gene known to influence DNA repair through endonuclease regulation. Additionally, a 1.2 Mb segment at 1p36.11 is inherited in two Utah HRPs, with coding variants identified in ARID1A (p.Ser90Gly and p.Met890Val, a key gene in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Our results provide compelling statistical and genetic evidence for segregating risk variants for MM. In addition, we demonstrate a novel strategy to use large HRPs for risk-variant discovery more generally in complex traits.

  20. Novel pedigree analysis implicates DNA repair and chromatin remodeling in multiple myeloma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rosalie G; Darlington, Todd M; Wei, Xiaomu; Madsen, Michael J; Thomas, Alun; Curtin, Karen; Coon, Hilary; Rajamanickam, Venkatesh; Musinsky, Justin; Jayabalan, David; Atanackovic, Djordje; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kumar, Shaji; Slager, Susan; Middha, Mridu; Galia, Perrine; Demangel, Delphine; Salama, Mohamed; Joseph, Vijai; McKay, James; Offit, Kenneth; Klein, Robert J; Lipkin, Steven M; Dumontet, Charles; Vachon, Celine M; Camp, Nicola J

    2018-02-01

    The high-risk pedigree (HRP) design is an established strategy to discover rare, highly-penetrant, Mendelian-like causal variants. Its success, however, in complex traits has been modest, largely due to challenges of genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance models. We describe a HRP strategy that addresses intra-familial heterogeneity, and identifies inherited segments important for mapping regulatory risk. We apply this new Shared Genomic Segment (SGS) method in 11 extended, Utah, multiple myeloma (MM) HRPs, and subsequent exome sequencing in SGS regions of interest in 1063 MM / MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance-a precursor to MM) cases and 964 controls from a jointly-called collaborative resource, including cases from the initial 11 HRPs. One genome-wide significant 1.8 Mb shared segment was found at 6q16. Exome sequencing in this region revealed predicted deleterious variants in USP45 (p.Gln691* and p.Gln621Glu), a gene known to influence DNA repair through endonuclease regulation. Additionally, a 1.2 Mb segment at 1p36.11 is inherited in two Utah HRPs, with coding variants identified in ARID1A (p.Ser90Gly and p.Met890Val), a key gene in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Our results provide compelling statistical and genetic evidence for segregating risk variants for MM. In addition, we demonstrate a novel strategy to use large HRPs for risk-variant discovery more generally in complex traits.

  1. Male-to-male transmission in extended pedigrees with multiple cases of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallmayer, J.; Spiker, D.; Lotspeich, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-16

    Despite strong genetic influences in autism, the true mode of inheritance remains unknown. Sex differences in autism have been described in both singleton and multiplex families: boys outnumber girls by 3 or 4 to 1, and so a sex-linked mode of transmission must also be considered. The key characteristic of X-linkage is that all sons of affected men are unaffected (no male-to-male transmission). In the present study, which is part of an ongoing linkage project in autism, we describe 77 multiplex autism families, 11 of who are affected cousin or half-sibling families. By using these families, it is possible to trace the path of genetic transmission and observe whether the hypothesis of X-linkage is tenable. Of 11 extended pedigrees from 77 multiplex families, six show male-to-male transmission; in these families, X-linkage can be excluded as the genetic basis for their autism. The data from the other five families are compatible with either an autosomal or an X-linked mode of transmission. The key point to emerge, then, is that autism cannot be exclusively an X-linked disorder; there must be an autosomal mode of transmission at least in some families. Thus we must consider the alternative hypotheses that autism is either entirely autosomal, or it is genetically heterogeneous, involving at least one autosomal locus with gender-specific expression, as well as a possible locus on the X-chromosome. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Premenstrual mood symptoms: study of familiality and personality correlates in mood disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer L; Klein, Sarah R; Zamoiski, Rachel B; Zandi, Peter P; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Mackinnon, Dean F; Mondimore, Francis M; Schweizer, Barbara; Swartz, Karen L; Crowe, Raymond P; Scheftner, William A; Weissman, Myrna M; Levinson, Douglas F; DePaulo, J Raymond; Potash, James B

    2009-02-01

    We sought to determine whether premenstrual mood symptoms exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar disorder or major depression pedigrees. Two thousand eight hundred seventy-six women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of either the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative study or the Genetics of Early Onset Major Depression (GenRED) study and asked whether they had experienced severe mood symptoms premenstrually. In families with two or more female siblings with bipolar disorder (BP) or major depressive disorder (MDD), we examined the odds of having premenstrual mood symptoms given one or more siblings with these symptoms. For the GenRED MDD sample we also assessed the impact of personality as measured by the NEO-FFI. Premenstrual mood symptoms did not exhibit familial aggregation in families with BP or MDD. We unexpectedly found an association between high NEO openness scores and premenstrual mood symptoms, but neither this factor, nor NEO neuroticism influenced evidence for familial aggregation of symptoms. Limitations include the retrospective interview, the lack of data on premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and the inability to control for factors such as medication use.

  3. [Screening of genetic mutations in a Chinese pedigree affected with hypokalemic periodic paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Manli; Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Shaogang; Xu, Tie; Peng, Yigen

    2018-02-10

    OBJECTIVE To screen for mutations in a Chinese pedigree affected with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. METHODS The proband and nine family members were enrolled for the analysis of CACNA1S and SCN4A gene mutations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. The coding regions of the two genes were amplified with PCR and subjected to Sanger sequencing. Potential impact of suspected mutations was predicted with Bioinformatics software. The mutations were also verified among 100 healthy controls. RESULTS The proband and 5 family members (including 5 males and 1 female) had presented with episodes of flaccid paralysis accompanied by low serum potassium. Genetic testing has identified a c.664C>T (p.Arg222Trp) mutation in the proband, which has been reported previously. The same mutation was identified in other 5 affected members from the family. No mutation of the CACNA1S gene was detected. CONCLUSION The c.664C>T mutation of the SCN4A gene probably underlies the hypokalemic periodic paralysis in this family. All patients from the family have shown a complete penetrance of the disease.

  4. Determination of genetic relatedness from low-coverage human genome sequences using pedigree simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Jay, Flora; Castellano, Sergi; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2017-08-01

    We develop and evaluate methods for inferring relatedness among individuals from low-coverage DNA sequences of their genomes, with particular emphasis on sequences obtained from fossil remains. We suggest the major factors complicating the determination of relatedness among ancient individuals are sequencing depth, the number of overlapping sites, the sequencing error rate and the presence of contamination from present-day genetic sources. We develop a theoretical model that facilitates the exploration of these factors and their relative effects, via measurement of pairwise genetic distances, without calling genotypes, and determine the power to infer relatedness under various scenarios of varying sequencing depth, present-day contamination and sequencing error. The model is validated by a simulation study as well as the analysis of aligned sequences from present-day human genomes. We then apply the method to the recently published genome sequences of ancient Europeans, developing a statistical treatment to determine confidence in assigned relatedness that is, in some cases, more precise than previously reported. As the majority of ancient specimens are from animals, this method would be applicable to investigate kinship in nonhuman remains. The developed software grups (Genetic Relatedness Using Pedigree Simulations) is implemented in Python and freely available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Identification of four novel mutations of the WFS1 gene in Iranian Wolfram syndrome pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahraman, Martha; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Vakili, Rahim; Hosseini, Sousan; Fardi Golyan, Fatemeh; Ghaemi, Nosrat; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance characterized by various clinical manifestations. The related gene, WFS1, encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein, named wolframin. Genetic analyses demonstrated that mutations in this gene are associated with WS type 1. Our aim in this study was to sequence WFS1 coding region in Iranian Wolfram syndrome pedigrees. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 12 WS patients and their healthy parents. Exons 2-8 and the exon-intron junctions of WFS1 were sequenced. DNA sequences were compared to the reference using Sequencher software. Molecular analysis of WFS1 revealed six different mutations. Four novel and two previously reported mutations were identified. One novel mutation, c.1379_1381del, is predicted to produce an aberrant protein. A second novel mutation, c.1384G > T, encodes a truncated protein. Novel mutation, c.1097-1107dup (11 bp), causes a frameshift which results in a premature stop codon. We screened for the novel missense mutation, c.1010C > T, in 100 control alleles. This mutation was not found in any of the healthy controls. Our study increased the spectrum of WFS1 mutations and supported the role of WFS1 in susceptibility to WS. We hope that these findings open new horizons to future molecular investigations which may help to prevent and treat this devastating disease.

  6. Familial history, age and smoking are important risk factors for disc degeneration disease in Arabic pedigrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, Gregory; Cohen, Zvi; Higla, Orabi; Yakovenko, Konstantin

    2001-01-01

    The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance

  7. A colony of dog guides: analysis of the genetic variability assessed by pedigree data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ciampolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the genetic variability in a colony of dog guides. Three breeds, Labrador (L, Golden Retriever (GR, and German Shepherd (GS, were evaluated. Pedigrees data on 370 L, 260 GR, and 85 GS dogs bred for guide by the National Guide Dog School (SNCG of Scandicci (Florence, Italy were used. Data were available beginning from 1994. The average coefficient of coancestry and the mean F were 0.8% and 0.45% in GR, 0.7% and 0.38% in L, 1.0% and 0.49% in GS, respectively. The rate of increase in inbreeding was lower in L population (0.17 than in GR population (0.54, while in GS only the dogs with 5 e 7 traced generations resulted inbred. The results of this research point out that the genetic management of the dogs seems to be carefully and rationally monitored. Nevertheless, the population that may require a greater attention seems to be the GR, where a higher increase of the coefficient of inbreeding per generation is observed; therefore, the importation of germplasm from other working dogs is desirable in order to avoid in future an excessive increase of the inbreeding that could lead to adverse consequences for dogs health and fertility.

  8. The double pedigree: a method for studying culturally and genetically inherited behavior in tandem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Danchin

    Full Text Available Transgenerational sources of biological variation have been at the center of evolutionary studies ever since Darwin and Wallace identified natural selection. This is because evolution can only operate on traits whose variation is transmitted, i.e. traits that are heritable. The discovery of genetic inheritance has led to a semantic shift, resulting in the tendency to consider that only genes are inherited across generations. Today, however, concepts of heredity are being broadened again to integrate the accruing evidence of non-genetic inheritance, and many evolutionary biologists are calling for the inclusion of non-genetic inheritance into an inclusive evolutionary synthesis. Here, we focus on social heredity and its role in the inheritance of behavioral traits. We discuss quantitative genetics methods that might allow us to disentangle genetic and non-genetic transmission in natural populations with known pedigrees. We then propose an experimental design based on cross-fostering among animal cultures, environments and families that has the potential to partition inherited phenotypic variation into socially (i.e. culturally and genetically inherited components. This approach builds towards a new conceptual framework based on the use of an extended version of the animal model of quantitative genetics to integrate genetic and cultural components of behavioral inheritance.

  9. Stability of quantitative trait loci for growth and wood properties across multiple pedigrees and environments in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Downes, Geoffrey M; Pilbeam, David; Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Vaillancourt, René E

    2013-06-01

    · Eucalypts are one of the most planted tree genera worldwide, and there is increasing interest in marker-assisted selection for tree improvement. Implementation of marker-assisted selection requires a knowledge of the stability of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This study aims to investigate the stability of QTLs for wood properties and growth across contrasting sites and multiple pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus. · Saturated linkage maps were constructed using 663 genotypes from four separate families, grown at three widely separated sites, and were employed to construct a consensus map. This map was used for QTL analysis of growth, wood density and wood chemical traits, including pulp yield. · Ninety-eight QTLs were identified across families and sites: 87 for wood properties and 11 for growth. These QTLs mapped to 38 discrete regions, some of which co-located with candidate genes. Although 16% of QTLs were verified across different families, 24% of wood property QTLs and 38% of growth QTLs exhibited significant genotype-by-environment interaction. · This study provides the most detailed assessment of the effect of environment and pedigree on QTL detection in the genus. Despite markedly different environments and pedigrees, many QTLs were stable, providing promising targets for the application of marker-assisted selection. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Using genetic pedigree reconstruction to estimate effective spawner abundance from redd surveys: an example involving Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, S.L.; Schultz, L.D.; Schreck, Carl B.; Hess, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Redd surveys are a commonly used technique for indexing the abundance of sexually mature fish in streams; however, substantial effort is often required to link redd counts to actual spawner abundance. In this study, we describe how genetic pedigree reconstruction can be used to estimate effective spawner abundance in a stream reach, using Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) as an example. Lamprey embryos were sampled from redds within a 2.5 km reach of the Luckiamute River, Oregon, USA. Embryos were found in only 20 of the 48 redds sampled (suggesting 58% false redds); however, multiple sets of parents were detected in 44% of the true redds. Estimates from pedigree reconstruction suggested that there were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.29–0.88) effective spawners per redd and revealed that individual lamprey contributed gametes to a minimum of between one and six redds, and in one case, spawned in patches that were separated by over 800 m. Our findings demonstrate the utility of pedigree reconstruction techniques for both inferring spawning-ground behaviors and providing useful information for refining lamprey redd survey methodologies.

  11. An ABCD1 Mutation (c.253dupC) Caused Diverse Phenotypes of Adrenoleukodystrophy in an Iranian Consanguineous Pedigree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Gohari, Faeze; Dizaji, Majid Zaki; Ahani, Ali; Malicdan, May Christine V.; Behnam, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current study was the first to report a consanguineous Iranian pedigree with ABCD1 mutation. Methods Targeted molecular analysis was initially performed in three affected individuals in one family suspected to have X-ALD due to chronic progressive spasticity. Upon confirmation of genetic diagnosis, further neurologic and genetic evaluation of all family members was done. Results A mutation in ABCD1 was identified in 35 affected individuals (out 96 pedigree members). The c. 253dup, in exon 1, leads to a frame shift and a premature stop codon at amino acid position 194 (p.Arg85Profs*110). Surprisingly, affected individuals in our cohort show some variability in phenotype, including childhood cerebral ALD, adrenomyeloneuropathy, and addison-only disease phenotypes, expanding the phenotype of X-ALD with p.Arg85Profs*110. Conclusion This report characterizes the clinical spectrum of an expanded Iranian pedigree with X-ALD due to an ABCD1 mutation. Given a high frequency of carriers in this region, we expect the prevalence of X-ALD to be higher, underscoring the importance of genetic counseling through reliable identification of heterozygous as well as homozygote females in consanguineous communities. PMID:27489563

  12. AnABCD1Mutation (c.253dupC) Caused Diverse Phenotypes of Adrenoleukodystrophy in an Iranian Consanguineous Pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Gohari, Faeze; Dizaji, Majid Zaki; Ahani, Ali; Malicdan, May Christine V; Behnam, Babak

    2016-06-01

    Current study was the first to report a consanguineous Iranian pedigree with ABCD1 mutation. Targeted molecular analysis was initially performed in three affected individuals in one family suspected to have X-ALD due to chronic progressive spasticity. Upon confirmation of genetic diagnosis, further neurologic and genetic evaluation of all family members was done. A mutation in ABCD1 was identified in 35 affected individuals (out 96 pedigree members). The c. 253dup, in exon 1, leads to a frame shift and a premature stop codon at amino acid position 194 (p.Arg85Profs*110). Surprisingly, affected individuals in our cohort show some variability in phenotype, including childhood cerebral ALD, adrenomyeloneuropathy, and addison-only disease phenotypes, expanding the phenotype of X-ALD with p.Arg85Profs*110. This report characterizes the clinical spectrum of an expanded Iranian pedigree with X-ALD due to an ABCD1 mutation. Given a high frequency of carriers in this region, we expect the prevalence of X-ALD to be higher, underscoring the importance of genetic counseling through reliable identification of heterozygous as well as homozygote females in consanguineous communities.

  13. Northern Pintail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert G.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Guyn, Karla L.; Haukos, David A.; Austin, Jane E.; Miller, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout fall and winter.Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often far from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season.Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in the early 1970s to less than 3 million in

  14. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    the difficulties of building collaborations between actors with different logics. The analysis is threefold: 1. The mobilization and generation of social capital; 2. The conflict of logics/frames; 3. The frame alignment process set in motion by micro-finance The case is based on extended field research......The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...

  16. Buildings with enhanced radioactivity in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-12-01

    Enhanced radon/radon daughter concentrations indoors have been found in some houses in Sweden, especially in combination with low air exchange rates. The radon sources have been found to be some types of building materials, some types of filling materials, some types of ground and any combination of these sources. The radon source may also be radon-rich tap water. The same types of building materials also give an enhanced gamma radiation level. In all houses, both lower and higher concentrations of radon than the average levels given here have been found in individual rooms and with single measurements. (author)

  17. Country policy profile - Sweden. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The main support mechanism for electricity from RES is a quota system that is based on a certificate trading system. Furthermore, tax incentives are in place and PV installations are subsidised with grants. Promotion of heating from RES is mainly promoted through tax exemptions. Households may deduct investments of renewable energy heating installations replacing heating systems based on fossil fuels from tax. Heating from RES further benefits from an exemption of various taxes, as carbon dioxide taxes on supply, import and production of fossil fuels for heating purposes, which apply for fossil fuels (Source, RES LEGAL Europe, www.res-legal.eu/search-by-country/sweden/)

  18. This is how we manage Sweden`s radioactive waste. Activities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    SKB operates systems and facilities for the management and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste in Sweden. SKB has conducted extensive R, D and D work with regard to constructing a spent fuel encapsulation plant and a deep repository in crystalline bedrock. This annual report treats all the different activities without going into technical details.

  19. Systematic differences in the response of genetic variation to pedigree and genome-based selection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidaritabar, M; Vereijken, A; Muir, W M; Meuwissen, T; Cheng, H; Megens, H-J; Groenen, M A M; Bastiaansen, J W M

    2014-12-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a DNA-based method of selecting for quantitative traits in animal and plant breeding, and offers a potentially superior alternative to traditional breeding methods that rely on pedigree and phenotype information. Using a 60 K SNP chip with markers spaced throughout the entire chicken genome, we compared the impact of GS and traditional BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) selection methods applied side-by-side in three different lines of egg-laying chickens. Differences were demonstrated between methods, both at the level and genomic distribution of allele frequency changes. In all three lines, the average allele frequency changes were larger with GS, 0.056 0.064 and 0.066, compared with BLUP, 0.044, 0.045 and 0.036 for lines B1, B2 and W1, respectively. With BLUP, 35 selected regions (empirical P selected regions were identified. Empirical thresholds for local allele frequency changes were determined from gene dropping, and differed considerably between GS (0.167-0.198) and BLUP (0.105-0.126). Between lines, the genomic regions with large changes in allele frequencies showed limited overlap. Our results show that GS applies selection pressure much more locally than BLUP, resulting in larger allele frequency changes. With these results, novel insights into the nature of selection on quantitative traits have been gained and important questions regarding the long-term impact of GS are raised. The rapid changes to a part of the genetic architecture, while another part may not be selected, at least in the short term, require careful consideration, especially when selection occurs before phenotypes are observed.

  20. Pedigree analysis and inbreeding effects over morphological traits in Campolina horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussiman, F O; Perez, B C; Ventura, R V; Peixoto, M G C D; Curi, R A; Balieiro, J C C

    2018-02-22

    Genetic improvement, without control of inbreeding, can go to loss of genetic variability, reducing the potential for genetic gains in the domestic populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the population structure and the inbreeding depression in Campolina horses. Phenotype information from 43 465 individuals was analyzed, data provided by the Campolina Breeders Association. A pedigree file containing 107 951 horses was used to connected the phenotyped individuals. The inbreeding coefficient was performed by use of the diagonal of the relationship matrix and the genealogical parameters were computed using proper softwares. The effective population size was estimated based on the rate of inbreeding and census information, and the stratification of the population was verified by the average relationship coefficient between animals born in different regions of Brazil. The effects of inbreeding on morphological traits were made by the use of inbreeding coefficient as a covariate in the model of random regression. The inbreeding coefficient increased from 1990 on, impacting effective population size and, consequently, shrinking genetic variability. The paternal inbreeding was greater than maternal, which may be attributed to the preference for inbred animals in reproduction. The average genetic relationship coefficient of animals born in different states was lower than individuals born within the same state. The increase in the inbreeding coefficient was negatively associated with all studied traits, showing the importance to avoid genetic losses in the long term. Although results do not indicate a severe narrowing of the population until the present date, the average relationship coefficient shows signs of increase, which could cause a drastic reduction in genetic variability if inbred mating is not successfully controlled in the Campolina horse population.

  1. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  2. SYSTEM OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is a unitary state with a history of strong local government involvement in public affairs. Local government has played an important role in the welfare state system with many responsibilities for the delivery of public services to citizens. Because of this important position in the welfare system, it has attracted local politicians of a high calibre. Swedish citizens have on the whole a positive view of Swedish local government and, partly because of the important policy and administrative responsibilities of the local authorities, there has been a high turnout in local elections, although this has been in some decline in recent years. The positive Swedish attitude to local government is also shared by the central government and parliament and Sweden signed and ratified the European Charter of Local Self-Government as early as 1989, just four years after its promulgation. The Instrument of Government (the Swedish Constitution, which came into force in January 1974, gives explicit recognition to the principle of local self-government and this has been further expanded in the Local Government Act (1991 which came into force in January 1992.

  3. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  4. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  5. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  6. INCIDENCE OF KAWASAKI DISEASE IN NORTHERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Eeva; Griffiths, Elizabeth P.; Farstad, Teresa; Schiller, Bodil; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Uehara, Ritei; Best, Brookie M.; Burns, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to compare the epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease (KD) in three Northern European countries and Japan. Methods Data were obtained from discharge databases for hospitals in Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1999–2009 and from nationwide epidemiologic surveys in Japan from 1998–2008. Annual incidence for each country was calculated using regional census data. Results During the 11-year period, 1,390 KD patients were recorded in the registries of the three Northern European countries. Average annual incidence rates per 100,000 children less than 5 years were: Finland 11.4, Norway 5.4, and Sweden 7.4. Overall, 86.4% of Japanese KD patients were less than 5 years compared to only 67.8% in the four Northern European countries (p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of KD in Northern Europe was constant over the study period and much lower than in Japan. There was a significant age difference between Northern European and Japanese KD patients that remains unexplained. PMID:22726311

  7. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  8. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study on pu...

  9. New Forms of Youth Participation and Work in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    Surveys past and current youth employment and social participation programs in Sweden. Maintains that while these were effective in giving Sweden one of the lowest youth unemployment rates among market-economy nations, more must be done to ensure meaningful social participation of youth in the community. (JDH)

  10. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  11. Evaluation of a tobacco prevention programme among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Linnéa; Andersson, Martin; Stridsman, Caroline; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-05-14

    To study the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers, to evaluate a tobacco prevention programme and to study factors related to participation in the prevention programme. Population-based prospective cohort study. Within the Obstructive Lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort study about asthma in schoolchildren started in 2006. All children aged 7-8 years in three municipalities were invited to a questionnaire survey and 2585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at age 11-12 years (n=2612, 95% of invited) and 14-15 years (n=2345, 88% of invited). In 2010, some of the children in the OLIN cohort (n=447) were invited to a local tobacco prevention programme and 224 (50%) chose to participate. At the age of 14-15 years, the prevalence of daily smoking was 3.5%. Factors related to smoking were female sex, having a smoking mother, participation in sports and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of using snus was 3.3% and risk factors were male sex, having a smoking mother, having a snus-using father and non-participation in the prevention programme. In the prevention programme, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly lower among the participants compared with the controls in the cohort. Factors related to non-participation were male sex, having a smoking mother, lower parental SES and participation in sports. The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among the participants in the tobacco prevention programme compared with the non-participants as well as with the controls in the cohort. However, the observed benefit of the intervention may be overestimated as participation was biased by selection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Mate choice and the genetic basis for colour variation in a polymorphic dart frog: inferences from a wild pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L; Wang, Ian J; Summers, Kyle

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how reproductive barriers evolve during speciation remains an important question in evolution. Divergence in mating preferences may be a common first step in this process. The striking colour pattern diversity of strawberry dart frog (Dendrobates pumilio) populations has likely been shaped by sexual selection. Previous laboratory studies have shown that females attend to male coloration and prefer to court with males of their own colour, suggesting that divergent morphs may be reproductively isolated. To test this hypothesis, we used molecular data to estimate pedigree relationships from a polymorphic population. Whereas in the laboratory both red and yellow females preferred to court with males of their own phenotype, our pedigree shows a pattern of assortative mating only for red females. In the wild, yellow females appear to be less choosy about their mates, perhaps because they incur higher costs associated with searching than females of the more common red phenotype. We also used our pedigree to investigate the genetic basis for colour-pattern variation. The phenotype frequencies we observed were consistent with those expected if dorsal background coloration is controlled by a single locus, with complete dominance of red over yellow. Our results not only help clarify the role of sexual selection in reducing gene flow, but also shed light on the mechanisms underlying colour-pattern variation among sympatric colour morphs. The difference we observed between mating preferences measured under laboratory conditions and the pattern of mate choice observed in the wild highlight the importance of field studies for understanding behavioural reproductive isolation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  14. Composition and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Northern Europe during winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasius, M.; Hansen, A.M.K.; Claeys, M.; Henzing, J.S.; Jedynska, A.D.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kistler, M.; Kristensen, K.; Martinsson, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Nøjgaard, J.K.; Spindler, G.; Stenström, K.E.; Swietlicki, E.; Szidat, S.; Simpson, D.; Yttri, K.E.

    2018-01-01

    Sources of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols (carbonaceous aerosols) were investigated by collection of weekly aerosol filter samples at six background sites in Northern Europe (Birkenes, Norway; Vavihill, Sweden; Risoe, Denmark; Cabauw and Rotterdam in The

  15. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  16. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgren, Katarina; Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n Sweden or abroad). Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.

  17. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.W.; Kristroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs

  18. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature. In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  19. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  20. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  1. Media use in distance education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F. Davies

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of distance language teaching which developed rapidly in Sweden after the Second World War. It argues that so far little use has been made of technical aids and that the computer as such is still a stranger both to the language teacher and the student. The writer concludes that perhaps the time has come for a technical revolution amongst Arts students. Met hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee oor afstandsonderrig-spesifiek wat tale betref-soos dit in Swede ontwikkel het na die Tweede Wereldoorlog. Daar word op gewys dat tot dusver min gebruik gemaak is van tegniese hulpmiddels en dat vera! die rekenaar onderbenut is. Die skrywer sluit met die gedagte dat die tyd moontlik ryp is vir 'n tegnologiese rewolusie"in die geledere van die Lettere en Wysbegeerte.

  2. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants

  3. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  4. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodushkin, Ilia; Engstroem, Emma; Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2007-01-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic 187 Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean 187 Os/ 188 Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) ≤ spruce needles ≤ mushrooms ≤ tree leaves ≤ pine needles 4 ) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO 4 concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only source of contemporary environmental contamination

  5. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  6. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  7. SeqSIMLA2_exact: simulate multiple disease sites in large pedigrees with given disease status for diseases with low prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-02-15

    It is difficult for current simulation tools to simulate sequence data in a pre-specified pedigree structure and pre-specified affection status. Previously, we developed a flexible tool, SeqSIMLA2, for simulating sequence data in either unrelated case-control or family samples with different disease and quantitative trait models. Here we extended the tool to efficiently simulate sequences with multiple disease sites in large pedigrees with a given disease status for each pedigree member, assuming that the disease prevalence is low. SeqSIMLA2_exact is implemented with C++ and is available at http://seqsimla.sourceforge.net. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Genome-wide study of an elite rice pedigree reveals a complex history of genetic architecture for breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxia; Lin, Zechuan; Zhou, Degui; Wang, Chongrong; Li, Hong; Yu, Renbo; Deng, Hanchao; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Shaochuan; Wang Deng, Xing; He, Hang

    2017-04-04

    Improving breeding has been widely utilized in crop breeding and contributed to yield and quality improvement, yet few researches have been done to analyze genetic architecture underlying breeding improvement comprehensively. Here, we collected genotype and phenotype data of 99 cultivars from the complete pedigree including Huanghuazhan, an elite, high-quality, conventional indica rice that has been grown over 4.5 million hectares in southern China and from which more than 20 excellent cultivars have been derived. We identified 1,313 selective sweeps (SSWs) revealing four stage-specific selection patterns corresponding to improvement preference during 65 years, and 1113 conserved Huanghuazhan traceable blocks (cHTBs) introduced from different donors and conserved in >3 breeding generations were the core genomic regions for superior performance of Huanghuazhan. Based on 151 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified for 13 improved traits in the pedigree, we reproduced their improvement process in silico, highlighting improving breeding works well for traits controlled by major/major + minor effect QTLs, but was inefficient for traits controlled by QTLs with complex interactions or explaining low levels of phenotypic variation. These results indicate long-term breeding improvement is efficient to construct superior genetic architecture for elite performance, yet molecular breeding with designed genotype of QTLs can facilitate complex traits improvement.

  9. Genetic contributions to circadian activity rhythm and sleep pattern phenotypes in pedigrees segregating for severe bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Lucia; St Clair, Patricia A; Teshiba, Terri M; Service, Susan K; Fears, Scott C; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Claudia P; Aldana, Ileana; Navarro, Linda; Freimer, Daniel G; Safaie, Brian; Keung, Lap-Woon; Greenspan, Kiefer; Chou, Katty; Escobar, Javier I; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Kremeyer, Barbara; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cantor, Rita M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Bearden, Carrie E; Takahashi, Joseph S; Freimer, Nelson B

    2016-02-09

    Abnormalities in sleep and circadian rhythms are central features of bipolar disorder (BP), often persisting between episodes. We report here, to our knowledge, the first systematic analysis of circadian rhythm activity in pedigrees segregating severe BP (BP-I). By analyzing actigraphy data obtained from members of 26 Costa Rican and Colombian pedigrees [136 euthymic (i.e., interepisode) BP-I individuals and 422 non-BP-I relatives], we delineated 73 phenotypes, of which 49 demonstrated significant heritability and 13 showed significant trait-like association with BP-I. All BP-I-associated traits related to activity level, with BP-I individuals consistently demonstrating lower activity levels than their non-BP-I relatives. We analyzed all 49 heritable phenotypes using genetic linkage analysis, with special emphasis on phenotypes judged to have the strongest impact on the biology underlying BP. We identified a locus for interdaily stability of activity, at a threshold exceeding genome-wide significance, on chromosome 12pter, a region that also showed pleiotropic linkage to two additional activity phenotypes.

  10. A random model for mapping imprinted quantitative trait loci in a structured pedigree: an implication for mapping canine hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Todhunter, Rory J; Wu, Song; Hou, Wei; Mateescu, Raluca; Zhang, Zhiwu; Burton-Wurster, Nancy I; Acland, Gregory M; Lust, George; Wu, Rongling

    2007-08-01

    Genetic imprinting may have played a more notable role in shaping embryonic development of plants, animals, and humans than previously appreciated. Quantitative trait loci that are imprinted (iQTL) exert monoallelic effects, depending on the parent of origin, which is an exception to the laws of Mendelian genetics. In this article, we present a modified random effect-based mapping model to use in a genome-wide scan for the distribution of iQTL that contribute to genetic variance for a complex trait in a structured pedigree. This model, implemented with the maximum likelihood method, capitalizes on a network of relatedness for maternally and paternally derived alleles through identical-by-descent sharing, thus allowing for the discrimination of the genetic variances due to alleles derived from maternal and paternal parents. The model was employed to map iQTL responsible for canine hip dysplasia in a multihierarchical canine pedigree, founded with seven greyhounds and six Labrador retrievers. Of eight significant QTL detected, three, located on CFA1, CFA8, and CF28, were found to trigger significant parent-of-origin effects on the age of femoral capital ossification measured at the left and right hips of a canine. The detected iQTL provide important candidate regions for fine-mapping of imprinted genes and for studying their structure and function in the control of complex traits.

  11. A novel CRX mutation by whole-exome sequencing in an autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy pedigree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Kang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the disease-causing gene mutation in a Chinese pedigree with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (adCORD. METHODS: A southern Chinese adCORD pedigree including 9 affected individuals was studied. Whole-exome sequencing (WES, coupling the Agilent whole-exome capture system to the Illumina HiSeq 2000 DNA sequencing platform was used to search the specific gene mutation in 3 affected family members and 1 unaffected member. After a suggested variant was found through the data analysis, the putative mutation was validated by Sanger DNA sequencing of samples from all available family members. RESULTS: The results of both WES and Sanger sequencing revealed a novel nonsense mutation c.C766T (p.Q256X within exon 5 of CRX gene which was pathogenic for adCORD in this family. The mutation could affect photoreceptor-specific gene expression with a dominant-negative effect and resulted in loss of the OTX tail, thus the mutant protein occupies the CRX-binding site in target promoters without establishing an interaction and, consequently, may block transactivation. CONCLUSION: All modes of Mendelian inheritance in CORD have been observed, and genetic heterogeneity is a hallmark of CORD. Therefore, conventional genetic diagnosis of CORD would be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Our study indicated the robustness and cost-effectiveness of WES in the genetic diagnosis of CORD.

  12. Organizing population data into complex family pedigrees: application of a second-order data linkage to state birth defects registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shihfen; Mason, Craig A

    2004-09-01

    Researchers and health officials are increasingly using electronic linkage of large-scale health data systems as a tool for assembling a comprehensive picture of birth defects at a population level. Current linkage and database techniques are limited to first-order linkage--linking information on a single individual in one database with information on that same individual in another database. For example, while current strategies may indicate whether a child with a certain birth defect also has a specific metabolic disorder or risk factor, they are unable to readily determine whether he or she also has any siblings or other relatives with the same pattern. In contrast, the current manuscript proposes a second-order linkage--one that organizes data so that individual-level data can readily be organized into families or extended family pedigrees across an entire population. The ability to link and organize population data into family pedigrees can have significant, broad impact upon health research and service delivery. This can lead to large-scale analysis of genetic factors and, with the linking of environmental data, the potential for large-scale studies of gene-environment interactions. In addition, it expands the potential for epidemiological research by readily allowing the examination of familial effects upon population rates of birth defects, and provides valuable information that can assist in applied public health. An example of a second order database incorporating an electronic birth defects registry is presented. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pedigree analysis and epidemiological features of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus in the United Kingdom: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maffulli N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV is a common developmental disorder of the foot, affecting between 1 and 4.5 per 1000 live births. The aetiology is not well elucidated. While both genetic and environmental factors are implicated, no specific genes have been identified and little is known about environmental risk factors. Methods We conducted a case-control study of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (ICTEV in the United Kingdom. 194 cases and 60 controls were recruited. Pedigrees were obtained for 167 cases. Results The rank of the index pregnancy, maternal education and caesarean delivery were significantly associated with ICTEV risk in a multivariate model. There were suggestions that maternal use of folic acid supplements in the three months before the pregnancy decreased ICTEV risk, and that parental smoking during the pregnancy increased risk, although the associations were not statistically significant. One quarter of pedigrees showed a family history of CTEV, and autosomal dominant inheritance was suggested in some of these. Conclusion Uterine restriction did not appear to have a strong influence on ICTEV development in our study. Large population-based studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of this common developmental disorder.

  14. Genomewide rapid association using mixed model and regression: a fast and simple method for genomewide pedigree-based quantitative trait loci association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Haley, Chris

    2007-09-01

    For pedigree-based quantitative trait loci (QTL) association analysis, a range of methods utilizing within-family variation such as transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT)-based methods have been developed. In scenarios where stratification is not a concern, methods exploiting between-family variation in addition to within-family variation, such as the measured genotype (MG) approach, have greater power. Application of MG methods can be computationally demanding (especially for large pedigrees), making genomewide scans practically infeasible. Here we suggest a novel approach for genomewide pedigree-based quantitative trait loci (QTL) association analysis: genomewide rapid association using mixed model and regression (GRAMMAR). The method first obtains residuals adjusted for family effects and subsequently analyzes the association between these residuals and genetic polymorphisms using rapid least-squares methods. At the final step, the selected polymorphisms may be followed up with the full measured genotype (MG) analysis. In a simulation study, we compared type 1 error, power, and operational characteristics of the proposed method with those of MG and TDT-based approaches. For moderately heritable (30%) traits in human pedigrees the power of the GRAMMAR and the MG approaches is similar and is much higher than that of TDT-based approaches. When using tabulated thresholds, the proposed method is less powerful than MG for very high heritabilities and pedigrees including large sibships like those observed in livestock pedigrees. However, there is little or no difference in empirical power of MG and the proposed method. In any scenario, GRAMMAR is much faster than MG and enables rapid analysis of hundreds of thousands of markers.

  15. An exploration of attitudes towards pedigree dogs and their disorders as expressed by a sample of companion animal veterinarians in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, T; Keown, A J; Farnworth, M J

    2014-09-01

    To explore veterinary perceptions of inherited disorders in pedigree dogs within New Zealand and how these affect animal health and welfare. An online questionnaire was distributed to the 647 members of the Companion Animal Society of the New Zealand Veterinary Association using an online survey system. The questionnaire collected details of practitioners, pedigree dog breeds and disorders most often encountered in practice, and responses to questions and statements regarding inherited disorders and pedigree dogs. Of the 216 respondents, 194 (89.8%) believed inherited disorders in dogs were a significant issue. The most commonly identified breeds presenting with inherited disorders were Boxer, Bulldog and German Shepherd dog. The most commonly reported inherited disorders were hip dysplasia, brachycephalic syndromes and elbow dysplasia. Of 207 respondents, 100 (48.3%) had advised clients against purchasing a pedigree dog due to common inherited disorders and 183 (85.6%) considered the health and welfare of some breeds to be too compromised to continue breeding. Of 199 respondents, 132 (66.3%) reported seeing no change in prevalence of inherited conditions, 103/204 (50.5%) reported seeing a positive change in attitudes towards inherited disorders among dog owners, and 81/207 (39.1%) thought legislative support would help decrease inherited disorders in pedigree dogs. Attitudes were not associated with time since graduation or ownership of a New Zealand Kennel Club registered breed of dog. The most common suggestions to decrease prevalence of inherited disorders were to alter breed standards, educate public or buyers and compulsory genetic testing. Among respondents, veterinarians considered inherited disorders as significant issues in a number of pedigree breeds. Veterinarians were concerned about inherited disorders in pedigree dogs, felt they had an obligation to treat such animals and were supportive of measures to make genetic testing for inheritable disorders a

  16. The Autumn Ghost : the history of polioepidemics in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    Polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became an annual feature in the epidemiological pattern. Due to vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This thesis deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and studies the demographical influence of polio, how the medical authorities investigated and tried to combat it, and the care of those who contracted the disease. A study of polio mortality ...

  17. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the power exchange's spot

  18. Perceptions of addictions as societal problems in Canada, sweden, Finland and st. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Kari; Koski-Jännes, Anja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Blomqvist, Jan; Pervova, Irina; Cunningham, John A

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the relative gravity people attribute to various addictive behaviors with respect to other societal concerns in four northern populations with different history, social policy and treatment alternatives for addicted individuals. Random population surveys were conducted in Canada, Sweden, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia. In Finland and Sweden, the survey was conducted by mail, in Canada and St. Petersburg by phone. As a part of this survey, the respondents were asked to assess the gravity of various societal problems, some of which involved various addictive behaviors. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods, factor analysis, contextual analysis and multiple regression analysis. Hard drugs, criminality and environmental issues belonged to the topmost problems in all data samples. Overall, Finns and Canadians appeared the least worried about various societal problems, Swedes seemed the most worried and St. Petersburgian views were the most polarized. Two factors were extracted from the combined data. Factor 1 covered criminal behavior and various addictions; it was named Threats to Safety factor. Factor 2 comprised social equality issues. The country context explained 12.5% of the variance of the safety factor and 7.9% of the equality factor. Despite some cultural variation in the gravity assessments, the central core of the social representation of addictive behaviors tends still to be linked with 'badness' since they were mainly grouped with various forms of criminal behavior in all these countries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Temporal and spatial trends for trace metals in streams and rivers across Sweden (1996–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fölster

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term data series (1996 through 2009 for trace metals were analyzed from a large number of streams and rivers across Sweden varying in tributary watershed size from 0.05 to 48 193 km2. The final data set included 139 stream sites with data for arsenic (As, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and vanadium (V. Between 7 % and 46 % of the sites analyzed showed significant trends according to the seasonal Kendall test. However, in contrast to previous studies and depositional patterns, a substantial portion of the trends were positive, especially for V (100 %, As (95 %, and Pb (68 %. Other metals (Zn and Cr generally decreased, were mixed (Ni and Zn, or had very few trends (Co over the study period. Trends by region were also analyzed and some showed significant variation between the north and south of Sweden. Regional trends for both Cu and Pb were positive (60 % and 93 %, respectively in the southern region but strongly negative (93 % and 75 %, respectively in the northern region. Kendall's τ coefficients were used to determine dependence between metals and potential in-stream drivers including total organic carbon (TOC, iron (Fe, pH, and sulphate (SO42−. TOC and Fe correlated positively and strongly with As, V, Pb, and Co while pH and SO42− generally correlated weakly, or not at all with the metals studied.

  20. Hearths in the coastal areas of northernmost Sweden, from the period AD 800 to 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Liedgren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the chronological setting of hearths registered in FMIS (digital register containing records of all known ancient monuments in Sweden in the provinces of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, Northern Sweden. A total of c. 1500 hearths are known in the area, mainly situated north of the river Skellefteälven. Within a study area of 107 x 94 km, 32 hearths were randomly selected for excavation, each site embracing 1-14 hearths. The sites were scanned using a metal detector and nearly all artifacts found were from the period AD 1600-1900. 14C-datings of charcoal and burned bones corroborated that most hearths were used during this period, with a large number dating to the 19th and 20th centuries. Many hearths contained bones from mature reindeer, indicating that the hearths were related to reindeer herding. We suggest that most hearths are related to nomadic Sami reindeer herders using coastal areas for winter pasture, possibly resulting from the breakdown of the “lappskatteland” (taxation lands system and an increase in reindeer numbers.

  1. Mercury in fur of Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Southern Sweden and Comparison to Ecotoxicological Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Staffan; de Jong, Johnny

    2017-11-01

    To characterise mercury (Hg) exposure in Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii, Kuhl 1817) in southern Sweden, 17 specimens were captured in 2013 and back fur samples were taken for analysis to determine Hg concentrations. The fur Hg levels determined [1.15 ± 0.27 (mean ± standard deviation, n = 17) µg Hg g -1 fresh weight (fw)] represent a baseline for comparison in future assessments of Hg exposure in bat populations in northern Europe. Mercury concentrations were close to those reported in fur from other bat species, but were lower than proposed toxicological thresholds in bats (> 30 µg Hg g -1  fw) and mice (5 µg Hg g -1  fw). This is the first study to examine Hg exposure in bats in Scandinavia.

  2. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thofelt, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains some facts about the Swedish nuclear energy production system and about the nuclear operators liability with the important issues. The nuclear insurance of Sweden is also explained in short terms. (author)

  3. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a banking and exchange rate crisis that led it to rescue banks that had experienced large losses on their balance sheets and that threatened a collapse of the banking system...

  4. Sweden's Experiment in Human Sexuality and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyman, Howard S.; Hoyman, Annelis S.

    1971-01-01

    As a prerequisite to understanding Swedish views about sex education, some background knowledge and insight into Sweden's development as a country in rapid transition is reported. Impressions of Swedish sex education, methods and aids, are related. (BY)

  5. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Wiktorsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  6. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  7. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  8. Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Almstedt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a “new rural economy”. As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

  9. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  10. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  11. Nesting and migration in the introduced Canada goose in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Göran

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to document patterns in breeding and migration in Swedish Canada geese Branta canadensis, to explain these against the genetic and historical background of the population, and to test predictions of hypotheses pertaining to parental investment. The Canada goose population in Sweden was founded by the introduction of a few individuals in the 1930's. DNA fingerprint similarity between geese breeding in Sweden was on average at the same level as between inbred close rel...

  12. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  13. Public Employment, Taxes and the Welfare State in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwin Rosen

    1995-01-01

    All employment growth in Sweden since the early 1960's is attributable to labor market entry of women, working in local public sector jobs that implement the Welfare State. Sweden has 'monetized' or 'nationalized' the family. Women are paid at public expense to provide household services for other families. Subsidizing purchased household services encourages labor force participation of women through substitution of market- for self-provided services. It also reduces the marginal cost prices ...

  14. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  15. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  16. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  17. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  18. Climate impact on floods: changes in high flows in Sweden in the past and the future (1911-2100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, B.; Lindström, G.

    2015-02-01

    There is an ongoing discussion whether floods occur more frequently today than in the past, and whether they will increase in number and magnitude in the future. To explore this issue in Sweden, we merged observed time series for the past century from 69 gauging sites throughout the country (450 000 km2) with high-resolution dynamic model projections of the upcoming century. The results show that the changes in annual maximum daily flows in Sweden oscillate between dry and wet periods but exhibit no significant trend over the past 100 years. Temperature was found to be the strongest climate driver of changes in river high flows, which are related primarily to snowmelt in Sweden. Annual daily high flows may decrease by on average -1% per decade in the future, mainly due to lower peaks from snowmelt in the spring (-2% per decade) as a result of higher temperatures and a shorter snow season. In contrast, autumn flows may increase by +3% per decade due to more intense rainfall. This indicates a shift in flood-generating processes in the future, with greater influence of rain-fed floods. Changes in climate may have a more significant impact on some specific rivers than on the average for the whole country. Our results suggest that the temporal pattern in future daily high flow in some catchments will shift in time, with spring floods in the northern-central part of Sweden occurring about 1 month earlier than today. High flows in the southern part of the country may become more frequent. Moreover, the current boundary between snow-driven floods in northern-central Sweden and rain-driven floods in the south may move toward higher latitudes due to less snow accumulation in the south and at low altitudes. The findings also indicate a tendency in observations toward the modeled projections for timing of daily high flows over the last 25 years. Uncertainties related to both the observed data and the complex model chain of climate impact assessments in hydrology are

  19. Genomewide rapid association using mixed model and regression: A fast and simple method for genomewide pedigree-based quantitative trait loci association analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); D.-J. de Koning; C. Haley (Chris)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor pedigree-based quantitative trait loci (QTL) association analysis, a range of methods utilizing within-family variation such as transmission- disequilibrium test (TDT)-based methods have been developed. In scenarios where stratification is not a concern, methods exploiting

  20. Multipoint development of the weighted pairwise correlation (WPC) linkage method for pedigrees of arbitrary size and application to the analysis of breast cancer and alcoholism familial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn-Justin, A; Ziegler, A; Abel, L

    2001-07-01

    The weighted pairwise correlation (WPC) method is a simple and powerful model-free method of linkage analysis that has the advantages of being applicable to binary, ordered categorical, quantitative, or censored traits, and to consider all pairs of relatives in large pedigrees. The originally implemented approach was limited to the use of the identical by state (IBS) information, and we recently extended the WPC method to incorporate the identical by descent (IBD) information for two-point linkage analysis. Here, we develop a multipoint WPC method suitable for pedigrees of arbitrary size and large number of markers. The multipoint IBD estimation procedure for relative pairs is based on the efficient regression approach developed for pedigrees implemented in SOLAR. A robust and fast Monte-Carlo procedure is used to determine reliable P values. Application of the method to the 214 pedigrees from the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium provided for the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 9 shows that multipoint WPC statistic values were not far from two-point maximum lod-score values obtained by the classical parametric linkage method and were higher than multipoint variance component analysis lod-scores obtained with SOLAR. The multipoint WPC method is also used to analyze the familial Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism data on alcoholism released for GAW11. It allows a better specification of the linkage results previously obtained within the chromosome 4 region. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Genomic-Enabled Prediction Based on Molecular Markers and Pedigree Using the Bayesian Linear Regression Package in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of dense molecular markers has made possible the use of genomic selection in plant and animal breeding. However, models for genomic selection pose several computational and statistical challenges and require specialized computer programs, not always available to the end user and not implemented in standard statistical software yet. The R-package BLR (Bayesian Linear Regression implements several statistical procedures (e.g., Bayesian Ridge Regression, Bayesian LASSO in a unified framework that allows including marker genotypes and pedigree data jointly. This article describes the classes of models implemented in the BLR package and illustrates their use through examples. Some challenges faced when applying genomic-enabled selection, such as model choice, evaluation of predictive ability through cross-validation, and choice of hyper-parameters, are also addressed.

  2. SNP Analysis and Whole Exome Sequencing: Their Application in the Analysis of a Consanguineous Pedigree Segregating Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Nickerson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia encompasses a large and heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. We employed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis and whole exome sequencing to investigate a consanguineous Maori pedigree segregating ataxia. We identified a novel mutation in exon 10 of the SACS gene: c.7962T>G p.(Tyr2654*, establishing the diagnosis of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS. Our findings expand both the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of this rare disorder, and highlight the value of high-density SNP analysis and whole exome sequencing as powerful and cost-effective tools in the diagnosis of genetically heterogeneous disorders such as the hereditary ataxias.

  3. Genomic-Enabled Prediction Based on Molecular Markers and Pedigree Using the Bayesian Linear Regression Package in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Paulino; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Crossa, José; Gianola, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The availability of dense molecular markers has made possible the use of genomic selection in plant and animal breeding. However, models for genomic selection pose several computational and statistical challenges and require specialized computer programs, not always available to the end user and not implemented in standard statistical software yet. The R-package BLR (Bayesian Linear Regression) implements several statistical procedures (e.g., Bayesian Ridge Regression, Bayesian LASSO) in a unifi ed framework that allows including marker genotypes and pedigree data jointly. This article describes the classes of models implemented in the BLR package and illustrates their use through examples. Some challenges faced when applying genomic-enabled selection, such as model choice, evaluation of predictive ability through cross-validation, and choice of hyper-parameters, are also addressed.

  4. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2006-06-15

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states.

  5. Lack of GNAQ and GNA11 germ-line mutations in familial melanoma pedigrees with uveal melanoma or blue nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ezra Hawkes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha (GNAQ, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha-11 (GNA11 and BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1. Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.

  6. Alcohol challenges in young men from alcoholic pedigrees and control families: a report from the COGA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, M A; Tsuang, J W; Anthenelli, R M; Tipp, J E; Nurnberger, J I

    1996-07-01

    Alcoholism is a complex disorder that demonstrates genetic heterogeneity. Genetic linkage studies of alcohol dependence also suffer from the probability that many individuals who inherit an enhanced risk never develop the clinical syndrome. Thus, studies of genetic influences in alcohol abuse or dependence would benefit from the identification of characteristics of an individual that are associated with the probability of developing the disorder. A reduced responsivity to alcohol has been reported to characterize almost 40% of sons of alcoholics and to predict future alcohol abuse or dependence a decade later. This study explores the existence of this characteristic in a more heterogeneous sample that is part of a genetic pedigree study of families of alcoholics. Eighteen to 30 year old subjects who were sons of alcohol dependent fathers and who were drinkers but not alcohol dependent were selected from pedigrees of alcoholics at all six sites of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) study. Family history negative controls matched on demography and substance use histories were selected for each subject. Data were obtained on 20 pairs of high-risk and low-risk men (40 subjects) following a challenge with 0.72 g/kg (0.9 ml/kg) of ethanol. Evaluations included measures of subjective feelings of intoxication and body sway, and changes in cortisol, ACTH and prolactin. The data corroborate a lower level of intensity of response to alcohol in the sons of alcoholics especially as measured by changes in cortisol, with similar but less robust changes in subjective feelings and other measures. The results expand upon earlier studies by using a more heterogeneous population of men at high alcoholism risk. The data highlight the possible usefulness of the reduced response to alcohol as an adjunct to future linkage analyses.

  7. Genome scan of human systemic lupus erythematosus: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 1q in African-American pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kathy L.; Neas, Barbara R.; Salmon, Jane E.; Yu, Hua; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Asundi, Neeraj; Bruner, Gail R.; Fox, Jerome; Kelly, Jennifer; Henshall, Stephanie; Bacino, Debra; Dietz, Myron; Hogue, Robert; Koelsch, Gerald; Nightingale, Lydia; Shaver, Tim; Abdou, Nabih I.; Albert, Daniel A.; Carson, Craig; Petri, Michelle; Treadwell, Edward L.; James, Judith A.; Harley, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens including DNA, ribosomal P, Ro (SS-A), La (SS-B), and the spliceosome. Etiology is suspected to involve genetic and environmental factors. Evidence of genetic involvement includes: associations with HLA-DR3, HLA-DR2, Fcγ receptors (FcγR) IIA and IIIA, and hereditary complement component deficiencies, as well as familial aggregation, monozygotic twin concordance >20%, λs > 10, purported linkage at 1q41–42, and inbred mouse strains that consistently develop lupus. We have completed a genome scan in 94 extended multiplex pedigrees by using model-based linkage analysis. Potential [log10 of the odds for linkage (lod) > 2.0] SLE loci have been identified at chromosomes 1q41, 1q23, and 11q14–23 in African-Americans; 14q11, 4p15, 11q25, 2q32, 19q13, 6q26–27, and 12p12–11 in European-Americans; and 1q23, 13q32, 20q13, and 1q31 in all pedigrees combined. An effect for the FcγRIIA candidate polymorphism) at 1q23 (lod = 3.37 in African-Americans) is syntenic with linkage in a murine model of lupus. Sib-pair and multipoint nonparametric analyses also support linkage (P 2.0). Our results are consistent with the presumed complexity of genetic susceptibility to SLE and illustrate racial origin is likely to influence the specific nature of these genetic effects. PMID:9843982

  8. Getting priorities straight: risk assessment and decision-making in the improvement of inherited disorders in pedigree dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Asher, Lucy; Summers, Jennifer; McGreevy, Paul

    2011-08-01

    The issue of inherited disorders in pedigree dogs is not a recent phenomenon and reports of suspected genetic defects associated with breeding practices date back to Charles Darwin's time. In recent years, much information on the array of inherited defects has been assimilated and the true extent of the problem has come to light. Historically, the direction of research funding in the field of canine genetic disease has been largely influenced by the potential transferability of findings to human medicine, economic benefit and importance of dogs for working purposes. More recently, the argument for a more canine welfare-orientated approach has been made, targeting research efforts at the alleviation of the most suffering in the greatest number of animals. A method of welfare risk assessment was initially developed as a means of objectively comparing, and thus setting priorities for, different welfare problems. The method has been applied to inherited disorders in pedigree dogs to investigate which disorders have the greatest welfare impact and which breeds are most affected. Work in this field has identified 396 inherited disorders in the top 50 most popular breeds in the UK. This article discusses how the results of welfare risk assessment for inherited disorders can be used to develop strategies for improving the health and welfare of dogs in the long term. A new risk assessment criterion, the Breed-Disorder Welfare Impact Score (BDWIS), which takes into account the proportion of life affected by a disorder, is introduced. A set of health and welfare goals is proposed and strategies for achieving these goals are highlighted, along with potential rate-determining factors at each step. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Income distribution and mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The hypothesis that a high income inequality on a societal level is associated with poor health outcomes has been both rejected and accepted in empirical studies. Whether the influence of economic circumstances on health operates at the individual level or societal level has important implications on policy and intervention alternatives. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between income inequality and mortality in Swedish municipalities and if the relationship varies depending on the mean income or on the time-lag between income inequality and mortality.

    Methods: The study was based on register data on mean income and income inequality (Gini coefficients from Statistics Sweden 1982 and 1998, aggregated on the municipality level. Data on age-standardised death rates per 100,000 persons were obtained for 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2002. The analysis on 1998 was a test of the robustness of the results.

    Results: The relationship between high income inequality in 1982 and mortality in 1983 was negative with a similar relationship in 1998. Using latency periods, the results show a decreasing trend of mortality in relation to higher Gini coefficients. A positive relationship between Gini and mean income implies that municipalities with larger income distribution also had a higher mean income and vice versa.

    Conclusions: High income inequality does not have a negative effect on mortality in Swedish municipalities. The municipalities with high income inequality have also high mean income as opposed to many other countries. The income level seems to be more substantial for mortality than the income inequality.

  10. A review of the seismotectonics of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir Wood, R.

    1993-04-01

    A study has been undertaken of data relating to the seismotectonic state of Sweden, both under current conditions and also through the glaciation/deglaciation cycle. The focus of the study has been to explore primary data on all the separate sources of information bearing on seismotectonics including: a. regional tectonics, b. neotectonic surface faulting, c. geodetic and tide-gauge observations of land-level changes, d. the horizontal strain field, e. Holocene land-level changes, f. historical and instrumental seismicity, g. palaeosesmicity, h. stress determinations, and i. geothermal observations. These data have then been combined into a regional seismotectonic model, relating the distribution, style and rates of seismicity to the seismogenic properties of the crust and the continuing crustal deformation. From the evidence of the modelled and observed horizontal strain field and the diversity of focal mechanisms, all the current seismicity of the region appear to be a response to postglacial rebound. Through and understanding of the interaction between the pre-existing tectonic strain field, and the strain field resulting from glacial loading and unloading it is possible to make testable predictions about the localisation of deformation and seismicity in Fennoscandia at different stages of the glacial cycle. Immediately following glacial unloading intense deformation was concentrated on the northwestern flank of the down warped crustal bowl. Currently low-level deformation and associated seismicity is most pronounced around the western margins of the dome of postglacial rebound. While the rebound dome is primarily extensional relieving the high levels of compression that accompanied crustal down warping, there are also areas of compression and extension associated with flexures in the rebound surface that appear to affect the distribution and style of seismicity. The study shows how the significance and localisation of deformation and seismicity may be predicted

  11. Thermomechanical studies in granite at Stripa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Myer, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Media other than rock salt are being considered for the deep, geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a deep, underground repository will subject the rock to a thermal pulse that will induce displacements, strains, and stresses in the rock. Thermomechanical experiments, with electrical heaters simulating the thermal output of waste canisters, were carried out in granite at a depth of 340 m below surface adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. Changes in temperature, displacement, and stress in the rock around these heaters were measured, and the measurements were compared with predictions calculated from the theory of linear thermoelasticity. Measured temperature changes agreed well with predictions, but measured displacements and stresses were consistently less than those predicted with constant values for the coefficient of thermal expansion and elastic properties of the rock. A laboratory test program to measure these coefficients over ranges of stress and temperature representing those in the field experiment has been initiated. Test specimens were taken from cores recovered from the instrumentation holes in the Stripa experiments. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on specimens free of joints indicate that the values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increase from about 60 to 80 MPa and from 0.15 to 0.22, respectively, as the confining stress is increased from 2 to 55 MPa; these values decrease with increasing temperature, more so at 2 MPa than at 55 MPa. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion at a confining stress of 30 MPa increases from about 10 x 10 - 6 / 0 C at 40 0 C to about 14 x 10 - 6 / 0 C. The magnitudes of these changes are not sufficient to resolve the disparity between measured and predicted results. Perhaps the properties of test specimens containing joints will show greater variations in the values of the thermomechanical coefficients with temperature and pressure

  12. "We are like lemmings": making sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among the indigenous Sami in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoor, Jon Petter A; Kaiser, Niclas; Jacobsson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Silviken, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a widespread problem among indigenous people residing in the circumpolar Arctic. Though the situation among the indigenous Sami in northern Scandinavia is better than among some other indigenous people, suicide is still regarded as a major public health issue. To adapt prevention strategies that are culturally attuned one must understand how suicide is understood within context. That is, the cultural meaning(s) of suicide. To explore and make sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among Sami in Sweden. Open-ended focus group discussions (FGDs) on the topic "suicide among Sami" were carried out in 5 Sami communities in Sweden, with in total 22 strategically selected Sami participants. FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed through employing content analysis. From the FGDs 4 themes emerged including "The Sami are fighting for their culture and the herders are in the middle of the fight," "Suicide as a consequence of Sami losing (or having lost) their identity," "A wildfire in the Sami world" and "Difficult to get help as a Sami." Findings indicate that Sami in Sweden make sense of suicide in relation to power and identity within a threatened Sami cultural context. Suicide is then understood as an act that takes place and makes sense to others when a Sami no longer has the power to maintain a Sami identity, resulting in being disconnected from the Sami world and placed in an existential void where suicide is a solution. The findings are useful in development of culturally attuned suicide prevention among Sami in Sweden.

  13. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  14. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Disabled and Unmarried? Marital Chances Among Disabled People in Nineteenth-Century Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Haage

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.

  16. Residential use of firewood in Northern Sweden and its influence on forest biomass resources

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Firewood is society’s oldest source of household energy and is still extensively used around the world. However, little is known about firewood usage in technologically advanced countries with high energy consumption. Some key issues include quantities of firewood currently used and future trends, as well as the influence of this usage on available biomass resources. This study addresses those issues through a postal questionnaire to 1500 of the firewood using households in a region in Northe...

  17. Contaminated area instability along Ångermanälven River, northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströberg, A; Ebert, K; Jarsjö, J; Frampton, A

    2017-03-01

    Industrially utilized river basins are frequently exposed to contaminants originating from polluting activities. However, the physical instability and probability of mass movement mobilization of contaminated soil into rivers have only received little attention. In this study, we present a GIS-based method to produce a regional overview of where and how contaminated areas are potentially exposed to slope instability. A landslide susceptibility-index was used to study the degree and distribution of overlap between contaminated sites and unstable ground. A contaminated area instability hazard classification was produced integrating slope instability and contamination risk classification. Our results indicate that mass movement can be tied mainly to a slope gradient ≥16°, a proximity to the river that is soils. Forty-six (22%) of all considered contaminated sites are located within areas with a non-negligible slope instability, of which a majority, 30 sites (14%) are situated on ground with a low or moderate instability. Three sites with a class 2 contamination risk (the 2nd highest class) are located on ground with a very high slope instability.

  18. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  19. The description and evaluation of virtual worlds in clinical pharmacy education in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Englund, Claire; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the use of a three-dimensional virtual world (3DVW) in a clinical pharmacy course. Students are provided with training opportunities in simulated ward rounds and patient meetings in a 3DVW. The 3DVW enables students to practice communication with patients and colleagues in a professional manner. To evaluate the course and use of the 3DVW, an online course evaluation was completed by students after they had finished the clinical pharmacy course. Forty-two students completed the online course evaluation (62%). Most students (83%) reported that they could adopt the role of a clinical pharmacist in the 3DVW. Sixty percent reported that the environment felt authentic, although some noted that "it can never be quite the same as sitting next to a real person to talk". More than half of the students (66%) described the use of the 3DVW as a worthwhile exercise. The majority (93%) rated the overall quality of the course as good or very good, with 76% reporting that the pedagogical design of the course helped them with their studies. Students at Umeå University valued the use of 3DVWs in clinical pharmacy teaching. However, there is a need to make the virtual environment more realistic and easier to use. The invaluable feedback gathered from students will help to improve the future use of virtual worlds in pharmacy education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Place Marketing Concept of Rural Towns in Northern Sweden: What is the Unique Selling Point?

    OpenAIRE

    Kompaniets, Olga; Rauhut, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The place marketing concept is one of the popular concepts to analyze and promote countries, regions, cities and towns. The intensification of competition for investment, tourism and human resources among European cities and towns has increased the importance of being unique. Consequently this has opened up the field for specialists in marketing and branding in terms of geographic, social, economic, political, cultural and historical and ethno-cultural development. Most of studies on place ma...

  1. Significance of cold-season respiration and photosynthesis in a subarctic heath ecosystem in Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Jonasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis with a chamber technique at ambient conditions and at artificially, increased frequency of freeze-thaw (FT) cycles during fall and spring. We fitted the measured ecosystem exchange rates to respiration and photosynthesis models with R-2-values ranging from 0.81 to 0......-season photosynthesis partly balanced the cold-season respiratory carbon losses and can be significant for the annual cycle of carbon. Still, during the full year the ecosystem was a significant net source of 120 +/- 12g Cm-2 to the atmosphere. Neither respiration nor photosynthetic rates were much affected...... by the extra FT cycles, although the mean rate of net ecosystem loss decreased slightly, but significantly, in May. The results suggest only a small response of net carbon fluxes to increased frequency of FT cycles in this ecosystem...

  2. Soil map, area and volume calculations in Orrmyrberget catchment basin at Gideaa, Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, T.; Tammela, P.T.; Gustafsson, E.

    1991-06-01

    Fallout studies in the Gideaa study site after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986, has come to the point that a more exact surface mapping of the studied catchment basin is needed. This surface mapping is mainly made for area calculations of different soil types within the study site. The mapping focus on the surface, as the study concerns fallout redistribution and it is extended to also include materials down to a depth of 0.5 meter. Volume calculations are made for the various soil materials within the top 0.5 m. These volume and area calculations will then be used in the modelling of the migration and redistribution of the fallout radionuclides within the studied catchment basin. (au)

  3. Significance of cold-season respiration and photosynthesis in a subarctic heath ecosystem in Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Jonasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    While substantial cold-season respiration has been documented in most arctic and alpine ecosystems in recent years, the significance of cold-season photosynthesis in these biomes is still believed to be small. In a mesic, subartic heath during both the cold and warm season, we measured in situ...... ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis with a chamber technique at ambient conditions and at artificially, increased frequency of freeze-thaw (FT) cycles during fall and spring. We fitted the measured ecosystem exchange rates to respiration and photosynthesis models with R-2-values ranging from 0.81 to 0.......85. As expected, estimated cold-season (October, November, April and May) respiration was significant and accounted for at least 22% of the annual respiratory CO2 flux. More surprisingly, estimated photosynthesis during this period accounted for up to 19% of the annual gross CO2 uptake, suggesting that cold...

  4. Microbiota of an unpasteurised cellar-stored goat cheese from northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Båth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study reports on lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and moulds isolated from three artisanal Swedish cellar-stored goat cheeses aged for 1, 3 and 5 months. Starter culture LAB dominated in the younger cheeses, and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, common in raw goats’ milk, had persisted from the unpasteurised milk into all the cheeses. Non-starter LAB dominated in the 5 month cheese, in particular, Lactobacillus sakei, a meat-associated LAB not previously isolated from cheese. Debaryomyces hansenii, and Penicillium and Mucor species were dominant among the yeasts and moulds, respectively. The cheese rind was not formed primarily from Penicillium species as in traditional cheeses such as Camembert – rather, mycelium from Mucor mucedo contributed to rind formation. Mould species known to produce sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins or ochratoxin A in cheese were not isolated in this study; growth of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli may have been inhibited by the cool conditions in the earth-cellar (4–6 °C.

  5. Lake Ecosystem Responses to Holocene Climate Change at the Subarctic Tree-Line in Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, Nina Steenberg; Hammarlund, Dan; Rundgren, Mats

    2010-01-01

    sedimentary pigments, diatoms, chironomids, pollen, biogenic silica (BSi), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) elemental and stable-isotope records, and total lake-water organic carbon (TOC) concentration inferred from near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), suggest that the Holocene development of Lake Seukokjaure...

  6. Use of radiography in public dental care for children and adolescents in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Kieri, Catarina; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    The primary aims were to investigate the total number of radiographs and the reason for dental radiography in children and adolescents in the Public Dental Health Service. Secondary aims were to study the influence of caries experience and orthodontic treatment on the number of radiographs...... radiographs were exposed in caries-free subjects over time but its use during the preschool ages was low. Orthodontics treatment increased the frequency of radiography significantly....

  7. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital--a descriptive study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkari, Patrik; Bylund, Per-Olof; Lindgren, Hans; Öman, Mikael

    2014-08-15

    Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1-57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance programmes must be emphasized to ensure future competence and quality of trauma care at low trauma volume hospitals.

  8. Solar forcing of climate during the last millennium recorded in lake sediments from northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, Ulla; Muscheler, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    century. Periods of low solar activity are associated with minima in minerogenic material and vice versa. A comparison between the sunspot cycle and a long instrumental series of summer precipitation further reveals a link between the 11-year solar cycle and summer precipitation variability since around...

  9. Distribution of TPM in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wängberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Iverfeldt, Ake; Sommar, Jonas

    2003-03-20

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) in air has been measured during five 2-week campaigns at five measurement sites in Northern Europe. The measurements covered four seasons and the result constitutes a unique TPM data set from this region. Evidence for transport of TPM on a regional scale is reported as well as the historical trend of TPM in south of Sweden. All TPM measurements were made using a new mini particulate sampler. The device consists of a quartz fibre filter contained in a quarts glass filter holder and is a modified version of the MiniSamplr. This approach proves to be reliable and more cost efficient in comparison to alternative methods. Tests made to evaluate the performance of the sampler in terms of precision and comparability with sampling on Teflon membrane filters are also reported.

  10. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Northern forests, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  12. Energy in Sweden. Leading the way to a sustainable future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenback, J.-O.

    2002-01-01

    This article traces the history of Sweden's energy policy from its reliance on fossil fuel imports in 1970 to the shift towards sustainable energy systems. The levying of a general energy tax and carbon dioxide taxation, and Sweden's large reduction in emissions are reported. Energy conservation, energy efficiency standards, the revision of building codes for energy efficiency, and innovative energy efficiency programmes are discussed. Renewable energy technologies are examined covering hydropower and wind power plants in Sweden, the use of biofuels, the development of new heat pumps, and solar heaters. The suggested long-term goal of 50% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2050 is considered. Swedish taxes on fuel for heat generation (1999) are listed

  13. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  14. Vocational Education and Industrial Relations: Sweden 1910–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Karlsson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss vocational education in Sweden against the backdrop of the changing nature of industrial relations in the period from ca 1910 to 1975. Drawing upon evidence from official inquiries and case studies of two industries (forest industry and shipbuilding, we show that Sweden in the 1940s and 1950s can be described as a collective skill formation system in the making, where firms, intermediary associations, and the state cooperated around vocational education and training. However, Sweden developed in a very different direction than similar countries. We argue that this remarkable change of trajectory cannot be understood without considering the simultaneous disintegration of the model of industrial relations, along with general changes in the system of education.

  15. Sweden's Leadership in a Climate Constrained World. An analysis for Sweden of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Baer, Paul; Athanasiou, Tom; Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2008-10-15

    This report presents an analysis of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework applied to the case of Sweden. Its objective is to provide useful quantitative guidance on Sweden's role as a leader in our climate constrained world. It presents guidance that is rigorous from the standpoint of climate science and framed in the context of a right to development for the world's poor. This analysis fully accounts for Sweden's true responsibility, by looking beyond territorial emissions alone, and reckoning emissions in terms of Sweden's net 'carbon footprint.' Accounting for carbon embedded in imports, exports and international transport reveals that Sweden's responsibility is 17% larger than would be inferred by considering Sweden's territorial emissions alone. Sweden will naturally have significant obligations under any burden-sharing regime that is based on capacity and responsibility, and only more so under a regime that honors a right to development. Under the GDR framework, our indicative quantification suggests that Sweden's share of responsibility and capacity, and hence its obligation under a politically viable climate regime, will be approximately 0.51% of the global total in 2010. This can be compared to the US's 33%, the EU's 26%, Japan's 7.8%, China's 5.5%, and India's 0.5%. Sweden's 0.51% share of the global total is thus not large in absolute terms, though it is rather large relative to Sweden's small size (0.14% of the global population). These national shares shift over time, as countries' relative proportion of income and emissions change. In light of the emergence of rapidly growing developing country economies, Sweden's share of the global total obligation is projected to decline to 0.43% by 2020, and to 0.35% by 2030. This quantification of Sweden's obligation is useful in two complementary ways. First, if the total global costs of an emergency climate

  16. Sustainable Development in Sweden - a success story. Discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, Malin

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden the term 'Sustainable Development' is very well known and is often used as leitmotivs in many parts of the society. Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development took place in Rio de Janeiro 1992 SD has become more and more indispensable in political debates and it has even become a crucial argument in management decisions in the business sector. Due to the tradition of consensus policy and the strong involvement of different interest group in policy decision-making processes, the idea of SD as a holistic policy concept fell in Sweden on a fruitful ground

  17. Discovery of quantitative trait loci for resistance to parasitic nematode infection in sheep: I. Analysis of outcross pedigrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greer Gordon J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently most pastoral farmers rely on anthelmintic drenches to control gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep. Resistance to anthelmintics is rapidly increasing in nematode populations such that on some farms none of the drench families are now completely effective. It is well established that host resistance to nematode infection is a moderately heritable trait. This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes. Results Rams obtained from crossing nematode parasite resistant and susceptible selection lines were used to derive five large half-sib families comprising between 348 and 101 offspring per sire. Total offspring comprised 940 lambs. Extensive measurements for a range of parasite burden and immune function traits in all offspring allowed each lamb in each pedigree to be ranked for relative resistance to nematode parasites. Initially the 22 most resistant and 22 most susceptible progeny from each pedigree were used in a genome scan that used 203 microsatellite markers spread across all sheep autosomes. This study identified 9 chromosomes with regions showing sufficient linkage to warrant the genotyping of all offspring. After genotyping all offspring with markers covering Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 22 and 23, the telomeric end of chromosome 8 was identified as having a significant QTL for parasite resistance as measured by the number of Trichostrongylus spp. adults in the abomasum and small intestine at the end of the second parasite challenge. Two further QTL for associated immune function traits of total serum IgE and T. colubiformis specific serum IgG, at the end of the second parasite challenge, were identified on chromosome 23. Conclusion Despite parasite resistance being a moderately heritable trait, this large study was able to identify only a single significant QTL associated with it. The QTL

  18. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in

  19. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Chirico, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of Onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in Sweden. The location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55°N to about 68°N....... A total of 61,669 male and female Culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. Thirty-three Culicoides species were recorded, of which, 30 were new to Sweden. The species and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites...... are presented. Two species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus, viz. Culicoides obsoletus (about 38%) and Culicoides scoticus (about 36%), were predominant and common in the environment of livestock farms practically all over the Swedish mainland, penetrating far north to at least 65°N. The two species...

  20. Self-reported food hypersensitivity in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, N E; Möller, C; Werner, S; Magnusson, J; Bengtsson, U; Zolubas, M

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to describe the differences between some Northern countries regarding what foods, according to the patients, elicit hypersensitivity symptoms. At the participating clinics, patients with a history of food hypersensitivity (n = 1139) were asked to fill in a questionnaire in which 86 different foodstuffs were listed. Skin-prick tests (SPT) were performed with common inhalant allergens. The foods that were reported as eliciting symptoms differed between countries. In Russia, Estonia, and Lithuania; citrus fruits, chocolate, honey, apple, hazelnut, strawberry, fish, tomato, egg, and milk were most often reported as causes of hypersensitivity. In Sweden and Denmark; birch pollen (BP) related foods, such as nuts, apple, pear, kiwi, stone fruits, and carrot were the most common causes. In all countries, children, more often than adults, had symptoms of allergic reaction to citrus fruits, tomato, strawberry, milk, egg, and fish. Most patients (95%) reported hypersensitivity to several foodstuffs (median: eight foods). The most common symptoms were oral allergy syndrome and urticaria. Severe symptoms were most common with fish, shellfish, nuts, and milk. Slight symptoms were most common with rice, coriander, poppy seed, lingonberry, corn, caraway red currant, and fig. Earlier well-known correlations, such as that between BP sensitization and some fruits and vegetables, as well as that between mugwort and some spices, were conoborated. Positive correlations were found between self-reported hypersensitivity to crustaceans and SPT with horse. A negative correlation was seen between hypersensitivity to crustaceans and SPT with BP. The foodstuffs that often are reported to cause food hypersensitivity, differ between Sweden/Denmark on one side and the Baltic States and Russia on the other. BP-related foods dominate in Scandinavia, whereas some mugwort-related foods are of more importance in Russia and the Baltic States.

  1. Prevalence and Characteristics of Hyperhidrosis in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Alexander; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Boman, Jens; Nylander, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating which can be primary or secondary. Data about the prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis are scarce for northern Europe. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis focusing on its primary form and describe the quality of life impairments for the affected individuals. Five thousand random individuals aged 18-60 years in Sweden were investigated. The individuals' addresses were obtained from Statens personadressregister, SPAR, which includes all persons who are registered as resident in Sweden. A validated questionnaire regarding hyperhidrosis including the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and 36-item Short Form (SF-36) health survey was sent to each individual. The participants were asked to return the coded questionnaire within 1 week. A total of 1,353 individuals (564 male, 747 female and 42 with unspecified gender) with a mean age of 43.1 ± 11.2 years responded. The prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis was 5.5%, and severe primary hyperhidrosis (HDSS 3-4 points) occurred in 1.4%. Secondary hyperhidrosis was observed in 14.8% of the participants. Our SF-36 results showed that secondary hyperhidrosis causes a significant (p hyperhidrosis impairs primarily the mental health (p Hyperhidrosis affects individuals in adolescence as a focal form while occurring as a generalised form with increasing age. Further, the prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis described in our study is comparable to other studies from the western hemisphere. While secondary, generalised hyperhidrosis impairs both physical and mental aspects of life, primary hyperhidrosis, with the exception of severe cases, mainly affects the mental health. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Scanians, Scania and Scanialand − Ethnic Problems and Regionalisation in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Haggman

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Scania and Scanialand have been subject to diverse fates. From being the original home of the Lombards (Langobards via the core of the Danish realm to a province in the periphery of Sweden from 1658. During the eighteenth century Scania was Swedenized, which however did not entirely result in its being incorporated in the new state. Although the masters have changed, the region has kept its identity especially in the case of language and culture. Sweden's membership in the European Union during the 1990s has brought new possibilities for the old contested region. Scania is from the 1st of January 1997 once again one single administrative province and a part of the Oeresund Region (Denmark − Sweden and of the region Pomerani (with territories in northern Germany and Poland. Fixed links to Denmark increase the growth potential. The fixed link between Copenhagen (Denmark and Malmö (Sweden, to be completed in the year 2000, and possibly a railway tunnel under the Sound between Helsingborg and Helsingoer in the beginning of the 21st century bring added prospects for Scani/Scanialand. It will be part of a region, which can measure up to the foremost in Europe, the United States and Japan.

  3. 78 FR 61981 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Anders Zorn: Sweden's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter...

  4. Pedigree with frontotemporal lobar degeneration – motor neuron disease and Tar DNA binding protein-43 positive neuropathology: genetic linkage to chromosome 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loy Clement T

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD represents a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by neurological signs such as motor neuron-related limb weakness, spasticity and paralysis, parkinsonism and gait disturbances. Linkage to chromosome 9p had been reported for pedigrees with the neurodegenerative disorder, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and motor neuron disease (MND. The objective in this study is to identify the genetic locus in a multi-generational Australian family with FTLD-MND. Methods Clinical review and standard neuropathological analysis of brain sections from affected pedigree members. Genome-wide scan using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphism fine mapping. Examination of candidate genes by direct DNA sequencing. Results Neuropathological examination revealed cytoplasmic deposition of the TDP-43 protein in three affected individuals. Moreover, we identify a family member with clinical Alzheimer's disease, and FTLD-Ubiquitin neuropathology. Genetic linkage and haplotype analyses, defined a critical region between markers D9S169 and D9S1845 on chromosome 9p21. Screening of all candidate genes within this region did not reveal any novel genetic alterations that co-segregate with disease haplotype, suggesting that one individual carrying a meiotic recombination may represent a phenocopy. Re-analysis of linkage data using the new affection status revealed a maximal two-point LOD score of 3.24 and a multipoint LOD score of 3.41 at marker D9S1817. This provides the highest reported LOD scores from a single FTLD-MND pedigree. Conclusion Our reported increase in the minimal disease region should inform other researchers that the chromosome 9 locus may be more telomeric than predicted by published recombination boundaries. Moreover, the existence of a family member with clinical Alzheimer's disease, and who shares the disease

  5. Quantitative genetics of traits associated with hip dysplasia in a canine pedigree constructed by mating dysplastic Labrador Retrievers with unaffected Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Stuart; Todhunter, Rory J; Quaas, Richard; Casella, George; Wu, Rongling; Lust, George; Williams, Alma Jo; Hamilton, Samuel; Dykes, Nathan L; Yeager, Amy; Gilbert, Robert O; Burton-Wurster, Nancy I; Acland, Gregory M

    2002-07-01

    To determine the genetic influence on expression of traits associated with canine hip dysplasia. 193 dogs from an experimental canine pedigree. An experimental canine pedigree was developed for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia by mating dysplastic Labrador Retrievers with nondysplastic Greyhounds. A statistical model was designed to test the effects of Labrador Retriever and Greyhound alleles on age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification, 8-month distraction index, and 8-month dorsolateral subluxation score. The additive effect was significant for age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates (+/-SD) for this trait were 6.4+/-1.95, 10.2+/-2.0, 10.8+/-3.1, 11.4+/-2.1, and 13.6+/-4.6 days of age for Greyhounds, Greyhound backcross dogs, F1 dogs, Labrador Retriever backcross dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The additive effect was also significant for the distraction index. Estimates for this trait were 0.21+/-0.07, 0.29+/-0.15, 0.44+/-0.12, 0.52+/-0.18, and 0.6+/-0.17 for the same groups, respectively. For the dorsolateral subluxation score, additive and dominance effects were significant. Estimates for this trait were 73.5+/-4.1, 71.3+/-6.5, 69.1+/-6.0, 50.6+/-12.9, and 48.4+/-7.7%, respectively, for the same groups. In this canine pedigree, traits associated with canine hip dysplasia are heritable. Phenotypic differences exist among founder dogs of each breed and their crosses. This pedigree should be useful for identification of quantitative trait loci underlying the dysplastic phenotype.

  6. Modelling Regional Climate Change Effects On Potential Natural Ecosystems in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, D.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M.T. [Centre for GeoBiosphere Science, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) - HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 - were used in simulations to explore changes in tree species distributions, vegetation structure, productivity and ecosystem carbon stocks for the late 21st Century, thus accommodating a proportion of the GCM-based and emissions-based uncertainty in future climate development. The simulations represented in this study were of the potential natural vegetation ignoring direct anthropogenic effects. Results suggest that shifts in climatic zones may lead to changes in species distribution and community composition among seven major tree species of natural Swedish forests. All four climate scenarios were associated with an extension of the boreal forest treeline with respect to altitude and latitude. In the boreal and boreo-nemoral zones, the dominance of Norway spruce and to a lesser extent Scots pine was reduced in favour of deciduous broadleaved tree species. The model also predicted substantial increases in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), especially in central Sweden. Expansion of forest cover and increased local biomass enhanced the net carbon sink over central and northern Sweden, despite increased carbon release through decomposition processes in the soil. In southern Sweden, reduced growing season soil moisture levels counterbalanced the positive effects of a longer growing season and increased carbon supply on NPP, with the result that many areas were converted from a sink to a source of carbon by the late 21st

  7. Development of Pedigree Classification Using Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Markers for Giant Grouper Broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus Management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Che Kuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals’ fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  8. Development of pedigree classification using microsatellite and mitochondrial markers for Giant grouper broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus) management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chua, Chee Shin; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-04-30

    Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals' fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD) of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  9. Genetic Pedigree Analysis of the Pilot Breeding Program for the Rediscovered Galapagos Giant Tortoise from Floreana Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua M; Quinzin, Maud C; Scheibe, Elizabeth H; Ciofi, Claudio; Villalva, Fredy; Tapia, Washington; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2018-02-27

    An aim of many captive breeding programs is to increase population sizes for reintroduction and establishment of self-sustaining wild populations. Genetic analyses play a critical role in these programs: monitoring genetic variation, identifying the origin of individuals, and assigning parentage to track family sizes. Here we use genetic pedigree analyses to examine three seasons of a pilot breeding program for the Floreana island Galapagos giant tortoise, C. niger, that had been declared extinct for ~150 years until individuals with mixed ancestry were recently discovered. We determined that eight of nine founding individuals were assigned parentage to at least one of 130 offspring produced, though there was considerable reproductive skew. In addition, we observed that genetic diversity of the progeny was lower than that of the founders. Despite the observed reproductive skew, we did not see evidence for assortative mating based on relatedness, but there was a trend towards reduced fitness when more related individuals bred. Finally, we found that the majority of progeny had ancestry assigned to the Floreana species (mean±SE = 0.51±0.02), though individual estimates varied. The success of these pilot seasons bodes well for a larger breeding program to help restore the previously extinct tortoise from Floreana island. Future efforts should continue to monitor for reproductive skew and assortative mating in order to maintain allelic diversity. We would also recommend forming smaller breeding groups and rotating individuals among them to prevent long-term reproductive skew among pairs.

  10. Female reproductive success variation in a Pseudotsuga menziesii seed orchard as revealed by pedigree reconstruction from a bulk seed collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Funda, Tomas; Lai, Ben S K

    2010-01-01

    The impact of female reproductive success on the mating system, gene flow, and genetic diversity of the filial generation was studied using a random sample of 801 bulk seed from a 49-clone Pseudotsuga menziesii seed orchard. We used microsatellite DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction to assign each seed's maternal and paternal parents and directly estimated clonal reproductive success, selfing rate, and the proportion of seed sired by outside pollen sources. Unlike most family array mating system and gene flow studies conducted on natural and experimental populations, which used an equal number of seeds per maternal genotype and thus generating unbiased inferences only on male reproductive success, the random sample we used was a representative of the entire seed crop; therefore, provided a unique opportunity to draw unbiased inferences on both female and male reproductive success variation. Selfing rate and the number of seed sired by outside pollen sources were found to be a function of female fertility variation. This variation also substantially and negatively affected female effective population size. Additionally, the results provided convincing evidence that the use of clone size as a proxy to fertility is questionable and requires further consideration.

  11. A novel AVPR2 gene mutation of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in an Asian pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Hong; Li, Qiang; Wei, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Yan; Qu, Hui-Qi; Zhu, Mei

    2016-10-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia are the characteristics of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI). Approximately 90% of all patients with CNDI have X-linked hereditary disease, which is due to a mutation of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 ( AVPR2) gene. This case report describes a 54-year-old male with polyuria and polydipsia and several male members of his pedigree who had the same symptoms. The proband was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus using a water-deprivation and arginine vasopressin stimulation test. Genomic DNA from the patient and his family members was extracted and the AVPR2 gene was sequenced. A novel missense mutation of a cytosine to guanine transition at position 972 (c.972C > G) was found, which resulted in the substitution of isoleucine for methionine at amino acid position 324 (p.I324M) in the seventh transmembrane domain of the protein. The proband's mother and daughter were heterozygous for this mutation. The novel mutation of the AVPR2 gene further broadens the phenotypic spectrum of the AVPR2 gene.

  12. Population and pedigree studies reveal a lack of association between the dopamine D sub 2 receptor gene and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolos, A.M.; Goldman, D.; Brown, G.L. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Lucas-Derse, S.; Ramsburg, M. (Program Resources Inc., Frederick, MD (USA))

    1990-12-26

    Using the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor clone {lambda}hD2G1, Blum et al recently found that the D{sub 2}/Taq 1 allele (A1) was present in 69{percent} of 35 deceased alcoholics but in only 20{percent} of an equal number of controls. To assess this association further, the authors evaluated the D{sub 2}/Taq 1 polymorphism and a single-strand conformation polymorphism detected by polymerase chain reaction and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis (PCR-SSCP) of the 3{prime} noncoding region of the D{sub 2} receptor gene. They studied 40 unrelated white alcoholics, 127 racially matched controls, and two white pedigrees. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version (SADS-L) clinical diagnostic interviews were rated blindly by two clinicians. Alcoholics were subtyped according to age of onset, severity, presence of antisocial personality, and family history. No significant differences in either D{sub 2}/Taq 1 or PCR-SSCP allele frequencies were observed between alcoholics, subpopulations of alcoholics, or controls. The PCR-SSCP polymorphism provided independent information against linkage at the D{sub 2} receptor locus. This study does not support a widespread or consistent association between the D{sub 2} receptor gene and alcoholism.

  13. Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Factor IX Gene Intron 3 Mutation in a Hemophilia B Pedigree in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hua Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hemophilia B is caused by coagulation defects in the factor IX gene located in Xq27.1 on the X chromosome. A wide range of mutations, showing extensive molecular heterogeneity, have been described in hemophilia B patients. Our study was aimed at genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the hemophilia B pedigree in China. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all the coding regions was conducted in hemophilia B patients and carriers. Prenatal diagnosis of the proband was conducted at 20 weeks. RESULTS: We identified the novel point mutation 10.389 A>G, located upstream of the intron 3 acceptor site in hemophilia B patients. The fetus of the proband’s cousin was identified as a carrier. CONCLUSION: Our identification of a novel mutation in the F9 gene associated with hemophilia B provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of this genetically inherited disorder and also represents the basis of prenatal diagnosis.

  14. A novel missense mutation of the TYR gene in a pedigree with oculocutaneous albinism type 1 from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ying; Wei, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Wei; He, Xin; Lian, Shi

    2011-10-01

    The mutation of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene results in oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1), an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. OCA1 is the most common type of OCA in the Chinese population. Hence, the TYR gene was tested in this study. We also delineated the genetic analysis of OCA1 in a Chinese family. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood leukocytes of a proband and his family. Mutational analysis at the TYR locus by DNA sequencing was used to screen five exons, including the intron/exon junctions. A pedigree chart was drawn and the fundus of the eyes of the proband was also examined. A novel missense mutation p.I151S on exon 1, and homozygous TYR mutant alleles were identified in the proband. None of the mutants was identified among the 100 normal control subjects. Genetic analysis of the proband's wife showed normal alleles in the TYR gene. Thus, the fetus was predicated a carrier of OCA1 with a normal appearance. This study provided new information about a novel mutation, p.I151S, in the TYR gene in a Chinese family with OCA1. Further investigation of the proband would be helpful to determine the effects of this mutation on TYR activity.

  15. Relationships among quantitative traits in F3, F4 and F5 wheat hybrids obtained by pedigree and bulk selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships among quantitative traits of wheat were analyzed in parents and their F3, F4 and F5 hybrids. Three female parents (Briscard, Carifen 12 and Rescler were crossed with two male parents (Francuska and PKB-Prelivka. Same crosses were repeated 4 years, from 1996 to 1999. Hybrids were obtained via pedigree and bulk selection. In year 2000 the field experiments were set up with all parental and hybrid material, at the Institute 'PKB INI Agroekonomik', in Padinska Skela, near Belgrade. Six traits were measured: plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain weight per spike. In parental genotypes, it was found grain mass per spike was in significant and positive correlation with 1000 grain mass and number of grains per spike. As in parents, correlation between grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight was almost functional in F3, F4 and F5 hybrids. However, correlation between grain mass per spike and number of grains per spike was negative or slight positive in hybrid descendents, what is surprising because it is oppositely to the parents. Similar values of correlation coefficients were found in both applied methods of selection. This fact shows correlations change between generations. Grain mass per spike depends on a 1000 grain mass in both, parental and hybrid generations. Stable relationship between traits could be use for selection of high yielding genotypes.

  16. Genetic genealogy comes of age: perspectives on the use of deep-rooted pedigrees in human population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, M H D; Van Geystelen, A; van Oven, M; Decorte, R

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we promote the implementation of extensive genealogical data in population genetic studies. Genealogical records can provide valuable information on the origin of DNA donors in a population genetic study, going beyond the commonly collected data such as residence, birthplace, language, and self-reported ethnicity. Recent studies demonstrated that extended genealogical data added to surname analysis can be crucial to detect signals of (past) population stratification and to interpret the population structure in a more objective manner. Moreover, when in-depth pedigree data are combined with haploid markers, it is even possible to disentangle signals of temporal differentiation within a population genetic structure during the last centuries. Obtaining genealogical data for all DNA donors in a population genetic study is a labor-intensive task but the vastly growing (genetic) genealogical databases, due to the broad interest of the public, are making this job more time-efficient if there is a guarantee for sufficient data quality. At the end, we discuss the advantages and pitfalls of using genealogy within sampling campaigns and we provide guidelines for future population genetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A novel nonsense mutation of the GPR143 gene identified in a Chinese pedigree with ocular albinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naihong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular basis of ocular albinism type I in a Chinese pedigree. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed on 4 patients, 7 carriers and 17 unaffected individuals in this five-generation family. All coding exons of four-point-one (4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM domain-containing 7 (FRMD7 and G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequenced and compared with a reference database. Ocular albinism and nystagmus were found in all patients of this family. Macular hypoplasia was present in the patients including the proband. A novel nonsense hemizygous mutation c.807T>A in the GPR143 gene was identified in four patients and the heterozygous mutation was found in seven asymptomatic individuals. This mutation is a substitution of tyrosine for adenine which leads to a premature stop codon at position 269 (p.Y269X of GPR143. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report that p.Y269X mutation of GPR143 gene is responsible for the pathogenesis of familial ocular albinism. These results expand the mutation spectrum of GPR143, and demonstrate the clinical characteristics of ocular albinism type I in Chinese population.

  18. Whole exome sequencing identifies three recessive FIG4 mutations in an apparently dominant pedigree with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Manoj P; Waddell, Leigh; Lenk, Guy M; Kaur, Simranpreet; MacArthur, Daniel G; Meisler, Miriam H; Clarke, Nigel F

    2014-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is genetically heterogeneous and classification based on motor nerve conduction velocity and inheritance is used to direct genetic testing. With the less common genetic forms of CMT, identifying the causative genetic mutation by Sanger sequencing of individual genes can be time-consuming and costly. Next-generation sequencing technologies show promise for clinical testing in diseases where a similar phenotype is caused by different genes. We report the unusual occurrence of CMT4J, caused by mutations in FIG4, in a apparently dominant pedigree. The affected proband and her mother exhibit different disease severities associated with different combinations of compound heterozygous FIG4 mutations, identified by whole exome sequencing. The proband was also shown to carry a de novo nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene, which may contribute to her more severe phenotype. This study is a cautionary reminder that in families with two generations affected, explanations other than dominant inheritance are possible, such as recessive inheritance due to three mutations segregating in the family. It also emphasises the advantages of next-generation sequencing approaches that screen multiple CMT genes at once for patients in whom the common genes have been excluded. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Public awareness of palliative care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Caroline; Tishelman, Carol; Benkel, Inger; Fürst, Carl Johan; Molander, Ulla; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Sauter, Sylvia; Lindqvist, Olav

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of palliative care (PC) in a general Swedish population. We developed an e-survey based on a similar study conducted in Northern Ireland, consisting of 10 questions. Closed questions were primarily analyzed using descriptive statistics. Open questions were subject to inductive qualitative analysis. The study utilized a population sample of 7684 persons aged 18-66, of which 2020 responded, stratified by gender, age and region. Most participants reported 'no' ( n = 827, 41%) or 'some' ( n = 863, 43%) awareness of PC. Being female or older were associated with higher levels of awareness, as was a university-level education, working in a healthcare setting and having a friend or family member receiving PC. Most common sources of knowledge were the media, close friends and relatives receiving PC, as well as working in a healthcare setting. Aims of PC were most frequently identified as 'care before death', 'pain relief', 'dignity' and a 'peaceful death'. The preferred place of care and death was one's own home. The main barriers to raising awareness about PC were fear, shame and taboo, along with perceived lack of information and/or personal relevance. The term 'palliative care' was said to be unfamiliar by many. A number of strategies to enhance awareness and access to PC were suggested, largely reflecting the previously identified barriers. This survey found limited awareness of palliative care in an adult sample of the Swedish general public ≤ 66 years, and points to a more widespread disempowerment surrounding end-of-life issues.

  20. Education and Youth Employment in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Gosta; Petersen, K. Helveg

    Part one of this book on education and youth employment gives extensive data and information on the behavior and attitudes of youth in Sweden, explanations for rising unemployment in that country, the government's policies to combat youth unemployment, and a description of the Swedish educational system. The emergence of the permissive society in…

  1. The Ultimate in Flexitime: From Sweden, by Way of Volvo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    In the Volvo component plant on Koping, Sweden, an innovative system of multiple shifts and flexible working hours is offered to employees. The system meets the needs of those who are available for work at certain times and helps curtail turnover and absenteeism. (JOW)

  2. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  3. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  4. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  5. This is how we manage Sweden's radioactive waste. Activities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    SKB operates systems and facilities for the management and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste in Sweden. SKB has conducted extensive R, D and D work with regard to constructing a spent fuel encapsulation plant and a deep repository in crystalline bedrock. This annual report treats all the different activities without going into technical details

  6. Comparison of the energy structures in Denmark, France and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2003-12-01

    Denmark is an example of country which involves massively in the renewable energies development and in the energy efficiency, since 1980. Facing this policy, France and Sweden produce their energy without fossil energies, mainly from nuclear and hydroelectric power. These countries energy policies, providing not much of carbon dioxide emission, are compared by the author. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries. Sweden 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Sweden, including recommendations on future policy developments. Electricity is a focal point of Sweden's energy policy. After a shift in the energy mix to favour electricity in the early 1970's, nuclear and hydro power each make up about half of the electricity supply. Two key events have occurred since then: the 1980 referendum, which calls for the phase-out of all nuclear plants by 2010; the recent restructuring and liberalization of the electricity sector with the creation of a Nordic electricity market. In this context, the report argues the case for making a decision now on the nuclear issue to clarify Sweden's electricity future. Other key issues highlighted in the report include Sweden's use of economic policy instruments such as a carbon tax to achieve energy and environment goals, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote biofuels and energy efficiency. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author). 13 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appends

  8. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  9. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  10. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  11. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  12. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  13. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  14. Decomposing the Differences in Cancer Mortality between Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    Cancer survival tends to be lower in Denmark than in comparable countries like Sweden. It has been suggested that this difference can be partly explained by higher tobacco use by Danes than Swedes and a more adverse stage at diagnosis distribution. In this paper, we aim to decompose the differenc...

  15. Individualized Mathematics Teaching. Results from the IMU Project in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Inger

    The Individual Mathematics Teaching Project (IMU) has been under development in the upper level (grades 7-9) of the comprehensive school in Sweden since 1964. Its goals are (1) to construct and test self-instruction study material in mathematics, (2) to find suitable teaching methods and work forms for the use of this material, (3) to try out…

  16. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wadmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice: The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion: Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues.

  17. Ad Hoc Conference on the Education of Migrants. Country Report (Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education, Strasbourg (France).

    Sweden, like most European countries, never set out to be an immigration country. Since its Government and Parliament have subscribed to the principle of maximum mobility across national frontiers, more than 400,000 foreign citizens and 200,000 former aliens reside in Sweden today. Immigration to Sweden is not completely free, though. A policy of…

  18. 76 FR 23321 - New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, New Sweden Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the New Sweden...

  19. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  20. Pedigree-Based Analysis in a Multiparental Population of Octoploid Strawberry Reveals QTL Alleles Conferring Resistance to Phytophthora cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangandi, Jozer; Verma, Sujeet; Osorio, Luis; Peres, Natalia A.; van de Weg, Eric; Whitaker, Vance M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of traits in breeding programs can be critical for making genetic progress. Important factors include the number of loci controlling a trait, allele frequencies at those loci, and allele effects in breeding germplasm. To this end, multiparental populations offer many advantages for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses compared to biparental populations. These include increased power for QTL detection, the ability to sample a larger number of segregating loci and alleles, and estimation of allele effects across diverse genetic backgrounds. Here, we investigate the genetic architecture of resistance to crown rot disease caused by Phytophthora cactorum in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), using connected full-sib families from a breeding population. Clonal replicates of > 1100 seedlings from 139 full-sib families arising from 61 parents were control-inoculated during two consecutive seasons. Subgenome-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were mapped in allo-octoploid strawberry (2n = 8 × = 56), and FlexQTL software was utilized to perform a Bayesian, pedigree-based QTL analysis. A major locus on linkage group (LG) 7D, which we name FaRPc2, accounts for most of the genetic variation for resistance. Four predominant SNP haplotypes were detected in the FaRPc2 region, two of which are strongly associated with two different levels of resistance, suggesting the presence of multiple resistance alleles. The phenotypic effects of FaRPc2 alleles across trials and across numerous genetic backgrounds make this locus a highly desirable target for genetic improvement of resistance in cultivated strawberry. PMID:28592652

  1. Elevated risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and blood disorders in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees suggest new candidate genes in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.B. [Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    1994-09-15

    Among relatives of Ashkenazi schizophrenic probands the rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 3/1,000, compared to expected population rates of approximately 2/100,000. Relative risk of bleeding disorders, including hematologic cancers, was increased more than three-fold compared to controls. Co-occurrence of motor neuron disease and blood dyscrasias, accompanied by psychosis, has long been recognized. A virally-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed. However, the familial co-occurrence of these three disease entities raises the possibility that the disease constellation be considered as a manifestation of a common underlying genetic defect. Such expansion of the spectrum of affectation might enhance the power of both candidate gene and linkage studies. Based on these findings, the loci suggested as candidate regions in schizophrenia include a potential hot spot on chromosome 21q21-q22, involving the superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor protein genes. Alternatively, genes on other chromosomes involved in the expression, transcription, or regulation of these genes, or associated with the illnesses of high frequency in these pedigrees are suggested. Candidates include the choroid plexus transport protein, transthyretin at 18q11.2-q12.1; the t(14;18)(q22;21) characterizing B-cell lymphoma-2, the most common form of hematologic cancer; and the 14q24 locus of early onset Alzheimer`s disease, c-Fos, transforming growth factor beta 3, and heat shock protein A2. Expression of hematologic cancers and the suggested candidate genes are known to involve retinoid pathways, and retinoid disregulation has been proposed as a cause of schizophrenia. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Bayesian analysis of additive and dominance genetic variances in noninbred pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Patrik; Hallander, Jon; Hoti, Fabian; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2008-06-01

    Accurate and fast computation of quantitative genetic variance parameters is of great importance in both natural and breeding populations. For experimental designs with complex relationship structures it can be important to include both additive and dominance variance components in the statistical model. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian Gibbs sampling approach for estimation of additive and dominance genetic variances in the traditional infinitesimal model. The method can handle general pedigrees without inbreeding. To optimize between computational time and good mixing of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains, we used a hybrid Gibbs sampler that combines a single site and a blocked Gibbs sampler. The speed of the hybrid sampler and the mixing of the single-site sampler were further improved by the use of pretransformed variables. Two traits (height and trunk diameter) from a previously published diallel progeny test of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and two large simulated data sets with different levels of dominance variance were analyzed. We also performed Bayesian model comparison on the basis of the posterior predictive loss approach. Results showed that models with both additive and dominance components had the best fit for both height and diameter and for the simulated data with high dominance. For the simulated data with low dominance, we needed an informative prior to avoid the dominance variance component becoming overestimated. The narrow-sense heritability estimates in the Scots pine data were lower compared to the earlier results, which is not surprising because the level of dominance variance was rather high, especially for diameter. In general, the hybrid sampler was considerably faster than the blocked sampler and displayed better mixing properties than the single-site sampler.

  3. Risk factors and potential preventive measures for nephropatia epidemica in Sweden 2011–2012: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Gherasim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nephropatia epidemica (NE, a relatively mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV, is endemic in northern Sweden. We aim to study the risk factors associated with NE in this region. Methods: We conducted a matched case–control study between June 2011 and July 2012. We compared confirmed NE cases with randomly selected controls, matched by age, sex, and place of infection or residence. We analyzed the association between NE and several occupational, environmental, and behavioral exposures using conditional logistic regression. Results: We included in the final analysis 114 cases and 300 controls, forming 246 case–control pairs. Living in a house with an open space beneath, making house repairs, living less than 50 m from the forest, seeing rodents, and smoking were significantly associated with NE. Conclusion: Our results could orient public health policies targeting these risk factors and subsequently reduce the NE burden in the region.

  4. Climate in Sweden during the past millennium - Evidence from proxy data, instrumental data and model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, Anders; Gouirand, Isabelle; Schoning, Kristian; Wohlfarth, Barbara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology; Kjellstroem, Erik; Rummukainen, Markku [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden). Rossby Centre; Jong, Rixt de [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Geology; Linderholm, Hans [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Zorita, Eduardo [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Knowledge about climatic variations is essential for SKB in its safety assessments of a geological repository for spent nuclear waste. There is therefore a need for information about possible future climatic variations under a range of possible climatic states. However, predictions of future climate in any deterministic sense are still beyond our reach. We can, nevertheless, try to estimate the magnitude of future climate variability and change due to natural forcing factors, by means of inferences drawn from natural climate variability in the past. Indeed, the climate of the future will be shaped by the sum of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing, as well as the internal climate variability. The aim here is to review and analyse the knowledge about Swedish climate variability, essentially during the past millennium. Available climate proxy data and long instrumental records provide empirical information on past climatic changes. We also demonstrate how climate modelling can be used to extend such knowledge. We use output from a global climate model driven with reconstructed radiative forcings (solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas forcing), to provide boundary conditions for a regional climate model. The regional model provides more details of the climate than the global model, and we develop a simulated climate history for Sweden that is complete in time and space and physically consistent. We use output from a regional model simulation for long periods in the last millennium, to study annual mean temperature, precipitation and runoff for the northern and southern parts of Sweden. The simulated data are used to place corresponding instrumental records for the 20th century into a plausible historical perspective. We also use output from the regional model to study how the frequency distribution of the daily temperature, precipitation, runoff and evaporation at Forsmark and Oskarshamn could have varied between unusually warm and cold 30-year periods during the

  5. Climate in Sweden during the past millennium - Evidence from proxy data, instrumental data and model simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, Anders; Gouirand, Isabelle; Schoning, Kristian; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2006-12-01

    Knowledge about climatic variations is essential for SKB in its safety assessments of a geological repository for spent nuclear waste. There is therefore a need for information about possible future climatic variations under a range of possible climatic states. However, predictions of future climate in any deterministic sense are still beyond our reach. We can, nevertheless, try to estimate the magnitude of future climate variability and change due to natural forcing factors, by means of inferences drawn from natural climate variability in the past. Indeed, the climate of the future will be shaped by the sum of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing, as well as the internal climate variability. The aim here is to review and analyse the knowledge about Swedish climate variability, essentially during the past millennium. Available climate proxy data and long instrumental records provide empirical information on past climatic changes. We also demonstrate how climate modelling can be used to extend such knowledge. We use output from a global climate model driven with reconstructed radiative forcings (solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas forcing), to provide boundary conditions for a regional climate model. The regional model provides more details of the climate than the global model, and we develop a simulated climate history for Sweden that is complete in time and space and physically consistent. We use output from a regional model simulation for long periods in the last millennium, to study annual mean temperature, precipitation and runoff for the northern and southern parts of Sweden. The simulated data are used to place corresponding instrumental records for the 20th century into a plausible historical perspective. We also use output from the regional model to study how the frequency distribution of the daily temperature, precipitation, runoff and evaporation at Forsmark and Oskarshamn could have varied between unusually warm and cold 30-year periods during the

  6. The MTO concept and organisational learning at Forsmark NPP, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Olle; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)

  7. Reception and dissemination of American amateur telescope making in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnfelt, Johan

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the appropriation of the American Amateur Telescope Making (ATM) movement in Sweden in the 1940s and 1950s. A key player was the Swedish Astronomical Society, which in 1943, and inspired by the American example, launched a campaign to raise interest in ATM and disseminate the necessary knowledge amongst potential amateur astronomers. The campaign was successful and in just a few years it quadrupled the number of amateurs with access to telescopes. Swedish amateurs kept on building telescopes through the 1950s, but the activities then stalled with the introduction of cheap mass-market telescopes. The appropriation of ATM in Sweden is an important example of how technical innovations have shaped the course of amateur astronomy.

  8. A. Butovsky about the system of physical education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of A. Butovsky's views on the physical education in Sweden, and, first of all, on the system of Swedish gymnastics. Alexey Butovsky got acquainted with it in 1892 while visiting that country on a mission trip, and later he generalized that system in some of his works. Positive and negative points of Swedish physical education, the role of the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Stockholm are examined, and some prominent figures of Sweden, who governed it at different periods, are characterized. Aspects of various exercises from this system are accentuated. It is marked that the Swedish gymnastics on the orientation, on principle differed composition of exercises and method of their application from other gymnastic systems in XIX century. It is underlined that exercises of the Swedish gymnastics differ naturalness of poses and motions, absence in them of maximal efforts, hard and rough motions.

  9. Public perceptions and acceptance of intensive forestry in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemström, Kerstin; Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-03-01

    The use of intensive forestry on part of the forested area in Sweden increases the production of forest biomass and enables an increased use of such biomass to mitigate climate change. However, with increasing conflicting interests in forests and forestry, the success of such a strategy depends on the public acceptance. In this paper, the results of a mail survey show that although a majority of the general public in Sweden supports measures to increase forest growth, they oppose the use of intensive forestry practices such as the cultivation of exotic tree species, clones, and forest fertilization. The acceptance of such practices is mainly influenced by the perceptions of their environmental consequences. Public acceptance was highest for forest fertilization, whereas clone cultivation was the least accepted practice.

  10. The Road to Parenthood: Income and First Births in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Ernesto Germán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of income on the risk of having the first births in Sweden from 1968 to 2009. Variations by gender are given particular atention. The study follows men and women from the moment they turn 18 until they enter parenthood and it is based on register-based data covering the entire population of Sweden. Complementary log-log models show that there is a positive association between income and the risk of childbearing. The association gets stronger over time and the differences between men and women diminish. Gender differences appear when the income effect is related to the demand for work in the economy. An income above the median does not increase the risk of childbearing for women when the demand for work is relatively high.

  11. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, V.; Ericson, A.

    1991-01-01

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  12. Geological maps and cross-sections of southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornfaelt, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    The report is meant to give complementary information to the maps of precambrian and sedimentary rocks, which have been compiled by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), by order of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) and South Sweden Power Supply (SK). The local branch of the Geological Survey in Goeteborg has compiled the maps of the bedrock Goeteborg and Boras. The purpose of the work was to compile maps of the bedrock to the scale of 1:250000 as well as to the scale of 1:1000000, covering an area corresponding to the mapsheets to the scale of 1:250000: Goeteborg, Boraas, Joenkoeping, Oskarshamn, Malmoe, Karlskrona and Kalmar. Also lineament maps to the scale of 1:250000, covering the same area, have been compiled. (orig./DG)

  13. Giuseppe Garibaldi and Sweden: Between Solidarity and Scandinavism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Quirico

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The book entitled Scandinavia: Her Fears and Her Hopes, written in French, was published on February 29, 1856, in Paris, where representatives of the European Powers were discussing peace negotiations with Russia ensuing the end of the Crimean War. The author, Gustaf Lallerstedt, a moderate liberal, a diplomat, and majority shareholder of the liberal newspaper "Aftonbladet", was first in outlining a parallelism between the proactive role played by Piedmont in Italy's unification and the similar one that Sweden, in his opinion, ought to take upon herself vis-à-vis Scandinavian unity. Lallerstedt's aim was also to warn the European nations against the Russian threat; in this perspective, strengthening the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway (established in 1814 could provide an effective remedy.

  14. Radioactive waste management in Sweden experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstroem, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since some years, the necessary facilities are in operation in Sweden for the safe transport and storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel from nuclear power production. These include a final repository, SFR, for short-lived low and intermediate level waste, a central interim storage facility, CLAB, for spent fuel and a sea-based transport system. The experiences from the operation of these facilities have generally been very good. The next step is the development of an encapsulation facility and a deep repository for the spent nuclear fuel. R and D-work on direct disposal have been conducted in Sweden for more than 20 years. In the preferred method the spent fuel will be encapsulated in a copper canister with a steel internal structure, and the canister will then be disposed of at about 500 metres depth in the Swedish bedrock. The siting and design of the encapsulation facility and the deep repository is now in progress. (author)

  15. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  16. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  17. Preliminary study of the heating market in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The successive deregulation of the market for electric power, in Sweden as well as abroad, results in an increased competition in generation and trade of electricity. This market that previously was known for its oligopoly in the production sector and its monopoly in the distribution sector has now been opened for competition. This study is focused on the district heating sector, because it is still comparatively unregulated, and because it partly comprises what is called natural monopolies

  18. The Rise of the Nuclear System of Innovation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas; Fjaestad, Maja

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the ambition is to analyze the role of the government in relation to private industry in the development of the nuclear power infrastructure in Sweden in the period of 1945-1970. Secondly, the purpose is to account for what was actually made in terms of education, research and financial funding in 'the Swedish line' and to assess its importance for the swift take over by the light water reactor system

  19. The current state of the challenges for VET in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson Thunqvist, Daniel; Hallqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The present report is based on a review of previous research and it expands an earlier report2(Olofsson & Persson Thunqvist, 2014). By highlighting the various forms of initial VET that havebeen established in Sweden during the last decades (1991 and onwards), the present report willilluminate how different challenges have been tackled in various ways. What are the experiencesof different VET-tracks in providing access to higher education as well as work-based learningand skilled employme...

  20. Education for Growth in Sweden and the World.

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger; Mikael Lindahl

    1998-01-01

    This paper tries to reconcile evidence on the effect of schooling on income and on GDP growth from the microeconometric and empirical macro growth literatures. Much microeconometric evidence suggests that education is an important causal determinant of income for individuals within countries as diverse as Sweden and the United States. At a national level, however, recent studies have found that increases in educational attainment are unrelated to economic growth. This finding is shown to be a...

  1. Squamation in Andreolepis from the late Silurian of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Donglei

    2010-01-01

    The origin of osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods) dates back to the Late Silurian, but theearly evolution of osteichthyans is poorly understood. Andreolepis is one of the oldest knownosteichthyans, but exclusively documented by detached and fragmented dermal microremains.Nevertheless, Andreolepis has unequivocally been attributed to the osteichthyan stem group.A variety of isolated scales of Andreolepis from Gotland, Sweden provides a large dataset,which would potentially improve our un...

  2. The sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Lars; Devasthale, Abhay; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-09-01

    For a high-latitude country like Sweden snowfall is an important contributor to the regional water cycle. Furthermore, snowfall impacts surface properties, affects atmospheric thermodynamics, has implications for traffic and logistics management, disaster preparedness, and also impacts climate through changes in surface albedo and turbulent heat fluxes. For Sweden it has been shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, or weather states, are important for precipitation variability. Although the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation has been investigated for rainfall there are no studies focused on the sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden.In this work we investigate the response of snowfall to eight selected weather states. These weather states consist of four dominant wind directions together with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns and enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The presented analysis is based on multiple data sources, such as ground-based radar measurements, satellite observations, spatially interpolated in situ observations, and reanalysis data. The data from these sources converge to underline the sensitivity of falling snow over Sweden to the different weather states.In this paper we examine both average snowfall intensities and snowfall accumulations associated with the different weather states. It is shown that, even though the heaviest snowfall intensities occur during conditions with winds from the south-west, the largest contribution to snowfall accumulation arrives with winds from the south-east. Large differences in snowfall due to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are shown as well as a strong effect of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns. Satellite observations are used to reveal the vertical structures of snowfall during the different weather states.

  3. Business as Usual: Nobility and Landed Estates in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Gary; Mats Olsson

    2017-01-01

    The majority of European countries which have had an important tradition of manorialism have undergone profound land reforms, redistributing land from large landowners and giving small-scale farmers and the landless legal rights to land ownership, with the exceptions of Sweden and England. This article will outline the particular Swedish case, where large estates have been able to persist largely intact from the Middle Ages through to the current day, and explore possible reasons for Sweden’s...

  4. Training and accreditation for radon professionals in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Radon training courses and seminars on radon have been arranged in Sweden since the early 1980s. A commercial educational company initiated the first regular training courses in 1987. Up to 1990 about 400 persons had attended courses in radon measurement and radon mitigation methods. In 1991 the training programme was taken over by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI. Today SSI's Radon Training Programme comprises three different two-day courses, a Basic Radon Course and two continuation courses: Radon Measurements and Radon in Water. Until 2003 SSI also arranged courses about Radon Remedial Measures and Radon Investigation and Risk Map Production. The courses are arranged twice a year. Altogether, about 750 municipal environmental health officers and technicians from private companies have been educated in the SSI training programme between 1991 and 2003. The continuation courses are completed with an examination, consisting of a theoretical test. The names of the persons who pass are being published in a list that is found on the SSI web site. Since no certification system is currently in place for radon professionals in Sweden, this list helps people who need to get in contact with radon counsellors to find one in their area and is used by authorities as well as private house-owners. Since 1991 it has been possible to obtain accreditation for measurements of indoor radon in Sweden and since 1997, also for measurements of radon in water. Although accreditation is voluntary in Sweden, accredited laboratories perform most measurements, both for indoor air and water. Passing the examination in the SSI training courses is a condition for accreditation. The Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment, SWEDAC, is in charge of the accreditation. So far, three major companies have obtained accreditation for measurement of indoor radon and four have been accredited for measurements of radon in water

  5. Majority versus Minority: ‘Governmentality’ and Muslims in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.

  6. Effects of climate change on tularemia disease activity in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Patrik; Sjostedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Tularaemia is a vector-borne infectious disease. A large majority of cases transmitted to humans by bloodfeeding arthropods occur during the summer season and is linked to increased temperatures. Therefore, the effect of climate change is likely to have an effect on tularaemia transmission patterns in highly endemic areas of Sweden. In this report, we use simulated climate change scenario data and empirical data of temperatures critical to tularaemia transmission to forecast tularaemia outbre...

  7. Effects of climate change on tularaemia disease activity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Patrik; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2009-11-11

    Tularaemia is a vector-borne infectious disease. A large majority of cases transmitted to humans by blood-feeding arthropods occur during the summer season and is linked to increased temperatures. Therefore, the effect of climate change is likely to have an effect on tularaemia transmission patterns in highly endemic areas of Sweden. In this report, we use simulated climate change scenario data and empirical data of temperatures critical to tularaemia transmission to forecast tularaemia outbreak activity. The five high-endemic counties: Dalarna, Gävleborg, Norrbotten, Värmland and Orebro represent only 14.6% of the total population of Sweden, but have recorded 40.1-81.1% of the number of annual human tularaemia in Sweden from 1997 until 2008. We project here earlier starts and a later termination of future tularaemia outbreaks for the time period 2010-2100. For five localised outbreak areas; Gagnef (Dalarna), Ljusdal (Gävleborg), Harads (Norrbotten), Karlstad (Värmland) and Orebro municipality (Orebro), the climate scenario suggests an approximately 2 degrees C increase in monthly average summer temperatures leading to increases in outbreak durations ranging from 3.5 weeks (Harads) to 6.6 weeks (Karlstad) between 2010 and 2100. In contrast, an analysis of precipitation scenarios indicates fairly stable projected levels of precipitation during the summer months. Thus, there should not be an increased abundance of late summer mosquitoes that are believed to be main vectors for transmission to humans in these areas. In conclusion, the results indicate that the future climate changes will lead to an increased burden of tularaemia in high-endemic areas of Sweden during the coming decades.

  8. A demand model for domestic air travel in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

     The aim of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for domestic air travel in Sweden. Using national aggregated data on passenger quantities and fares, price elasticities of demand are estimated with an unbalanced, in terms of stationarity, yet well performing model. The analysis also includes estimates of cross-price elasticities for the main transport substitutes to air travel, rail and road. The robustness of the results is enforced by a primitive division of business and...

  9. Veganism as status passage: the process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Christel L; Rönnlund, Ulla; Johansson, Gunnar; Dahlgren, Lars

    2003-08-01

    In a town in northern Sweden, 3.3% of the 15-year-old adolescents were vegans in 1996. This study describes the process of becoming a vegan among adolescents and interprets the informants' descriptions by constructing categories, which later on were related to relevant theories. Group interviews were conducted with three vegans and in-depth interviews were performed with three other vegan adolescents. The methodology was grounded theory and the adolescents' perceptions were analyzed in the framework of symbolic interactionism. Three types of vegans were identified: the Conformed Vegan, the Organized Vegan, and the Individualistic Vegan. The decision to become a vegan was reported to be influenced by perceived internal reasons such as ethics, health, distaste for meat, and preference for vegetarian food. In addition, friends, family, school, media, and music influenced the decision to become a vegan. The perceived consequences of becoming a vegan were positive as well as negative and differed between the three types of vegans. Veganism as a new type of status passage with specific characteristics was illustrated. No modifications or new properties were discovered that add to the theory of status passage which indicates that the general model is applicable also in a vegan context.

  10. Long term variations of extreme rainfall in Denmark and southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    A high number of studies have detected changes in the observed heavy rainfall in Northern and Central Europe, all adding to the debate on anthropogenic climate change and its potential impact on rainfall extremes. However, it is equally relevant to understand natural variations on which the anthropogenic changes are imposed. This study identifies multi-decadal variations in daily rainfall extremes from Denmark and southern Sweden, with a recurrence level relevant for flood hazard analysis. Based on smoothed series it is concluded that the frequency of the extreme events shows both a general increase from 1874 to present and an oscillation with a cycle of 25-40 years. The magnitude of the extreme events also oscillates, but with a cycle of 15-30 years and a smaller amplitude. Regional analysis of a larger Danish dataset with a shorter observations period found a countrywide low period in 1970-1979. It is furthermore concluded that the oscillation signal along the west coast of Denmark is dominated by the changeable coastal weather of this region. The eastern part of Denmark shows a more consistent signal, which partly can be explained by an index derived from sea level pressure differences between Gibraltar and Haparanda. The identification of a cyclic pattern in the extreme rainfall is highly relevant for our understanding of the non-stationarities in flood hazard.

  11. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Mellander, H.; Moberg, L.; Edvardson, K.; Nyblom, L.

    1997-01-01

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137 Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  12. The seismicity of southern Sweden 1979-1984, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1985-04-01

    This report is the final one in a research project at the National Defence Research Institute (FOA) in Sweden on the seismicity of the Baltic Shield. The project was financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. A digital dense seismic network has been established and operated for 4.5 years and detailed source information of about 200 Swedish earthquakes has been achieved. These results have been earlier reported and published. In this final report some new results of general interest are given. These results concern the focal depths of the Swedish seismic activity and their relation to the present knowledge about stick-slip motion of granites for varying pressures and temperatures. The agreement is very good with most seismic activity in the range 7-18 km. One earthquake has been found to have a most likely focal depth just below the Moho discontinuity while no earthquake has been observed in the lowest 10 km of crust. The apparent crustal thickness of southern Sweden has been studied by use of the regional network recordings. The resutls are given as an apparent crustal thickness map covering couthern Sweden. The crustal thickness seems to vary between 32 and 48 km and indicates a possible block structure with block sizes of the order of 50-150 km. Finally recommendations for further activities aiming to better seismic risk estimates are given. (author)

  13. Specialist paediatric dentistry in Sweden 2008 - a 25-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer

    2010-09-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to paediatric dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more paediatric dentists remains.

  14. Assessment of soil acidification effects on forest growth in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdrup, H.; Warfvinge, P.; Nihlgaard, B.

    1994-01-01

    The results of mapping critical loads, areas where they have been exceeded and steady state (Ca+Mg+K)/Al ratios of soils in Sweden, has been used to assess the order of magnitude of the ecological and economic risks involved with acid deposition for Swedish forests. The results of the calculations indicate that 81% of the Swedish forested area received acid deposition in excess of the critical load at present. Under continued deposition at 1990 level, forest die-back is predicted to occur on approximately 1% of the forested area, and significant growth rate reductions are predicted for 80% of the Swedish forested area. For Sweden, growth losses in the order of 17.5 million m -3 yr -1 are predicted, equivalent to approximately 19% of current growth. Comparable losses can be predicted for other Nordic countries. The soil acidification situation is predicted to deteriorate significantly during the next 5-15 years, unless rapid emission reductions can be achieved. A minimum deposition reduction over Sweden of 95% on sulphur deposition and 30% on the N deposition in relation to 1990 level is required in order to protect 95% of the Swedish forest ecosystems from adverse effects of acidification. A minimum reduction of 60% on sulphur deposition and 30% on the N deposition is required to keep forest harvest at planned levels. 148 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  15. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  16. Nosology and inheritance pattern(s) of joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: a study of intrafamilial and interfamilial variability in 23 Italian pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco; Dordoni, Chiara; Valiante, Michele; Sperduti, Isabella; Ritelli, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Chiarelli, Nicola; Celletti, Claudia; Venturini, Marina; Camerota, Filippo; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Grammatico, Paola; Colombi, Marina

    2014-12-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two markedly overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders. The cumulative frequency of JHS and EDS-HT seems high, but their recognition remains an exclusion diagnosis based on different sets of diagnostic criteria. Although proposed by a panel of experts, clinical identity between JHS and EDS-HT is still a matter of debate due to unknown molecular basis. We present 23 families with three or more individuals with a diagnosis of JHS and/or EDS-HT. Rough data from the 82 individuals were used to assess the frequency of major and minor criteria, as well as selected additional features. A series of statistical tools were applied to assess intrafamilial and interfamilial variability, emphasizing intergenerational, and intersex differences. This study demonstrates marked heterogeneity within and between families in terms of agreement of available diagnostic criteria. In 21 pedigrees affected individuals belong to two or three phenotypic sub-categories among JHS, EDS-HT, and JHS + EDS-HT overlap. Intergenerational analysis depicts a progressive shifting, also within the same pedigree, from EDS-HT in childhood, to JHS + EDS-HT in early adulthood and JHS later in life. Female-male ratio is 2.1:1, which results lower than previously observed in unselected patients' cohorts. In these pedigrees, JHS, EDS-HT, and JHS + EDS-HT segregate as a single dominant trait with complete penetrance, variable expressivity, and a markedly evolving phenotype. This study represents a formal demonstration that EDS-HT and JHS contitute the same clinical entity, and likely share the same genetic background, at least, in familial cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Narrow and Highly Significant Linkage Signal for Severe Bipolar Disorder in the Chromosome 5q33 Region in Latin American Pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, A.J.; Service, S.; Jawaheer, D.; DeYoung, J.; Levinson, M.; Zhang, Z.; Kremeyer, B.; Muller, H.; Aldana, I.; Garcia, J.; Restrepo, G.; Lopez, C.; Palacio, C.; Duque, C.; Parra, M.; Vega, J.; Ortiz, D.; Bedoya, G.; Mathews, C.; Davanzo, P.; Fournier, E.; Bejarano, J.; Ramirez, M.; Ortiz, C. Araya; Araya, X.; Molina, J.; Sabatti, C.; Reus, V.; Ospina, J.; Macaya, G.; Ruiz-Linares, A.; Freimer, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported linkage of bipolar disorder to 5q33-q34 in families from two closely related population isolates, the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia, Colombia (CO). Here we present follow up results from fine-scale mapping in large CVCR and CO families segregating severe bipolar disorder, BP-I, and in 343 population trios/duos from CVCR and CO. Employing densely spaced SNPs to fine map the prior linkage peak region increases linkage evidence and clarifies the position of the putative BP-I locus. We performed two-point linkage analysis with 1134 SNPs in an approximately 9 Mb region between markers D5S410 and D5S422. Combining pedigrees from CVCR and CO yields a LOD score of 4.9 at SNP rs10035961. Two other SNPs (rs7721142 and rs1422795) within the same 94 kb region also displayed LOD scores greater than 4. This linkage peak coincides with our prior microsatellite results and suggests a narrowed BP-I susceptibility regions in these families. To investigate if the locus implicated in the familial form of BP-I also contributes to disease risk in the population, we followed up the family results with association analysis in duo and trio samples, obtaining signals within 2 Mb of the peak linkage signal in the pedigrees; rs12523547 and rs267015 (P = 0.00004 and 0.00016, respectively) in the CO sample and rs244960 in the CVCR sample and the combined sample, with P = 0.00032 and 0.00016, respectively. It remains unclear whether these association results reflect the same locus contributing to BP susceptibility within the extended pedigrees. PMID:19319892

  18. Genome-wide linkage analysis of 1233 prostate cancer pedigrees from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics using novel sumLINK and sumLOD analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Bryce; Baffoe-Bonnie, Agnes B.; George, Asha; Powell, Isaac; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Carpten, John D.; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Severi, Gianluca; English, Dallas R.; Foulkes, William D.; Maehle, Lovise; Moller, Pal; Eeles, Ros; Easton, Douglas; Badzioch, Michael D.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Dimitrov, Latchezar; Xu, Jianfeng; Stanford, Janet L.; Johanneson, Bo; Deutsch, Kerry; McIntosh, Laura; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Isaacs, William B.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Hebbring, Scott; Schaid, Daniel J.; Lange, Ethan M.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Schleutker, Johanna; Paiss, Thomas; Maier, Christiane; Grönberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Emanuelsson, Monica; Farnham, James M.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Camp, Nicola J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is generally believed to have a strong inherited component, but the search for susceptibility genes has been hindered by the effects of genetic heterogeneity. The recently developed sumLINK and sumLOD statistics are powerful tools for linkage analysis in the presence of heterogeneity. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of 1233 prostate cancer pedigrees from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) using two novel statistics, the sumLINK and sumLOD. For both statistics, dominant and recessive genetic models were considered. False discovery rate (FDR) analysis was conducted to assess the effects of multiple testing. Results Our analysis identified significant linkage evidence at chromosome 22q12, confirming previous findings by the initial conventional analyses of the same ICPCG data. Twelve other regions were identified with genomewide suggestive evidence for linkage. Seven regions (1q23, 5q11, 5q35, 6p21, 8q12, 11q13, 20p11-q11) are near loci previously identified in the initial ICPCG pooled data analysis or the subset of aggressive prostate cancer (PC) pedigrees. Three other regions (1p12, 8p23, 19q13) confirm loci reported by others, and two (2p24, 6q27) are novel susceptibility loci. FDR testing indicates that over 70% of these results are likely true positive findings. Statistical recombinant mapping narrowed regions to an average of 9 cM. Conclusions Our results represent genomic regions with the greatest consistency of positive linkage evidence across a very large collection of high-risk prostate cancer pedigrees using new statistical tests that deal powerfully with heterogeneity. These regions are excellent candidates for further study to identify prostate cancer predisposition genes. PMID:20333727

  19. Norrie disease pedigree carrying the novel mutation C65Y, predicted to disrupt the cystine knot growth factor motif, analyzed by RasI restriction digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasberg, P.M.; Liede, H.A.; Stein, T. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Norrie disease (MIM 310600; ND) is an X-linked (Xp11.2-11.3) neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital blindness, retinal dysplasia with pseudoglioma formation, and often associated with progressive mental retardation and deafness. The ND gene, comprised of 3 exons, codes for an evolutionarily conserved protein of 133 amino acids. We have analyzed 8 pedigrees segregating Norrie disease. Although microdeletions have been detected in several typical ND patients, Southern blot analysis with probes L1.28, MAO-A, MAO-B, TIMP-3.9X, pTak8, and M27{beta} failed to detect such deletions in these 8 ND pedigrees. With the cloning of the ND gene, PCR analysis of all 3 exons likewise did not reveal any insertions or deletions. SSCP analysis ({sup 35}S-dNTP PCR) on PCR products of exon 3 showed a band shift for 1 patient. Repeat `cold` SSCP on minigels (3 inches x 4 inches) followed by liver staining was confirmatory. Direct sequencing revealed a G{r_arrow}A transition at nucleotide 610 corresponding to amino acid 65, changing Cys to Tyr. The mutation created an RsaI site, such that the uncut, normal, and mutant PCR products (using the same PCR primers) were 297 bp, 243 and 54 bp, and 177, 72 and 54 bp respectively. Affected males in the relevant pedigree had restricted PCR products of 177, 72 and 54 bp, carrier mothers 243, 177, 72, and 54 bp, and normals, including 30 unrelated individuals, 243 and 54 bp. Recent evidence indicates that the ND gene has a C-terminal domain homologous to that of TGF{beta}, thus identifying it as putative peptide growth factor, providing a monogenic disease model for the family of cystine knot growth factors. This is the first report of a mutation in Cys 2, critical for crosslinking to Cys 5 forming a disulphide bridge which holds the cystine knot growth factor tertiary structure together.

  20. A pedigree-based proxy measure of genetic predisposition of drinking and alcohol use among female sex workers in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2017-02-01

    Scientific evidence has suggested that genetic factors accounted for more than half of the vulnerability of developing alcohol use problems. However, collecting genetic data poses a significant challenge for most population-based behavioral studies. The aim of this study was to assess the utilities of a pedigree-based proxy measure of genetic predisposition of drinking (GPD) and its effect on alcohol use behaviors as well as its interactions with personal and environmental factors. In the current study, cross-sectional data were collected from 700 female sex workers (FSW) in Guangxi, China. Participants provided information on a pedigree-based proxy measure of GPD and their alcohol use behaviors. Chi-square and independent t-test was applied for examining the bivariate associations between GPD and alcohol use behaviors; multivariate and ordinal regression models were used to examine the effect of GPD on alcohol use. This study found that women with a higher composite score of GPD tended to have a higher risk of alcohol use problem compared to their counterparts (p < .05). GPD was a significant predictor of alcohol use problems (p < .05), especially among women who had mental health issues or lack of health cares. The pedigree-based measure provided a useful proxy of GPD among participants. Both FSW's mental health and health care access interact with GPD and affect their drinking patterns. By understanding the genetic basis of alcohol use, we can develop scalable and efficacious interventions that will take into consideration the individual risk profile and environmental influences.