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  1. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina

    2011-01-25

    Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  2. Evaluation of extreme temperature events in northern Spain based on process control charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Valencia, J. L.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Extreme climate events have recently attracted the attention of a growing number of researchers because these events impose a large cost on agriculture and associated insurance planning. This study focuses on extreme temperature events and proposes a new method for their evaluation based on statistical process control tools, which are unusual in climate studies. A series of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for 12 geographical areas of a Spanish region between 1931 and 2009 were evaluated by applying statistical process control charts to statistically test whether evidence existed for an increase or a decrease of extreme temperature events. Specification limits were determined for each geographical area and used to define four types of extreme anomalies: lower and upper extremes for the minimum and maximum anomalies. A new binomial Markov extended process that considers the autocorrelation between extreme temperature events was generated for each geographical area and extreme anomaly type to establish the attribute control charts for the annual fraction of extreme days and to monitor the occurrence of annual extreme days. This method was used to assess the significance of changes and trends of extreme temperature events in the analysed region. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of an attribute control chart for evaluating extreme temperature events. For example, the evaluation of extreme maximum temperature events using the proposed statistical process control charts was consistent with the evidence of an increase in maximum temperatures during the last decades of the last century.

  3. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  4. The species of the genus Pseudoniphargus Chevreux, 1901 (Amphipoda) from northern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, Jos

    1986-01-01

    Based on new material collected in 1983, 1984, and 1985, the genus Pseudoniphargus proves to be distributed in northern Spain from Asturias, in the western part of the Cordillera Cantabrica, to Navarra and Huesca, in the headlands of the Pyrenees; and from coastal Atlantic regions up to the northern

  5. Study of cyanotoxins presence from experimental cyanobacteria concentrations using a new data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines in Trasona reservoir (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Nieto, P J; Sánchez Lasheras, F; de Cos Juez, F J; Alonso Fernández, J R

    2011-11-15

    There is an increasing need to describe cyanobacteria blooms since some cyanobacteria produce toxins, termed cyanotoxins. These latter can be toxic and dangerous to humans as well as other animals and life in general. It must be remarked that the cyanobacteria are reproduced explosively under certain conditions. This results in algae blooms, which can become harmful to other species if the cyanobacteria involved produce cyanotoxins. In this research work, the evolution of cyanotoxins in Trasona reservoir (Principality of Asturias, Northern Spain) was studied with success using the data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. The results of the present study are two-fold. On one hand, the importance of the different kind of cyanobacteria over the presence of cyanotoxins in the reservoir is presented through the MARS model and on the other hand a predictive model able to forecast the possible presence of cyanotoxins in a short term was obtained. The agreement of the MARS model with experimental data confirmed the good performance of the same one. Finally, conclusions of this innovative research are exposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

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    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  7. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  8. GIS-based approach for defining bioenergy facilities location: A case study in Northern Spain based on marginal delivery costs and resources competition between facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichelli, Luis; Gnansounou, Edgard [Laboratory of Energy Systems, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, LASEN-ICARE-ENAC, Station 18, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a GIS-based decision support system for selecting least-cost bioenergy locations when there is a significant variability in biomass farmgate price and when more than one bioenergy plant with a fixed capacity has to be placed in the region. The methodology tackles the resources competition problem between energy facilities through a location-allocation model based on least-cost biomass quantities. Whole system least delivery cost including intermediate bioenergy products is estimated. The methodology is based on a case study where forest wood residues (FWR) from final cuttings (FCs) are used to produce torrefied wood (TW) in two torrefaction plants (TUs) that supply a gasification unit (GU) in order to produce electricity. The provinces of Navarra, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, Alava, La Rioja, Cantabria and Burgos are assessed in order to find the best locations for settling down the TUs and the GU according to biomass availability, FWR and TW marginal delivery costs. (author)

  9. Udder health in organic dairy cattle in Northern Spain

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    Ana Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms. The organic farms had higher (p<0.05 average number of calves per cow (3.93 and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9% than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows. Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05 somatic cell counts (SCC than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively. Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further investigation.

  10. Udder health in organic dairy cattle in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, A.; López-Alonso, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows) traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake) and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L) 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms). The organic farms had higher (p<0.05) average number of calves per cow (3.93) and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9%) than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows). Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05) somatic cell counts (SCC) than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively). Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further. (Author)

  11. Submarine fans and associated deposits in the Lower Tertiary of Guipuzcoa (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.

    1982-01-01

    The Lower Tertiary outcrop along the coast of Guipuzcoa, northern Spain, consists exclusively of deep-marine sediments, deposited in a narrow elongated (ESE-WNW) basin. The early Tertiary sedimentary history of this basin can be described in terms of three main phases:

    - a phase of

  12. Racial characterization and genetic diversity of sunflower broomrape populations from Northern Spain

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    Jebri MALEK

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. has been restricted to Cuenca province in Central Spain, and the Guadalquivir Valley in Southern Spain, that represent different gene pools of the species. This pathogenic plant has now spread to other areas such as Castilla y León region in Northern Spain. The racial status and genetic diversity were investigated in six populations of sunflower broomrape collected in several provinces of Castilla y León. Evaluation of virulence to a set of differential host genotypes classified three of the populations as race F, while the other three populations were classified as a race below F, probably race E. Genetic diversity analysis using a set of 20 SSR markers showed that the broomrape populations from new areas of Northern Spain are mainly derived from the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. Introgression from the Cuenca gene pool was observed in one of the populations, in which the percentage of polymorphic loci was 31%, Shanon´s diversity index was 0.17, and the average number of pairwise differences was 1.69, compared to zero for the three parameters in the other five populations. The absence of race F individuals in the populations classified as race below F indicated that seed migration took place, probably before the generalized expansion of race F in the Guadalquivir Valley area, at the beginning of the 1990s.

  13. PM10 modeling in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; Antón, Juan Carlos Álvarez; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of the particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size (PM10) by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) at local scale. This research work explores the use of a nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) which has the ability to approximate the relationship between the inputs and outputs, and express the relationship mathematically. In this sense, hazardous air pollutants or toxic air contaminants refer to any substance that may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness, or that may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and dust (PM10) were collected over 3 years (2006-2008) and they are used to create a highly nonlinear model of the PM10 in the Oviedo urban nucleus (Northern Spain) based on the MARS technique. One main objective of this model is to obtain a preliminary estimate of the dependence between PM10 pollutant in the Oviedo urban area at local scale. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on air quality with a view to proposing health and lifestyle improvements. The United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of

  14. Assessing Wildland Fire Risk Transmission to Communities in Northern Spain

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    Fermín J. Alcasena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed potential economic losses and transmission to residential houses from wildland fires in a rural area of central Navarra (Spain. Expected losses were quantified at the individual structure level (n = 306 in 14 rural communities by combining fire model predictions of burn probability and fire intensity with susceptibility functions derived from expert judgement. Fire exposure was estimated by simulating 50,000 fire events that replicated extreme (97th percentile historical fire weather conditions. Spatial ignition probabilities were used in the simulations to account for non-random ignitions, and were estimated from a fire occurrence model generated with an artificial neural network. The results showed that ignition probability explained most of spatial variation in risk, with economic value of structures having only a minor effect. Average expected loss to residential houses from a single wildfire event in the study area was 7955€, and ranged from a low of 740 to the high of 28,725€. Major fire flow-paths were analyzed to understand fire transmission from surrounding municipalities and showed that incoming fires from the north exhibited strong pathways into the core of the study area, and fires spreading from the south had the highest likelihood of reaching target residential structures from the longest distances (>5 km. Community firesheds revealed the scale of risk to communities and extended well beyond administrative boundaries. The results provided a quantitative risk assessment that can be used by insurance companies and local landscape managers to prioritize and allocate investments to treat wildland fuels and identify clusters of high expected loss within communities. The methodological framework can be extended to other fire-prone southern European Union countries where communities are threatened by large wildland fires.

  15. Influenza A Virus Surveillance in the Invasive American Mink (Neovison vison) from Freshwater Ecosystems, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, H; Busquets, N; Fernández-Aguilar, X; Sánchez, A; Ribas, M P; De Pedro, G; Lizarraga, P; Alarcia-Alejos, O; Temiño, C; Cabezón, O

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3-3.6 CI 95% ) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, provinces, river basins, sexes or ages of the animals. All seropositive sera resulted negative to the panel strains used in the HI assay, showing that the most relevant strains circulating in swine, the most relevant avian subtypes (H5 and H7) and the H10N4 subtype isolated in minks have not been circulating in this free-ranging exotic carnivore from Spain. In the light of these results, the free-range American mink from Northern Spain do not seem to have an important role in the epidemiology of IAVs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  17. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  18. Lifestyles and Styles of Parental Care Related to Childhood Obesity Compare Spain with Northern European Countries: ENERGY-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miqueleiz, Estrella; te Velde, Saskia; Regidor, Enrique; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vik, Froydis N.; Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Kunst, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is higher in Spain than in Northern European countries for reasons that are still unknown. The objective was to determine whether variables related to lifestyle habits and styles of parental care related to obesity in children differ between the

  19. An astronomical time scale for the Maastrichtian at the Zumaia and Sopelana sections (Basque country, northern Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batenburg, Sietske J.; Gale, Andy S.; Sprovieri, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The rhythmically bedded limestone–marl alternations in the coastal cliffs of Sopelana and Zumaia in the Basque country, northern Spain, permit testing and refining of existing Maastrichtian chronologies (latest Cretaceous). The recently established astronomical time scale for the late Maastrichtian...

  20. Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avilés, E

    2013-10-01

    The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldène, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thirty years of human infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica in northern Spain: 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, J M; Figueroa, R; Idigoras, P; Gomariz, M; Alkorta, M; Cilla, G; Pérez-Trallero, E

    2017-08-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infection is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution, gastroenteritis being by far the most common clinical manifestation of human infection. In Gipuzkoa, northern Spain, human Y. enterocolitica infections increased from the mid-1980s to the beginning of the 21st century (from 7·9 to 23·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population) to decrease to 7·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population in the last years of the study. The hospital admission rate due to yersiniosis during the last 15 years of the study was 7·3%. More than 99% of isolates were serotype O:3. Infection affected mainly children under 5 years of age (average rate: 140 episodes per 100 000 population). The incidence in adults was low but hospitalisation increased with age, exceeding 50% in people over 64 years old.

  2. GPR and ERT detection and characterization of a mass burial, Spanish Civil War, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Melendi, David; Gonzalez-Quirós, Andrés; Roberts, Daniel; García García, María Del Carmen; Caunedo Domínguez, Amaya; Pringle, Jamie K; Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino

    2018-06-01

    Around 27,000 people were killed in the province of Asturias during the Spanish Civil War, with several thousands killed after the war ended. There are currently over 2,000 known mass burial locations throughout Spain, but many more are unknown. Geophysics is a useful tool employed to help in the active attempts to document and improve knowledge about victims from this conflict. This paper details a non-invasive study of the Cementerio de El Salvador, in the city of Oviedo, Northern Spain. Part of the cemetery contains a known mass burial with approximately 1,300 individuals from the Spanish Civil War and post-war repression eras. Multi-frequency near-surface geophysical techniques were undertaken, after permission, to enhance knowledge about which, if any, techniques should be used to detect, delineate and analyse such mass graves. Multi-frequency (250MHz and 500MHz) ground-penetrating radar surveys were acquired together with 2D and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography datasets. The results have established the limits of the mass grave and improve the knowledge of the internal mass grave structure. The paper also shows the importance of considering the climatic conditions during data acquisition. This has important implications for the successful detection of recent historical mass burials using near-surface geophysics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of mammary infections in organic dairy farms in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, A.; Gradillas, G.; Fernandez-Ruiz, C.; Rodriguez-Bermudez, R.; Lopez-Alonso, M.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the microbiological state and the dynamics of the mammary infections of organic farms in North Spain to discover if the high somatic cell count (SCC) observed in these farms is associated to a high incidence of mastitis. Microbiological cultures and SCC were performed in 8,496 foremilk samples collected from 160 cows in five representative organic farms from February 2006 to January 2008. Even though 79.3% of cultures were positive, only 21.2% of the total fit our diagnosis of mastitis (clinical, subclinical and chronic). The great prevalence of Corynebacterium bovis (teat canal-region pathogen) in the positive cultures that did not fit the mastitis diagnosis criteria (nearly 70%) compared with those that did (27%) was found to be related to lack of post-milking teat disinfection. The study prevalence of mastitis was 69.2% (66.7% subclinical mastitis, 27.8% clinical mastitis); the mean monthly prevalence was 47.4%; the mean monthly incidence was 12.9% and the mean duration of infection was 3.84 ± 3.98 months The high SCC in foremilk samples from old cows (three or more lactations) not diagnosed as mastitis compared to the heifers, reflects a worsening health status of the animals over time. When compared with the conventional sector in Northern Spain, these parameters indicate a poorer udder health in the studied organic herds with a high presence of chronic subclinical processes. (Author)

  4. Dynamics of mammary infections in organic dairy farms in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the microbiological state and the dynamics of the mammary infections of organic farms in North Spain to discover if the high somatic cell count (SCC observed in these farms is associated to a high incidence of mastitis. Microbiological cultures and SCC were performed in 8,496 foremilk samples collected from 160 cows in five representative organic farms from February 2006 to January 2008. Even though 79.3% of cultures were positive, only 21.2% of the total fit our diagnosis of mastitis (clinical, subclinical and chronic. The great prevalence of Corynebacterium bovis (teat canal-region pathogen in the positive cultures that did not fit the mastitis diagnosis criteria (nearly 70% compared with those that did (27% was found to be related to lack of post-milking teat disinfection. The study prevalence of mastitis was 69.2% (66.7% subclinical mastitis, 27.8% clinical mastitis; the mean monthly prevalence was 47.4%; the mean monthly incidence was 12.9% and the mean duration of infection was 3.84 ± 3.98 months The high SCC in foremilk samples from old cows (three or more lactations not diagnosed as mastitis compared to the heifers, reflects a worsening health status of the animals over time. When compared with the conventional sector in Northern Spain, these parameters indicate a poorer udder health in the studied organic herds with a high presence of chronic subclinical processes.

  5. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  6. Influence of atmospheric stability and transport on CH{sub 4} concentrations in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, M. Ángeles, E-mail: magperez@fa1.uva.es; Sánchez, M. Luisa; Pérez, Isidro A.; Ozores, Marta I.; Pardo, Nuria

    2016-04-15

    Continuous methane (CH{sub 4}) concentrations were measured in Northern Spain over two years (2011–2012) by multi-point sampling at 1.8, 3.7 and 8.3 m using a Picarro analyser. The technique is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The contrast in mean concentrations was about 1.2 ppb, with 95th percentiles differing by 2.2 ppb and mean minimum concentrations proving similar. Temporal variations of CH{sub 4} were also analysed, with a similar seasonal variability being found for the three heights. The highest CH{sub 4} concentrations were obtained in late autumn and winter and the lowest in summer, yielding a range of 52 ppb. This variation may depend on the active photochemical reaction with OH radical during a period of intense solar radiation and changes in soil conditions together with variations in emissions. Peak concentration levels were recorded at night-time, between 5:00–7:00 GMT, with mean values ranging between 1920 and 1923 ppb. The lowest value, around 1884 ppb, was obtained at 16:00 GMT. This diurnal variation was mainly related to vertical mixing and photochemistry. Therefore, CH{sub 4} concentrations were also examined using the bulk Richardson number (R{sub B}) as a stability indicator. Four groups were distinguished: unstable cases, situations with pure shear flow, transitional stages and drainage flows. The highest contrast in mean CH{sub 4} concentrations between lower and upper heights was obtained for the transition and drainage cases, mainly associated to high concentrations from nearby sources. The impact of long range transport was analysed by means of 3-day isobaric backward air mass trajectories, which were calculated taking into account origins from Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and Local conditions. Assessment of the results showed the influence of S and SE wind sectors, especially with Local conditions associated with low winds. Finally, an estimation of the background CH{sub 4} concentration in the study period provided an

  7. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  8. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  9. Analysis of Variscan dynamics; early bending of the Cantabria-Asturias Arc, northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, J. M.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Van der Voo, R.

    2000-08-01

    Calcite twinning analysis in the Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of northern Spain provides a basis for evaluating conditions of Variscan stress and constrains the arc's structural evolution. Twinning typically occurs during earliest layer-parallel shortening, offering the ability to define early conditions of regional stress. Results from the Somiedo-Correcilla region are of two kinds: early maximum compressive stress oriented layer-parallel and at high angles to bedding strike (D1 σ1) and later twin producing compression oriented sub-parallel to strike (D2 σ1). When all D1 compressions are rotated into a uniform east-west reference orientation, a quite linear, north-south trending fold-thrust belt results showing a slight deflection of the southern zone to the south-southeast. North-south-directed D2 σ1 compression was recorded prior to bending of the belt. Calcite twinning data elucidate earliest structural conditions that could not be obtained by other means, whereas the kinematics of arc tightening during D2 is constrained by paleomagnetism. A large and perhaps protracted D2 σ1 is suggested by our results, as manifested by approximately 50% arc tightening prior to acquisition of paleomagnetic remagnetizations throughout the CAA. Early east-west compression (D1 σ1) likely resulted from the Ebro-Aquitaine massif docking to Laurussia whereas the north-directed collision of Africa (D2 σ1) produced clockwise bending in the northern zone, radial folding in the hinge, and rotation of thrusts in the southern zone.

  10. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI, Italian Alps (AI, and Northern Spain (NS]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS, and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples. Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome

  11. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    previously isolated PCVs. A rapid and convenient PCR-based test was developed and used for the genotyping of these PCV isolates. These PCV isolates were found to be antigenically and genomically similar to previously reported isolates of PCV from pigs with wasting disease (PCV2), but distinct from......A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...... the isolate of PCV from continuous PK/15 cell cultures (PCV1)....

  12. Human response to Holocene warming on the Cantabrian Coast (northern Spain): an unexpected outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Arroyo, Ana B.

    2013-12-01

    Subsistence was characterized during the Pleistocene to Holocene transition on the Cantabrian Coast (northern Spain) by a progressive diet widening, with a greater exploitation of marine environments and a more intense consumption of low-ranked species. This trend was also accompanied by a general and noticeable decrease in the amount of ungulates that were recovered from a set of archaeological sites clearly dominated by shells. The causes behind this change in the economic practice of the last hunter-gatherer groups are still being debated. There are currently two opposing views on the matter, with some scholars defending the role of demographic pressure as the main driving force, while other researchers invoke the importance of the environment in the food procurement preferences that were adopted. Due to their overwhelming abundance, the debate has been mainly focused on marine resources, whereas the comparatively less-represented macromammal assemblages have been poorly interpreted. However, it is precisely this scarcity that makes them so remarkable. Here, a new interpretation of the available data is presented, with a special focus on the identification of overhunting evidence and on the comparative productivity of each type of resource. Altogether, the demographic hypothesis seems to be more coherent with the existing facts.

  13. Short and long-term effects of an historic blizzard in Asturias (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David

    2016-04-01

    This research has combined the consult of several historical sources (historic newspapers, church records, meteorological records) with fieldwork (geographical checking and interviews) and the application of statistical techniques for data processing in order to define, locate and analyze the causes and physical, social, economic and demographic effects (both short- and long-term) of an historic natural disaster that concerned the territory of Asturias (Northern Spain). The storm that hit the Spanish northwest in the winter of 1888 consisted of a four snowstorms concatenation occurred between 14th February 1888 and 8th April 1888. It was a phenomenon that, by its magnitude and rarity, was especially harmful because of the triggering of avalanches of snow and landslides; the generation of large snow deposits (up to 9 meters depth), and the floods related with the effects of the snow thawing. The first results of this research point to 36 people dead and 23 injured, more than 1,000 buildings ruined and more than 19,000 head of cattle lost as a result of all these events. However, the personal and material losses increase if we investigate the long-term consequences and, in this aspect, we have identified several singularities in the 1888 mortality patterns (ie an increase in neonatal mortality rate), and a clear increase in overall mortality in the two years following this episode, affecting to women more than to men.

  14. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  15. Profile of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanlo, P; Heras, H; Pérez, D; Tiberio, G; Espinosa, G; Adan, A

    2017-05-01

    To describe the main characteristics of a cohort of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients evaluated in the Multidisciplinary Unit of the Navarra Hospital Complex from the period January 2010 until March 2015. An analysis was performed on the demographic characteristics, origin, types of uveitis, laterality, and aetiology. The present series was also compared with 2 previous series from Castilla y León and Barcelona. A total of 500 patients were identified, with a mean age of 47.9±16.4 years, with 50% women. The most frequent type of uveitis was anterior uveitis (65.4%), followed by posterior uveitis (17.6%), panuveitis (15.2%), and intermediate uveitis (1.8%). The origin was unclassifiable in 31.2%, followed by non-infectious systemic disease in 29.2%. Ankylosing spondylitis was the most frequent cause in 10.8% of patients, followed by herpes infection in 9.2%, and toxoplasmosis in 7.8%, respectively. Compared with the 2other cohorts, the present cohort showed a higher proportion of unilateral anterior uveitis. Furthermore, the patients from the Navarra series had a higher prevalence of unilateral and idiopathic uveitis compared to the series from Barcelona. The main characteristics of the present cohort of patients with uveitis are similar to those of patients from other regions of our country. Unilateral anterior uveitis and idiopathic uveitis were the most frequent in our series. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstructing Past Climate Using Speleothems from Cueva de las Perlas, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeprose, Laura; Wynn, Peter; Barker, Philip; Leng, Melanie; Noble, Stephen; Sahy, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Abrupt and severe oscillations in climate, termed Heinrich events, are documented in North Atlantic Ocean sediments between 85,000 - 30,000 years ago [1]. This time period also encapsulates the Neanderthal demise, a key transition in human evolution which is proposed to be driven at least in part by changing climate. The Iberian Peninsula represents the last known refuge of the Neanderthals. However, due to a scarcity of palaeoclimate archives from Iberia during this time period, the expression of these cooling events in the terrestrial realm remains poorly understood. As the extinction of the Neanderthal population seems to broadly coincide with the timing of Heinrich event 4, it is therefore critical to understand the terrestrial expression of these changes in ocean circulation. Speleothems from Cueva de las Perlas, northern Spain are being used to reconstruct past climatic and environmental change spanning this period of Neanderthal demise. U-Th dating has identified three suitable speleothems, allowing a precise chronology to be established. Through contemporary monitoring, the oxygen isotope composition of speleothem carbonate has been interpreted to carry a primary environmental signal of rainfall amount. The oxygen isotope values indicate a drying climate across the period of the Neanderthal population demise. Additionally, the carbon isotope record, interpreted to represent shifts in vegetation dynamics, indicates an overall drying during the studied time period. A high degree of climatic instability is superimposed on the overall drying trend, suggesting the prevailing climatic conditions could have been adding environmental pressure to an already marginalised hominin population. Further U-Th dating and high-resolution stable isotope analysis aims to constrain the magnitude and timing of these events. [1] Bond, G., Broecker, W., Johnsen, S.J., McManus, J., Labeyrie, L., Jouzel, J., Bonani, G., 1993. Correlations between North Atlantic sediments and

  17. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  18. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  19. Characterisation of organic carbon in mire and heath soils at the Elgea-Urkilla Wind Farm, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Azkorra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a detailed comparative study of carbon storage in mire and heath soils within the Elgea-Urkilla Wind Farm (Basque Country, northern Spain. Different methods for estimating organic C stocks in the uppermost 15 cm of the soil profile were evaluated in an attempt to determine whether there was any spatial variability. The dominant vegetation of the study area was acidophilic and Atlantic heathland, with scattered areas of mire vegetation associated with spring lines. Soils were classified as Haplic Leptic Umbrisols (Oxyaquic, Molliglosic. Two sampling plots (900 m2 and 600 m2 were established adjacent to wind turbines. Mire vegetation was present in the larger plot (PLOT-A and absent from the smaller one (PLOT-B. Fourier-transformed infra-red (FTIR spectra indicated no noteworthy structural dissimilarities in the organic matter characteristics of the soils beneath the two types of vegetation. Soil samples were taken every week at systematically chosen points lying on fixed transects. Estimates of organic C stocks based on single sampling dates were 94–141 t C ha-1 for PLOT-A and 70–105 t C ha-1 for PLOT-B, and tended to increase as the weather became drier. When the estimates were derived from samples taken on several dates but from single transects, the range of the estimate for each plot was reduced to 111–116 t ha-1 for PLOT-A and 81–89 t ha-1 for PLOT-B. The results suggest that organic C stocks vary seasonally, and highlight difficulties that may be encountered in attempting to detect long-term changes in C storage.

  20. The effect of wind farms on vultures in northern Spain - fatalities behaviour and correction measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camina, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    2010 stopped turbines worked again. Since then vulture.s mortality has been reduced by 80%. Finally, a marking programme with wing tags and GPS-satellite of six adult birds also contributed to a better knowledge of the griffon movements in the area. Monitoring of wind farms must be based on an adaptive management. Authorities and wind farm promoters must be aware of this. At least in Spain, the Environmental Impact Statement is the only document on which Bird and Fatalities Monitoring is based without considering the environment changes. (Author)

  1. An assessment of the fatty acid composition of horse-meat available at the retail level in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaunzaran, Xabier; Lavín, Paz; Barron, Luis J R; Mantecón, Angel R; Kramer, John K G; Aldai, Noelia

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the fatty acid composition of horse-meat available at the retail market in northern Spain. Horse steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle; n=82) were purchased from butcher-shops and large grocery stores throughout six northern regions of Spain in two different seasons. Fat content differed significantly among regions (1.12 to 2.77%). Samples with higher intramuscular fat content presented the highest percentages of total monounsaturated fatty acids and the lowest contents of dimethylacetal and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while the opposite was found in the leanest samples. A high variability was observed in the muscle and subcutaneous n-3 PUFA content. Overall, total n-3 PUFA content ranged between 1.17% and 18.9% in muscle fat and between 1.52% and 27.9% in backfat. Interestingly, almost 5% of surveyed loins from horse carcasses (4 out of 82) contained over 300mg of linolenic acid per 100g of meat which could have been marketed as a "source" of n-3 FAs according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 116/2010. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  3. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@uah.es; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector.

  4. Sedimentological aspects of four Lower-Paleozoic formations in the northern part of the province of León (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1964-01-01

    This paper deals with the sedimentary structures and sedimentary petrography of the four lowermost formations of the Paleozoic as developed in the Northern part of the Province of León (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain). Three of the four formations have a detrital character, and one consists of

  5. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 Outbreak in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) 2007–2008. Data Support a Primary Vector Windborne Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lastra, Rodrigo; Leginagoikoa, Iratxe; Plazaola, Jose M.; Ocabo, Blanca; Aduriz, Gorka; Nunes, Telmo; Juste, Ramón A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants that has expanded its traditional global distribution in the last decade. Recently, BTV-1 emerged in Southern Spain and caused several outbreaks in livestock reaching the north of the country. The aim of this paper was to review the emergence of BTV-1 in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) during 2007 and 2008 analyzing the possibility that infected Culicoides were introduced into Basque Country by winds from the infected areas of Southern Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a complex HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model to draw wind roses and backward wind trajectories. The analysis of winds showed September 28 to October 2 as the only period for the introduction of infected midges in the Basque Country. These wind trajectories crossed through the areas affected by serotype 1 on those dates in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Additionally meteorological data, including wind speed and humidity, and altitude along the trajectories showed suitable conditions for Culicoides survival and dispersion. Conclusions/Significance An active infection in medium-long distance regions, wind with suitable speed, altitude and trajectory, and appropriate weather can lead to outbreaks of BTV-1 by transport of Culicoides imicola, not only over the sea (as reported previously) but also over the land. This shows that an additional factor has to be taken into account for the control of the disease which is currently essentially based on the assumption that midges will only spread the virus in a series of short hops. Moreover, the epidemiological and serological data cannot rule out the involvement of other Culicoides species in the spread of the infection, especially at a local level. PMID:22479628

  6. Bluetongue virus serotype 1 outbreak in the Basque Country (Northern Spain 2007-2008. Data support a primary vector windborne transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García-Lastra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease of ruminants that has expanded its traditional global distribution in the last decade. Recently, BTV-1 emerged in Southern Spain and caused several outbreaks in livestock reaching the north of the country. The aim of this paper was to review the emergence of BTV-1 in the Basque Country (Northern Spain during 2007 and 2008 analyzing the possibility that infected Culicoides were introduced into Basque Country by winds from the infected areas of Southern Spain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use a complex HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model to draw wind roses and backward wind trajectories. The analysis of winds showed September 28 to October 2 as the only period for the introduction of infected midges in the Basque Country. These wind trajectories crossed through the areas affected by serotype 1 on those dates in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Additionally meteorological data, including wind speed and humidity, and altitude along the trajectories showed suitable conditions for Culicoides survival and dispersion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An active infection in medium-long distance regions, wind with suitable speed, altitude and trajectory, and appropriate weather can lead to outbreaks of BTV-1 by transport of Culicoides imicola, not only over the sea (as reported previously but also over the land. This shows that an additional factor has to be taken into account for the control of the disease which is currently essentially based on the assumption that midges will only spread the virus in a series of short hops. Moreover, the epidemiological and serological data cannot rule out the involvement of other Culicoides species in the spread of the infection, especially at a local level.

  7. Detection and molecular diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheltered dogs and cats in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Horacio; Cano, Lourdes; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; de Mingo, Marta Hernández; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Basterra, José A; Aramburu-Aguirre, Juan; López-Molina, Nuria; Carmena, David

    2017-06-01

    Domestic dogs and cats may act as natural reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic pathogens, including the enteric parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., the most relevant protozoan species causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted in an animal rescue centre in the province of Álava (Northern Spain). A total of 194 and 65 faecal dropping samples from individual dogs and cats, respectively, were collected between November 2013 and June 2016. G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by direct fluorescence microscopy and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of these parasites. Overall, G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 33% (63/194) and 4.1% (8/194) of dogs, and 9.2% (6/65) and 4.6% (3/65) of cats, respectively. G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium co-infections were observed in 1.5% (3/194) of dogs, but not in cats. No significant differences in infection rates could be demonstrated among dogs or cats according to their sex, age group, status, or geographical origin. Multi-locus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of G. duodenalis allowed the characterization of 19 canine isolates that were unambiguously assigned to sub-assemblages AII (n=7), BIII (n=1), and BIV (n=7), and assemblages C (n=3) and D (n=1). Two feline isolates were genotyped as assemblages A and F, respectively. No mixed assemblage or sub-assemblage infections were identified. C. canis (n=5) and C. hominis (n=1) were the Cryptosporidium species found in dogs, whereas C. felis (n=1) was identified in cats. The finding of G. duodenalis sub-assemblages AII, BIII, and BIV circulating in dogs (but not cats) may have zoonotic potential, although most of the AII and BIV isolates sub-genotyped corresponded to genetic variants not

  8. Ancient DNA from hunter-gatherer and farmer groups from Northern Spain supports a random dispersion model for the Neolithic expansion into Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Hervella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The phenomenon of Neolithisation refers to the transition of prehistoric populations from a hunter-gatherer to an agro-pastoralist lifestyle. Traditionally, the spread of an agro-pastoralist economy into Europe has been framed within a dichotomy based either on an acculturation phenomenon or on a demic diffusion. However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. In the present study, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA diversity in hunter-gatherers and first farmers from Northern Spain, in relation to the debate surrounding the phenomenon of Neolithisation in Europe. METHODOLOGY/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of mitochondrial DNA was carried out on 54 individuals from Upper Paleolithic and Early Neolithic, which were recovered from nine archaeological sites from Northern Spain (Basque Country, Navarre and Cantabria. In addition, to take all necessary precautions to avoid contamination, different authentication criteria were applied in this study, including: DNA quantification, cloning, duplication (51% of the samples and replication of the results (43% of the samples by two independent laboratories. Statistical and multivariate analyses of the mitochondrial variability suggest that the genetic influence of Neolithisation did not spread uniformly throughout Europe, producing heterogeneous genetic consequences in different geographical regions, rejecting the traditional models that explain the Neolithisation in Europe. CONCLUSION: The differences detected in the mitochondrial DNA lineages of Neolithic groups studied so far (including these ones of this study suggest different genetic impact of Neolithic in Central Europe, Mediterranean Europe and the Cantabrian fringe. The genetic data obtained in this study provide support for a random dispersion model for Neolithic farmers. This random dispersion had a different

  9. Source of sulphur in the Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). Tertiary nonmarine evaporite deposits as evidenced by sulphur isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, S.J.; Coleman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Ebro Basin is an intermontane basin, located in northern Spain, filled with Tertiary (largely Oligocene and Miocene) elastic and chemical deposits. Sulphur isotopes are utilized to determine the source of sulphur in the sulphate deposits (predominantly gypsum with accessory thenardite, mirabolite and epsomite). Data obtained from Tertiary gypsum rocks produce a range of delta 34 S values from +9.16% to + 14.02% with a mean of +13.61%. Data obtained from Triassic gypsum rocks (in source area) produce a range from +13.73% to +15.14%, with a mean of +14.66%. Values for Tertiary marine water range from +18% to +24%. These data indicate a nonmarine origin for sulpur within the Tertiary sulphate rocks. The contribution of Triassic sulphur to the groundwater system, plus varying degrees of dilution by isotopically lighter (atmospheric and sulphide) sulphur, best explains the isotopic ratios observed in the Tertiary Basin deposits. (Auth.)

  10. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  11. Matuyama-age lithic tools from the Sima del Elefante site, Atapuerca (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Rosas, Antonio; Benito, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E; Huguet, R

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from the sedimentary fill at the Sima del Elefante site in Atapuerca, Spain, reveal a geomagnetic reversal, interpreted as the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (0.78 Ma). The uppermost lithostratigraphic units (E17 through E19), which contain Mode II and III archaeological assemblages, display normal polarity magnetization, whereas the six lowermost units (E9 through E16) yield negative latitudinal virtual geomagnetic pole positions. Units E9 through E13, all of which display reverse magnetic polarity, contain Mode I (Oldowan) lithic tools, testifying to the presence of humans in the early Pleistocene (0.78-1.77 Ma).

  12. Socio-cultural factors in dental diseases in the Medieval and early Modern Age of northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Belen; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Dopico, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to present, discuss and compare the results of pathological conditions in teeth from skeletal remains found in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) in four Medieval cemeteries (late 15th century) and three cemeteries from the Modern Age (late 18th century). The final objective was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic and cultural changes that took place during the early Modern Age in Spain, on oral health. Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss were considered as indicators of dental disease. A significant increase of both dental caries and antemortem tooth loss occurred in Modern Age individuals when compared to Medieval values, as reported for other regions. Increased trade with other continents may explain this deterioration of dental health, as food exchanges (mainly with America) contributed to diet changes for the overall population, including higher carbohydrate consumption (introduction of potatoes) at the expense of other vegetables. A sex-specific increase of dental disease with age, and a significantly higher prevalence of carious lesions in Modern Age females than in males, were also found. These changes can be explained by women having had limited access to dental care after the Middle-Modern Age transition, as a consequence of socio-cultural and political changes. In these changes, an increasing influence of the Catholic Church in Spanish society has to be noted, as it can contribute to the explanation of the unequal dental health of men and women. Women were socially excluded from dental care by regulations inspired by religious precepts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals and the Environmental Quality of Soil in the Northern Plateau of Spain by Geostatistical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Francés, Fernando; Martínez-Graña, Antonio; Zarza, Carmelo Ávila; Sánchez, Antonio García; Rojo, Pilar Alonso

    2017-05-26

    The environmental quality of soil in the central part of the Northern Plateau of Spain has been analyzed by studying the heavy metal content of 166 samples belonging to the horizons A, B and C of 89 soil profiles. The analysis to assess the environmental risk of heavy metals in the soil was carried out by means of the spatial distribution of nine heavy metals and the use of several pollution indices. The results showed that the concentration values of heavy metals (x ± S) in the superficial soil horizons were the following: With a total of 6.71 ± 3.51 mg kg -1, the contents of Cd is 0.08 ± 0.06 mg kg-1, Co is 6.49 ± 3.21 mg kg-1, Cu is 17.19 ± 10.69 mg kg-1, Cr is 18.68 ± 12.28 mg kg-1, Hg is 0.083 ± 0.063 mg kg-1, Ni is 12.05 ± 6.76 mg kg-1, Pb is 14.10 ± 11.32 mg kg-1 and Zn is 35.31 ± 14.63 mg kg-1. These nine metals exceed the values of the natural geological background level of Tertiary period sediments and rocks that form part of the Northern Plateau in Spain. Nemerow and Potential Ecological Risk indices were calculated, with the "improved" Nemerow index allowing pollution within the soil superficial horizons to be determined. The data obtained indicated that the majority of the soil (54.61%) showed low to moderate contamination, 22.31% showed moderate contamination and 21.54% of the samples were not contaminated. If we consider the Potential of Ecological Risk Index (RI), the largest percentage of soil samples showed low (70.79%) to moderate (25.38%) ecological risk of potential contamination, where the rest of the soil presented a considerable risk of contamination. The nine trace elements were divided into three principal components: PC1 (Cu, Cr, Ni, Co and Zn), PC2 (As and Hg) and PC3 (Cd). All metals accumulated in the soil came from parent rock, agricultural practices and the run-off of residual waters towards rivers and streams caused by industrial development and an increase in population density. Finally, cartography of the spatial

  14. Potential for mine water reuse in an abandoned coal mine in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A.; Garcia-Ordiales, E.; Loredo, J. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated the potential re-utilization of mine water in industrial activities. Mine water characterization studies were conducted to evaluate mine waters from the abandoned La Camocha Mine in northwestern Spain. Hydrochemical studies have indicated that the water is bicarbonated with a low sulphate and iron content, and a neutral pH. The concentrations of trace metals are below water legislation for human consumption levels. The water can economically be transported for use in the irrigation of a botanical garden and sports centre located in the same region as the mine. Use of the water will help to preserve rivers and other waterways in the region, and may also minimize the environmental impacts of pumping activities at the mine. Fluid properties for various water samples were provided. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  15. Monitoring endophyte populations in pine plantations and native oak forests in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Rodriguez-Ceinos, S.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The replacement of native forest with plantations of other species may have important impacts on ecosystems. Some of these impacts have been widely studied, but very little is known about the effects on fungal communities and specifically endo phytic fungi. In this study, endophyte assemblages in pine plantations (Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinaster) and native oak forests (Quercus pyrenaica) in the north of the province of Palencia (Spain) were analyzed. For this purpose, samples of needles/leaves and twigs were collected from three trees in each of three plots sampled per host species. The samples were later processed in the laboratory to identify all of the endo phytic species present. In addition, an exhaustive survey was carried out of the twelve sites to collect data on the environmental, crown condition, dendrometric and soil variables that may affect the distribution of the fungi. The endophyte assemblages isolated from P. sylvestris and P. nigra were closely related to each other, but were different from those isolated from P. pinaster. The endophytes isolated from Q. pyrenaica were less closely related to those from the other hosts, and therefore preservation of oak stands is important to prevent the loss of fungal diversity. Finally, the distribution of the endophyte communities was related to some of the environmental variables considered. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. A spring stopover of a migratory osprey (Pandion haliaetus in northern Spain as revealed by satellite tracking: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galarza, A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the accuracy of satellite telemetry locations now allow detailed studies on territorial behaviour or use of habitat that can be used to enhance bird conservation. In this paper we describe the behaviour of a satellite-tracked adult female osprey (Pandion haliaetus in the Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (N Spain to evaluate the suitability of this protected area for the species. The data set consisted of 10 complete days with a total of 145 exact fixes received. Night roosts were mainly surrounded by high or intermediate level protected land, separated from roads or buildings by more than 200 m and located less than one km away from the feeding area. During daylight hours, most fixes (76.5% were located in wooded areas. We found that the bird selected holm oak woods and we suggest that this is related to low disturbance from human activity. We also suggest that northern Spanish estuaries are important as stopovers by migrating ospreys for feeding during migration.

  17. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and odour-active compounds of lamb commercialized in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Farmer, Linda; Aldai, Noelia

    2018-05-01

    Muscle fatty acid composition and odour-active compounds released during cooking were characterized in lamb chops (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, n = 48) collected at retail level in northern Spain. Lamb samples were classified in two groups according to their 10 t/11 t-18:1 ratio: ≤1 (10 t-non-shifted, n = 21) and >1 (10 t-shifted, n = 27). Higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, vaccenic (11 t-18:1) and rumenic acid (9c,11 t-18:2), and iso-branched chain fatty acid contents were found in non-shifted lamb samples while n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, internal methyl-branched chain fatty acid, and 10 t-18:1 contents were greater in shifted samples. Regardless the fatty acid profile differences between lamb sample groups, odour-active compound profile was very similar and mostly affected by the cooking conditions. Overall, the main odour-active compounds of cooked lamb were described as "green", "meaty", "roasted", and "fatty" being methyl pyrazine, methional, dimethyl pyrazine, and dimethyl trisulphide the main odour-active compounds. Aldehydes and alcohols were the most abundant volatiles in all samples, and they were mostly originated from the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids during cooking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  19. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J. German; Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier; Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo; Sariego, Cristina; Valencia, Victoriano

    2009-01-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  20. The Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain): palaeoenvironment and habitats of Homo heidelbergensis during the Middle Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2011-06-01

    Interpreting how environmental dynamics respond to global climate change and how this has affected human evolution and dispersal is an on-going topic of debate. During the early Middle Pleistocene (˜0.6-0.4 Ma), as compared to earlier, environmental conditions were relatively more stable, with longer climatic cycles alternating between open and forested landscapes. During this interval, humans spread successfully providing an important number of fossil sites where fossils or tools are reported. The Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain) site (Atapuerca-SH) is one of the earliest localities with hominin evidence in the European Middle Pleistocene, with the most important accumulation of Homo heidelbergensis so far. We have analyzed the abundant faunal record from Sima de los Huesos, which is mainly comprised of carnivores, in order to approach an interpretation of the palaeoenvironmental circumstances where these hominids inhabited within the Sierra. Other sites from Sierra de Atapuerca referred to the same Faunal Unit (FU 6), are roughly contemporaneous, and include important ungulates, which are here analyzed with Atapuerca-SH. Additional information provided by isotopic analysis helps elucidate the ancient ecology of taxa present in Sima de los Huesos allowing for an accurate portrayal of the setting in which humans lived. The timing of the spread of Homo heidelbergensis is dominated by a relative climatic and environmental stability and points to a landscape dominated by savannah-like open woodland.

  1. Natural forest expansion on reclaimed coal mines in Northern Spain: the role of native shrubs as suitable microsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Josu G; Zaldívar, Pilar; Torroba-Balmori, Paloma; Fernández-Santos, Belén; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of suitable microsites for tree seedling establishment and growth is one of the most important tasks to achieve the restoration of native forest using natural processes in disturbed sites. For that, we assessed the natural Quercus petraea forest expansion in a 20-year-old reclaimed open-cast mine under sub-Mediterranean climate in northern Spain, monitoring seedling survival, growth, and recruitment during 5 years in three contrasting environments (undisturbed forest, mine edge, and mine center). Seedling density and proportion of dead branches decreased greatly from undisturbed forest towards the center of the mine. There was a positive effect of shrubs on Q. petraea seedling establishment in both mine environments, which increase as the environment undergoes more stress (from the mine edge to the center of the mine), and it was produced by different shrub structural features in each mine environment. Seedling survival reduction through time in three environments did not lead to a density reduction because there was a yearly recruitment of new seedlings. Seedling survival, annual growth, and height through time were greater in mine sites than in the undisturbed forest. The successful colonization patterns and positive neighbor effect of shrubs on natural seedlings establishment found in this study during the first years support the use of shrubs as ecosystem engineers to increase heterogeneity in micro-environmental conditions on reclaimed mine sites, which improves late-successional Quercus species establishment.

  2. The Long-Term Hydrological Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems in Northern Spain: An Approach to the “End-of-Life” Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous mixtures and Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements (ICBP are the most widely used surfaces in Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS. Despite the fact that there are many studies based on the hydrological performance of PPS, there are few long-term studies that identify the end of life of PPS regarding their hydrological performance. A field study has been developed over 10 years in the experimental car park “Las Llamas” in the city of Santander, Northern Spain. Permeability was measured in 37 car park bays (nine Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete, nine Porous Asphalt, and 17 ICBP of two different designs. Tests were conducted under the Spanish Standard NLT-327/00 for the porous-mixture surfaces and the ASTM methods C1701/C1701M-17a and C1781/C1781M-15 for porous mixtures and ICBP, respectively. No maintenance was carried out in this car park since it was opened to traffic in 2008, allowing for the assessment and identification of the hydrological failure of each surface. The research showed that after 10 years of operation without maintenance, the bays constructed using porous mixtures were completely clogged, reaching the end of their operational life after nine years. However, ICBP maintained high infiltration rates, showing better resilience to sediment clogging. Further research is needed to confirm the evolution of ICBP surfaces.

  3. An approach for quantifying geomorphological impacts for EIA of transportation infrastructures: a case study in northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonachea, Jaime; Bruschi, Viola Maria; Remondo, Juan; González-Díez, Alberto; Salas, Luis; Bertens, Jurjen; Cendrero, Antonio; Otero, César; Giusti, Cecilia; Fabbri, Andrea; González-Lastra, José Ramón; Aramburu, José María

    2005-03-01

    A methodological proposal for the assessment of impacts due to linear infrastructures such as motorways, railways, etc. is presented. The approach proposed includes a series of specific issues to be addressed for each geomorphological feature analysed—both 'static' and 'dynamic'—as well as a series of steps to be followed in the process. Geomorphic characteristics potentially affected were initially identified on the basis of a conceptual activities/impacts model that helps to single out geomorphic impacts related to environmental concerns for the area. The following issues were addressed for each individual impact: nature of potential effects; indicators that can be used to measure impacts; criteria of 'geomorphologic performance'; procedure for measurement/prediction of changes; translation of geomorphologic impacts into significant terms from the viewpoint of human concerns; possible mitigation and/or compensation measures. The procedure has been applied to a case study corresponding to a new motorway in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Geomorphological impacts considered in this analysis included: (1) consumable resources; (2) sites of geomorphological interest; (3) land units with high potential for use, high productivity or value for conservation; (4) visual landscape; (5) slope instability processes. The procedure has been designed for implementation in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Details are given on the application of the method to each individual impact analysed and results are presented in both numerical and map form. Impacts assessed were initially expressed by means of heterogeneous magnitudes, depending on the geomorphological feature considered. Those geomorphological impacts were then translated into significant terms and homogeneous magnitudes. Integration was carried out on the basis of impact values thus obtained. Final integrated results were also expressed in numerical and map form. The method proposed enables

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGULATIONS ON GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLADILA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will present the evolution of the regulation of gender based violence in Romania and Spain. This new theme is one of actuality, due to the situations that frequently happen in our social life. Both Romania and Spain have a high level of gender based violence, even if nowadays in our country are few statistics on this matter. But also, both countries now enjoy good legislations, which have been developed in the last 10 years.

  5. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Moreno, Victor; Altzibar, Jone M; Ardanaz, Eva; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Alguacil, Juan; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Navarro, Carmen; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. Participants completed a face-to-face computerized interview on sociodemographic factors, environmental exposures, occupation, medication, lifestyle, and personal and family medical history. In addition, participants completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. Blood samples were collected from 76% of participants while saliva samples were collected in CLL cases and participants refusing blood extractions. Clinical information was recorded for cases and paraffin blocks and/or fresh tumor samples are available in most collaborating hospitals. Genotyping was done through an exome array enriched with genetic markers in specific pathways. Multiple analyses are planned to assess the association of environmental, personal and genetic risk factors for each tumor and to identify pleiotropic effects. This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Educational use assessment of Geomorphosites applied to the Picos de Europa National Park (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazán, Héctor; Serrano, Enrique; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación

    2014-05-01

    information have been applied after assess 51 geomorphosites in Picos de Europa. Applying the accessibility criteria, 15 geomorphosites have an educational value and so the educational assessment has been made. Each geomorphosite shows educational qualities for different topics and educational or leisure levels, all of them based in experiential education. The educational assessment sheets of geomorphosites allow greater accuracy of the didactic use in the National Park of the Picos de Europa and they are a tool to be used in the teaching task as well as leisure activities. The results permit to make use of the relief in educational curricula and develop leisure strategies to divulgation and interpretation of geomorphosites in NPA.

  7. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-01-01

    Diet composition must be considered in programs designed to detect temporal changes in chemical contamination. - Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn

  8. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-04-01

    Diet composition must be considered in programs designed to detect temporal changes in chemical contamination. - Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn.

  9. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  10. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  11. The use of genus-specific amplicon pyrosequencing to assess phytophthora species diversity using eDNA from soil and water in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Català, Santiago; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora is one of the most important and aggressive plant pathogenic genera in agriculture and forestry. Early detection and identification of its pathways of infection and spread are of high importance to minimize the threat they pose to natural ecosystems. eDNA was extracted from soil and water from forests and plantations in the north of Spain. Phytophthora-specific primers were adapted for use in high-throughput Sequencing (HTS). Primers were tested in a control reaction containing eight Phytophthora species and applied to water and soil eDNA samples from northern Spain. Different score coverage threshold values were tested for optimal Phytophthora species separation in a custom-curated database and in the control reaction. Clustering at 99% was the optimal criteria to separate most of the Phytophthora species. Multiple Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) corresponding to 36 distinct Phytophthora species were amplified in the environmental samples. Pyrosequencing of amplicons from soil samples revealed low Phytophthora diversity (13 species) in comparison with the 35 species detected in water samples. Thirteen of the MOTUs detected in rivers and streams showed no close match to sequences in international sequence databases, revealing that eDNA pyrosequencing is a useful strategy to assess Phytophthora species diversity in natural ecosystems.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative changes in detrital reservoir rocks caused by CO2-brine-rock interactions during first injection phases (Utrillas sandstones, northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrezueta, E.; Ordóñez-Casado, B.; Quintana, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and interpret qualitative and quantitative changes at rock matrix scale of lower-upper Cretaceous sandstones exposed to supercritical (SC) CO2 and brine. The effects of experimental injection of CO2-rich brine during the first injection phases were studied at rock matrix scale, in a potential deep sedimentary reservoir in northern Spain (Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin).Experimental CO2-rich brine was exposed to sandstone in a reactor chamber under realistic conditions of deep saline formations (P ≈ 7.8 MPa, T ≈ 38 °C and 24 h exposure time). After the experiment, exposed and non-exposed equivalent sample sets were compared with the aim of assessing possible changes due to the effect of the CO2-rich brine exposure. Optical microscopy (OpM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aided by optical image analysis (OIA) were used to compare the rock samples and get qualitative and quantitative information about mineralogy, texture and pore network distribution. Complementary chemical analyses were performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data. Brine composition was also analyzed before and after the experiment.The petrographic study of contiguous sandstone samples (more external area of sample blocks) before and after CO2-rich brine injection indicates an evolution of the pore network (porosity increase ≈ 2 %). It is probable that these measured pore changes could be due to intergranular quartz matrix detachment and partial removal from the rock sample, considering them as the early features produced by the CO2-rich brine. Nevertheless, the whole rock and brine chemical analyses after interaction with CO2-rich brine do not present important changes in the mineralogical and chemical configuration of the rock with respect to initial conditions, ruling out relevant precipitation or dissolution at these early stages to rock-block scale. These results

  13. A 700 year record of combustion-derived pollution in northern Spain: Tools to identify the Holocene/Anthropocene transition in coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leorri, Eduardo; Mitra, Siddhartha; Irabien, María Jesús; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Blake, William H.; Cearreta, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    There is an uneven geographical distribution of historic records of atmospheric pollutants from SW Europe and those that exist are very limited in temporal extent. Alternative data source is required to understand temporal trends in human impacts on atmospheric pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metal content and stable Pb isotopic ratios in a sediment core from a salt marsh in northern Spain were used to reconstruct the regional history of contaminant inputs over the last 700 years. Pre-1800s concentrations of Pb and PAHs represented baseline concentrations, i.e. pre-Industrial, conditions. During the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution, 1800s to 1860s, PAH concentrations increased by a factor of about two above baseline levels in the sediment column. By the 1930s, PAH levels reached ca. 10 times pre-Industrial levels and, along with Pb, reached a peak at ca. 1975 CE. Since then, sedimentary PAH and Pb concentrations decreased significantly. A combination of PAH isomer and Pb stable isotope ratios suggests that the contaminant sources are regional, likely derived partially from wood, but mainly coal used by the metallurgic industry in the Basque country since the 1800s and until the 1970s when leaded petrol saw increased use. This chronology of regional atmosphere-derived pollution expands current southwest Europe emission records and shows coastal salt marsh sediments to be useful in reconstructing the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Historic records of atmospheric pollutant emissions in SW Europe are needed. • PAH and Pb concentrations and ratios from a north Spain salt marsh core were used. • Atmosphere emissions mainly from regional coal burning increased in the early 1800s. • Emissions associated with leaded gasoline peaked in 1975 CE. • The results suggest 1800 CE as the Holocene/Anthropocene transition

  14. A 700 year record of combustion-derived pollution in northern Spain: Tools to identify the Holocene/Anthropocene transition in coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leorri, Eduardo, E-mail: leorrie@ecu.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, East Carolina University, Graham Building 103B, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Mitra, Siddhartha, E-mail: mitras@ecu.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, East Carolina University, Graham Building 103B, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Irabien, María Jesús, E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Zimmerman, Andrew R., E-mail: azimmer@ufl.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, P.O. Box 112120, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Blake, William H., E-mail: william.blake@plymouth.ac.uk [Consolidated Radioisotope Facility, University of Plymouth, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Cearreta, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.cearreta@ehu.es [Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    There is an uneven geographical distribution of historic records of atmospheric pollutants from SW Europe and those that exist are very limited in temporal extent. Alternative data source is required to understand temporal trends in human impacts on atmospheric pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metal content and stable Pb isotopic ratios in a sediment core from a salt marsh in northern Spain were used to reconstruct the regional history of contaminant inputs over the last 700 years. Pre-1800s concentrations of Pb and PAHs represented baseline concentrations, i.e. pre-Industrial, conditions. During the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution, 1800s to 1860s, PAH concentrations increased by a factor of about two above baseline levels in the sediment column. By the 1930s, PAH levels reached ca. 10 times pre-Industrial levels and, along with Pb, reached a peak at ca. 1975 CE. Since then, sedimentary PAH and Pb concentrations decreased significantly. A combination of PAH isomer and Pb stable isotope ratios suggests that the contaminant sources are regional, likely derived partially from wood, but mainly coal used by the metallurgic industry in the Basque country since the 1800s and until the 1970s when leaded petrol saw increased use. This chronology of regional atmosphere-derived pollution expands current southwest Europe emission records and shows coastal salt marsh sediments to be useful in reconstructing the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Historic records of atmospheric pollutant emissions in SW Europe are needed. • PAH and Pb concentrations and ratios from a north Spain salt marsh core were used. • Atmosphere emissions mainly from regional coal burning increased in the early 1800s. • Emissions associated with leaded gasoline peaked in 1975 CE. • The results suggest 1800 CE as the Holocene/Anthropocene transition.

  15. Using shell tools in Mesolithic and early Neolithic coastal sites from Northern Spain: experimental program for use wear analysis in malacological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuenca Solana, David

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common debates surrounding the Mesolithic and early Neolithic periods in northern Spain focuses on the scarcity of lithic and osseous technologies identified in large shell midden contexts. Currently, several hypotheses have been proposed that attribute this phenomenon to differences in site spatial organization, increases in perishable material use, or changes in subsistence strategies. However, recently shell tools have been identified in the early Neolithic levels at Santimamiñe cave located in the Basque Country of northern Spain. These artifacts are the first evidence of shell tools to be identified in Northern Spain in an early Neolithic shell midden context. This paper proposes the hypothesis that shell tools were being used in subsistence activities. To test this hypothesis, the authors developed an experimental programme using different types of mollusc shells to examine evidence of functional use on wood, dry/fresh animal skin and non-woody plants. The experimental results were then used to examine the patterns of use on the seven shell tools from Santimamiñe. The results of the comparisons indicate that the seven shell tools have similar use patterns as the experimental shells. This evidence supports the proposed hypothesis that shell tools may have been used frequently in shell midden contexts during the Mesolithic and early Neolithic for the working of wood, plants or animal skin.

    Uno de los debates más extendidos en la historiografía sobre el Mesolítico y el Neolítico inicial en la región cantábrica es el de la escasez de tecnologías “tradicionales” en la mayor parte de los contextos existentes, especialmente en aquellos con grandes acumulaciones de conchas. Actualmente, varias de las hipótesis propuestas atribuyen este fenómeno a diferencias en la organización espacial de los asentamientos, al aumento en la utilización de materiales perecederos o a cambios en las estrategias de subsistencia

  16. Carbon content of forest floor and mineral soil in Mediterranean Pinus spp. and Oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, C.; Turrión, M.B.; Pando, V.; Bravo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to determine the baseline carbon stock in forest floor and mineral soils in pine and oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain. Area of study: The study area is situated in northern Spain (42° N, 4° W) on “Paramos y Valles” region of Palencia. aterial and methods: An extensive monitoring composed of 48 plots (31 in pine and 17 in oak stands) was carried out. Litter layers and mineral soil samples, at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, were taken in each plot. An intensive monitoring was also performed by sampling 12 of these 48 plots selected taken in account species forest composition and their stand development stage. Microbial biomass C (CMB), C mineralization (CRB), and soil organic C balance at stand level were determined in surface soil samples of intensive monitoring. Main results: No differences in soil C content were detected in the two forest ecosystems up to 60 cm depth (53.0±25.8 Mg C ha-1 in Pinus spp. plantations and 60.3±43.8 Mg C ha-1 in oak stands). However, differences in total C (CT), CMB and CRB were found in the upper 10 cm of the soils depending on the stand development stage in each species forest composition (Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica). Plots with high development stage exhibited significant lower metabolic quotient (qCO2), so, meant more efficient utilization of C by the microbial community. The C content in the forest floor was higher in pine stands (13.7±0.9 Mg C ha-1) than in oak stands (5.4±0.7 Mg C ha-1). A greater turnover time was found in pine ecosystems vs. oak stands. In contrast, forest floor H layer was nonexistent in oak stands. Research highlights: Results about litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil dynamics in this paper can be used strategically to reach environmental goals in new afforestation programs and sustainable forest management approaches. (Author)

  17. Working in international environment based on training experiences in Greece, Finland and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cierechowicz, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    In various places around the world management looks different and has other preferences or focuses. We could think if it is a matter of business, country or maybe person. Personally, I believe that the way how management is done depends on many reasons, however some are more obvious than the others. Based on my training experiences in Greece, Finland and Spain I could compare how different management can be. What is interesting, in each place everything worked perfectly in completely dif...

  18. No molecular epidemiological evidence supporting household transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from pet dogs and cats in the province of Álava, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Carmena, David

    2017-06-01

    The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain. A total of 268 (including 179 human, 55 canine, and 34 feline) individual faecal specimens were obtained from 63 family households during February-March and November-December 2014. Detection of G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was achieved by direct fluorescence microscopy (DFAT) and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Giardia-positive isolates were subsequently sub-genotyped at the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes. Overall, G. duodenalis infections were identified in 3.4% (6/179) of humans, 29% (16/55) of dogs, and 5.9% (2/34) of cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were detected in 1.1% (2/179) of humans, 5.5% (3/55) of dogs, and 8.8% (3/34) of cats, respectively. Simultaneous infections in human and canine/feline hosts by G. duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. were only demonstrated in a single household in which a cat and its owner tested positive for Cryptosporidium by DFAT, but this result could not be confirmed by SSU-PCR. Infections were homogeneously distributed among the studied human or animal populations irrespectively of their sex, age group, or geographical region of origin. Inadequate washing of raw vegetables and fruits was the only risk factor significantly associated to a higher likelihood of having human giardiosis/cryptosporidiosis. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis

  19. Investigating the Potential market of a Serious Game for Training of Alzheimer’s Caregivers in a Northern Spain region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Arambarri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gamification can help training people with Alzheimer and their caregivers. In this paper are shown the benefits of gamification for this group of people and the technical and social feasibility of launching a game on the market. A Use Case in the north of Spain has been selected.A deep study about the state of the art in gamification and dementia aimed at training caregivers and families has been made but no available game have been reached out. For early states of analysing the technical and social feasibility of launching the serious game a group of highly skill both technicians and psychologists have been selected. To develop and launch products that fit Alzheimer patients and their family’s needs the learning by doing methodology has been selected - a mix of learning in everyday practices, learning from other people involved, learning from experience and learning from the affected person. In addition the following agents are involved: People with dementia, families, and professionals carers and expert people.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Changes of Carbonate Rocks Exposed to SC CO2 (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Berrezueta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the qualitative and quantitative determination of porosity, mineralogical and textural changes in carbonate rock samples after injection of (i supercritical CO2-rich brine and (ii dry supercritical CO2, under similar experimental conditions (P ≈ 75 bar, T ≈ 35 °C, 970 h exposure time and no CO2 flow. The studied rocks were sampled in the western Basque-Cantabrian Basin, North Spain, and consist of vuggy carbonates (“Carniolas” of the Puerto de la Palombera formation (Hettangian. Mineralogical and pore space characterization is completed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical image analysis. In addition, X-ray fluorescence analyses are performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data and the brine composition is analysed before and after the experiment. Mineralogical and chemical results indicate that the carbonate rocks exposed to supercritical CO2 in dry conditions do not suffer significant changes. However, the injection of supercritical CO2-rich brine induces chemical and physical changes in the rock due to the high reactivity of calcite at the low pH conditions produced by the acidified brine. Numerical modelling validates the experimental observations. These results can be used to characterize the behaviour of carbonate rocks under conditions similar to the vicinity of a CO2 injection well. The results should be considered only at the scale of the studied samples and not at reservoir scale.

  1. Exploring the Potential of Laser Ablation Carbon Isotope Analysis for Examining Ecology during the Ontogeny of Middle Pleistocene Hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nuria; Feranec, Robert S; Passey, Benjamin H; Cerling, Thure E; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation of tooth enamel was used to analyze stable carbon isotope compositions of teeth of hominins, red deer, and bears from middle Pleistocene sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain, to investigate the possibility that this technique could be used as an additional tool to identify periods of physiological change that are not detectable as changes in tooth morphology. Most of the specimens were found to have minimal intra-tooth variation in carbon isotopes (< 2.3‰), suggesting isotopically uniform diets through time and revealing no obvious periods of physiological change. However, one of the two sampled hominin teeth displayed a temporal carbon isotope shift (3.2‰) that was significantly greater than observed for co-occurring specimens. The δ13C value of this individual averaged about -16‰ early in life, and -13‰ later in life. This isotopic change occurred on the canine crown about 4.2 mm from the root, which corresponds to an approximate age of two to four years old in modern humans. Our dataset is perforce small owing to the precious nature of hominid teeth, but it demonstrates the potential utility of the intra-tooth isotope profile method for extracting ontogenetic histories of human ancestors.

  2. Orthothermographies and 3D modeling as potential tools in ice caves studies: the Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Berenguer-Sempere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many studies focused on the investigation of climatic and glaciological condition of ice caves. Here we present another way to address these studies, applying some methods already used in fields other than geomorphology. The versatility and accuracy provided by the use of modern topography and thermography techniques, using Terrestrial Laser Scanner and current thermographic cameras- and the creation of 3D thermographic models and orthothermographies derived from them - is shown to be a useful tool as it is difficult to obtain data from fieldwork and traditional methods used in caves. This paper presents the potential uses of combined TLS and thermographic techniques for monitoring some important climatological parameters in the sensitive periglacial environment of the Iberian Atlantic high mountains: Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain. A systematic application of such combined technologies to these kind of caves, is expected to contribute to a quantitative and concise characterization of the evolution of the ice as shown by the results of this study.

  3. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruti, A.; Fernandez-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  4. Music Education based on Competencies in Spain: Necessity or desire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Hernández-Bravo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at critically analyzing the implementation of a system based on competencies in the Spanish curriculum, more specifically in music education. Our current society, subject to vertiginous transformations, is demanding an effective educational response, as well as updated teaching and learning processes. In this context, this study has confirmed the need for both teachers and learners to acquire practical skills and to use active methodologies in the music field. Consequently, curricular contents will become of secondary importance and emphasis will be given to developing competencies that enable individuals to perform tasks and solve problems in real life situations. However, taking into account the importance still given to the traditional expository lecture approach, these changes raise questions about its viability in schools. Due to the inherent nature of music, working with competencies is more adequate in music than in other subjects, and, although its use is necessary to introduce students to music, reality is different than what is desired. The novelty of the topic and its practical implications make it a focus of interest for studies and reflections, like the one presented in this paper, in order to get a better understanding of this phenomenon and establish effective educational actions.

  5. Middle-to-late Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from the A294 ice-cave record (Central Pyrenees, northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Belmonte, Ánchel; Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno, Ana; Leunda, María; López-Martínez, Jerónimo

    2018-02-01

    Perennial ice deposits in caves represent unique, but underexplored, terrestrial sequences that potentially contain outstanding palaeoclimatic records. Here, we present a pioneer palaeoenvironmental study of an ice deposit preserved in a small sag-type cave (A294) in the Central Pyrenees (northern Iberian Peninsula). The 9.25-m-thick sequence, which is dated from 6100 ± 107 to 1888 ± 64 cal BP, represents the oldest known firn ice record worldwide. The stratigraphy (detrital layers, unconformities, and cross stratification), plant macrofossils, and isotopic signature (similarity between the ice linear distribution, δ2H = 7.83δ18O + 8.4, and the Global Meteoric Water Line) of the ice point to the diagenesis of snow introduced to the cave by winter snowstorms. Four phases of rapid ice accumulation (6100-5515, 4945-4250, 3810-3155, and 2450-1890 cal BP) are related to wetter and colder winters. Comparison of the isotopic composition (δ18O and deuterium excess) of the ice with other paleoclimate records show that both source effects and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mechanism exert a dominant influence on the ice cave record. The NAO signal may be a combination of source effects and rainfall amount. Three intervals with low ice accumulation occurred between the phases of rapid accumulation and were related to drier, and possibly warmer, winters. These centennial-scale episodes appear to be in-phase with regional arid events, as established from high altitude lacustrine records and can be correlated to global Rapid Climate Change events. The current warming trend has dramatically decreased the volume of the ice deposit in cave A294.

  6. Willow Short Rotation Coppice Trial in a Former Mining Area in Northern Spain: Effects of Clone, Fertilization and Planting Density on Yield after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Castaño-Díaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A willow short rotation coppice (SRC trial was conducted on former mining land in northern Spain over a period of five years, with the purpose of evaluating the effects on yield of two planting densities (9876 and 14,815 cuttings ha−1, three treatments (control, two levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer (NPK plus weed control and three willow clones (Björn, Inger, Olof. The area was subsoiled, ploughed, harrowed and fertilized with NPK before trial establishment. A randomized block design was applied, with three replications of each treatment in a total of 54 plots, each of an area of 400 m2. The effects of the interactions between the various factors on yield and other growth parameters were also studied. The clone factor significantly affected the number of shoots per stool (greatest for the Inger clone and the Olof clone, which showed the lowest mortality rate and produced the largest trees and largest quantity of biomass. The combined application of fertilizer and herbicide also significantly increased the values of all response variables considered, except the mortality rate. The planting density did not significantly affect the response variables. Clone × treatment interactions were significant for the shoots per stool, height, diameter and biomass variables, and the Olof clone displayed the highest height and diameter growth and yield. The results obtained in the first rotation indicate that the Olof clone adapted well to the trial conditions and therefore would be appropriate for producing biomass in abandoned mine land in Asturias. These findings will help in the development of strategies for the establishment and management of SRC on marginal land.

  7. Three-dimensional morphometrics of thoracic vertebrae in Neandertals and the fossil evidence from El Sidrón (Asturias, Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; García Martínez, Daniel; Rios, Luis; Higuero, Antonio; Barash, Alon; Martelli, Sandra; García Tabernero, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Well preserved thoracic vertebrae of Neandertals are rare. However, such fossils are important as their three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration can contribute to the understanding of the size and shape of the thoracic spine and the entire thorax. This is because the vertebral body and transverse processes provide the articulation and attachment sites for the ribs. Dorsal orientation of the transverse processes relative to the vertebral body also rotates the attached ribs in a way that could affect thorax width. Previous research indicates possible evidence for greater dorsal orientation of the transverse processes and small vertebral body heights in Neandertals, but their 3D vertebral structure has not yet been addressed. Here we present 15 new vertebral remains from the El Sidrón Neandertals (Asturias, Northern Spain) and used 3D geometric morphometrics to address the above issues by comparing two particularly well preserved El Sidrón remains (SD-1619, SD-1641) with thoracic vertebrae from other Neandertals and a sample of anatomically modern humans. Centroid sizes of El Sidrón vertebrae are within the human range. Neandertals have larger T1 and probably also T2. The El Sidrón vertebrae are similar in 3D shape to those of other Neandertals, which differ from Homo sapiens particularly in central-lower regions (T6-T10) of the thoracic spine. Differences include more dorsally and cranially oriented transverse processes, less caudally oriented spinous processes, and vertebral bodies that are anteroposteriorly and craniocaudally short. The results fit with current reconstructions of Neandertal thorax morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of early Archean crust in northwest Gondwana, from U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis of detrital zircon, in Ediacaran surpacrustal rocks of northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Thanusha; Zimmermann, Udo; Vervoort, Jeff; Tait, Jenny

    2018-03-01

    The Mora Formation (Narcea Group) is one of the oldest Precambrian supracrustal successions in northern Spain. Here, we use U-Pb and in situ Hf isotope analysis on detrital zircon to determine its age and provenance. The youngest U-Pb dates constrain the maximum depositional age of the Mora Formation at 565 ± 11 Ma. Results indicate: (1) a dominant Ediacaran zircon population (33%; 565-633 Ma, Cadomian) within a spectrum of Neoproterozoic ages (40%; 636-996 Ma); and (2) smaller Mesoproterozoic (5%; 1004-1240 Ma), Palaeoproterozoic (11%; 1890-2476 Ma) and Archean (11%; 2519-3550 Ma) populations. Results here do not point to one specific cratonic source area; instead, detritus may have been derived from the West African craton and Amazonia, or even the concealed Iberian basement. The lack of 1.3-1.8 Ga grains suggests exclusion of the Sahara Craton as a major source, but this is not certain. This mixed composition favours a complex source history with reworking of detritus across terrane/craton boundaries. Hafnium isotope compositions indicate a range of crustal and juvenile sources, with initial ɛHf values between -15.8 and 11.1, and Hf model ages from 0.8 to 3.7 Ga. For Neoproterozoic zircons (80%), juvenile components (ɛHf(i) +10) may be related to Rodinia fragmentation and the onset of an active margin setting leading to the Cadomian orogeny. Palaeoproterozoic to Paleoarchean grains (20%) all have negative ɛHf values and Meso- to Eoarchean Hf model ages. This indicates an early (Archean) sialic crustal component for northwestern Gondwana.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Pinus nigra Arn. Populations in Southern Spain and Northern Morocco Revealed By Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Profiles

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    Oussama Ahrazem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight Pinus nigra Arn. populations from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco were examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic variability amongst populations. Pair-wise population genetic distance ranged from 0.031 to 0.283, with a mean of 0.150 between populations. The highest inter-population average distance was between PaCU from Cuenca and YeCA from Cazorla, while the lowest distance was between TaMO from Morocco and MA Sierra Mágina populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and Nei’s genetic diversity analyses revealed higher genetic variation within the same population than among different populations. Genetic differentiation (Gst was 0.233. Cuenca showed the highest Nei’s genetic diversity followed by the Moroccan region, Sierra Mágina, and Cazorla region. However, clustering of populations was not in accordance with their geographical locations. Principal component analysis showed the presence of two major groups—Group 1 contained all populations from Cuenca while Group 2 contained populations from Cazorla, Sierra Mágina and Morocco—while Bayesian analysis revealed the presence of three clusters. The low genetic diversity observed in PaCU and YeCA is probably a consequence of inappropriate management since no estimation of genetic variability was performed before the silvicultural treatments. Data indicates that the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR method is sufficiently informative and powerful to assess genetic variability among populations of P. nigra.

  10. Mapping recreation and aesthetic values of ecosystem services in the Bilbao Metropolitan Greenbelt (northern Spain) to support landscape planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Arzuaga, I.; Onaindia, M.; Madriaga, I.; Verburg, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to quantify cultural ecosystem services (ES) and their spatial distribution in the landscape based on ecological structure and social evaluation approaches. The method aims to provide quantified assessments of ES to support land use planning decisions. A GIS-based

  11. Clay raw materials from the Triassic Red Beds (Northern JaéUy Spain for making ceramic construction materials

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    Vázquez, M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Triassic Red Beds from northern Jaén in the production of structural clay products has been evaluated. These materials have high phyllosilicate contents (36-69%, although some samples are enriched in quartz (<8-54% and feldspars (<5-2I%. Dolomite (<5-20% and calcite (< 7% are present. Illite is the main phyllosilicate (96-74%, kaolinite values are rather low (<17% and chlorite is present in low content (<14%. The studied samples have high silica (39.2-74.8% and alumina (6.9-18.3% content. K4ost of the samples have low CaO and MgO concentrations (<6%. <2 pm (64-36% and 2-20 pm (68-36% are the predominant grain size fraction of the studied samples. Low plasticity for extrusion process of the Triassic Red Beds is not appropriated for making bricks and roofing tiles by themselves. However, water absorption and linear shrinkage values are often suitable for manufacturing bricks. A small number of samples are appropriated for making roofing tiles, due to the its high firing shrinkage. Mixing of these materials with different proportions of complementary raw materials would allow to make porous bodies.

    En este trabajo se ha evaluado el uso de las Capas Rojas Triásicas de la Cobertera Tabular del Macizo Ibérico del norte de la provincia de Jaén para elaborar materiales cerámicos. Estos materiales tienen altos contenidos en filosilicatos (36-69%, aunque algunas muestras son ricas en cuarzo (hasta 54% y feldespatos (hasta 21%. Los carbonatos presentes en las muestras son dolomita (<5-20% y calcita (<7%. La illita es el principal filosilicato (96-74%, mientras que la caolinita y la clorita están presentes en bajos contenidos (< 17%. Las muestras estudiadas tienen altos contenidos en sílice (39,2-74,8% y alúmina (6,9-18,3%. La mayoría de estas arcillas tienen bajas concentraciones de CaO y MgO (<6%. Las fracciones granulométricas predominantes son la< 2 pm (64-36% y la situada entre 2 y 20 pm (68-36%. La baja plasticidad

  12. Carbon footprint of milk from sheep farming systems in northern Spain including soil carbon sequestration in grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batalla, Inma M.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The link between climate change and livestock production has made carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment a world-wide indicator to assess and communicate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of product. Nevertheless, the majority of studies have not included soil carbon seques...

  13. Inorganic arsenic contents in rice-based infant foods from Spain, UK, China and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A.; Wu, Xiangchun; Ramírez-Gandolfo, Amanda; Norton, Gareth J.; Burló, Francisco; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for total (t-As) and inorganic As (i-As) using ICP-MS and HPLC–ICP-MS, respectively. Besides, pure infant rice from China, USA, UK and Spain were also analysed. The i-As contents were significantly higher in gluten-free rice than in cereals mixtures with gluten, placing infants with celiac disease at high risk. All rice-based products displayed a high i-As content, with values being above 60% of the t-As content and the remainder being dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Approximately 77% of the pure infant rice samples showed contents below 150 μg kg −1 (Chinese limit). When daily intake of i-As by infants (4–12 months) was estimated and expressed on a bodyweight basis (μg d −1 kg −1 ), it was higher in all infants aged 8–12 months than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults (assuming 1 L consumption per day for a 10 μg L −1 standard). Highlights: ► Inorganic As was higher in rice-based foods than in items based on other cereals. ► Total As was very high in fish-based foods but As was present as non-toxic species. ► The maximum daily intake of i-As was found between 8 and 12 months of age. ► Pure infant rice samples from Spain presented relatively low i-As contents. ► Infants with the celiac disease are exposed to elevated levels of i-As. - Infants with the celiac disease are exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic because of their high consumption of rice-based foods.

  14. Simulation climate change impact on runoff and sediment yield in a small watershed in the basque country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Ane; Meaurio, Maite; Ruiz, Estilita; Antigüedad, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have an impact on runoff and fluvial sediments in watersheds. These factors are among those used to characterize water bodies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Hence, it is important to investigate the extent to which climate change may hinder the achievement of the objectives of the WFD. We explored the potential impact of climate change on runoff and sediment yield for the Aixola watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model calibration (2007-2010) and validation (2005-2006) results were rated as satisfactory. Subsequently, simulations were run for four climate change model-scenario combinations based on two general circulation models (CGCM2 and ECHAM4) under two emissions scenarios (A2 and B2) from 2011 to 2100. All combinations predicted that runoff and sediment yield would decrease compared with baseline (1961-1990). Three combinations suggested that runoff and sediments would decrease by 0.13 to 0.45 m s and 0.11 to 0.43 t every year from 2011 to 2100. However, the CGCM2-B2 scenario resulted in an "extremely likely" increase in runoff and sediments of 0.94 m s and 0.57 t every year. These variations in annual sediment yield are closely related to changes in precipitation. The high degree of uncertainty in the results must be considered when assessing potential impacts and making decisions about adaptation measures. Nevertheless, this first attempt to estimate future sediment yields in our region could be a useful starting point to explore future hydrological impacts in the area. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Historical Single Image-Based Modeling: The Case of Gobierna Tower, Zamora (Spain

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    Jesús Garcia-Gago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical perspective images have been proved to be very useful to properly provide a dimensional analysis of buildings façades or even to generate a pseudo-3D reconstruction based on rectified images of the whole structure. In this paper, the case of Gobierna Tower (Zamora, Spain is analyzed from a historical single image-based modeling approach. In particular, a bottom-up approach, which takes advantage from the perspective of the image, the existence of the three vanishing points and the usual geometric constraints (i.e., planarity, orthogonality, and parallelism is applied for the dimensional analysis of a destroyed historical building. Results were compared with ground truth measurements existing in a historical topographical surveying obtaining deviations of about 1%.

  16. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  17. Pakistanis in Spain: a study based on the community living in the city of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Solé Aubia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of Spain becoming a country of immigration is the greater protagonism that some countries have acquired which had not traditionally been a major source of migration movements towards Spain. Such is the case of Pakistan, whose nationals living in Spain have considerably increased in recent years, mainly in the area of Barcelona. This study seeks to undertake a research line in order to get to know more deeply the reality of this community.

  18. SDI-based business processes: A territorial analysis web information system in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Rubén; Latre, Miguel Á.; Lopez-Pellicer, Francisco J.; Nogueras-Iso, Javier; Zarazaga-Soria, F. J.; Muro-Medrano, Pedro R.

    2012-09-01

    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provide access to geospatial data and operations through interoperable Web services. These data and operations can be chained to set up specialized geospatial business processes, and these processes can give support to different applications. End users can benefit from these applications, while experts can integrate the Web services in their own business processes and developments. This paper presents an SDI-based territorial analysis Web information system for Spain, which gives access to land cover, topography and elevation data, as well as to a number of interoperable geospatial operations by means of a Web Processing Service (WPS). Several examples illustrate how different territorial analysis business processes are supported. The system has been established by the Spanish National SDI (Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de España, IDEE) both as an experimental platform for geoscientists and geoinformation system developers, and as a mechanism to contribute to the Spanish citizens knowledge about their territory.

  19. An analytical comparison of two commercial consolidating products applied to eocene sandstones from 16th and 19th century monuments in San Sehastián, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Garmilla, F.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of buildings in the Basque Country made of Eocene sandstone is somewhat problematical, because this type of rock is relatively unstable. This instability is due to the variable content of carbonate cement (0-28% and the presence of K-feldspar grains (1-13% which appear to have been dissolved by both diagenetic and environmental processes. We have compared the results of the application of two commercial consolidating products: Sicof SM 296 (product A and Consistone FS-hA (product B, both ethylsilicates, on Eocene sandstones of the Oquendo Admiral House (16th century and the Gipuzkoa Provincial Government Palace (19th century, which are both located in the city of San Sebastián (Province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Northern Spain. On the basis of different chemical and physical laboratory tests, together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis, product A seems to be more efficient in consolidating such Eocene sandstone materials, since it penetrates into the first 8 mm of the rock, occupies very homogeneously even the smallest pore spaces and leaves a certain degree of remaining porosity which allows ventilation of the rock. In contrast, product B seems to be more appropriate for larger pore-sized rocks, because it only penetrates into the first 3 mm of the Eocene sandstone samples due to the thin pores of the matter. Our results demonstrate that the suitability of a commercial product depends not only on its own chemical composition, but also on the textural and lithological features of the rock material upon which it is to be applied.

    La conservación de los edificios del País Vasco construidos con areniscas del Eoceno es problemática porque este tipo de roca es relativamente inestable debido a su contenido variable en cemento carbonatado (0-28% y a la presencia de granos de feldespato potásico (1-13% disueltos tanto por procesos diagenéticos como ambientales. Hemos aplicado dos consolidantes comerciales

  20. Community-based study on intracerebral hemorrhage in northern Hokkaido. Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study (NOHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kazuhiro; Shirai, Wakako; Tokumitu, Naoki; Aizawa, Shizuka

    2008-01-01

    A survey on stroke was conducted to evaluate the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the prevalence of risk factors. The subjects, comprising those patients who suffesed a stroke, were registered on the Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study between July 2002 and June 2006. The severity of their illness was rated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at hospital admission, while their outcome was determined by the mortality within 3 months and the mRS (modified Rankin Scale score). Of the 1,046 registered stroke patients, 271 (25.9%) were found to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage. Their mean age was 70.3±11.7 years; male-to-female ratio, 154/117; mean NIHSS at admission, 11.8±8.1; mortality within 3 months, 19.2%; and percentage who regained independence within 3 months (mRS: ≤2), 32.5%. A history of hypertension was found in 72.6%, and 13.7% had no treatment. MRI (T2*) revealed micro-hemorrhage outside the lesions in 67.5%. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were taking anti-platelet agents at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no significant difference between the mortalities of the anti-platelet-agent-users and non-users but the percentage of those regaining independence within 3 months was 19.1% for the users against 37.3% for the non-users (p=0.0177), with a significantly poor outcome in the user group. In northern Hokkaido, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage remains high, and the percentage of those with poorly controlled or uncontrolled hypertension was 30%. These findings suggest a need to educate not only the inhabitants themselves but also the physicians engaged in their care. (author)

  1. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  2. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  3. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower Devonian Brachiopods and Stratigraphy of North Palencia (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, J.G.

    1965-01-01

    A continuous sequence of Devonian sediments is exposed in the northern part of the province of Palencia (NW-Spain), on the southern slope of the Cantabrian Mountains. This study concerns the stratigraphy and paleontology of the Lower Devonian formations. At the base of the sequence a clastic

  5. A spatial analysis of patterns of growth and concentration of population based on homogeneous population censuses: Spain (1877-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Franch Auladell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work constitutes a contribution to the analysis of long term patterns of population concentration applied to the case of Spain. The proposed methodology is based on the homogenisation of both data and administrative units which takes the municipal structure of the 2001 census as its base reference. This work seeks to show how applying spatial analysis techniques to this type of homogeneous data series allows us to make more detailed studies of population patterns within a given territory. The most important conclusions that we reached was that, in Spain, sustained population growth has followed a spatial pattern that has become increasingly consolidated over time. The tendencies observed have produced an uneven distribution of population within the national territory marked by the existence of a series of well-defined, and often very localised, areas that spread beyond the limits of the official administrative boundaries.

  6. New luminescence ages for the Galería Complex archaeological site: resolving chronological uncertainties on the acheulean record of the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee J; Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Ortega, Ana I; Arsuaga, Juan L; Bermúdez de Castro, José M; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-01-01

    The archaeological karstic infill site of Galería Complex, located within the Atapuerca system (Spain), has produced a large faunal and archaeological record (Homo sp. aff. heidelbergensis fossils and Mode II lithic artefacts) belonging to the Middle Pleistocene. Extended-range luminescence dating techniques, namely post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR) dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating of individual quartz grains, were applied to fossil-bearing sediments at Galería. The luminescence dating results are in good agreement with published chronologies derived using alternative radiometric dating methods (i.e., ESR and U-series dating of bracketing speleothems and combined ESR/U-series dating of herbivore teeth), as well as biochronology and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions inferred from proxy records (e.g., pollen data). For the majority of samples dated, however, the new luminescence ages are significantly (∼50%) younger than previously published polymineral thermoluminescence (TL) chronologies, suggesting that the latter may have overestimated the true burial age of the Galería deposits. The luminescence ages obtained indicate that the top of the basal sterile sands (GIb) at Galería have an age of up to ∼370 thousand years (ka), while the lowermost sub-unit containing Mode II Acheulean lithics (base of unit GIIa) was deposited during MIS 9 (mean age = 313±14 ka; n = 4). The overlying units GIIb-GIV, which contain the richest archaeopalaeontological remains, were deposited during late MIS 8 or early MIS 7 (∼240 ka). Galería Complex may be correlative with other Middle Pleistocene sites from Atapuerca, such as Gran Dolina level TD10 and unit TE19 from Sima del Elefante, but the lowermost archaeological horizons are ∼100 ka younger than the hominin-bearing clay breccias at the Sima de los Huesos site. Our results suggest that both pIR-IR and single-grain TT

  7. Revisiting groundwater overdraft based on the experience of the Mancha Occidental Aquifer, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Santos, P.; Castaño-Castaño, S.; Hernández-Espriú, A.

    2018-01-01

    Aquifers provide a reliable freshwater source in arid and semiarid regions, where droughts are common and irrigated crops present significant water requirements, so intensive pumping is generally needed. Over-extraction leads to dropping water tables, which in turn threatens the survival of groundwater-dependent ecosystems and water supplies. This calls for strategies to channel hydrological, environmental, agricultural, political and social change. Based on the experience of the Mancha Occidental aquifer, Spain, this paper explores some of the complexities of managing groundwater, dealing with the long-term changes that intensive groundwater use has generated in the region. The Mancha experience shows how environmental conservation may drive social and economic change at the regional scale for periods spanning several decades. What makes this case study unique, however, is the combination of social and environmental conflicts, most of which stem from the prevalence of illegal water use, and their detrimental effect on Ramsar wetlands. The situation exposed a paradox, namely that subsidies for farmers to cut down on water use were actually detrimental to the welfare of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. The unexpected (and timely) occurrence of extreme rainfall events in recent times, after 40 years of ineffective management measures and sustained environmental degradation, enabled the aquifer and its associated wetlands to recover spectacularly to a near-pristine condition. As groundwater-dependent wetlands are highly sensitive ecosystems, it is concluded that it is up to society to decide how much environmental damage can be tolerated in exchange for the social and economic benefits of groundwater-based development.

  8. Current situation of hospital-based endocrinology and clinical nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Gálvez Moreno, M

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Healthcare Commission of Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition did a survey in order to know the actual situation of endocrinology and clinical nutrition healthcare in Public Sanitary Systems in Spain. The survey has been more extensive than the last and it has taken up number and geographical distribution of specialists in Spain in addition to data about clinical assistance. The mean of public hospitals with endocrinologist participation has been 50%. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Circulation pattern-based assessment of projected climate change for a catchment in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo; Jódar, Jorge; Carrera, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    We present an approach for evaluating catchment-scale hydro-meteorological impacts of projected climate change based on the atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs) of a region. Our approach is motivated by the conjecture that GCMs are especially good at simulating the atmospheric circulation patterns that control moisture transport, and which can be expected to change in response to global warming. In support of this, we show (for the late 20th century) that GCMs provide much better simulations of ACPs than those of precipitation amount for the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain. For the same period, four of the twenty GCMs participating in the most recent (5th) IPCC Assessment provide quite accurate representations of the spatial patterns of mean sea level pressure, the frequency distribution of ACP type, the 'number of rainy days per month', and the daily 'probability of rain' (they also reproduce the trend of 'wet day amount', though not the actual magnitudes). A consequent analysis of projected trends and changes in hydro-climatic ACPology between the late 20th and 21st Centuries indicates that (1) actual changes appear to be occurring faster than predicted by the models, and (2) for two greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) the expected decline in precipitation volume is associated mainly with a few specific ACPs (primarily directional flows from the Atlantic Ocean and Cantabric Sea), and with decreasing probability of rain (linked to increasing temperatures) rather than wet day amount. Our approach is a potentially more insightful alternative for catchment-scale climate impacts assessments than the common approach of statistical downscaling and bias correction.

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Northern Jordan: Endoscopy based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Hammouri, Shadi M.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered the most common infection worldwide and is associated with many other disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this infection among patients undergoing endoscopy in Northern Jordan. Between November 1998 and September 2000, all patients referred from the Gastro-esophageal Clinic to the Endoscopy Unit at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Northern Jordan were enrolled in this prospective study. For each patient clinical and epidemiological data was collected and endoscopy was performed. At least 3 antral biopsies were obtained from each patient, and these were examined histologically for the presence of gastritis and stained for Helicobacter pylori using modified Giemsa stain. A total of 197 consecutive patients (113 females) with a mean age of 40.2 years (range 15-91 years) were studied. Abdominal pain was the highest presenting symptom. Gastritis 91% and esophagitis 42% were the most frequent endoscopic findings. Gastritis was documented histologically in 183 (93%) of patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 161 patients (82%), with all of these having histological gastritis. The 11 patients with gastric ulcer, compared to the 51 out of the 59 (86%) patients with duodenal ulcer, showed Helicobacter pylori in their biopsies. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Jordan is high. This study confirms that Helicobacter pylori is significantly associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer. Further studies are needed to determine the types of Helicobacter pylori strains present in Jordan. (author)

  11. Perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of evidence-based medicine in primary care in Spain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Ricard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The philosophy of evidence-based medicine (EBM was introduced in the early 90s as a new approach to the practice of medicine, using the best available evidence to make decisions about health care. Despite ongoing controversy, EBM has developed enormously and physicians' attitude towards it is generally positive. Nevertheless, in Spain little is known about this topic. We will therefore undertake a study to explore perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about EBM among primary care physicians. Methods and design A mixed-method study combining qualitative and quantitative designs will target family practitioners in Spain with the objective of evaluating current attitudes and perceptions about evidence-based medicine. The project will consist of two phases: a first phase running focus groups to identify perceptions and attitudes of participants, and a second phase assessing their attitudes and knowledge about EBM by means of a survey. Both phases will explore these issues in three different subgroups: family practitioners, with or without previous formal education in EBM; members of working groups that formulate healthcare recommendations; and physicians in charge of training family practice residents. Additionally, we will undertake a systematic review to identify and synthesize the available evidence on this topic. Discussion The study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers to the practice of evidence-based medicine among general practitioners in Spain. The project will also evaluate the main knowledge gaps and training needs, and explore how evidence-based medicine is being taught to family medicine residents, the medical practitioners of the future. Our results will aid researchers and health care planners in developing strategies to improve the practice of evidence-based medicine in our country.

  12. Wind power development in Spain, the model of Navarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Ichaso, A. de [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra S.A. (EHN), Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    Wind power implementation in Spain has undergone spectacular growth in recent years. From 834 Megawatts installed at the end of 1998, the figure of 1,500 MW was reached at the end of 1999 and forecasts expect well over 2,500 MW by the end of the year 2000. A favourable legislative framework and tariff structure have brought about this rate of development, which is mainly based on the implementation of large wind farms on high altitude sites in Spain. The region of Navarra (northern Spain) has played a special role in this development, and EHN, a company born in this region, has carried out major projects that have given it 30% of the Spanish wind power sector. The challenges for the sector in Spain over the next few years are: (1) Make its development compatible with the supply guarantees required by the national electricity supply operator, (2) ensure that the implementation of wind farms is done with respect for the environment, (3) harmonise the wind power development of the different Autonomous Communities of Spain, and (4) reduce the investment costs in order to obtain enough profitability with falling energy prices in the coming years. (orig.)

  13. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  14. Balancing Identity and Diversity in Faith-Based Nursing Education: A Case Study from Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Bodil; Karvinen, Ikali; Damsma-Bakker, Alica; Ylönen, Merja; Oosterhoff-Zielman, Marjanne; Fanuelsen, Olav; van Leeuwen, Réné

    2015-01-01

    The role of faith-based nursing education is contested in today's Northern European societies, which are often described as postmodern, pluralist, or secular. Although faith-based institutions played pioneering roles in the early development of nursing education, many today downplay their religious roots and have transformed themselves into modern…

  15. The Civil Registry of Children Born of Surrogacy Pregnancy: An Investigation Based on Recent Spain Supreme Court Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cristina de Carvalho Rettore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign law, there has been intense debates concerning civil registry of children born of surrogacy pregnancy, when such birth disrespects the country’s norms. Thus, based on the analysis of recent Spain Supreme Court judgments – that is, through a juridical-comparative investigation, using primary and secondary sources –, and considering that although Brazil lacks an express federal law about the issue, a Resolution of the Federal Counsel of Medicine establishing parameters is being generally applied, the paper aims to answer whether or not Brazilian registry should be facilitated for births (demonstrated as not uncommon that disregard such parameters.

  16. The national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in Spain: a population-based study using disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard

    2015-04-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. HAD 2020 Project: A proposal to consolidate hospital-based home care in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Estrada Cuxart

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hospital at home (HAH appeared in Spain 36 years ago with the opening of several units. The initial push was truncated by the lack of political leadership and sometimes clinical as well. The current reality offers an irregular implementation with a wide disparity of assistance and resource models. The Sociedad Española de Hospitalización a Domicilio (SEHAD has not played either the expected scientific or professional leadership roles. The “Plan HAD2020: key of the future” was designed as revulsive. This is an ambitious 4-year project to consolidate HAH as a care modality. Its deployment consists of five phases. Preparation: the foundations of the strategic plan (EP were established. Situation analysis: a national survey was carried out on the 106 operational units (data 2014. Validation of the EP: contributions and proposals of action of the members of SEHAD. National Congress 2016: presentation and approval of EP conclusions and proposals. EP deployment phase: it will be extended until 2020 and will be executed by various teams of referents spread over five lines of work. The final objective set for the year 2020 is: to come up with a more homogenous care model; to promote the training and professional recognition of those who work in the HAD; that each hospital in Spain has a HAH unit; recognition and empowerment by the national health system. HAD2020 has marked an inflection point in the SEHAD. The traced path and the effort of all the HAH professionals will allow reaching the vision which the pioneers of the HAH in Spain pursued.

  18. Data-base system for northern Midwest regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, A.L.; Mandle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a study of the Cambrian and Ordovician aquifer system of the northern Midwest as part of a national series of Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis (RASA). An integral part of this study will be a simulation of the ground-water flow regime using the Geological Survey's three-dimensional finite-difference model. The first step in the modeling effort is the design and development of a systematic set of processes to facilitate the collection, evaluation, manipulation, and use of large quantities of information. A computerized data-base system to accomplish these goals has been completed for the northern Midwest RASA.

  19. Turbidity-based sediment monitoring in northern Thailand: Hysteresis, variability, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the Mae Sa Catchment in northern Thailand, determined with an automated, turbidity-based monitoring approach, were approximately 62,000, 33,000, and 14,000 Mg during the three years of observation. These loads were equivalent to basin y...

  20. Voice-Based Marketing for Agricultural Products : A Case Study in Rural Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittoh, Francis; Aart, Chris Van; Boer, Victor De

    2013-01-01

    We present a study conducted in rural Northern Ghana about issues around the marketing of agricultural products and the need of mobile-based ICT solutions. The need for the spread of information and web access to communities in developing countries has given rise to the design and development of

  1. Flight Dynamics and Abundance of Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae in Different Sawmills from Northern Spain: Differences between Local Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae and Southern France Incoming P. pinaster Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, the windstorm “Klaus” struck the southern part of France, affecting 37.9 million m3 of maritime pine Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pinales: Pinaceae. This breeding plant material favored the outbreak of Ips sexdentatus (Börner (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. As much of this timber is imported to the Basque Country (northern Spain, a potential risk to conifer stands is generated, due to the emergence of the incoming beetles. Thus, flight dynamics and beetle abundance were compared in different sawmills, according to the timber species (either local P. radiata D. Don or imported P. pinaster. A maximum flight peak of I. sexdentatus was observed in mid-June in P. pinaster importing sawmills, whereas a second lighter peak occurred in September. In contrast, only a maximum peak in mid-June was observed in P. radiata inhabiting beetles, being significantly smaller than in local P. pinaster trading sawmills. In addition, significant differences were found between imported P. pinaster and P. radiata regarding the number of insects beneath the bark. The development of IPM strategies for controlling I. sexdentatus populations is recommended, due to the insect abundance found in P. pinaster imported timber.

  2. Internal Migration Patterns of Foreign-Born Immigrants in Spain. A study based on the National Immigrant Survey (ENI-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the existing literature on the internal migration patterns of the foreign-born in Spain. We analyze the spatial distribution of immigrants and their patterns of mobility at different levels. Socio-demographic characteristics of immigrants and characteristics of places of origin and destination are considered. We also examine repeat migration, duration of residence in each destination, as well as return migration within Spain. To this end, we make use of a new micro database corresponding to the National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

    Este artículo contribuye a la literatura sobre la migración interna de los inmigrantes nacidos fuera de España. En él se analiza la distribución espacial y las pautas de movilidad de los inmigrantes, considerando aspectos como las características sociodemográficas de los individuos y las características de los orígenes y destinos dentro de España. También se analiza la emigración repetida, la duración de la residencia en cada destino y la emigración de retorno (dentro de España. Para todo ello, se utiliza la nueva base de datos micro derivada de la Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

  3. The deployment of electricity generation from renewable energies in Germany and Spain: A comparative analysis based on a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández Fernández, Pablo; Ortiz, Eunice Villicaña; Bernat, Jorge Xiberta

    2013-01-01

    The fulfilment of the aims set by the European Union in the deployment of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) has counted and must continue to count on public funding from the member states, which promote private investment in this type of facilities. This funding guarantees a cost-oriented remuneration which, being higher than the market price means an additional cost to the electricity system. With the aim of minimizing the economic impact as the weight of RES-E in the electricity mix increases, the generation costs of renewable units must approach those of the market, which are expected to increase according to the fossil fuel price forecasts. The present study analyzes both the RES-E development and deployment in Spain and Germany, two pioneering countries worldwide and with very similar electricity systems. Based on their national action plans and a simple model, this analysis approaches the RES-E surcharge, comparing and contrasting the results obtained in both countries. - Highlights: ► Policies must be assessed according to the surcharge caused per unit generated. ► Surcharge evolution function fitted by an Erlang alike distribution. ► About two-third of the decade surcharge shall be devoted to units commissioned by 2010. ► Germany focused on technology development, while Spain on deployment

  4. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  5. CAP DIRECT PAYMENTS AS THE MAIN TOOL TO SUPPORT THE EU FARMERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THEIR IMPLEMENTATION BASED ON SPAIN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CIMPOIES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct payments are the main tool of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP and the main objective is to support EU farmers incomes. They benefit from a particular attention during the new 2014-2020 reform. For the first time direct payments were introduced in 1992 after MacSharry reform and known as coupled payments (payments per hectare and animal head. In 2003 were introduced the decoupled payments focused at encouraging farmers and enhancing the competitiveness and sustainability of the EU agriculture. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of direct payments as main support instrument to the EU farmers based on Spain experience. In Spain the new changes in the Single Payment Scheme (SPS were first introduced in 2006, beginning with the regime of partial decoupling, until 2012, when the coupled payments disappeared, being integrated under the SPS or transformed into additional payment. In this analysis, secondary data provided by the Spanish Agrarian Guarantee Fund (FEGA, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment of Spain (MAGRAMA and Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. The analyzed data refers to the amount of allocated direct payments in Spain and EU countries, number of beneficiaries and its distribution on territorial aspect. So far, the distribution of direct payments in Spain, similar to other EU member states, is unequal, as a result of various factors, as the CAP development and diversity of production, the use of historical references to fix the decoupled payments per farm and others.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female university students in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Aliyu, Muktar H; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-09-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health and human rights problem worldwide. The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. Using self administered questionnaires, we determined the prevalence and risk factors for gender-based violence among 300 female university students in Kano, Northern Nigeria. The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty affiliation were significant predictors of GBV. GBV awareness creation programs, legal protection and implementation of an effective redress mechanism are recommended to curb this menace.

  7. Landsat-based trend analysis of lake dynamics across northern permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Ulrich, Mathias; Federov, Alexander; Veremeeva, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are a ubiquitous landscape feature in northern permafrost regions. They have a strong impact on carbon, energy and water fluxes and can be quite responsive to climate change. The monitoring of lake change in northern high latitudes, at a sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal resolution, is crucial for understanding the underlying processes driving lake change. To date, lake change studies in permafrost regions were based on a variety of different sources, image acquisition periods and single snapshots, and localized analysis, which hinders the comparison of different regions. Here we present, a methodology based on machine-learning based classification of robust trends of multi-spectral indices of Landsat data (TM,ETM+, OLI) and object-based lake detection, to analyze and compare the individual, local and regional lake dynamics of four different study sites (Alaska North Slope, Western Alaska, Central Yakutia, Kolyma Lowland) in the northern permafrost zone from 1999 to 2014. Regional patterns of lake area change on the Alaska North Slope (-0.69%), Western Alaska (-2.82%), and Kolyma Lowland (-0.51%) largely include increases due to thermokarst lake expansion, but more dominant lake area losses due to catastrophic lake drainage events. In contrast, Central Yakutia showed a remarkable increase in lake area of 48.48%, likely resulting from warmer and wetter climate conditions over the latter half of the study period. Within all study regions, variability in lake dynamics was associated with differences in permafrost characteristics, landscape position (i.e. upland vs. lowland), and surface geology. With the global availability of Landsat data and a consistent methodology for processing the input data derived from robust trends of multi-spectral indices, we demonstrate a transferability, scalability and consistency of lake change analysis within the northern permafrost region.

  8. [Regulatory policies on alcohol in Spain. Experience-based public health? 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Granero, Lluís; Brugal, M Teresa

    2008-04-01

    The present article reviews the proposal for alcohol regulation made in Spain in 2006 by the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and dropped a few months later as adverse positions took over the debate in the political arena and the media. The background to these regulations, as well as their components, the process, and the actors involved are analyzed, and the factors leading to this outcome are discussed. A comparison is made with the tobacco regulation initiative in 2005, which resulted in a regulatory law with a highly favorable impact on public health. The actors interested in promoting alcohol consumption and opposed to any regulation have a privileged institutional presence, generating powerful resistance. Although these regulatory proposals would have marginal impacts on their trade, wine growers and wineries have been the most visible forces against regulation and have had the greatest political and media impact. Equally, manipulated messages on the health benefits of alcohol use have fed arguments against regulation. The lack of political and media consensus in this case stands in contrast with the tobacco regulation process, in which a certain political consensus had previously been reached and the smoking prevention movement had permeated the media with preventive messages, framing the issue in terms favorable for regulation. To gain ground, the sectors interested in expanding public policies for the prevention of the harm caused by alcohol need greater cohesion and organization. Professional public health organizations can substantially contribute to this field.

  9. Chronic myeloid leukaemia in Spain: Its presentation characteristics have changed. Spanish section of the EUTOS population-based registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, S; Casado, L F; Giraldo, P; Maestro, B; Andrade, M; Redondo, S; García-Gutiérrez, V; Ayala, R; Garcia, N; Steegmann, J L

    2016-01-01

    To provide more reliable data on the epidemiology of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in Spain than are currently available. The EUTOS population-based project of European LeukemiaNet is a population registry of new CML cases in patients 18 years of age or older from 22 European areas. The Spanish section included the autonomous communities of Madrid, Castilla-La Mancha and Aragon, from 1-2-2010 to 31-12-2012. A total of 250 cases were recorded in 35 months. The overall incidence was 1.08 cases/10(5) inhabitants-year, with a predominance of men (58%) and clear differences among the communities. The incidence standardised by age was similar (overall, 1.04; men, 1.31; women, 0.81). The median age was 54 years. The incidence increased with age, reaching a peak at>65 years, although 31.7% of cases appeared between the ages of 20 and 44 years. Four percent of cases were diagnosed in advanced stages (2.4% in accelerated phase, 1.6% in blast crisis), 56% were asymptomatic, 38% had splenomegaly, and the Sokal score was high in 11% (lower than what was previously reflected in the literature). The current incidence of CML in Spain is higher than previously reported and similar to that of the European studies. Unlike the classical descriptions, CML presented mostly in asymptomatic form, with no splenomegaly, less leucocytosis and in stages with better prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted life years measure of disease burden, was calculated using Princeton West standard life tables with life expectancy at birth fixed at 80 years for males and 82.5 years for females. Population data and specific death records were obtained from the official registers of the National Institute of Statistics. All data were analysed and prepared in GesMor and Epidat software packages. Results The burden of premature mortality was estimated at 2.1 million SEYLL when age at death is taken into account. Males lost 60.9% and females lost 39.1% of total SEYLL. Malignant tumors (34.5% and cardiovascular diseases (24.0% were the leading categories in terms of SEYLL. Ischaemic heart disease (8.5% and lung cancers (8.0% were the most common specific causes of SEYLL followed by cerebrovascular diseases (5.9%, colorectal cancer (4.1%, road traffic accidents (3.5%, Alzheimer and other dementias (2.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.8%, breast cancer (2.8% and suicides (2.6%. Conclusions In Spain, premature mortality was essentially due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Data provided in this study are relevant for a more balanced health agenda aimed at reducing the burden of premature mortality. This study also represents a first step in estimating the overall burden of disease in terms of premature death and disability.

  11. Soil Protection measures based on the analysis if sediment sources in a commercial farm at the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Enrique; Brígido, Consuelo; Herrera, Pascual; Migallón, Jose Ignacio; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2016-04-01

    High soil losses are associated with agricultural areas dedicated to traditional crops in Spain (olive, grapevine, almond and sunflower, among others) and they caused by interacting drivers such as frequent intense events, steep/hilly slopes and unsuitable managements (De Santisteban et al., 2006). These crops are essential for the Spanish economy but at the same time, they constitute important areas of soil degradation. This work has been promoted by a farm owner interested in improving the sustainability of his farm as well as solving traffic problems derived from a gully. An analysis based on a modeling approach and field measurements was carried out in order to diagnose the main sediment sources of a farm with traditional Mediterranean crops (sunflower and olives) and to propose actions for optimizing soil conservation efforts. Firstly, an environmental study to characterize meteorological and topographical features, soil properties and managements was performed. The farm was divided in different areas belonging to the same hydrological catchment, land-use and management. Secondly, splash and inter-rill erosion were evaluated in each spatial unit through the RUSLE model. Rills and gullies in the catchment were also measured by using orthophotographies and a tape in the field to calculate their corresponding sediment volume. Finally, a plan of soil protection measures was designed and presented to the owner who will apply the proposed actions, mainly cover crop seeding and construction of check dams. REFERENCES: De Santisteban, L. M., J. Casalí, and J. J. López. 2006. Assessing soil erosion rates in cultivated areas of Navarre (Spain). Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31: 487-506.

  12. Comparison of Gene Expression Programming with neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques in estimating daily incoming solar radiation in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeras, Gorka; López, José Javier; Kisi, Ozgur; Shiri, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar radiation estimation based on Gene Expression Programming is unexplored. ► This approach is evaluated for the first time in this study. ► Other artificial intelligence models (ANN and ANFIS) are also included in the study. ► New alternatives for solar radiation estimation based on temperatures are provided. - Abstract: Surface incoming solar radiation is a key variable for many agricultural, meteorological and solar energy conversion related applications. In absence of the required meteorological sensors for the detection of global solar radiation it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). A comparison was also made among these techniques and traditional temperature based global solar radiation estimation equations. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SS RMSE ), MAE-based skill score (SS MAE ) and r 2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models’ performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with 10 neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m −2 d −1 of RMSE). The ability of GEP approach to model global solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables was found to be satisfactory.

  13. Predictors of medication use in the Roma population in Spain: a population-based national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, M; Hernández Barrera, V; López de Andrés, A; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; Jiménez-García, R; Carrasco-Garrido, P

    2015-05-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribed and self-medicated use of medication in the Spanish Roma population, and identify the associated factors. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from the first National Health Survey conducted on the Roma population in Spain were used. The sample comprised 1000 Spanish Roma adults of both sexes aged ≥16 years. Answers (yes/no) to the question, 'In the last two weeks have you taken the following medicines [in reference to a list of medicines that might be used by the population] and were they prescribed for you by a doctor?' were used to ascertain 'medication use'. 'Self-medication' referred to use of these medicines without medical prescription. Using multivariate logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to identify associated factors. The overall prevalence of medication use in the Roma population for both sexes was 69.1%, and 38.7% was self-medicated. Females reported higher use of medication than males (75.1% vs 62.3%); however, self-medication was higher among males. Analgesics and antipyretics were used most often (35.8%). Among males, the variables that were independently and significantly associated with a higher probability of medication use were: age; negative perception of health; presence of chronic disease (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.67-4.73); and medical visits (OR 4.51; 95% CI 2.54-8.01). The variables were the same among females, except for age. A high percentage of the Spanish Roma population use medication, and a significant proportion of them self-medicate. The presence of chronic diseases, a negative perception of health and medical consultations were associated with increased use of medication in the study population. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multilinear approach to the precipitation-lightning relationship: a case study of summer local electrical storms in the northern part of Spain during 2002-2009 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, I.; Ezcurra, A.; Areitio, J.; Diaz-Argandoña, J.; Ibarra-Berastegi, G.; Saenz, J.

    2013-11-01

    Storms developed under local instability conditions are studied in the Spanish Basque region with the aim of establishing precipitation-lightning relationships. Those situations may produce, in some cases, flash flood. Data used correspond to daily rain depth (mm) and the number of CG flashes in the area. Rain and lightning are found to be weakly correlated on a daily basis, a fact that seems related to the existence of opposite gradients in their geographical distribution. Rain anomalies, defined as the difference between observed and estimated rain depth based on CG flashes, are analysed by PCA method. Results show a first EOF explaining 50% of the variability that linearly relates the rain anomalies observed each day and that confirms their spatial structure. Based on those results, a multilinear expression has been developed to estimate the rain accumulated daily in the network based on the CG flashes registered in the area. Moreover, accumulates and maximum values of rain are found to be strongly correlated, therefore making the multilinear expression a useful tool to estimate maximum precipitation during those kind of storms.

  15. Analysis and detection of functional outliers in water quality parameters from different automated monitoring stations in the Nalón river basin (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Di Blasi, J I; Martínez Torres, J; García Nieto, P J; Alonso Fernández, J R; Díaz Muñiz, C; Taboada, J

    2015-01-01

    The purposes and intent of the authorities in establishing water quality standards are to provide enhancement of water quality and prevention of pollution to protect the public health or welfare in accordance with the public interest for drinking water supplies, conservation of fish, wildlife and other beneficial aquatic life, and agricultural, industrial, recreational, and other reasonable and necessary uses as well as to maintain and improve the biological integrity of the waters. In this way, water quality controls involve a large number of variables and observations, often subject to some outliers. An outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data or that appears to deviate markedly from other members of the sample in which it occurs. An interesting analysis is to find those observations that produce measurements that are different from the pattern established in the sample. Therefore, identification of atypical observations is an important concern in water quality monitoring and a difficult task because of the multivariate nature of water quality data. Our study provides a new method for detecting outliers in water quality monitoring parameters, using turbidity, conductivity and ammonium ion as indicator variables. Until now, methods were based on considering the different parameters as a vector whose components were their concentration values. This innovative approach lies in considering water quality monitoring over time as continuous curves instead of discrete points, that is to say, the dataset of the problem are considered as a time-dependent function and not as a set of discrete values in different time instants. This new methodology, which is based on the concept of functional depth, was applied to the detection of outliers in water quality monitoring samples in the Nalón river basin with success. Results of this study were discussed here in terms of origin, causes, etc. Finally, the conclusions as well as advantages of

  16. Predictive modelling of eutrophication in the Pozón de la Dolores lake (Northern Spain) by using an evolutionary support vector machines approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nieto, P J; García-Gonzalo, E; Alonso Fernández, J R; Díaz Muñiz, C

    2018-03-01

    Eutrophication is a water enrichment in nutrients (mainly phosphorus) that generally leads to symptomatic changes and deterioration of water quality and all its uses in general, when the production of algae and other aquatic vegetations are increased. In this sense, eutrophication has caused a variety of impacts, such as high levels of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a). Consequently, anticipate its presence is a matter of importance to prevent future risks. The aim of this study was to obtain a predictive model able to perform an early detection of the eutrophication in water bodies such as lakes. This study presents a novel hybrid algorithm, based on support vector machines (SVM) approach in combination with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique, for predicting the eutrophication from biological and physical-chemical input parameters determined experimentally through sampling and subsequent analysis in a certificate laboratory. This optimization technique involves hyperparameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. The results of the present study are twofold. In the first place, the significance of each biological and physical-chemical variables on the eutrophication is presented through the model. Secondly, a model for forecasting eutrophication is obtained with success. Indeed, regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and coefficients of determination equal to 0.90 for the Total phosphorus estimation and 0.92 for the Chlorophyll concentration were obtained when this hybrid PSO-SVM-based model was applied to the experimental dataset, respectively. The agreement between experimental data and the model confirmed the good performance of the latter.

  17. A simple rainfall-runoff model based on hydrological units applied to the Teba catchment (south-east Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, N. H. W.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrological model (YWB, yearly water balance) has been developed to model the daily rainfall-runoff relationship of the 202 km2 Teba river catchment, located in semi-arid south-eastern Spain. The period of available data (1976-1993) includes some very rainy years with intensive storms (responsible for flooding parts of the town of Malaga) and also some very dry years.The YWB model is in essence a simple tank model in which the catchment is subdivided into a limited number of meaningful hydrological units. Instead of generating per unit surface runoff resulting from infiltration excess, runoff has been made the result of storage excess. Actual evapotranspiration is obtained by means of curves, included in the software, representing the relationship between the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration as a function of soil moisture content for three soil texture classes.The total runoff generated is split between base flow and surface runoff according to a given baseflow index. The two components are routed separately and subsequently joined. A large number of sequential years can be processed, and the results of each year are summarized by a water balance table and a daily based rainfall runoff time series. An attempt has been made to restrict the amount of input data to the minimum.Interactive manual calibration is advocated in order to allow better incorporation of field evidence and the experience of the model user. Field observations allowed for an approximate calibration at the hydrological unit level.

  18. A GIS-based time-dependent seismic source modeling of Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Alesheikh, Ali Asghar; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The first step in any seismic hazard study is the definition of seismogenic sources and the estimation of magnitude-frequency relationships for each source. There is as yet no standard methodology for source modeling and many researchers have worked on this topic. This study is an effort to define linear and area seismic sources for Northern Iran. The linear or fault sources are developed based on tectonic features and characteristic earthquakes while the area sources are developed based on spatial distribution of small to moderate earthquakes. Time-dependent recurrence relationships are developed for fault sources using renewal approach while time-independent frequency-magnitude relationships are proposed for area sources based on Poisson process. GIS functionalities are used in this study to introduce and incorporate spatial-temporal and geostatistical indices in delineating area seismic sources. The proposed methodology is used to model seismic sources for an area of about 500 by 400 square kilometers around Tehran. Previous researches and reports are studied to compile an earthquake/fault catalog that is as complete as possible. All events are transformed to uniform magnitude scale; duplicate events and dependent shocks are removed. Completeness and time distribution of the compiled catalog is taken into account. The proposed area and linear seismic sources in conjunction with defined recurrence relationships can be used to develop time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Northern Iran.

  19. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.

  20. Object-Based Greenhouse Horticultural Crop Identification from Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery: A Case Study in Almeria, Spain

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    Manuel A. Aguilar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse detection and mapping via remote sensing is a complex task, which has already been addressed in numerous studies. In this research, the innovative goal relies on the identification of greenhouse horticultural crops that were growing under plastic coverings on 30 September 2013. To this end, object-based image analysis (OBIA and a decision tree classifier (DT were applied to a set consisting of eight Landsat 8 OLI images collected from May to November 2013. Moreover, a single WorldView-2 satellite image acquired on 30 September 2013, was also used as a data source. In this approach, basic spectral information, textural features and several vegetation indices (VIs derived from Landsat 8 and WorldView-2 multi-temporal satellite data were computed on previously segmented image objects in order to identify four of the most popular autumn crops cultivated under greenhouse in Almería, Spain (i.e., tomato, pepper, cucumber and aubergine. The best classification accuracy (81.3% overall accuracy was achieved by using the full set of Landsat 8 time series. These results were considered good in the case of tomato and pepper crops, being significantly worse for cucumber and aubergine. These results were hardly improved by adding the information of the WorldView-2 image. The most important information for correct classification of different crops under greenhouses was related to the greenhouse management practices and not the spectral properties of the crops themselves.

  1. Impact of school-based educational programs on sexual behaviors among adolescents in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p sexual behaviors was observed (p = 1.0). School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction.

  2. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Northern China: a prospective population-based study.

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    Hong Yang

    Full Text Available AIMS & BACKGROUNDS: Although inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are emerging and increasing in China, epidemiologic data are rarely available. This study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of IBD in Northern China. METHODS: This is a prospective, population-based study of incidence of IBD in Daqing, Heilongjiang province of Northern China from March 1, 2012 to February 28, 2013. All incident patients with IBD were clinically identified by IBD specialist group from five main General Hospitals covering the healthcare service for 1,343,364 residents in the urban areas of Daqing. IBD cases included in this study were followed-up for three months for diagnosis confirmation. RESULTS: A total of 27 new IBD cases including 25 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC and 2 cases of Crohn's disease (CD were identified. The population at risk was 1,343,364 person years. Age-adjusted incidence for total IBD, CD and UC were 1.77, 0.13, and 1.64 per 100,000 population, respectively. A male predominance was found in CD patients (male to female ratio was 2 ∶ 0. In contrast, no obvious gender predominance was found in UC patients (male to female ratio was 1 ∶ 1.1. CD patients were diagnosed at an average age of 39.5 years. The main disease phenotypes of UC were distal colitis with a 24% of proctitis and 56% of left-sided colitis. The mean diagnostic age of UC patients was 48.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the incidence of IBD in the Northern Chinese population. A lower incidence of IBD, similar male predominance for CD, similar disease phenotype of UC, and lower disease activity was observed in Daqing compared to that in Southern China.

  3. The Evolving Nature of Infective Endocarditis in Spain: A Population-Based Study (2003 to 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Carmen; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Bernal, José L; Ferrera, Carlos; García-Arribas, Daniel; Pérez-García, Carlos N; San Román, J Alberto; Maroto, Luis; Macaya, Carlos; Elola, Francisco J

    2017-12-05

    Little information exists regarding population-based epidemiological changes in infective endocarditis (IE) in Europe. This study sought to analyze temporal trends in IE in Spain from 2003 to 2014. This retrospective, population-based, temporal trend study analyzed the incidence, epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and outcome of all patients discharged from hospitals included in the Spanish National Health System with a diagnosis of IE, from January 2003 to December 2014. Overall, 16,867 episodes of IE were identified during the study period, 66.3% in men. The rate of IE significantly increased, from 2.72 in 2003 to 3.49 per 100,000 person-years in 2014, and this rise was higher among older adults. The most frequent microorganisms were staphylococci (28.7%), followed by streptococci (20.4%) and enterococci (13.1%). Twenty-three percent of patients underwent cardiac surgery. The in-hospital mortality rate was 20.4%. Throughout the study period, the proportion of patients with previously known heart valve disease and diabetes mellitus significantly increased, whereas the prevalence of intravenous drug use decreased. Regarding microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci slightly declined, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci consistently increased over the years. In-hospital complications and cardiac surgery rates significantly increased across the years. The risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate diminished (0.2% per year) during the study period. The incidence of IE episodes significantly increased over the decade of the study period, particularly among older adults. Relevant changes in clinical and microbiological profile included older patients with more comorbidity and a rise in enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections. Adjusted mortality rates slightly declined over the study period. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Gender-based street harassment and communication strategies. A comparative analysis between Spain and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Berenguer, Belén Zurbano; Vayá, Irene Liberia; Bouchara, Aicha

    2016-01-01

    Gender-based street harassment is a common form of intimidation and control of women in the patriarchal society. It constitutes a violation of human rights and it is widely present in all societies today. In this paper we assume the gender perspective to understand the street harassment as a manifestation of gender-based violence. Then, we go in depth into media representations of this kind of practices, focusing on traditional media as well as alternative media. All this assuming that this p...

  5. Seismic hazard estimation based on the distributed seismicity in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Shi, Bao-Ping; Sun, Liang

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed an alternative seismic hazard modeling by using distributed seismicites. The distributed seismicity model does not need delineation of seismic source zones, and simplify the methodology of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Based on the devastating earthquake catalogue, we established three seismicity model, derived the distribution of a-value in northern China by using Gaussian smoothing function, and calculated peak ground acceleration distributions for this area with 2%, 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in a 50-year period by using three attenuation models, respectively. In general, the peak ground motion distribution patterns are consistent with current seismic hazard map of China, but in some specific seismic zones which include Shanxi Province and Shijiazhuang areas, our results indicated a little bit higher peak ground motions and zonation characters which are in agreement with seismicity distribution patterns in these areas. The hazard curves have been developed for Beijing, Tianjin, Taiyuan, Tangshan, and Ji’nan, the metropolitan cities in the northern China. The results showed that Tangshan, Taiyuan, Beijing has a higher seismic hazard than that of other cities mentioned above.

  6. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Timm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8% than subjects growing up in inner cities (11% (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91, and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02. An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  7. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  8. An Entrepreneurial Well-being Model based on GEM Data for Spain

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    José Manuel Sáiz-Álvarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Economics of Happiness is one of the research areas of greatest growth in recent years. Throughout this work, a venture based model in which satisfaction of Spanish entrepreneurs with their professional life is performed. We analyze the responses of 9,989 entrepreneurs using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, and six hypothesis are discussed. The results show that, for the Spanish case, there is a strong consistency in the results the opportunity entrepreneurs present greater satisfaction than necessity entrepreneurs.

  9. [Morbidity and mortality in newborns at the limit of viability in Spain: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; García-Alix Pérez, A; García Hernández, J A; Figueras Aloy, J

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal care in extremely immature newborns is a clinical and ethical problem of great importance for professionals and families, and requires that the available information on the chances of child survival is of the highest quality. The aim of this study was to determine the specific rates of survival at hospital discharge, and survival without major morbidity in newborns with a gestation age (GA) ≤ 26 weeks in Spain. We included live newborns ≤ 26 weeks admitted to the collaborating centers of the SEN1500 network (2004-2010). Out born patients, infants who died in delivery room, and those with congenital anomalies incompatible with life were excluded. A total of 3,236 patients were included. GA specific survival was 12.5, 13.1, 36.9, 55.7, and 71.9% at 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 weeks of GA, respectively. Survival without severe intracranial hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and/or retinopathy of prematurity was 1.5, 9.5, 19.0, and 29.9% at 23, 24, 25 and 26 weeks GA, respectively. Survival without major morbidity in infants less than 23 weeks GA is exceptional, and scarce in newborns with 23 and 24 weeks GA. Infants ≥ 25 weeks GA have reasonable chances of survival and, in the absence of major malformations or other relevant complications, should be offered active resuscitation and intensive care. The continuous updating of the results of individual centers is of utmost importance, as well as their comparison with the reference population-based results. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marina; de Maria, Nuria; Guevara, M Angeles; Diaz, Luis; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Chancerel, Emilie; Aranda, Ismael; Collada, Carmen; Plomion, Christophe; Cabezas, José-Antonio; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2012-10-04

    Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest.

  11. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

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    de Miguel Marina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15 belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest.

  12. [Head masters' perception of school-based hostility in Alicante, Spain: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fernández, Carmen; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Torres Cantero, Alberto M

    2006-01-01

    There is growing social concern about school violence but little is known about how this situation is experienced in the schools. The objective of this study was to know the perception that School's head masters have of the school-based hostility, on their causes, how they value current preventive strategies, and their recommendations to develop future preventive interventions. We conducted an exploratory study with 14 semistructured interviews of School's head masters. Interviews were conducted at the Schools between May and June 2003 in 1 independent school, 9 state comprehensive schools, and 4 other comprehensive schools within the city of Alicante. The perception of the head masters is that the prevalence of violence is low, more verbal than physical and within gender. They identify lack of punctuality, absenteeism and lack of interest as forms of hostility. As causes they identified age, family problems, school environment, society, media (TV and video-games) and poor language skills. Preventive methods in use were, on one hand, extra-lessons and transversal contents foreseen in the Education Law and common to all schools, and, on the other hand, ideological and pedagogical contents which were specific of some centres. Recommendations focused in demands for increased economic support and skilled human resources. School-based violence is not perceived as an alarming school issue, nor by its magnitude neither by the immediate causes and students' characteristics to which it is associated. A heavier emphasis is placed on external and environmental causes perceived as much more difficult to confront.

  13. Vertical Coordination in Organic Food Chains: A Survey Based Analysis in France, Italy and Spain

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    Alessia Cavaliere

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses characteristics of vertical relationships of organic supply chains with a specific focus on the processing and retailing sectors. The analysis takes into account different regions of the EU Mediterranean area. Data were collected through interviews using an ad hoc questionnaire. The survey was based on a sample of 306 firms, including processors and retailers. The analysis revealed that a relevant aspect for the processing firms of organic products concerns the guaranteeing of safety and quality levels for the products. The main tools to implement the quality management are based on the adoption of specific production regulations and quality controls. The premium price most frequently applied by processors ranges from 10% to 40% and similar values are revealed for retailers. The diffusion of supply contracts allows the vertical coordination between agriculture and processing firms in the organic supply chains. The main distribution channels for the processing firms are represented by specialised shops in organic products, direct sales and supermarkets.

  14. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

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    M. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480. We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3% were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%. There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%. When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88 and at more advanced stages (P=0.025. Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  15. GIS-based maps and area estimates of Northern Hemisphere permafrost extent during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, A.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; Christensen, T.R.; Vandenberghe, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents GIS-based estimates of permafrost extent in the northern circumpolar region during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), based on a review of previously published maps and compilations of field evidence in the form of ice-wedge pseudomorphs and relict sand wedges. We focus on field

  16. Roadway management plan based on rockfall modelling calibration and validation. Application along the Ma-10 road in Mallorca (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa Maria; Garcia, Inmaculada; Reichenbach, Paola; Herrera, Gerardo; Sarro, Roberto; Rius, Joan; Aguilo, Raul

    2016-04-01

    The Tramuntana range, in the northwestern sector of the island of Mallorca (Spain), is frequently affected by rockfalls which have caused significant damage, mainly along the road network. The Ma-10 road constitutes the main transportation corridor on the range with a heavy traffic estimated at 7,200 vehicles per day on average. With a length of 111 km and a tortuous path, the road is the connecting track for 12 municipalities and constitutes a strategic road on the island for many tourist resorts. For the period spanning from 1995 to current times, 63 rockfalls have affected the Ma-10 road with volumes ranging from 0.3m3 to 30,000 m3. Fortunately, no fatalities occurred but numerous blockages on the road took place which caused significant economic losses, valued of around 11 MEuro (Mateos el al., 2013). In this work we present the procedure we have applied to calibrate and validate rockfall modelling in the Tramuntana region, using 103 cases of the available detailed rockfall inventory (Mateos, 2006). We have exploited STONE (Guzzetti et al. 2002), a GIS based rockfall simulation software which computes 2D and 3D rockfall trajectories starting from a DTM and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients. The appropriate identification of these parameters determines the accuracy of the simulation. To calibrate them, we have selected 40 rockfalls along the range which include a wide variety of outcropping lithologies. Coefficients values have been changed in numerous attempts in order to select those where the extent and shape of the simulation matched the field mapping. Best results were summarized with the average statistical values for each parameter and for each geotechnical unit, determining that mode values represent more precisely the data. Initially, for the validation stage, 10 well- known rockfalls exploited in the calibration phase have been selected. Confidence tests have been applied

  17. Association of tic disorders with poor academic performance in central Spain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Trejo, José; Ausín, Vanesa; Sáez, Sara; Delgado, Vanesa; Macarrón, Jesus; Cordero, José; Louis, Elan D; Kompoliti, Katie; Benito-León, Julián

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the association between tic disorders and poor academic performance in school-aged children. This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in a randomly selected sample of mainstream school-aged children (aged 6-16 years). The sampling frame included different types of schools and educational levels. Children with poor academic performance (eg, repeating a grade, special needs), and tic disorders (defined based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria) were identified. Children with and without tics and children with and without poor academic performance were compared in terms of clinical features (ie, medical history and neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities), school, and environmental characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed using school performance (dependent variable) and tic disorders (independent variable), after adjusting for confounding variables. The study cohort comprised 1867 children (mean age, 10.9 + 2.9 years; 1007 males [53.9%]). Tics were present in 162 children (8.6%), and poor academic performance was noted in 223 (11.9%). Overall poor academic performance was associated with age (OR, 1.71; P family history of school dysfunction (OR, 2.43; P = .02) and was negatively associated with higher IQ score (OR, 0.90; P academic performance in our cohort. Early academic support and modification of environmental characteristics are needed for children at higher risk for school dysfunction, to enhance academic performance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study of Northern Ireland's estuaries based on the results of beam trawl fish surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Trevor D.; Armour, Neil D.; McNeill, Michael T.; Moorehead, Peter W.

    2017-11-01

    The fish communities of Northern Ireland's estuaries were described and compared using data collected with a modified beam trawl over a six year period from 2009 to 2014. Multivariate analyses identified four estuary groups based on variations in their physico-chemical attributes. These groups broadly corresponded with the distribution and variation of estuary geomorphic types identified around the Irish coast. The dominant fish species captured were also among the main species reported in other North East Atlantic estuaries. A significant link between the estuary types and their fish communities was found; each estuary group contained a somewhat distinctive fish community. The fish communities also showed a significant relationship with the physico-chemical characteristics of the estuaries. Differences in fish species composition are attributed to habitat and environmental preferences of key estuary-associated species.

  19. A New Cogeneration Residential System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system and heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... which is a function of the electricity and heat demand of the user, and allows different operation strategies to be considered. The proposal is to maximize the efficiency of the system and to make it profitable, even though technologies with a high purchase cost are considered. Simulations of the system...... are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands. The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks, considering different economic...

  20. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  1. Doctors' and nurses' perceptions of a ward-based pharmacist in rural northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölander, Maria; Gustafsson, Maria; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-08-01

    Background This project is part of the prospective quasi experimental proof-of-concept investigation of clinical pharmacist intervention study to reduce drug-related problems among people admitted to a ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Objective To explore doctors' and nurses' perceptions and expectations of having a ward-based pharmacist providing clinical pharmacy services. Setting Medical ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Method Eighteen face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of doctors and nurses working on the ward where the clinical pharmacy service was due to be implemented. Semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Main outcome measure Perceptions and expectations of nurses and doctors. Results Doctors and nurses had limited experience of working with pharmacists. Most had a vague idea of what pharmacists can contribute within a ward setting. Participants, mainly nurses, suggested inventory and drug distribution roles, but few were aware of the pharmacists' skills and clinical competence. Different views were expressed on whether the new clinical pharmacy service would have an impact on workload. However, most participants took a positive view of having a ward-based pharmacist. Conclusion This study provided an opportunity to explore doctors' and nurses' expectations of the role of clinical pharmacists before a clinical pharmacy service was implemented. To successfully implement a clinical pharmacy service, roles, clinical competence and responsibilities should be clearly described. Furthermore, it is important to focus on collaborative working relationships between doctors, nurses and pharmacists.

  2. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in SpainThe editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation in the assessment and potential funding and reimbursement of health technologies. Cost-effectiveness ratio and the acceptability thresholds are analyzed, pointing out the limitations that the current approach has for capturing the value of new technologies. A potential shift from National Health Systems to value-based prices is discussed, with a focus on health economics outcomes where multi-criteria analyses can be a complementary tool to traditional cost-effectiveness approaches.

  3. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  4. World Support Base: Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Pack 43 (LAP) facility at the Paramo de Mesa site near Burgos. ERT also has a plant to produce propellant powders and load propelling charges at...parts o Metalurgica de Extrusiones (Burgos) Projectile metal parts o EDB S.A., Paramo de Mesa (Burgos) LAP-bombs & projectiles o ERT, Paramo de Mesa...Burgos only) 957,000 rds. per year 633,600 rds. per year 264,000 rds. per year LOAD, ASSEMBLE and PACK ( Paramo de Mesa and VI tor la) o 105 mm

  5. A chronology of El niño events from primary documentary sources in northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    García Herrera, Ricardo; Díaz, H. F.; García, R. R.; Prieto, M. R.; Barriopedro Cepero, David; Moyano, R.; Hernández Martín, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a chronology of El Niño (EN) events based on documentary records from northern Peru. The chronology, which covers the period 1550-1900, is constructed mainly from primary sources from the city of Trujillo (Peru), the Archivo General de Indias in Seville (Spain), and the Archivo General de la Nacion in Lima (Peru), supplemented by a reassessment of documentary evidence included in previously published literature. The archive in Trujillo has never been systematically evaluat...

  6. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infections in Spain: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Ana; García, Juan; de Mendoza, Carmen; Benito, Rafael; Aguilera, Antonio; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raul; Ramos, José M; Trigo, Matilde; Eirós, Jose M; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Torres, Alvaro; Calderón, Enrique; Hernandez, Araceli; Gomez, Cesar; Marcaida, Goizane; Soriano, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 was examined in 5742 sera belonging to consecutive adult outpatients attended during June 2008 at 13 different hospitals across Spain. Overall, 58.8% were female. Foreigners represented 8% of the study population. Seven individuals were seropositive for HTLV-2 (overall prevalence 0.12%). No cases of HTLV-1 infection were found. All HTLV-2(+) subjects were Spanish natives, of whom six were coinfected with HIV-1 and five with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, all but one of the HTLV-2(+) subjects had been intravenous drug users. In summary, this cross-sectional survey suggests that the rate of HTLV infection in Spain is low, and is mostly represented by HTLV-2. Infected individuals are generally Spanish natives with a prior history of intravenous drug use and are coinfected with HIV-1 and/or HCV.

  7. Comprehensive Characterization of Palygorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Spain) Based on Experimental Techniques and Theoretical DFT Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.

    2013-01-01

    New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)

  8. Comprehensive Characterization of Palygorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Spain) Based on Experimental Techniques and Theoretical DFT Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.

    2013-10-01

    New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)

  9. Education as the (not so) great equalizer : new evidence based on a parental fixed effect analysis for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    BERNARDI, Fabrizio; ARES, Macarena

    2017-01-01

    We investigate whether coming from a higher socio-economic background is associated with greater labour market success, net of own achieved education. We replicate previous analyses on the direct effect of social origin, net of education, for Spain using a more recent and larger dataset that consists of the merged monthly barometer surveys by the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas. Compared to previous studies, we use a more refined classification for the respondent’s education and perfor...

  10. Tumor phenotype and breast density in distinct categories of interval cancer: results of population-based mammography screening in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laia; Salas, Dolores; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Baré, Marisa; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Barata, Teresa; Ibáñez, Josefa; Blanch, Jordi; Puig-Vives, Montserrat; Fernández, Ana; Castells, Xavier; Sala, Maria

    2014-01-10

    Interval cancers are tumors arising after a negative screening episode and before the next screening invitation. They can be classified into true interval cancers, false-negatives, minimal-sign cancers, and occult tumors based on mammographic findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms. This study aimed to describe tumor-related characteristics and the association of breast density and tumor phenotype within four interval cancer categories. We included 2,245 invasive tumors (1,297 screening-detected and 948 interval cancers) diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 among 645,764 women aged 45 to 69 who underwent biennial screening in Spain. Interval cancers were classified by a semi-informed retrospective review into true interval cancers (n = 455), false-negatives (n = 224), minimal-sign (n = 166), and occult tumors (n = 103). Breast density was evaluated using Boyd's scale and was conflated into: 75%. Tumor-related information was obtained from cancer registries and clinical records. Tumor phenotype was defined as follows: luminal A: ER+/HER2- or PR+/HER2-; luminal B: ER+/HER2+ or PR+/HER2+; HER2: ER-/PR-/HER2+; triple-negative: ER-/PR-/HER2-. The association of tumor phenotype and breast density was assessed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Forty-eight percent of interval cancers were true interval cancers and 23.6% false-negatives. True interval cancers were associated with HER2 and triple-negative phenotypes (OR = 1.91 (95% CI:1.22-2.96), OR = 2.07 (95% CI:1.42-3.01), respectively) and extremely dense breasts (>75%) (OR = 1.67 (95% CI:1.08-2.56)). However, among true interval cancers a higher proportion of triple-negative tumors was observed in predominantly fatty breasts (breasts (28.7%, 21.4%, 11.3% and 14.3%, respectively; cancers, extreme breast density being strongly associated with occult tumors (OR

  11. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Moving towards Freirean Critical Pedagogy: Redefining Competence-based Curricula through Participatory Action Research as Resistance to the Neoliberalization of Higher Education in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández-Aballí Altamirano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The neoliberalization of higher education in Spain has been consolidating through its integration process to the European Higher Education Area. In this context, competence-based curricula have become an instrument to create a model of education and citizenship in which market values override solidarity, justice and community well-being. There is, however, still room to shift the teaching-learning space. Using Freirean critical pedagogy to redefine the curriculum through the implementation of Participatory Action Research (PAR in the classroom provides a methodological approach within and despite current EHEA policies to revert the neoliberalization of higher education.

  13. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Spawning and development of Lesueurigobius sanzoi ofT northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sin 08003, Barcelona Spain. Received 22 August 1988; ... The presence of Lesueurigobius sanzoi (de Buen, 1918) on the continental shelf off northern ..... Perfiles de temperatura del Sudoeste de.

  15. Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholze Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. Methods An age, sex and risk group structured prevalence based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define metabolic syndrome. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. Results The prevalence of hypertension with metabolic syndrome in the general population of Germany, Spain and Italy was 36%, 11% and 10% respectively. In subjects with hypertension 61%, 22% and 21% also had metabolic syndrome. Incident cardiovascular events and attributable mortality were around two fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was around six-fold higher. The economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension was been estimated at €24,427, €1,900 and €4,877 million in Germany, Spain and Italy and forecast to rise by 59%, 179% and 157% respectively by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of metabolic syndrome components present. Conclusion The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden and costs are likely to

  16. Inequalities in mental health in the working population of Spain: a National Health Survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Artazcoz, Lucía; Molina, Antonio José; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In the working population, poor mental health is a significant problem whose prevalence rates and associated factors could differ by gender, especially in a period of socioeconomic changes. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the prevalence of poor mental health in the working population of Spain in 2011; b) to identify the association of this prevalence with socioeconomic and work-related variables for men and women separately; c) to determine if the patterns differ by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2011). Of the 21,007 participants in the survey, we selected 7396 whose employment status was described as "working" The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as a screening tool to detect poor mental health. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between variables. The prevalence of poor mental health was higher among women (19.9%) than men (13.9%), the overall prevalence being 16.8%. The variables associated with a higher prevalence were type of contract and work-related variables in men, and age and socioeconomic variables in women. This study shows that, in the working population of Spain, the prevalence of poor mental health and its related factors differ by gender. Poor mental health is mainly related to socioeconomic variables in women but is mostly associated with work-related variables in men. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Need for new effect based on large-scale development of renewable energy in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grinden, Bjoern; Fuchs, Ida

    2007-02-01

    Changes in the effect balance in Northern Europe between 2005 and 2020 are evaluated. Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany and the Netherlands are the countries included in the analysis. Scenarios from studies conducted in the different countries have been used as starting points. Some scenarios give explicit figures for effect installations, but most only provide estimations on the energy balance. In these cased it has been necessary to estimate how much effect there is behind the energy figures. Utilization time analyses have been employed for this, primarily. Moreover, emphasis has been put on the modelling of wind power's effect contribution, and a method based on the reliability of the production system has been employed, giving an effect varying between 18 and 24 percent in the different scenarios. Also, the need for regulation reserves has been considered. Four scenarios have been outlined along the axes growth in consumption (high/low) and share of renewable energy (high/low). All scenarios show considerable reductions in the effect balance from 2005 to 2020, varying from about 15.000 MW to 22.000 MW. The largest reduction is in Germany, but Sweden too has large reductions in each of the scenarios. The most important underlying causes are the reduction or dismantling of nuclear power and the development of large amounts of wind power, and in Germany also the development of solar power. In Norway too, the effect balance is weakened with the existing scenarios. Here, wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power contribute with relatively much energy, but little effect. The biggest insecurity in the analysis is how much thermal capacity there will be in operation in 2020, especially in Germany. In a system with much wind power, the utilization time for some of the thermal production may be short, and it may be phased out if no support schemes for effect reserves are set up. Thermal capacity as short term backup for wind power will have to compete with

  18. STATUS OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN THE MAKASSAR STRAIT BASED AT THE NORTHERN PART OF JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Turni Hartati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal of Makassar Strait is one of main fishing grounds for purse seine vessels from northern part of Java which based at the following landing sites, i.e. Pekalongan, Tegal and Juwana. The purse seine fishery predominantly targets small pelagic fish. This paper attempts to present the current condition of small pelagic fishery in the Makassar Strait. Catch and effort (trip data between 2004 and 2011 from the three landing sites were used to estimate Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY using Schaefer & Fox models. The results showed a decreasing trend in the catch rate, from 30.83 tons/trip in 2004 to 12.27 tons/trip in 2011. The estimated MSY is at the range of 34,705- 37,930 tons with optimum efforts for 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips. Thus the level of purse seine fishing effort in 2011, i.e. 3,078 trips, was exceeding the optimum effort. The decreasing trend in the catch rate may indicate overfishing is occurring between 2004 and 2011. For management of the small pelagic fisheries in the waters of Makassar Strait, important action recommended is fishing effort restrictions. The effort allowed would be only in the range of 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips, and the fishing capacity needs to be controled.

  19. Population-based estimate of urinary stones from Ballabgarh, northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, Ayush; Kant, Shashi; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Stones in the urinary tract are a common condition but there is paucity of data on their population-based estimates in India. We describe our findings of the burden of urinary stones during a cross-sectional study with another primary goal. We conducted the study at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Haryana, among residents aged 18 years or above. We used simple random sampling to enrol participants. Self-reported history of urinary stones was elicited through an interview schedule. Results of the descriptive analysis were described as proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) or as mean wherever applicable. Bivariate analysis was done using t-test and chi-square test as applicable. The response rate for our study was 86.6%; lifetime prevalence (95% CI) of urinary stones was 7.9% (5.7, 10.8). In a majority of participants, urinary stones were diagnosed at an age of 20-40 years (55.9%), mostly by an ultrasonography examination (94.1%). A high burden of urinary stones is indicated in the working-age population in northern India at the community level. Untreated urinary stones can lead to an acute emergency (colic) or may have long-term adverse consequences, e.g. hydronephrosis, which have implications for the healthcare delivery system.

  20. Human urine-based therapeutics in Spain from the early 20th century to the present: a historical literature overview and a present-day case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, José Ramón; Aparicio Mena, Alfonso J; González, José Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Human urine is currently the subject of biomedical investigations as a potential therapeutic resource and it continues to be used in remedies in different cultures and societies, including the Spanish culture. In this study we gather etnomedical knowledge about urotherapy and determine their associated symbolisms in Spain. A literature overview and a case study were carried out to compile urine-based remedies and as a direct analysis of symbolic systems. Urotherapy is widespread in Spanish folk medicine. Among the 204 collected remedies, those related to treatment of diseases or skin conditions predominate (63%). Remedies have been reported for the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, chloasma, alopecia, etc. to treat or alleviate burns, chilblains, wounds or skin chapping, and as a treatment of venomous bites. Most of the collected remedies have an associated naturalist symbolism, based on local traditions and the transmission of empirical initial knowledge. The use of urine in Spain is a result of the interaction of two types of practice: a local and traditional urotherapy, rural and with a utilitarian purpose, and a technical urotherapy, limited to an urban environment and a naturopathic medicine.

  1. Tumor phenotype and breast density in distinct categories of interval cancer: results of population-based mammography screening in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interval cancers are tumors arising after a negative screening episode and before the next screening invitation. They can be classified into true interval cancers, false-negatives, minimal-sign cancers, and occult tumors based on mammographic findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms. This study aimed to describe tumor-related characteristics and the association of breast density and tumor phenotype within four interval cancer categories. Methods We included 2,245 invasive tumors (1,297 screening-detected and 948 interval cancers) diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 among 645,764 women aged 45 to 69 who underwent biennial screening in Spain. Interval cancers were classified by a semi-informed retrospective review into true interval cancers (n = 455), false-negatives (n = 224), minimal-sign (n = 166), and occult tumors (n = 103). Breast density was evaluated using Boyd’s scale and was conflated into: 75%. Tumor-related information was obtained from cancer registries and clinical records. Tumor phenotype was defined as follows: luminal A: ER+/HER2- or PR+/HER2-; luminal B: ER+/HER2+ or PR+/HER2+; HER2: ER-/PR-/HER2+; triple-negative: ER-/PR-/HER2-. The association of tumor phenotype and breast density was assessed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Forty-eight percent of interval cancers were true interval cancers and 23.6% false-negatives. True interval cancers were associated with HER2 and triple-negative phenotypes (OR = 1.91 (95% CI:1.22-2.96), OR = 2.07 (95% CI:1.42-3.01), respectively) and extremely dense breasts (>75%) (OR = 1.67 (95% CI:1.08-2.56)). However, among true interval cancers a higher proportion of triple-negative tumors was observed in predominantly fatty breasts (breasts (28.7%, 21.4%, 11.3% and 14.3%, respectively; screening-detected cancers, extreme breast density

  2. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  3. The tourism encounter in community-based tourism in Northern Thailand: empty meeting ground or space for change?

    OpenAIRE

    Dolezal, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    "This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT) in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell's (1992) idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978), two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism enc...

  4. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  5. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  6. Promoting the use of health information and communication technologies in Spain: a new approach based on the ICT-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Blázquez Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the use of new technologies is having an important effect on individuals’ health knowledge and behavior. The objective of this paper is to study the potential reduction in health care utilization associated with the expansion of new technologies. Using Spanish micro data from the Survey on the Equipment and Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT-H in Households for 2014 we analyze information technologies equipment, availability of access and means of Internet connection per household. We model the probability of an individual being internet user in Spain as a function of a range of socio-economic characteristics, including individual’s gender, age, education and employment situation. Also, we hypothesized that a greater use of this communication technologies is related to a lesser health care expenditure.

  7. A Multicriteria GIS-Based Assessment to Optimize Biomass Facility Sites with Parallel Environment—A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing a biomass facility site is a critical concern that is currently receiving an increased attention because of geographically spread biomass feedstock. This research presents a multicriteria GIS assessment with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC (most suitable areas and a sensitivity analysis (implementation strategies applied to various disciplines using suitable criteria to optimize a biomass facility location in the context of renewable energies respecting the environment. The analyses of results with twelve criteria show the most suitable areas (9.25% and constraints in a case study in Extremadura (Spain, where forest and agriculture are typical for land uses. Thus, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates the insight of the most influential criteria for supporting energy planning decisions. Therefore, this assessment could be used in studies to verify suitable biomass plants sites with corresponding geographical and spatial circumstances and available spatial data necessary in various governmental and industrial sectors.

  8. Identifying criteria and establishing parameters for forest-based ecotourism in northern Ontario, Canada. NODA note No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, S.W.; Butler, R.W.; Haider, W.

    1995-12-31

    Describes a methodology for identifying ecotourism destination sites based first on determining the criteria and attributes of ecotourism, and secondly by matching the value range of these criteria to the region`s resource base inventory. The paper discusses problems in defining ecotourism and in identifying linkages between this and other forms of tourism and related environmental management concepts in the context of explaining difficulties in selecting appropriate ecotourism criteria. Elements of ecotourism suitable to northern Ontario area also presented along with the criteria and the methodology, which is based on the use of geographic information systems technology. A final section addresses implications of the methodology for resource managers and tourism operators.

  9. 3D inversion based on multi-grid approach of magnetotelluric data from Northern Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M.; Korja, T. J.; Egbert, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we investigate the geoelectrical structure of the cratonic margin of Fennoscandian Shield by means of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements carried out in Northern Norway and Sweden during summer 2011-2012. The project Magnetotellurics in the Scandes (MaSca) focuses on the investigation of the crust, upper mantle and lithospheric structure in a transition zone from a stable Precambrian cratonic interior to a passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian Orogen and the Scandes Mountains in western Fennoscandia. Recent MT profiles in the central and southern Scandes indicated a large contrast in resistivity between Caledonides and Precambrian basement. The alum shales as a highly conductive layers between the resistive Precambrian basement and the overlying Caledonian nappes are revealed from this profiles. Additional measurements in the Northern Scandes were required. All together data from 60 synchronous long period (LMT) and about 200 broad band (BMT) sites were acquired. The array stretches from Lofoten and Bodo (Norway) in the west to Kiruna and Skeleftea (Sweden) in the east covering an area of 500x500 square kilometers. LMT sites were occupied for about two months, while most of the BMT sites were measured during one day. We have used new multi-grid approach for 3D electromagnetic (EM) inversion and modelling. Our approach is based on the OcTree discretization where the spatial domain is represented by rectangular cells, each of which might be subdivided (recursively) into eight sub-cells. In this simplified implementation the grid is refined only in the horizontal direction, uniformly in each vertical layer. Using multi-grid we manage to have a high grid resolution near the surface (for instance, to tackle with galvanic distortions) and lower resolution at greater depth as the EM fields decay in the Earth according to the diffusion equation. We also have a benefit in computational costs as number of unknowns decrease. The multi-grid forward

  10. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  11. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  12. Data base for early postfire succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Stickney; Robert B. Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Web site and CD-ROM include 21 pages of text plus electronic data for 55 succession sites including color plates, tables, and figures. Provides data on quantitative postfire changes of plant species and forest vegetation components for up to the first 25 years of secondary plant succession for 55 forest sites in northern Idaho and northwestern Montana. Cover (aerial...

  13. Low seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in cats from northern Portugal based on DAT and ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, Luís; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sherry, Kate; Schallig, Henk; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2010-01-01

    Cats have been considered playing a role in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum, an endemic zoonosis in countries of the Mediterranean basin. The present study assessed the prevalence of antibodies to L. infantum in 316 domestic cats from northern Portugal, by means of

  14. Identifying criteria and establishing parameters for forest-based ecotourism in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Boyd; Richard W. Butler; Wolfgang Haider

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies the following criteria as indicators for ecotourism suitability within a Northern Ontario context: naturalness, wildlife, cultural heritage, landscape and community. A methodology is proposed which uses Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to identify ecotourism sites by linking criteria deemed important with actual landscape characteristics of...

  15. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  16. Determinants of neonatal mortality in rural Northern Ethiopia: A population based nested case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Yirgu

    Full Text Available In low income and middle income countries, neonatal mortality remains high despite the gradual reduction in under five mortality. Newborn death contributes for about 38% of all under five deaths. This study has identified the magnitude and independent predictors of neonatal mortality in rural Ethiopia.This population based nested case control study was conducted in rural West Gojam zone, Northern Ethiopia, among a cohort of pregnant women who gave birth between March 2011 and Feb 2012. The cohort was established by Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP project in 2010 by recruiting mothers in their third trimester, as identified by trained community volunteers. Once identified, women stayed in the cohort throughout their pregnancy period receiving Community Maternal and Newborn Health (CMNH training by health extension workers and community volunteers till the end of the first 48 hours postpartum. Cases were 75 mothers who lost their newborns to neonatal death and controls were 150 randomly selected mothers with neonates who survived the neonatal period. Data to identify cause of death were collected using the WHO standard verbal autopsy questionnaire after the culturally appropriate 40 days of bereavement period. Binomial logistic regression model was used to identify independent contributors to neonatal mortality.The neonatal mortality rate was AOR(95%CI = 18.6 (14.8, 23.2 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality declined with an increase in family size, neonates who were born among a family of more than two had lesser odds of death in the neonatal period than those who were born in a family of two AOR (95% CI = 0.13 (0.02, 0.71. Mothers who gave birth to 2-4 AOR(95%CI = 0.15 (0.05, 0.48 and 5+ children AOR(95%CI = 0.08 (0.02, 0.26 had lesser odds of losing their newborns to neonatal mortality. Previous history of losing a newborn to neonatal death also increased the odds of neonatal mortality during the last birth AOR

  17. The drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Jingyi; Ma, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is affecting every aspect of human activities, especially the agriculture. In China, extreme drought events caused by climate change have posed a great threat to food safety. In this work we aimed to study the drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment. The physical vulnerability curve was constructed from the relationship between drought hazard intensity index and yield loss rate. The risk assessment of agricultural drought was conducted from the drought hazard intensity index and physical vulnerability curve. The probability distribution of drought hazard intensity index decreased from south-west to north-east and increased from south-east to north-west along the rainfall isoline. The physical vulnerability curve had a reduction effect in three parts of the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, which helped to reduce drought hazard vulnerability on spring maize. The risk of yield loss ratio calculated based on physical vulnerability curve was lower compared with the drought hazard intensity index, which suggested that the capacity of spring maize to resist and adapt to drought is increasing. In conclusion, the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China is greatly sensitive to climate change and has a high probability of severe drought hazard. Risk assessment of physical vulnerability can help better understand the physical vulnerability to agricultural drought and can also promote measurements to adapt to climate change.

  18. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane McClymont Peace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design: The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods: Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results: Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions: Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.

  19. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Diane McClymont; Myers, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies. PMID:22584509

  20. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain.

  1. Postglacial sedimentary regime around northern Sylt, South-eastern North Sea, based on shallow seismic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldreel, Lars Ole; Kuijpers, Antoon; Madsen, Emil B

    2010-01-01

    , in the outer delta, a dune field suggesting westerly-directed sediment transport is identified. The two dune fields appear to be separated by minor indefinite bed forms. The northern part of the Lister Tief is characterised by the presence of a channel with a depth of 20-30 mbsf (meter below sea level) (30......-40 msec TWT (Two Way Traveltime)) and displaying erosion towards the north. At the western termination of the channel the sediment transport pathway appears to be divided into two directions; one towards the outer delta, and one towards the sediment depocenter SW of Rømø. The Lister Ley is characterized......During the past 5 years the coastal zone offshore the northern part of the island of Sylt, has been investigated by sparker seismics and high-resolution subbottom profiling. The North Sea sector of the area is characterized by northward-directed sediment bypass as a result of strong long...

  2. Using a VGI and GIS-Based Multicriteria Approach for Assessing the Potential of Rural Tourism in Extremadura (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel González-Ramiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremadura (Spain, being one of the less-developed EU regions, is also eligible for European funds, including those related with the development of tourism activities in rural areas. To assess the spatial distribution of rural tourism potential (RTP, a methodological approach was followed by combining the synergetic use of geographic information systems (GIS and the analytical hierarchical process (AHP. For the evaluation model, six factors were examined and hierarchized by a panel of eighteen experts: tourism accommodation offer, activities in natural areas, gastronomic offer, cultural activities, bath offer in natural environments, and activities in active tourism. These factors were then decomposed into thirty-two evaluation criteria and the relative importance of their weights was estimated using pairwise judgments. Using publicly available data and volunteered geographic information (VGI platforms, the related spatial and non-spatial data were collected, collated, and standardized, employing appropriate tools developed with open-source GIS software. The results, represented by a series of intensity maps, indicate the RTP scores, highlight the strengths and weaknesses in each county, and could serve as a planning tool for public and/or private investments.

  3. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Carmelo [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Luzi, Guido [Centre Tecnòlogic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-27

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  4. The "El Alamo" project (1990-1997): two consecutive hospital-based studies of breast cancer outcomes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M; Mahillo, E; Llombart-Cussac, A; Lluch, A; Munarriz, B; Pastor, M; Alba, E; Ruiz, A; Antón, A; Bermejo, B

    2006-07-01

    The "Alamo" project is a retrospective analysis of 14,854 patients diagnosed of breast cancer between 1990 and 1997 in 50 Spanish hospitals. Alamo I (AI) consisted of 4,532 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1990 and 1993. Data were collected in 2000. Alamo II (AII) consisted of 10,322 patients diagnosed between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected in 2003. At presentation, there were (AI vs. AII) 17.6% vs. 24.3% at stage I; 55.5% vs. 53.1% at stage II; 18.7% vs. 15% at stage III; 7.2% vs. 5.9 at stage IV. Median age was 57 (AI) vs. 58 years (AII) and 65.9% vs. 67.2% (AI vs. AII) were post-menopausal. Firstline treatment for disease stages I, II and III was surgery in 91% of patients in both studies. Breast conserving surgery rate increased from 20.2% (AI) to 32.7% (AII). Adjuvant systemic treatments were administered to 87.6% (AI) and 92.8% (AII) of patients. Recurrence rate diminished from 36.6% (AI) to 22.5% (AII) and the 9-year survival rate increased from 63.2% (95% CI: 61.5-64.9) to 70.1% (95% CI: 68.5-71.8). Breast cancer outcomes in Spain have improved from 1990-1993 to 1994-1997, likely because of breast cancer screening program implementation and new therapies.

  5. Publication rate of radiodiagnostics specialists in Spain: bibliometric analysis based on publications in the journal Radiologia from 1984 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.; Saez, J.M.; Garcia-Medina, V.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the yield of authors who have published articles in Radiologia between 1984 and 1993 according to known measurements of productivity, to identify those who are most productive, to analyze their productivity in Spanish and foreign journals and to calculate their approximate impact in Spain. The sources for our search were the IME and Medline databases, the journal Radiologia itself (vols. 26 to 35) and the Index of Citations of Medical Literature by Spanish Authors (Indice Medico Espanol nos. 107, 110, 113 and 116). A total of 2,580 authors participated in the 1.344 publications appearing the in journal: of these, 57% published a single article, while six authors (0.23%) were involved in the preparation of over 19 publications. The most productive authors also publish in other Spanish and foreign journals, and the impact of their works in Radiologia is similar to that of their overall impact in other journals. The productivity of authors of Spanish medical literature is similar to that of other medical journals, although there are too many authors whose index of productivity is low or moderate, a fact that is attributable to their collaboration in publications. Of those having a great volume of productivity, 61% also publish in other journals, and nearly 27% submit articles to foreign journals. With the tools available at present, it is not possible to evaluate the impact of the authors themselves, an aspect that requires specific studies. (Author) 26 refs

  6. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Carmelo; Luzi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points

  8. Development of the Northern European Ribes core collection based on a microsatellite (SSR) marker diversity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonius, Kristiina; Karhu, S.; Kaldmäe, H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to support the selection process of the most valuable currant and gooseberry accessions cultivated in Northern Europe, in order to establish a decentralized core collection and, following the selection, to ensure sufficient genetic diversity in the selected collection....... Molecular analyses of the material from nine project partners were run at seven different laboratories. The results were first analysed for each partner separately, and then combined to ensure sufficient genetic diversity in the core collection....

  9. An Outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis in Adults in Northern China, 2013: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Liang, Guodong

    2018-05-09

    A Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic occurred in 2013 in China. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in adults occurring in 2013, as well as identify potential hotspots of incidences in the afflicted regions in China. To generate a spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in China, epidemiological and demographic data between 2011 and 2013 were collected. Our results indicate that the total number of JE cases in 2013 was significantly higher compared with those in 2011 and 2012. While the incidence of JE in individuals aged less than 15 years decreased in 2013, the incidence rate increased substantially in those aged 15 years and older. The population aged over 40 years was associated with the greatest increase of JE. Demographic analysis revealed a consistent increase in the proportion of JE cases aged 15 years and older in 2013 (42%) compared with that in 2012 (15%). In addition, JE cases from areas located between 35°N, 114°E and 40°N, 120°E in northern China were found to account for 27.17% of total JE cases nationwide in 2013, compared with 2.21% and 3.13% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In these northern regions, the group aged 15 years and older represents the predominant population with JE, accounting for 73% of total cases. Further cluster analysis identified a large number of hotspots of JE in adults (>15 years of age) in northern China. Unlike the JE epidemics primarily in children below 15 years old in southern China, a significant outbreak of JE occurred in northern China in 2013, with the older age groups being the primary population affected. The increasing incidence of JE in adults has become an important public health issue and poses a new challenge to the successful prevention and control of JE in China, as well as other countries in East Asia.

  10. [Spatiotemporal variation of vegetation in northern Shaanxi of Northwest China based on SPOT-VGT NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Zheng; Zhao, Peng-Xiang; Hao, Hong-Ke; Chang, Ming

    2012-07-01

    By using 1998-2010 SPOT-VGT NDVI images, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation in northern Shaanxi. In 1998-2010, the NDVI in northern Shaanxi had an obvious seasonal variation. The average monthly NDVI was the minimum (0.14) in January and the maximum (0.46) in August, with a mean value of 0.28. The average annual NDVI presented an overall increasing trend, indicating that the vegetation in this area was in restoring. Spatially, the restoration of vegetation in this area was concentrated in central south part, and the degradation mainly occurred in the north of the Great Wall. Air temperature and precipitation were the important climate factors affecting the variation of vegetation, with the linear correlation coefficients to NDVI being 0.72 and 0.58, respectively. The regions with better restored vegetation were mainly on the slopes of 15 degrees-25 degrees, indicating that the Program of Conversion of Cropland to Forestland and Grassland had a favorable effect in the vegetation restoration in northern Shaanxi.

  11. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  12. Drug use in patients with dementia: a register-based study in the health region of Girona (Catalonia/Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Castells, Pilar; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Alsina, Elisabet; Carmona, Olga; Perkal, Héctor; Roig, Anna Maria; Cuy, Josep Ma; Lozano, Manuela; Molins, Albert; Vallmajó, Natàlia; López-Pousa, Secundino

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pattern of drug consumption among patients with dementia in a geographically defined general population in Catalonia (Spain), and to determine its association with age, gender, type of dementia and severity indicators. Cross-sectional study that included 1,894 cases of dementia registered by the Registry of Dementias of Girona from 2007 to 2009. Prescribed drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. A descriptive analysis of drug consumption was stratified according to age, gender, dementia subtypes and dementia severity. Binary logistic regression models were adjusted to detect the association of these variables with drug consumption according to the ATC groups. The most commonly prescribed drugs were for the central nervous system (CNS) (96.4 %), cardiovascular system (79.4 %) and digestive and metabolic system categories (77.7 %). No significant differences were found between the use of nervous system drugs and age, gender, dementia subtypes or dementia severity. The use of alimentary tract and metabolism related drugs, as well as cardiovascular and blood system drugs, were positively correlated with age and secondary dementia. The prevalence of use of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal drugs was higher in women than in men (OR: 1.34; OR: 1.26 respectively). A negative association was found between the severity of dementia and the use of musculoskeletal drugs (OR: 0.71), while its use was significantly higher in the youngest patients (OR: 1.71). Almost all patients with dementia received a CNS drug, being at risk of inappropriate treatment. Treatment for comorbidities in patients with dementia should not be withheld on the basis of age or dementia severity, but rather on the benefit/risk ratio of its prescription. Further studies are needed to evaluate potentially inappropriate drug use and possible untreated conditions in this population.

  13. Type 2 Diabetes and Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-Based Study in Spain from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rivas, Nuria; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Esteban-Hernández, Jesus; Lopez-de-Andrés, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare trends in outcomes for intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in people with or without type 2 diabetes in Spain between 2003 and 2012. We selected all patients hospitalized for hemorrhagic stroke using national hospital discharge data. We evaluated annual incident rates stratified by diabetes status. We analyzed trends in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, patient comorbidities, in-hospital mortality (IHM), length of hospital stay, and readmission rate in 1 month. We identified a total of 173,979 discharges of patients admitted with hemorrhagic stroke (19.1% with diabetes). Incidences were higher among those with than those without diabetes in all the years studied. Diabetes was positively associated with stroke (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.40 for men; IRR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.29-1.34 for women). Length of stay decreased significantly and readmission rate remained stable for both groups (around 5%). We observed a significant increase in the use of decompressive craniectomy from 2002 to 2013. Mortality was positively associated with older age, with higher comorbidity and atrial fibrillation as risk factors. We found a negative association with the use of decompressive craniectomy. Mortality did not change over time among diabetic men and women. In those without diabetes, mortality decreased significantly over time. Suffering diabetes was not associated with higher mortality. Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke but not with IHM. Incidence among diabetic people remained stable over time. In both groups, the use of decompressive craniectomy has increased and is associated with a decreased mortality. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  15. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  16. Potential Trade-Offs Between Nature-Based Tourism and Forestry, a Case Study in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Salminen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Forestry, as a large industry, has significant impacts on the quality of nature-based tourism landscapes in boreal forests. In Finland, the rapid growth of nature-based tourism has expanded outdoor recreation activities from protected areas into timber production forests; this is particularly so in northern Finland. This paper focuses on assessing balanced local net impacts of three alternative land-use scenarios, in which the level of integration between nature-based tourism (NBT and traditional forestry is varied. The study is located in northern Finland in the area between two top-rated tourist resorts, Ylläs and Levi. The results of the case study support the idea of an eligible integration between NBT and forestry, which takes into account scenic qualities of forested landscapes by restricting traditional management practices. In our case, the increased number of tourists (due to a more attractive forest environment offset the losses accrued in forestry (due to restricted forest management.

  17. A pharmacogenetics-based warfarin maintenance dosing algorithm from Northern Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Chen

    Full Text Available Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n = 551, warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%, CYP2C9*3(7.0%, body surface area(4.2%, age(2.7%, target INR(1.4%, CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%, amiodarone use(0.6%, diabetes mellitus(0.6%, and digoxin use(0.5%, which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n = 236, the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r = 0.609, P<0.001. Our algorithm could improve the personalized management of warfarin use in Northern Chinese patients.

  18. A Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Maintenance Dosing Algorithm from Northern Chinese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Wang, Jin'e; Shi, Yi; Tan, Yu; Chen, Qianlong; Zhang, Yu; Hui, Rutai; Wang, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n = 551), warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%), CYP2C9*3(7.0%), body surface area(4.2%), age(2.7%), target INR(1.4%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%), amiodarone use(0.6%), diabetes mellitus(0.6%), and digoxin use(0.5%), which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n = 236), the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r = 0.609, Pwarfarin use in Northern Chinese patients. PMID:25126975

  19. “Burden of osteoporotic fractures in primary health care in Catalonia (Spain: a population-based study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagès-Castellà Aina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge on the epidemiology of non-hip fractures in Spain is limited and somewhat outdated. Using computerized primary care records from the SIDIAP database, we derived age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates for the region of Catalonia during the year 2009. Methods The SIDIAP database contains quality-checked clinical information from computerized medical records of a representative sample of >5,800,000 patients (80% of the population of Catalonia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients aged ≥50 years, and followed them from January 1 to December 31, 2009. Major osteoporotic fractures registered in SIDIAP were ascertained using ICD-10 codes and validated by comparing data to hospital admission and patient-reported fractures records. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results In total, 2,011,430 subjects were studied (54.6% women. Overall fracture rates were 10.91/1,000 person-years (py [95%CI 10.89–10.92]: 15.18/1,000 py [15.15–15.21] in women and 5.78/1,000 py [5.76–5.79] in men. The most common fracture among women was wrist/forearm (3.86/1,000 py [3.74–3.98], while among men it was clinical spine (1.25/1,000 py [1.18–1.33]. All fracture rates increased with age, but varying patterns were observed: while most of the fractures (hip, proximal humerus, clinical spine and pelvis increased continuously with age, wrist and multiple rib fractures peaked at age 75–80 and then reached a plateau. Conclusions Our study provides local estimates of age, sex and site-specific fracture burden in primary health care, which will be helpful for health-care planning and delivery. A proportion of fractures are not reported in primary care records, leading to underestimation of fracture incidence rates in these data.

  20. [The users of centers for AIDS information and prevention in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain: a study based on cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Aracil, J; Ruiz Pérez, I; Aviñó Rico, M J; Hernández Aguado, I

    1999-01-01

    To measure the usefulness of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis applied to the epidemiological research of HIV infection. The specific are to explore the relationships between the different variables that characterize the users of the AIDS Information and Prevention Center (CIPS) and to identify clusters of characteristics which in terms of the attendance to these centers, could be considered similar. The clinical history the CIPS in the Valencian region in Spain was used as data source. The target population target were intravenous drug users (IDUSs) attending these centers between 1987 and 1994 (n = 6211). Information about socio-demographic and HIV type I infection-related variables (drug use and sexual behaviour) was collected by means of a semistructured questionnaire. A MCA was carried out to obtain a group of quantitative factors that were used in a cluster analysis. A 44.8% HIV type I prevalence was found. Five factors were detected by MCA that explain 51.14% of the total variability, of which sex, age and the usual sexual partner were the variables best explained. Cluster analysis allowed to describe 5 different subgroups of CIPS users according to their socio-demographics characteristics, risk behaviours and serologic status. It is necessary to highlight the categories 1 and 2, which collect the serologic status and the most relevant characteristics of HIV infection. Category I contains users with a negative serology and characterized by being mainly single adolescent men, with a low educational level; they stated that they have no steady sexual partner, do not share syringes and have been intravenous drug users between 3 and 10 years. They mainly come from the city of Alicante. Category 2 contains mainly people that are HIV positive and older. They also share syringes and have been intravenous drug users for a longer time; they have a higher education level and most of them come from the city of Valencia. The proposed method of

  1. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Lister,1 Sanja Stanisic,1 Klaus Kaier,2 Christian Hagist,2 Dmitry Gultyaev,1 Stefan Walzer31Analytica LA-SER International Inc, Lörrach, Germany; 2Research Centre for Generational Contracts, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Methods: Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working full-time and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work.Conclusion: This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, economic model, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

  2. The Tourism Encounter in Community-Based Tourism in Northern Thailand: Empty Meeting Ground or Space for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dolezal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell’s (1992 idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978, two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism encounter, this article suggests moving away from binaries towards understanding the space of the tourism encounter and its potential for change. Building on empirical research conducted in Ban Mae Kampong, a CBT village in Northern Thailand, findings suggest that CBT shows signs of resident-host interactions that are based on understanding and learning rather than exploitation. While also in CBT friendships and meaning take time to emerge and the ‘Other’ is used as attraction, villagers’ agency and control over tourism are acknowledged. This paper therefore calls for a revisiting of the theoretical grounding that influences our understanding of the tourism encounter and argues for an investigation of community power relations in connection to the tourism encounter and its potential for residents’ empowerment in CBT.

  3. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in adolescents in Northern Italy: an observational school-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Matteelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infections in school-based adolescents in Northern Italy. Methods Systematic screening for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae genital infection was performed in 13th grade students in the province of Brescia, an industrialized area in Northern Italy. Student filled in a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided a urine sample for microbiological testing. Results A total of 2,718 students (mean age: 18.4 years; 59.1 % females provided complete data (62.2 % of those eligible. Overall 2,059 students (75.8 % were sexually active (i.e. had had at least one partner, and the mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (SD: 1.4. Only 27.5 % of the sexually active students reported regular condom use during the previous 6 months, with higher frequency in males than in females (33.8 % vs 24.2 %. No case of N. gonorrhoeae infection was detected, while C. trachomatis was found in 36 adolescents, with a prevalence of 1.7 % (95 % CI: 1.2–2.4 among sexually active students, and no statistical difference between females and males (1.9 and 1.4 %, respectively. Inconsistent condom use (odds ratio, OR = 5.5 and having had more than one sexual partner during the previous 6 months (OR = 6.8 were associated with an increased risk of Chlamydia infection at multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among sexually active adolescents in Northern Italy was low, despite a high proportion of students who engage in risky sexual behaviour. No cases of N. gonorrhoeae infection were identified.

  5. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands: a 30-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-11-16

    Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other birth defects. The aim of this study is to describe the birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands. In a population-based, epidemiological study we investigated the birth prevalences of CLD for 1981-2010. Data were collected by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in the northern Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL). We excluded malpositions, club foot, and dislocation/dysplasia of hips or knees. Trends were analysed for the 19-year period 1992-2010 using χ² tests, as well as CLD association with anomalies affecting other organs. The birth prevalence of CLD was 21.1/10,000 births for 1981-2010. There was an overall decrease in non-syndromic limb defects (P = 0.023) caused by a decrease in the prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly (P CLD, 55% were males, 57% had isolated defects, 13% had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and 30% had a recognised syndrome. The upper:lower limb ratio was 2:1, and the left:right side ratio was 1.2:1. Cardiovascular and urinary tract anomalies were common in combination with CLD (37% and 25% of cases with MCA). Digestive-tract anomalies were significantly associated with CLD (P = 0.016). The birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands was 21.1/10,000 births. The birth prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly dropped from 5.2/10,000 to 1.1/10,000 in 1992-2010.

  6. Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake.

  7. Evaluation of a community-based drowning prevention programme in northern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, A; Mohammadi, R; Yousefzade-Chabok, S; Jansson, B

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of a drowning intervention package in northern Islamic Republic of Iran. A quasi-experimental design used pre- and post-observations among residents and tourists in water-recreation beach areas of intervention and control regions by the Caspian Sea and in residents near the Caspian Sea coastline. The fatal drowning rate in the studied resident population in the provinces fell from 4.24 per 100 000 residents at baseline to 3.04 per 100,000 residents at endline. The risk of death from drowning in the intervention areas in the water-recreation area was greater during the pre-intervention (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.66-2.01) than the implementation period (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15-0.37). The risk of drowning can be reduced by implementing increased supervision and raising community awareness.

  8. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  9. Wind potential data analysis based on on-site measurements with tall meteorological masts installed in northern Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terziev, A.; Genovski, I.; Petrov, P.; Valchev, V.

    2010-01-01

    The current work has studied the possibility of correlation between wind data collected with tall meteorological masts in Northern Bulgaria. The processed data were collected for the same time period. The analysis is based on daily wind data. The correlation was made taking into consideration the following factors: the height of carried wind measurements, the prevailing wind direction, and the surface roughness of the relief. The analysis of the distance effect between meteorological masts is also considered. The possibility of modeling the wind velocity field for the area limited by the meteorological mast locations is examined. For this purpose for wind speed velocity field description is used triangulation with linear interpolation between the data. Data interpolation was made based on compulsory condition for relative flatness of the terrain. (authors)

  10. Cost-utility analysis of Palivizumab for Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection prophylaxis in preterm infants: update based on the clinical evidence in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Luna, M; Burgos-Pol, R; Oyagüez, I; Figueras-Aloy, J; Sánchez-Solís, M; Martinón-Torres, F; Carbonell-Estrany, X

    2017-10-17

    This study aimed at estimating the efficiency of palivizumab in the prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection and its sequelae in preterm infants (32 day 1 -35 day 0 weeks of gestational age -wGA-) in Spain. A decision-tree model was developed to compare health benefits (Quality Adjusted Life Years-QALYs) and costs of palivizumab versus a non-prophylaxis strategy over 6 years. A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 preterm infants, 32 day 1 -35 day 0 wGA (4.356 kg average weight) at the beginning of the prophylaxis (15 mg/kg of palivizumab; 3.88 average number of injections per RSV season) was analysed. The model considered the most recent evidence from Spanish observational and epidemiological studies on RSV infection: the FLIP II study provided hospital admission and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rates; in-hospital mortality rate was drawn from an epidemiological study from 2004 to 2012; recurrent wheezing rates associated to RSV infection from SPRING study were adjusted by the evidence on the palivizumab effect from clinical trials. Quality of life baseline value, number of hospitalized infants and the presence of recurrent wheezing over time were granted to estimate QALYs. National Health Service and societal perspective (included also recurrent wheezing indirect cost) were analysed. Total costs (€, 2016) included pharmaceutical and administration costs, hospitalization costs and recurrent wheezing management annual costs. A discount rate of 3.0% was applied annually for both costs and health outcomes. Over 6 years, the base case analysis showed that palivizumab was associated to an increase of 0.0731 QALYs compared to non-prophylaxis. Total costs were estimated in €2,110.71 (palivizumab) and €671.68 (non-prophylaxis) from the National Health System (NHS) perspective, resulting in an incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) of €19,697.69/QALYs gained (prophylaxis vs non-prophylaxis). Results derived from the risk-factors population

  11. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  12. Pilot Implementation of two evidence based programs (SafeCare and IncredibleYears in Child Protection Services in Gipuzkoa (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín de Paul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation process of two evidence-based programs in Gipuzko as Child Protection System (Spain: SafeCare and Incredible Years. SafeCare is a home visiting program for high-riskand neglectful families with children under 5 years. Incredible Years is a parenting skills training program for families with children between 4 to 8 years with behavior problems whose parents have significantdifficulties to manage. The paper describes the process by which public institutions responsible for child protection in Gipuzkoa decided to shift from current intervention programs towards more structured, focused, and short-term programs that have shown positive results in previous applications in other countries. Issues related to programs adaptation, selection, and training of professionals and pre- and postresults obtained in the preliminary application of SafeCare and Incredible Years to a limited set of families are presented. Finally, the next step of the implementation process (pilot implementation with a randomized control trial design is described. The paper discusses a significant number of issues that have been important throughout this process and that may be useful for administrations and institutions that wish to undertake a similar process.

  13. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  14. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  15. A climatology based on reanalysis of baroclinic developmental regions in the extratropical northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Laura; Nieto, Raquel; Noguerol, Marta; Añel, Juan Antonio; Gimeno, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Regions of the occurrence of different phenomena related to the development of baroclinic disturbances are reviewed for the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data. The occurrence of height lows appears to be related to the orography near the earth's surface and with surface- and upper-air cyclogenesis in the upper troposphere. Over the cyclone tracks, the surface maxima appear to be trapped by land masses, whereas over the Mediterranean Sea they are located on the lee side of mountain ranges. The forcing terms of the geopotential tendency and omega equations mark the genesis (and, by the vorticity advection terms, the path) of the extratropical cyclones on the storm track. They occur mostly over the western coast of the oceans, beginning and having maxima on the lee side of the Rocky Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau. Their associated fronts form from the cold air coming from the continents and converging with the warm air over the Gulf and Kuroshio currents. Evident trends are found only for the Atlantic cyclone track (positive) and the Pacific cyclone track (negative) until the last decade when the tendency reverses. Over the southern Pacific, the number of fronts is lower during 1978-1997, coinciding with a period of strong El Niño Southern Oscillation episodes. This information is important for validating numerical models in order to predict changes associated with climate change and to study the behavior of extratropical cyclones and fronts.

  16. Analysis of changes in tornadogenesis conditions over Northern Eurasia based on a simple index of atmospheric convective instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokulsky, A. V.; Kurgansky, M. V.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    A simple index of convective instability (3D-index) is used for analysis of weather and climate processes that favor to the occurrence of severe convective events including tornadoes. The index is based on information on the surface air temperature and humidity. The prognostic ability of the index to reproduce severe convective events (thunderstorms, showers, tornadoes) is analyzed. It is shown that most tornadoes in North Eurasia are characterized by high values of the 3D-index; furthermore, the 3D-index is significantly correlated with the available convective potential energy. Reanalysis data (for recent decades) and global climate model simulations (for the 21st century) show an increase in the frequency of occurrence of favorable for tornado formation meteorological conditions in the regions of Northern Eurasia. The most significant increase is found on the Black Sea coast and in the south of the Far East.

  17. Investigating the reasons for Spain's falling birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, X

    1998-09-12

    On August 25, 1998, the Spanish National Institute of Statistics announced that Spain, which has had the most accelerated decrease in fecundity of all European countries during the last 25 years, had the lowest birth rate in Europe. Spain's average birth rate was 2.86 in 1970, 2.21 in 1980, and 1.21 in 1994. According to Eurostat, Spain's average birth rate in 1995 was 1.18, while the European Community's was 1.43. Although all the countries of the European Community have birth rates below 2.1, Spain's is 44% below this minimum rate needed to achieve generation replacement. In 1994 and 1997, in 5 northern communities, including the Basque country and Galicia, the birth rate was less than 1.0. The lowest birth rate (0.76 in 1997) was in the northern region of Asturias. Although southern autonomous regions have higher birth rates (between 1.21 and 1.44 for 1997) than northern ones, these are also decreasing (from 3.36 in 1970 to 1.29 in 1997 in Andalusia). Credit for the rapid decrease is given to improved quality of life and education, increased contraceptive usage, and social change. Employment of women has increased, and unemployed sons are remaining at home for longer periods. The most important reasons are 1) the increased number of single people and 2) the increased average age of women having their first child. The latter increase began in 1988. Most Spanish women now have their first child between the ages of 30 and 39 years. The average age was 28 years in 1975; in 1995, it was 30 years. Women from the northern autonomous regions have the highest average age at first birth (Basque women, 31.2 years in 1995). The pattern of fecundity in Spain is different from other countries in Europe. In Spain, the decrease started in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Until the 1980s, Spain had one of the highest birth rates in Europe. This was followed by a decrease in the 1990s. However, in 1997, there were 3000 more births than in 1996. The National Institute of Demography

  18. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-07-11

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p obese (p Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults.

  19. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chuan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC. Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05 and obese (p < 0.01 participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, malonaldehyde (MDA and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults.

  20. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  1. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  2. The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gómez Real

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar.To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD.A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed.Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥ 3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10-3.18, asthma (1.62 [1.23-2.14] and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28-3.18]. There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥ 3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25-1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10-3.18], and there was no heterogeneity between centres (p(heterogeneity = 0.49. None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (p(interaction = 0.004.A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions.

  3. Adolescent self-harm: a school-based study in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of adolescent self-harm in Northern Ireland (NI) and its associated factors are unknown. Given the established relationship between conflict and mental health, and NI׳s recent history of conflict, it is important to investigate the factors associated with self-harm in NI. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-harm in NI adolescents and the factors associated with it, including exposure to the NI conflict. Observational study of 3596 school pupils employing an anonymous self-report survey. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, life events and problems, exposure to the NI conflict, social and internet influences, and psychological variables. Self-harm was reported by 10% of respondents. In univariate analyses, exposure to the NI conflict was associated with self-harm alongside established risk factors. In multivariate analyses, bullying and exposure to self-harm were associated with lifetime self-harm in both girls and boys. Alcohol use, drug use, physical and sexual abuse, and self-esteem were also associated with self-harm in girls. In boys, absence of exercise, sexual orientation concerns, anxiety and impulsivity were additional risk factors. The internet/social media and the self-harm of others were also key influences. This is a cross-sectional study. The rate of self-harm was lower than elsewhere in the UK/Ireland. The study highlights the factors which should be considered in terms of risk assessment. In addition to established risk factors, the findings suggest that more research on the legacy of the NI conflict as well as the influence of new technologies warrant urgent attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Methods Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. Results The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. Conclusions In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This

  5. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominkovics, Pau; Granell, Carlos; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Casals, Martí; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2011-11-29

    Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This study is an attempt to demonstrate how web

  6. A GIS-based methodology for the estimation of potential volcanic damage and its application to Tenerife Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, C.; Felpeto, A.; Martí, J.; Carniel, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based methodology to estimate damages produced by volcanic eruptions. The methodology is constituted by four parts: definition and simulation of eruptive scenarios, exposure analysis, vulnerability assessment and estimation of expected damages. Multi-hazard eruptive scenarios are defined for the Teide-Pico Viejo active volcanic complex, and simulated through the VORIS tool. The exposure analysis identifies the elements exposed to the hazard at stake and focuses on the relevant assets for the study area. The vulnerability analysis is based on previous studies on the built environment and complemented with the analysis of transportation and urban infrastructures. Damage assessment is performed associating a qualitative damage rating to each combination of hazard and vulnerability. This operation consists in a GIS-based overlap, performed for each hazardous phenomenon considered and for each element. The methodology is then automated into a GIS-based tool using an ArcGIS® program. Given the eruptive scenarios and the characteristics of the exposed elements, the tool produces expected damage maps. The tool is applied to the Icod Valley (North of Tenerife Island) which is likely to be affected by volcanic phenomena in case of eruption from both the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex and North-West basaltic rift. Results are thematic maps of vulnerability and damage that can be displayed at different levels of detail, depending on the user preferences. The aim of the tool is to facilitate territorial planning and risk management in active volcanic areas.

  7. A knowledge-based approach for C-factor mapping in Spain using Landsat TM and GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe (former Folly), Anita; Bronsveld, M.C.; Clavaux, M

    1996-01-01

    The cover and management factor (C) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), is one of the most important parameters for assessing erosion. In this study it is shown how a knowledge-based approach can be used to optimize C-factor mapping in the Mediterranean region being characterized...... to the limitations of the USLE...

  8. Home-Based Economic Activities and Caribbean Urban Livelihoods : Vulnerability, Ambition and Impact in Paramaribo and Port of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, Hebe

    2007-01-01

    Poor urban households in the economic 'south' deploy various livelihood activities. One of these is a Home-Based Economic Activity (HBEA), e.g. sales of home-made snacks or car maintenance. This study examines the prevalence, organisation and relevance of HBEAs in four neighbourhoods in the

  9. Selecting a summation base in diffraction transformation of seismic recordings (in an example of Northern Sakhalin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, M.G.; Telegin, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the dimensions of a processing base on the results of diffraction transformation of seismic recordings is examined. A formula is cited for rating the optimal summation base on the basis of a proposed range of slant angles of the reflecting boundaries. The recommendations for selecting a processing base are confirmed by factual material.

  10. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European ...

  11. Prospects of spent management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melches, C.; Ramirez, E.; Selgas, F.; Cabanilles, P.A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Uriarte, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the forecast on spent fuel management in Spain, taking into account the international developments produced during the last years and specially on LWR fuels. This forecast is based on the following actions: increase of the storage capacity in the reactors: construction of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and a fuel reprocessing pilot plant. (author)

  12. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Marín, S; Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets from 12 cities in the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis involving liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Consumption data for the selected foodstuffs were collected by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. The studied population was grouped by age in infants, children, adolescents and adults; and exposure to OTA through the specified foodstuffs, and through wine and coffee, was assessed. Exposure assessment was done through deterministic and probabilistic modelling of the contamination and consumption data. OTA occurrence and mean of positive samples (ng g(-1) or ng ml(-1), for beer) were the following: 8.7% and 0.233 in baby foods; 88.7% and 0.022 in beer; 2.8% and 0.728 in corn-based breakfast cereals; 25% and 0.293 in wheat-based breakfast cereals; 12.9% and 0.283 in loaf bread; 41.7% and 0.241 in peanuts; and 2.9% and 0.228 in pistachios. The median estimated daily intake of OTA through the foodstuffs by each age group were below the latest provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) of 17 and 14 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006 and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, respectively, ranging from 1% and 2% of those values in adolescents and children, to 3% and 11% in adults and infants.

  13. Identification and management of comorbidity in psoriatic arthritis: evidence- and expert-based recommendations from a multidisciplinary panel from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Carmona, Loreto; Moreno, Mireia; Galíndez, Eva; Babío, Jesús; Zarco, Pedro; Linares, Luis; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Barrial, Manuel Fernández; Hermosa, Juan Carlos; Coto, Pablo; Suárez, Carmen; Almodóvar, Raquel; Luelmo, Jesús; Castañeda, Santos; Gratacós, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The objective is to establish recommendations, based on evidence and expert opinion, for the identification and management of comorbidities in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The following techniques were applied: discussion group, systematic review, and Delphi survey for agreement. A panel of professionals from four specialties defined the users, the sections of the document, possible recommendations, and what systematic reviews should be performed. A second discussion was held with the results of the systematic reviews. Recommendations were formulated in the second meeting and voted online from 1 (total disagreement) to 10 (total agreement). Agreement was considered if at least 70% voted ≥7. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assigned using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidance. The full document was critically appraised by the experts, and the project was supervised at all times by a methodologist. In a final step, the document was reviewed and commented by a patient and a health management specialist. Fourteen recommendations were produced, together with a checklist to facilitate the implementation. The items with the largest support from evidence were those related to cardiovascular disease and risk factors. The panel recommends paying special attention to obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, as they are all modifiable factors with an impact on treatment response or complications of PsA. Psychological and organizational aspects were also deemed important. We herein suggest practical recommendations for the management of comorbidities in PsA based on evidence and expert opinion.

  14. Maintaining the Background Dust Opacity During Northern Hemisphere Summer Mars Using Wind Stress Based Dust Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Kahre, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars atmosphere has low levels of dust during Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring and summer (the non-dusty season) and increased levels during NH autumn and winter (the dusty season). In the absence of regional or global storms, dust devils and local storms maintain a background minimum dust loading during the non-dusty season. While observational surveys and Global Climate Model (GCM) studies suggest that dust devils are likely to be major contributors to the background haze during NH spring and summer, a complete understanding of the relative contribution of dust devils and local dust storms has not yet been achieved. We present preliminary results from an investigation that focuses on the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on dust lifting processes during these seasons. Water ice clouds are known to affect atmospheric temperatures directly by absorption and emission of thermal infrared radiation and indirectly through dynamical feedbacks. Our goal is to understand how clouds affect the contribution by local (wind stress) dust storms to the background dust haze during NH spring and summer. The primary tool for this work is the NASA Ames Mars GCM, which contains physical parameterizations for a fully interactive dust cycle. Three simulations that included wind stress dust lifting were executed for a period of 5 Martian years: a case that included no cloud formation, a case that included radiatively inert cloud formation and a case that included radiatively active cloud (RAC) formation. Results show that when radiatively active clouds are included, the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt radiatively heat the atmosphere aloft in the tropics (Figure 1). This heating produces a stronger overturning circulation, which in turn produces an enhanced low-level flow in the Hadley cell return branch. The stronger low-level flow drives higher surface stresses and increased dust lifting in those locations. We examine how realistic these simulated results are by

  15. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with carotid plaque: a cross-sectional study from the population based Northern Manhattan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden-Albala Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired vascular function occurs early in atherogenesis. Brachial flow mediated dilatation (FMD is a non-invasive measure of vascular function and may be an important marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. Data on the association between FMD and carotid plaque in multi-ethnic populations are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with carotid plaque in a community of northern Manhattan. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of the brachial and carotid arteries were obtained in 643 stroke-free subjects (mean age 66 years; 55% women; 65% Caribbean-Hispanic, 17% African-American, 16% Caucasian. Brachial FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia. Maximum carotid plaque thickness (MCPT was measured at the peak plaque prominence. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.78 ± 3.83 %. Carotid plaque was present in 339 (53% subjects. The mean MCPT was 1.68 ± 0.82 mm, and the 75th percentile was 2.0 mm. Reduced FMD was significantly associated with increased MCPT. After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and education, each percent of FMD decrease was associated with a significant 0.02 mm increase in MCPT (p = 0.028. In a dichotomous adjusted model, blunted FMD was associated with an increased risk of MCPT ≥ 2.0 mm (OR, 1.11 for every 1% decrease in FMD; 95% CI, 1.03–1.19. Conclusion Decreased brachial FMD is independently associated with carotid plaque. Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial dysfunction may be a useful marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and help to individualize cardiovascular risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors.

  16. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible. PMID:26900910

  17. Performance indicators evaluation of the population-based breast cancer screening programme in Northern Portugal using the European Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Maria José; Gonçalves, Guilherme; Aguiar, Ana; Castro, Clara; Veloso, Vitor; Rodrigues, Vítor

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the first 10 years of operation of the population-based breast cancer screening programme implemented in the Northern Region of Portugal, using selected recommended standard performance indicators. Data from women aged 50-69 screened with two-view mammography, biennially, in the period 2000-2009, were included. Main performance indicators were compared with the recommended levels of the European Guidelines. A total of 202,039 screening examinations were performed, 71,731 (35.5%) in the initial screening and 130,308 (64.5%) in the subsequent screening. Coverage rate by examination reached 74.3% of the target population, in the last period evaluated. Recall rates were 8.1% and 2.4% and cancer detection rates were 4.4/1000 and 2.9/1000 respectively, for initial and subsequent screenings. The breast cancer detection rate, expressed as a multiple of the background expected incidence was 3.1 in initial screen and 2.2 in subsequent screen. The incidence of invasive interval cancers met the desirable recommended levels both the first and second years since last screening examination, in the initial and subsequent screenings. Invasive tumours cancers detected in initial and subsequent screenings. Less favourable size, grading and biomarkers expression were found in interval cancers compared to screen-detected cancers. Breast cancer screening programme in the Northern Region of Portugal was well accepted by the population. Most of the performance indicators were consistent with the desirable levels of the European Guidelines, which indicate an effective screening programme. Future research should verify the consistency of some of these results by using updated information from a larger population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling a budgetary impact analysis for funding drug-based smoking cessation therapies for patients with major depressive disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejas-Gutiérrez, J; Bruguera, E; Cedillo, S

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is associated with high healthcare resource utilisation and cost to society. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibit high susceptibility to nicotine dependence. Varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy are all indicated for smoking cessation; however funding by the Spanish national health system (SNHS) is limited. We modelled a budgetary impact analysis (BIA) to estimate the impact of the SNHS funding drug-based therapies for smoking cessation in smokers with MDD. The BIA compared the current unfunded scenario versus a funded scenario (varenicline, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy combined with medical follow-up and counselling) using the Spanish SNHS and societal perspectives. The BIA design was a hybrid model using a decision tree algorithm (population size: smokers with MDD) and Markov chains (smoking cessation attempts) over a 5-year horizon. Smoking cessation drug efficacy was derived from clinical trials, and smoking cessation costs avoided were taken from an analysis of the Spanish National Health Survey. Results were shown as incremental cost savings. Scenarios and threshold univariate sensitivity analyses tested model robustness. The funded scenario resulted in an increase of 43,478 cessation attempts and 8930 fewer smokers after 5 years compared to the unfunded scenario. The cost of funding was €25.3 million and costs avoided were €26.5 million. There was a cumulative 5-year incremental cost saving of €1.2 million to Spanish society. Results were robust using alternative scenarios. Funding smoking cessation drugs in patients with MDD is of economic benefit to Spain and could produce net savings from the third year of implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures on quality-of-life. a population-based study in Valencia, Spain (The FRAVO Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfélix-Genovés, José; Hurtado, Isabel; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Reig-Molla, Begoña; Peiró, Salvador

    2011-04-06

    To describe the health related quality of life in a population sample of postmenopausal women over the age of 50 and resident in the city of Valencia (Spain), according to the presence/absence of osteoporosis and the severity of prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures. A cross-sectional age-stratified population-based sample of 804 postmenopausal women of 50 years of age and older were assessed with the SF-12 questionnaire. Information about demographic features, lifestyle, clinical features, educational level, anti-osteoporotic and other treatments, comorbidities and risk factors for osteoporosis were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and densitometric evaluation of spine and hip and spine x-rays were carried out. In the non-adjusted analysis, mild and moderate-severe vertebral fractures were associated with decreased scores in the SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) but not in the Mental Component Summary (MCS), while densitometric osteoporosis with no accompanying fracture was not associated with a worse health related quality of life. In multivariate analysis worse PCS scores were associated to the age groups over 70 (-2.43 for 70-74 group and -2.97 for 75 and older), chronic conditions (-4.66, -6.79 and -11.8 according to the presence of 1, 2 or at least 3 conditions), obesity (-5.35), peripheral fracture antecedents (-3.28), hypoestrogenism antecedents (-2.61) and the presence of vertebral fracture (-2.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, the physical components of health related quality of life were significantly lower in women with prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures than in women--osteoporotic or not--without vertebral fractures.

  20. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk: Variations in Visfatin Gene Can Modify the Obesity Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Results from the Segovia Population Based-Study. Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Martínez Larrad

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate if genetic variations in the visfatin gene (SNPs rs7789066/ rs11977021/rs4730153 could modify the cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk despite the metabolic phenotype (obesity and glucose tolerance. In addition, we investigated the relationship between insulin sensitivity and variations in visfatin gene.A population-based study in rural and urban areas of the Province of Segovia, Spain, was carried out in the period of 2001-2003 years. A total of 587 individuals were included, 25.4% subjects were defined as obese (BMI ≥30 Kg/m2.Plasma visfatin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with DM2 than in other categories of glucose tolerance. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP was significantly associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance after adjustment for gender, age, BMI and waist circumference. The obese individuals carrying the CC genotype of the rs11977021 SNP showed higher circulating levels of fasting proinsulin after adjustment for the same variables. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP seems to be protective from CV-risk either estimated by Framingham or SCORE charts in general population; and in obese and non-obese individuals. No associations with CV-risk were observed for other studied SNPs (rs11977021/rs7789066.In summary, this is the first study which concludes that the genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP appear to protect against CV-risk in obese and non-obese individuals, estimated by Framingham and SCORE charts. Our results confirm that the different polymorphisms in the visfatin gene might be influencing the glucose homeostasis in obese individuals.

  1. Two molecular markers based on mitochondrial genomes for varieties identification of the northern snakehead (Channa argus) and blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) and their reciprocal hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xincheng, Zhang; Kunci, Chen; Xinping, Zhu; Jian, Zhao; Qing, Luo; Xiaoyou, Hong; Wei, Li; Fengfang, Xiao

    2015-08-01

    The northern snakehead (Channa argus) and blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) and their reciprocal hybrids have played important roles in the Chinese freshwater aquaculture industry, with an annual production in China exceeding 400 thousand tons. While these are popular aquaculture breeds in China, it is not easy to identify northern snakehead, blotched snakehead, and their hybrids. Thus, a method should be developed to identify these varieties. To distinguish between the reciprocal hybrids (C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂ and C. maculata ♀ × C. argus ♂), the mitochondrial genome sequences of northern snakehead and blotched snakehead and their reciprocal hybrids were compared. Following the alignment and analysis of mtDNA sequences of northern snakehead, blotched snakehead and their hybrids, two pairs of specific primers were designed based on identified differences ranging from 12S rRNA to 16S rRNA gene. The BY1 primers amplified the same bands in the blotched snakehead and the hybrid (C. maculata ♀ × C. argus ♂), while producing no products in northern snakehead and the hybrid (C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂). Amplification with WY1 yielded the opposite results. Then, 30 individuals per fish were randomized to verify the primers, and the results showed that the primers were specific for breeds, as intended. The specific primers can not only simply distinguish between two kinds of hybrids, but also rapidly identify the two parents. This study provides a method of molecular marker identification to identify reciprocal hybrids.

  2. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  3. Impact of soil protection measures based on topographical variations through connectivity indices in two agricultural catchments in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Mesas, F. Javier; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Marín-Moreno, Víctor; Mateos, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Physiographic attributes of the catchments (spatial organization and internal connectivity) determine sediment production, transport and delivery to river channels downstream. Understanding the hydrological connectivity allows identifying runoff and sediment contribution from overland flow pathways, rills and gullies at the upper parts of the catchments to sink areas (Borselli et al., 2008). Currently, the design of orchards and row crops plantations is driven by traffic and machinery management criteria, meaning significant simplification of the landscape. Topographic alterations may reduce the connectivity and maximize the retention of water and sediments in catchments by increasing travel times and infiltration (Gay et al., 2016). There are connectivity indices based on topography and land use information (Borselli et al., 2008) and travel times (Chow et al., 1988) which may help to identify measures to reduce water and sediment transfer. In this work, connectivity indices derived from digital elevation models (DEM) of two small agricultural catchments where topographic measures to interrupt the connectivity had been implemented were analyzed. The topographical details of the tree row ridges in a young almond orchard catchment and half-moons (individual terraces) in an olive grove catchment were obtained using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) flights. The aim was to evaluate the benefits of ridges and half-moons by comparing spatial patterns of connectivity indices before and after the topographical modifications in the catchments. The catchments were flown in December 2016. The original DEMs were generated based on previous topographical information and a filter based on minimum heights. The statistics and the maps generated will be presented as results of our study and its interpretation will provide an analysis to preliminarily explore effective and economical measures for erosion control and improved water harvesting. REFERENCES Gay, O. Cerdan, V. Mardhel, M

  4. Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiangang; Zhou Qixing; Luo Yi

    2010-01-01

    The residue of antibiotics is becoming an intractable environmental problem in many organic vegetable bases. However, their residual levels and distribution are still obscure. This work systematically analyzed the occurrence and migration of typical veterinary antibiotics in organic vegetable bases, northern China. The results showed that there was no obvious geographical difference in antibiotic distribution between soil and manure. A simple migration model can be easy and quick to predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil. Antibiotics were mainly taken up through water transport and passive absorption in vegetables. The distribution of antibiotics in a plant was in the sequence leaf > stem > root, and performed biological accumulation. The residues of antibiotics in all samples in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. Overall, this work can lay the foundation for understanding ecological risk of antibiotics and their potential adverse effects on human health by food chain. - The residues of typical veterinary antibiotics from manure were detected and migrated in soil, vegetables and groundwater of organic vegetable bases.

  5. Perceptions of the Impact of Online Learning as a Distance-Based Learning Model on the Professional Practices of Working Nurses in Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine; Hanna, Mary; Warry, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Nurses in Canada face diverse challenges to their ongoing educational pursuits. As a result, they have been early adopters of courses and programs based on distance education principles and, in particular, online learning models. In the study described in this paper, nurses studying at two northern universities, in programs involving online…

  6. Prenatal and Perinatal Morbidity in Children with Tic Disorders: A Mainstream School-based Population Study in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cubo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. Methods: This was a nested case–control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using ‘Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision’ criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors.Results: Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics;. After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–7.60, p = 0.007, and cesarean section (OR = 5.78, 95% CI 1.60–20.91, p = 0.01.Discussion: This nested case–control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results.

  7. Prenatal and Perinatal Morbidity in Children with Tic Disorders: A Mainstream School-based Population Study in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Hortigüela, Montesclaros; Jorge-Roldan, Sandra; Ciciliani, Selva Esther; Lopez, Patricia; Velasco, Leticia; Sastre, Emilio; Ausin, Vanesa; Delgado, Vanesa; Saez, Sara; Gabriel-Galán, José Trejo; Macarrón, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. This was a nested case-control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using 'Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision' criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors. Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics). After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-7.60, p = 0.007), and cesarean section (OR = 5.78, 95% CI 1.60-20.91, p = 0.01). This nested case-control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results.

  8. Evaluation of an Educational Model Based on the Development of Sustainable Competencies in Basic Teacher Training in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vega-Marcote

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental deterioration of the planet, caused by unsustainable development and an unfair model, requires global change on a political, social and environmental level. To boost this change, it is necessary to redirect education and, specifically, environmental education, to educate citizens so that they are capable of making responsible decisions and behaving sustainably. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an educational teacher training model based on the development of sustainable competencies and on the solving of environmental problems. Its final aim is to search for a model that enables students to participate, individually and collectively, in the solution of socio-environmental problems in their surroundings, but without losing the global perspective, and that fosters sustainable life styles. To do so, a quasi-experimental quantitative research was performed with two pretest-posttest phases to compare the results of an active and participative methodology with another more expository one. The results show significant differences in the knowledge, attitudes and intention of the behavior of the aspiring teachers. Thus, this first analysis shows that the experiential educational model promotes and favors sustainable actions in higher education (the faculty of educational science, responsible for basic teacher training more efficiently and could be the basis for future proposals in this field.

  9. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Hydrology and Water Quality of the Rio Chama River, Northern New Mexico: Establishing a Base Line to Manage Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, L.; Crossey, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Chama is the largest stream tributary to the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico. The river's geographic location in a semiarid region results in high rates of evapotranspiration and highly variable streamflow. The Rio Chama is part of the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project, in which water from the San Juan River, southern Colorado, is diverted across the continental divide to the Rio Chama. Surface water moves through Abiquiu, El Vado and Heron Reservoirs to the Rio Grande to supply Albuquerque with potable drinking water. The results of these anthropogenic influences are a modified flow regime, less variability, greater base-flows, and smaller peak flows. We examined selected locations throughout the Rio Chama system to provide base-line water quality data for ongoing studies. This information will contribute to the development of the best plan to optimize flow releases and maximize benefits of the stakeholders and especially the riparian and stream ecosystems. We report results of two sampling trips representing extremes of the hydrograph in summer 2012 and fall 2012. We collected field parameters, processed water samples, and analyzed them for major anions and cations. The geochemistry enables us to better understand the impact of monthly releases of San Juan river water. We captured two points of the river's streamflow range, 54 cubic feet per second in October 2012 and 1,000 cubic feet per second in August 2012 and looked for variability within the results. We found that the reservoirs exhibit varying anion concentrations from samples taken at different depths. We compared stream waters and selected well samples at a stream transect. These samples allowed us to compare shallow ground water with the stream, and they indicated that the changes in ground water are attributed to sulfate reduction. The anion and cation inputs were most likely derived from gypsum, calcite, and salts, as there are many creeks discharging into the Rio Chama whose drainage

  11. Molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. from the endemic area of northern Iran based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Nabil; Halajian, Ali; Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-07-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola spp. (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered as the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. In the endemic regions of the North of Iran, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica have been previously characterized on the basis of morphometric differences, but the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species and intermediate forms. Samples from buffaloes and goats from different localities of northern Iran were identified morphologically and then genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of the ITS of the northern Iranian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank showed that the examined specimens had sequences identical to those of the most frequent haplotypes of F. hepatica (n=25, 48.1%) and F. gigantica (n=20, 38.45%), which differed from each other in different variable nucleotide positions of ITS region sequences, and their intermediate forms (n=7, 13.45%), which had nucleotides overlapped between the two Fasciola species in all the positions. The ITS sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in buffaloes and goats had experienced introgression/hybridization as previously reported in isolates from other ruminants and humans. Based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, flukes are scattered in pure F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate Fasciola clades, revealing that multiple genotypes of Fasciola are able to infect goats and buffaloes in North of Iran. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees based upon the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Iranian samples with isolates of F. hepatica and F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. In the present study, the intergenic transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 showed to be reliable approaches for the genetic

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Northern Tanzania: A Community-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Stanifer

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are a leading cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa, and chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing public health threat. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with NCDs is vital to informing optimal policy and public health responses in the region, but few community-based assessments have been performed for CKD. To address this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults in northern Tanzania using a validated instrument.Between January and June 2014, we administered a structured survey to a random sample of adults from urban and rural communities. The validated instrument consisted of 25 items designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with kidney disease. Participants were also screened for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and human immunodeficiency virus.We enrolled 606 participants from 431 urban and rural households. Knowledge of the etiologies, symptoms, and treatments for kidney disease was low (mean score 3.28 out of 10; 95% CI 2.94, 3.63. There were no significant differences by CKD status. Living in an urban setting and level of education had the strongest independent associations with knowledge score. Attitudes were characterized by frequent concern about the health (27.3%; 20.2, 36.0%, economic (73.1%; 68.2, 77.5%, and social impact (25.4%; 18.6, 33.6% of kidney disease. Practices included the use of traditional healers (15.2%; 9.1, 24.5% and traditional medicines (33.8%; 25.0, 43.9% for treatment of kidney disease as well as a willingness to engage with mobile-phone technology in CKD care (94.3%; 90.1, 96.8%.Community-based adults in northern Tanzania have limited knowledge of kidney disease. However, there is a modest knowledge base upon which to build public health programs to expand awareness and understanding of CKD, but these programs must also consider the variety of means by which adults in this population meet their healthcare needs

  13. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  14. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  15. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  16. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  17. Application of New MODIS-Based Aerosol Index for Air Pollution Severity Assessment and Mapping in Upper Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chat Phayungwiwatthanakoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports capability of a newly-proposed index called the aerosol prediction index (API in the determination and mapping of near-ground PM10 concentrations (at spatial resolution of 500 x 500 m during the 2009 and 2010 burning seasons in upper northern Thailand. API is a normalized index defined based on the difference in the observed reflectance data at two spectral bands of the MODIS instrument aboard NASA�s Terra satellite; Band 3 (blue and Band 7 (mid-infrared. Initial analysis suggested that API had strong correlation with the corresponding MODIS-AOD and AERONET-AOD with coefficient of determination (R2 about 0.62 in both cases, and also with the reference PM10 data with R2 of 0.66. In terms of predictive performance, it exhibited low bias at low PM10 condition and achieved impressive prediction accuracy with relative error of 10.78 %. The near-ground PM10 concentration map yielded from the proposed index was proved very useful in the comprehensive assessment of aerosol pollution situation over entire area at fine spatial detail. This task could not be fulfilled from sole use of the ground-based measured data or standard MODIS-AOD product. These findings indicate that API should be a promising tool for the regular monitoring of air pollution severity over the concerned area.

  18. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  19. Targeting the poorest in a performance-based financing programme in northern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); Ziebe, R. (Roland); Vagaï, D. (Djebba); Van De Looij, F. (Frank); Van 'T Riet, H. (Hilda); A.J. Houweling (Tanja)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPerformance-Based Financing (PBF) is a promising approach to improve health system performance in developing countries, but there are concerns that it may inadequately address inequalities in access to care. Incentives for reaching the poor may prove beneficial, but evidence remains

  20. The effects of lithology and base level on topography in the northern alpine foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Sebastian; Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Salcher, Bernhard; Keil, Melanie

    2018-07-01

    The evolution of topography is driven by climate and tectonics, and strongly influenced by substrate properties and different base levels. The contributions of these factors may vary in space and time and are thus difficult to disentangle. Our study area, the Hausruck-Kobernaußerwald range, has a rather uniform climatic and tectonic history but is drained by rivers with different base levels and consists of contrasting sedimentary rocks, mainly due to different sedimentation environments. This makes them an ideal location to study the effects of lithology and base level on topography. To decipher the roles of these influences, we used a high-resolution digital elevation model and performed a series of morphometric analyses. Longitudinal river profiles indicate that all channels in the study area, independent from base level, bed rock and overall morphological expression, are well graded. Hypsometry shows no evidence for base level effects on the present topography, while variations in the hypsometric curves coincide with lithological differences. This is also reflected in contrasts of mean elevation and slope distributions. Lithology-dependent variations in channel concavity and catchment-wide hypsometric integrals show that lithology controls both channel incision and hillslope processes in the study area. Our results further indicate that variations in channel and catchment metrics are not linked to the prevalence of different rock types alone, but to different successions of lithological units along the channels and within the catchments. Variations in channel slope and geomorphological mapping suggest that lithology-dependent landsliding is the dominant process causing the observed large-scale landscape diversity in the Hausruck-Kobernaußerwald range.

  1. Spatiotemporal climatic, hydrological, and environmental variations based on records of annually laminated lake sediments from northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylmann, W.; Blanke, L.; Kinder, M.; Loewe, T.; Mayr, C.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2009-12-01

    In northern Poland there is the unique opportunity to compare varved lake sediment records with distinct climatic trends along a 700 km long W-E transect. Annually laminated Holocene sediment sequences from Lake Lubinskie, Lake Suminko, Lake Lazduny, and Lake Szurpily were cored for high-resolution multiproxy climate and environmental reconstruction in the framework of the Polish-German project “Northern Polish Lake Research” (NORPOLAR). First results from a 139 cm long gravity core of Lake Lazduny (53°51.4’N, 21°57.3’E) document deposition of an organic (mean organic matter: 13.9%; mean biogenic opal: 9.8%) and highly carbonaceous gyttja (mean calcite content: 61.6%). The finely laminated sediment consists of biochemical varves. Pale spring/summer layers composed of autochthonous carbonates alternate with dark fall/winter layers made of organic and minerogenic detritus. The established chronology for the last 1500 calendar-years is based on thin section analysis supported by independent radiometric dating (C-14, Pb-210). Sedimentological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses were carried out with a decadal temporal resolution. Additionally, non-destructive and high-resolution XRF scanning data reveal a rhythmic variation in the Ca content that reflects seasonal calcite deposition. Redox-sensitive elements like Fe, Mn and S are interpreted to be the response to mean winter temperatures: colder winter temperatures → extended lake ice cover → intensification of meromixis → increased Fe/Mn ratio. In turn, these parameters can be linked to NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) variability, because a negative NAO is related to colder and drier conditions in northeastern Europe. Climate variability is also mirrored by the δ13C record of the endogenic calcite fraction. In mid-latitude lakes calcite precipitation is dominated by productivity-controlled consumption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool. Thus the δ13C record potentially provides a

  2. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinehall Lars

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP, which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992–2005. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. Results The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (± 1,77 MJ among women and 8,71 (± 2,26 MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level. Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". Conclusion More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of

  3. Loco or no loco? Holocene climatic fluctuations, human demography and community base management of coastal resources in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero M.; Gayo, Eugenia M.; Carter, Chris; Standen, Vivien G.; Castro, Victoria; Valenzuela, Daniela; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Marquet, Pablo A.; Latorre, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of the southern Pacific mollusk loco (Concholepas concholepas), among other conspicuous marine supplies, are often cited as critical resources behind the long-term cultural and demographic fluctuations of prehistoric hunter-gatherers at the coastal Atacama Desert. These societies inhabited one of the world’s most productive marine environments flanked by one the world’s driest deserts. Both of these environments have witnessed significant ecological variation since people first colonized them at the end of the Pleistocene (c. 13,000 cal yr BP). Here, we examine the relationship between the relative abundance of shellfish (a staple resource) along a 9,500-year sequence of archaeological shell midden accumulations at Caleta (a small inlet or cove) Vitor, with past demographic trends (established via summed probability distributions of radiocarbon ages) and technological innovations together with paleoceanographic data on past primary productivity. We find that shellfish extraction varied considerably from one cultural period to the next in terms of the number of species and their abundance, with diversity increasing during periods of regionally decreased productivity. Such shifts in consumption patterns are considered community based management decisions, and for the most part they were synchronous with large and unusual regional demographic fluctuations experienced by prehistoric coastal societies in northern Chile. When taken together with their technological innovations, our data illustrates how these human groups tailored their socio-cultural patterns to what were often abrupt and prolonged environmental changes throughout the Holocene.

  4. Loco or no Loco? Holocene Climatic Fluctuations, Human Demography, and Community Based Management of Coastal Resources in Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero M. Santoro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of the southern Pacific mollusk loco (Concholepas concholepas, among other conspicuous marine supplies, are often cited as critical resources behind the long-term cultural and demographic fluctuations of prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the coastal Atacama Desert. These societies inhabited one of the world's most productive marine environments flanked by one the world's driest deserts. Both of these environments have witnessed significant ecological variation since people first colonized them at the end of the Pleistocene (c. 13,000 cal yr BP. Here, we examine the relationship between the relative abundance of shellfish (a staple resource along a 9,500-year sequence of archeological shell midden accumulations at Caleta (a small inlet or cove Vitor, with past demographic trends (established via summed probability distributions of radiocarbon ages and technological innovations together with paleoceanographic data on past primary productivity. We find that shellfish extraction varied considerably from one cultural period to the next in terms of the number of species and their abundance, with diversity increasing during periods of regionally decreased productivity. Such shifts in consumption patterns are considered community based management decisions, and for the most part they were synchronous with large and unusual regional demographic fluctuations experienced by prehistoric coastal societies in northern Chile. When taken together with their technological innovations, our data illustrates how these human groups tailored their socio-cultural patterns to what were often abrupt and prolonged environmental changes throughout the Holocene.

  5. Examining Social Adaptations in a Volatile Landscape in Northern Mongolia via the Agent-Based Model Ger Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Clark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment of the mountain-steppe-taiga of northern Mongolia is often characterized as marginal because of the high altitude, highly variable precipitation levels, low winter temperatures, and periodic droughts coupled with severe winter storms (known as dzuds. Despite these conditions, herders have inhabited this landscape for thousands of years, and hunter-gatherer-fishers before that. One way in which the risks associated with such a challenging and variable landscape are mitigated is through social networks and inter-family cooperation. We present an agent-based simulation, Ger Grouper, to examine how households have mitigated these risks through cooperation. The Ger Grouper simulation takes into account locational decisions of households, looks at fission/fusion dynamics of households and how those relate to environmental pressures, and assesses how degrees of relatedness can influence sharing of resources during harsh winters. This model, coupled with the traditional archaeological and ethnographic methods, helps shed light on the links between early Mongolian pastoralist adaptations and the environment. While preliminary results are promising, it is hoped that further development of this model will be able to characterize changing land-use patterns as social and political networks developed.

  6. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  7. The development of peer educator-based harm reduction programmes in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nick; Gibbie, Tania M; Higgs, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Injecting drug use remains an important risk factor for transmission in Vietnam, with an estimated 50% of the 290 000 people living with HIV/AIDS reporting injecting drug use as a risk factor. Despite this, effective harm reduction interventions are generally lacking. This paper describes the implementation of peer-based harm reduction programmes in two rural provinces of Vietnam. Peer educators were trained in basic HIV prevention, including harm reduction. After significant preparation work with the Provincial AIDS Committees of Bac Giang and Thanh Hoa and other relevant national, provincial and local authorities, the interventions were commenced. Harm reduction interventions were delivered through outreach as well as on-site. This included needle and syringe distribution and collection. Community advocacy occurred throughout the life of the project. Local authorities and peers believed that while there was a general reduction in stigma and discrimination, legal barriers associated particularly with the carrying of injecting equipment remained. This impacted upon the ability of peer educators to work with their clients. Peer-based delivery of harm reduction intervention is acceptable. Harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programmes, are feasible and acceptable in these two rural Vietnamese provinces. Community acceptance and uptake of these interventions is key to successful expansion across the region. Active participation by families of drug users seems crucial. This initiative demonstrates that despite a difficult policy environment, peer-delivered needle and syringe programmes are feasible within a rural Asian environment as long as there is adequate local political and community support.

  8. “Enlightened Policy” in Eighteenth Century Spain: а Russian Eye-witness - Diplomat Stepan Zinoviev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vilenovna Volosyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the process of the establishment of Russian-Spanish relations in the 18th century and the role of one of the most distinguished Russian diplomats at the court of Catherine II Stepan Zinoviev who spent amost 20 years in Madrid (1772-1794. The study is based largely on manuscripts (diplomatic and other correspondence from the Archives of External Policy of the Russian Empire in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and fills a gap in the research of Russian foreign policy of the 18th century and the Russian-Spanish relations. Catherine’s foreign interests were focused toward the major states of Northern Europe, but she also tried to strengthen the position of the Russian Empire in Europe, to embed the country in the European 'Balance of Power' by establishing diplomatic relations with all European countries. In this sense, the Iberian Peninsula was not wholly without significance for Russia. The political unions of Russia with the outlying countries, as Spain, depended not only on the international situation in Europe in the second half of the 18th century but on the image of the country that was created by Russians who visited Spain at that time. The position of diplomats was particularly important - they were almost the only ones, except for merchants and sailors, who visited that country and it is on the basis of their reports that Russia's foreign policy in relation to Spain was built in the 18th century. Based on the reports of Zinoviev we can reconstruct the images of such important political figures as the King Charles III, Secretary of State Count of Floridablanca and the other ministers of the Spanish government. The biography of the outstanding Russian diplomat - Stepan Zinoviev is presented in this article for the first time.

  9. Impact Assessment and Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Alternative Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies Based on Treated Wastewater in Northern Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine and quantify a wide range of criteria from the environment and society. This necessity leads to an integrated concept and analysis. This paper outlines an integrated approach considering environmental, health, social and economic aspects to support in the decision-making process to implement a managed aquifer recharge project as a potential response to water resource problems. In order to demonstrate the approach in detail, this paper analysed several water resources management strategies based on MAR implementation, by using treated wastewater in the Northern Gaza Strip and the potential impacts of the strategies on groundwater resources, agriculture, environment, health, economy and society. Based on the Palestinian water policy (Year 2005–2025 on wastewater reuse, three MAR strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local decision makers. The strategies were compared with a base line strategy referred to as the so-called “Do Nothing Approach”. The results of the study show that MAR project implementation with treated wastewater at a maximum rate, considered together with sustainable development of groundwater, is the best and most robust strategy amongst those analyzed. The analysis shows the defined MAR strategies contribute to water resources development and environmental protection or improvement including an existing eutrophic lake. The integrated approach used in this paper may be applicable not only to MAR project implementation but also to other water resources and environmental development projects.

  10. Web-Based Learning for Cultural Heritage: First Experienced with Students of the Private University of Technology in Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Y.-N.; Wu, Y.-W.; Weng, K.-H.

    2013-07-01

    E-learning assisted teaching and learning is the trend of the 21st century and has many advantages - freedom from the constraints of time and space, hypertext and multimedia rich resources - enhancing the interaction between students and the teaching materials. The purpose of this study is to explore how rich Internet resources assisted students with the Western Architectural History course. First, we explored the Internet resources which could assist teaching and learning activities. Second, according to course objectives, we built a web-based platform which integrated the Google spreadsheets form, SIMILE widget, Wikipedia and the Google Maps and applied it to the course of Western Architectural History. Finally, action research was applied to understanding the effectiveness of this teaching/learning mode. Participants were the students of the Department of Architecture in the Private University of Technology in northern Taiwan. Results showed that students were willing to use the web-based platform to assist their learning. They found this platform to be useful in understanding the relationship between different periods of buildings. Through the view of the map mode, this platform also helped students expand their international perspective. However, we found that the information shared by students via the Internet were not completely correct. One possible reason was that students could easily acquire information on Internet but they could not determine the correctness of the information. To conclude, this study found some useful and rich resources that could be well-integrated, from which we built a web-based platform to collect information and present this information in diverse modes to stimulate students' learning motivation. We recommend that future studies should consider hiring teaching assistants in order to ease the burden on teachers, and to assist in the maintenance of information quality.

  11. Prevalence of disability in a composite ≥75 year-old population in Spain: A screening survey based on the International Classification of Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascon-Bayarri Jordi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability of elderly people have been studied in several European countries including Spain. However, there has been no population-based study incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF framework as the basis for assessing disability. The present study reports prevalence rates for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability by the domains of activities and participation of the ICF. Methods Nine populations surveyed in previous prevalence studies contributed probabilistic and geographically defined samples in June 2005. The study sample was composed of 503 subjects aged ≥75 years. We implemented a two-phase screening design using the MMSE and the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2nd edition (WHO-DAS II, 12 items as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Participants scoring within the positive range of the disability screening were administered the full WHO-DAS II (36 items; score range: 0-100 assessing the following areas: Understanding and communication, Getting along with people, Life activities, Getting around, Participation in society, and Self-care. Each disability area assessed by WHO-DAS II (36 items was reported according to the ICF severity ranges (No problem, 0-4; Mild disability, 5-24; Moderate disability, 25-49; Severe/Extreme disability, 50-100. Results The age-adjusted disability prevalence figures were: 39.17 ± 2.18%, 15.31 ± 1.61%, and 10.14 ± 1.35% for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability, respectively. Severe and extreme disability prevalence in mobility and life activities was three times higher than the average, and highest among women. Sex variations were minimal, although life activities for women of 85 years and over had more severe/extreme disability as compared to men (OR = 5.15 95% CI 3.19-8.32. Conclusions Disability is highly prevalent among

  12. BAPA Database: Linking landslide occurrence with rainfall in Asturias (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Asturias is a region in northern Spain with a temperate and humid climate. In this region, slope instability processes are very common and often cause economic losses and, sometimes, human victims. To prevent the geological risk involved, it is of great interest to predict landslide spatial and temporal occurrence. Some previous investigations have shown the importance of rainfall as a trigger factor. Despite the high incidence of these phenomena in Asturias, there are no databases of recent and actual landslides. The BAPA Project (Base de Datos de Argayos del Principado de Asturias - Principality of Asturias Landslide Database) aims to create an inventory of slope instabilities which have occurred between 1980 and 2015. The final goal is to study in detail the relationship between rainfall and slope instabilities in Asturias, establishing precipitation thresholds and soil moisture conditions necessary to instability triggering. This work presents the database progress showing its structure divided into various fields that essentially contain information related to spatial, temporal, geomorphological and damage data.

  13. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  14. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  15. The Impacts of Thawing Permafrost and Climate Change on USAF Infrastructure Within Northern Tier Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboski, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is planning over $600M in military construction on Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) within the next three fiscal years. Although many studies have been conducted on permafrost and climate change, the future of our climate as well as any impacts on arctic infrastructure, remains unclear. This research focused on future climate predictions to determine likely scenarios for the United States Air Force's Strategic Planners to consider. This research also looked at various construction methods being used by industry to glean best practices to incorporate into future construction in order to determine cost factors to consider when permafrost soils may be encountered. The most recent 2013 International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report predicts a 2.2ºC to 7.8ºC temperature rise in Arctic regions by the end of the 21st Century in the Representative Concentration Pathways, (RCP4.5) emissions scenario. A regression model was created using archived surface observations from 1944 to 2016. Initial analysis using regression/forecast techniques show a 1.17ºC temperature increase in the Arctic by the end of the 21st Century. Historical DoD construction data was then used to determine an appropriate cost factor. Applying statistical tests to the adjusted climate predictions supports continued usage of current DoD cost factors of 2.13 at Eielson and 2.97 at Thule AFBs as they should be sufficient when planning future construction projects in permafrost rich areas. These cost factors should allow planners the necessary funds to plan foundation mitigation techniques and prevent further degradation of permafrost soils around airbase infrastructure. This current research focused on Central Alaska while further research is recommended on the Alaskan North Slope and Greenland to determine climate change impacts on critical DoD infrastructure.

  16. Towards Automated Ecosystem-based Management: A case study of Northern Gulf of Mexico Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Allee, R.; Gould, R.; Ko, D.

    2012-12-01

    The vast and dynamic nature of large systems limit the feasibility of the frequent in situ sampling needed to establish a robust long-term database. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative to in situ sampling and is possibly the best solution to address the data collection needs at a regional scale. In this context, we have used an unsupervised machine learning (ML) technique, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to objectively provide a classification of the US Gulf of Mexico water using a suite of ocean data products. The input data that we used in this study were the sea surface temperature, the surface chlorophyll concentration, the sea surface salinity, the euphotic depth and the temperature difference between the sea surface and the sea floor. The SOM method uses the multivariate signature of the data records to classify the data into a specified number of classes. The output of the analysis is essentially a comprehensive two-dimensional map of the Gulf of Mexico. We analyzed the individual SOM classes over a five-year period from 2005 to 2009. We then used the machine learning results to established a correspondence between the SOM classification and the completely independent Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), which accommodates the physical, biological, and chemical information to collectively characterize marine and coastal ecosystems. The CMECS water column component information is then fused with fish count data from the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) to produce an interactive map. The results can be used in providing online decision-support system, and tools for Ecosystem-based management.Figures shows the fish count distribution with respect to the SOM classes. The fish preference can be inferred from the plot. This information can be used to construct an online decision-support system for conservation as well as commercial purposes.

  17. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  18. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Sediments of Anzali International Wetland, Northern Iran Based on Type Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ganjali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important factors and problems threatening the Anzali Wetland are the contaminant load and sediments entering the wetland, as well as lack of an integrated management plan for this wetland. The main objectives of the current research were to explore whether there are significant differences in concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Pb in surface sediments among different sites (based on type region development of the Anzali Wetland, Northern Iran. Methods: Through a field study, samples were collected from 10 stations based on the type of regional development and contaminant source inputs of Anzali Wetland in 2015. Using a hot-block digester, the sediment samples were digested with a 4:1 combination of nitric acid (HNO3 and perchloric acid (HCLO4 for one hour at 40 °C, followed by 3 h at 140 °C. Afterwards, samples were filtered with Whatman 42, filter paper and the filtrate was kept in polyethylene containers at 4 °C, until analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results: Mean ± SD levels of metals in the sediments of different stations were 26.7 ± 3.49 (lead, 4.36 ± 0.47 (cadmium, and 88.44 ± 10.06 (zinc μg g-1 dw. There was a significant difference between the stations of the wetland (P < 0.05. This difference could be due to the variations in the input of contaminant sources into the Anzali Wetland. Conclusions: The areas, affected by urban and industrial developments, had the highest level of contamination while the agricultural and less-developed areas had the lowest level of contamination, and therefore, protective plans must be implemented in developed areas in order to lower the level of heavy metals.

  19. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L M; Winkvist, A; Eliasson, M; Jansson, J-H; Hallmans, G; Johansson, I; Lindahl, B; Lenner, P; Van Guelpen, B

    2012-06-01

    Long-term effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets are unclear. We examined a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to mortality. This is a population-based cohort study on adults in the northern Swedish county of Västerbotten. In 37,639 men (1460 deaths) and 39,680 women (923 deaths) from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program, deciles of energy-adjusted carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake were added to create an LCHP score (2-20 points). Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox regression. Median intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat in subjects with LCHP scores 2-20 ranged from 61.0% to 38.6%, 11.3% to 19.2% and 26.6% to 41.5% of total energy intake, respectively. High LCHP score (14-20 points) did not predict all-cause mortality compared with low LCHP score (2-8 points), after accounting for saturated fat intake and established risk factors (men: HR for high vs low 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.20), P for continuous = 0.721; women: HR for high vs low 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.32), P for continuous = 0.229). For cancer and cardiovascular disease, no clear associations were found. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, though only statistically significant in women (multivariate HR per decile increase 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), P = 0.010). Our results do not support a clear, general association between LCHP score and mortality. Studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient consumption may be necessary to detect such an association.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis in Perilla frutescens from Northern areas of China based on simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S J; Sa, K J; Hong, T K; Lee, J K

    2017-09-21

    In this study, 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure among 77 Perilla accessions from high-latitude and middle-latitude areas of China. Ninety-five alleles were identified with an average of 4.52 alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) and genetic diversity values were 0.346 and 0.372, respectively. The level of genetic diversity and PIC value for cultivated accessions of Perilla frutescens var. frutescens from middle-latitude areas were higher than accessions from high-latitude areas. Based on the dendrogram of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), all accessions were classified into four major groups with a genetic similarity of 46%. All accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens were discriminated from the cultivated P. frutescens var. crispa. Furthermore, most accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens collected in high-latitude and middle-latitude areas were distinguished depending on their geographical location. However, the geographical locations of several accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens have no relation with their positions in the UPGMA dendrogram and population structure. This result implies that the diffusion of accessions of the cultivated Perilla crop in the northern areas of China might be through multiple routes. On the population structure analysis, 77 Perilla accessions were divided into Group I, Group II, and an admixed group based on a membership probability threshold of 0.8. Finally, the findings in this study can provide useful theoretical knowledge for further study on the population structure and genetic diversity of Perilla and benefit for Perilla crop breeding and germplasm conservation.

  1. Molybdenum-based diazotrophy in a Sphagnum peatland in northern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Melissa J; Lin, Xueju; Gaby, John C; Kretz, Cecilia B; Kolton, Max; Morton, Peter L; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weston, David J; Schadt, Christopher W; Kostka, Joel E; Glass, Jennifer B

    2017-06-30

    nutrient availability in limiting diazotrophy, and that members of the Alphaproteobacteria ( Rhizobiales ) catalyze this process at the bog surface using the molybdenum-based form of the nitrogenase enzyme. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Transfer of newborns to neonatal care unit: a registry based study in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibiki Gibson S

    2011-10-01

    for babies of non-educated fathers and a high transfer rate for first born babies, there were no signs that transfer was based on non-medical indications.

  3. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    unknown at present. Many of the dynamite shot records also show reflections from deeper in the crust. The preliminary stacked sections based on the Vibsist data show reflections down to depths of at least 5 km, some of which have been tentatively interpreted to originate at the contacts between basalts and felsic metavolcanics. In the further data analysis, special focus is given to the processing of reflections from steeply dipping structures and to the integration of the low-fold dynamite and high-fold Vibsist data.

  4. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  6. Henoch-Schönlein Purpura in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Loricera, Javier; Mata, Cristina; Martín, Luis; Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; Alvarez, Lino; González-Vela, M. Carmen; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Rueda-Gotor, Javier; Fernández-Llaca, Héctor; González-López, Marcos A.; Armesto, Susana; Peiró, Enriqueta; Arias, Manuel; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Blanco, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The severity of clinical features and the outcomes in previous series of patients reported with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) vary greatly, probably due to selection bias. To establish the actual clinical spectrum of HSP in all age groups using an unselected and wide series of patients diagnosed at a single center, we performed a retrospective review of 417 patients classified as having HSP according to the criteria proposed by Michel et al. Of 417 patients, 240 were male and 177 female, with a median age at the time of disease diagnosis of 7.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 5.3–20.1 yr). Three-quarters of the patients were children or young people aged 20 years or younger (n = 315), and one-quarter were adults (n = 102). The most frequent precipitating events were a previous infection (38%), usually an upper respiratory tract infection, and/or drug intake (18.5%) shortly before the onset of the vasculitis. At disease onset the most common manifestations were skin lesions (55.9%), nephropathy (24%), gastrointestinal involvement (13.7%), joint symptoms (9.1%), and fever (6.2%). Cutaneous involvement occurring in all patients, mainly purpuric skin lesion, was the most common manifestation when the vasculitis was fully established, followed by gastrointestinal (64.5%), joint (63.1%), and renal involvement (41.2%). The main laboratory findings were leukocytosis (36.7%), anemia (8.9%), and increased serum IgA levels (31.7%). The most frequent therapies used were corticosteroids (35%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (14%), and cytotoxic agents (5%). After a median follow-up of 12 months (IQR, 2–38 mo), complete recovery was observed in most cases (n = 346; 83.2%), while persistent, usually mild, nephropathy was observed in only 32 (7.7%) cases. Relapses were observed in almost a third of patients (n = 133; 31.9%). In conclusion, although HSP is a typical vasculitis affecting children and young people, it is not uncommon in adults. The prognosis is favorable in most cases, depending largely on renal involvement. PMID:24646467

  7. Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98) : a report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuxart, J.; Yague, C.; Morales, G.; Terradelles, E.; Orbe, J.; Calvo, J.; Vilu-Guerau, de J.; Soler, M.R.; Infante, C.; Buenestado, P.; Espinalt, A.; Jorgensem, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98), which took place over the northern Spanish plateau comprising relatively flat grassland, in September 1998. The main objectives of the campaign were to study the properties of the mid-latitude stable boundary

  8. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  10. The implementation of unit-based perinatal mortality audit in perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Diem Mariet Th

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal (mortality audit can be considered to be a way to improve the careprocess for all pregnant women and their newborns by creating an opportunity to learn from unwanted events in the care process. In unit-based perinatal audit, the caregivers involved in cases that result in mortality are usually part of the audit group. This makes such an audit a delicate matter. Methods The purpose of this study was to implement unit-based perinatal mortality audit in all 15 perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands between September 2007 and March 2010. These units consist of hospital-based and independent community-based perinatal caregivers. The implementation strategy encompassed an information plan, an organization plan, and a training plan. The main outcomes are the number of participating perinatal cooperation units at the end of the project, the identified substandard factors (SSF, the actions to improve care, and the opinions of the participants. Results The perinatal mortality audit was implemented in all 15 perinatal cooperation units. 677 different caregivers analyzed 112 cases of perinatal mortality and identified 163 substandard factors. In 31% of cases the guidelines were not followed and in 23% care was not according to normal practice. In 28% of cases, the documentation was not in order, while in 13% of cases the communication between caregivers was insufficient. 442 actions to improve care were reported for ‘external cooperation’ (15%, ‘internal cooperation’ (17%, ‘practice organization’ (26%, ‘training and education’ (10%, and ‘medical performance’ (27%. Valued aspects of the audit meetings were: the multidisciplinary character (13%, the collective and non-judgmental search for substandard factors (21%, the perception of safety (13%, the motivation to reflect on one’s own professional performance (5%, and the inherent postgraduate education (10%. Conclusion

  11. Water use practices limit the effectiveness of a temephos-based Aedes aegypti larval control program in Northern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M Garelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A five-year citywide control program based on regular application of temephos significantly reduced Aedes aegypti larval indices but failed to maintain them below target levels in Clorinda, northern Argentina. Incomplete surveillance coverage and reduced residuality of temephos were held as the main putative causes limiting effectiveness of control actions.The duration of temephos residual effects in household-owned water-holding tanks (the most productive container type and main target for control was estimated prospectively in two trials. Temephos was applied using spoons or inside perforated small zip-lock bags. Water samples from the study tanks (including positive and negative controls were collected weekly and subjected to larval mortality bioassays. Water turnover was estimated quantitatively by adding sodium chloride to the study tanks and measuring its dilution 48 hs later.The median duration of residual effects of temephos applied using spoons (2.4 weeks was significantly lower than with zip-lock bags (3.4 weeks, and widely heterogeneous between tanks. Generalized estimating equations models showed that bioassay larval mortality was strongly affected by water type and type of temephos application depending on water type. Water type and water turnover were highly significantly associated. Tanks filled with piped water had high turnover rates and short-lasting residual effects, whereas tanks filled with rain water showed the opposite pattern. On average, larval infestations reappeared nine weeks post-treatment and seven weeks after estimated loss of residuality.Temephos residuality in the field was much shorter and more variable than expected. The main factor limiting temephos residuality was fast water turnover, caused by householders' practice of refilling tanks overnight to counteract the intermittence of the local water supply. Limited field residuality of temephos accounts in part for the inability of the larval control program to

  12. Epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in Northern Italy: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Manenti, Lucio; Tumiati, Bruno; Cavazza, Alberto; Luberto, Ferdinando; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) over a 15-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident GPA diagnosed from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2009 living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified by looking at computerized hospital discharge diagnoses, by contacting Reggio Emilia Hospital physicians and community-based specialists, and by checking the databases of the pathology and the laboratory departments and the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were classified according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) algorithm. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or December 31, 2011. For each case, we identified 20 control subjects from the same geographic area matched for age and gender. A total of 18 patients (7 men and 11 women) with GPA were identified. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate (IR) was 2.4 per million (95% CI: 1.2-3.5). The mean annual IR increased from 1.7/million/year during 1995-1999 to 3.4 during 2005-2009. The highest IR occurred in females aged 70-79 years (13.5 per million; 95% CI: 5.0-30.0) and in males aged ≥ 80 years (14.9 per million; 95% CI: 2.5-49.4). The prevalence of GPA on December 31, 2009 was 34.3 per million (95% CI: 20.3-54.2). The point prevalence per million increased from 17.8 (95% CI: 7.7-35.1) in 1999 to 34.3 (95% CI: 20.3-54.2) in 2009. Survival among individuals with GPA was significantly reduced compared to that observed in the matched control population (p < 0.001). In the Italian population, GPA is very uncommon and GPA patients have reduced survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A three-component hydrograph separation based on geochemical tracers in a tropical mountainous headwater catchment in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Ingwersen, J.; Sangchan, W.; Sukvanachaikul, Y.; Duffner, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Streck, T.

    2014-01-01

    Land-use change in the mountainous parts of northern Thailand is reflected by an increased application of agrochemicals, which may be lost to surface and groundwater. The close relation between flow paths and contaminant transport within hydrological systems requires recognizing and understanding

  14. The Impact of the School-Based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) Program on Conflict-Affected Children in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention…

  15. The Effect of School-Based Practice on Student Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Jackie; Bones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to discover the attitudes to inclusion of those about to embark on initial teacher education in Northern Ireland and the extent to which an extended teaching practice in a non-selective placement school can influence attitude change. A cohort of 125 student teachers responded to a survey that explored their attitudes towards a…

  16. Impact of the economic crisis on the health of older persons in Spain: research clues based on an analysis of mortality. SESPAS report 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Llácer, Alicia; Béland, Francois

    2014-06-01

    Older adults are seldom considered in studies on the health impact of economic recessions or crises. However, they constitute a population group that is highly vulnerable to decreases in investment in health and social services and social security. Our aim is to examine the relationship between the economic crisis starting in 2008 and the health status of older adults in Spain. More specifically, we analyze changes in trends of mortality in relation to the crisis, the specific impact of winter on mortality and gender differences in the crisis' impact on mortality. Using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Spain on people over 60 years of age, the number of monthly deaths by age and sex from January 2005 to December 2012 was analyzed. Interrupted time series analyses and the "difference in differences" method were used. During the crisis, for adults 60 years and older: 1) the observed mortality seems to be decreasing at a slower rate than what would have been expected in the absence of the crisis; 2) there has been an increase in winter mortality; 3) the impact of the crisis has been greater for female than for male mortality. These results suggest sizable effects of the economic crisis on the mortality of older adults and argue for research done using more detailed analyses integrating economic indicators. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of the economic crisis on the health of older persons in Spain: research clues based on an analysis of mortality. SESPAS report 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Benmarhnia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults are seldom considered in studies on the health impact of economic recessions or crises. However, they constitute a population group that is highly vulnerable to decreases in investment in health and social services and social security. Our aim is to examine the relationship between the economic crisis starting in 2008 and the health status of older adults in Spain. More specifically, we analyze changes in trends of mortality in relation to the crisis, the specific impact of winter on mortality and gender differences in the crisis’ impact on mortality. Using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Spain on people over 60 years of age, the number of monthly deaths by age and sex from January 2005 to December 2012 was analyzed. Interrupted time series analyses and the “difference in differences” method were used. During the crisis, for adults 60 years and older: 1 the observed mortality seems to be decreasing at a slower rate than what would have been expected in the absence of the crisis; 2 there has been an increase in winter mortality; 3 the impact of the crisis has been greater for female than for male mortality. These results suggest sizable effects of the economic crisis on the mortality of older adults and argue for research done using more detailed analyses integrating economic indicators.

  18. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  19. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few decades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often essential for producing range wide maps. Habitat monitoring for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), whose geographic covers about 23 million ha, is based on SDMs that use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to create forest vegetation data layers using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) methods. Vegetation data layers derived from GNN are modeled relationships between forest inventory plot data, climate and topographic data, and the spectral signatures acquired by the satellite. When used as predictor variables for SDMs, there is some transference of the GNN modeling error to the final habitat map.Recent increases in the use of light detection and ranging (lidar) data, coupled with the need to produce spatially accurate and detailed forest vegetation maps have spurred interest in its use for SDMs and habitat mapping. Instead of modeling predictor variables from remotely sensed spectral data, lidar provides direct measurements of vegetation height for use in SDMs. We expect a SDM habitat map produced from directly measured predictor variables to be more accurate than one produced from modeled predictors.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) SDM modeling software to compare predictive performance and estimates of habitat area between Landsat-based and lidar-based northern spotted owl SDMs and habitat maps. We explored the differences and similarities between these maps, and to a pre-existing aerial photo-interpreted habitat map produced by local wildlife biologists. The lidar-based map had the highest predictive performance based on 10 bootstrapped replicate models (AUC = 0.809 ± 0.011), but the

  20. Courses and syllabus: the situation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo, E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation covering radioactive and nuclear installations classifies workers operating such installations as operators or supervisors. Operators are persons who, working directly under a supervisor, handle the installation operational equipment and which have a bearing on nuclear safety or protection against radiation. Supervisors are persons directing the operations of a radioactive or nuclear installation and operator activities. The study deals with the courses given in Spain which qualify operators and supervisors in industrial radioactive installations as permit holders, as well as the courses currently being run for persons engaged in the transport of radioactive materials. Spain regulations covering transport of dangerous goods are based on separate Royal Decrees dealing with road and air transport respectively

  1. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  2. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  3. Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community Based Responses and Challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the following book: Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community based responses and challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, Bremen 2012

  4. Model-based scenario planning to inform climate change adaptation in the Northern Great Plains—Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Miller, Brian W.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Ray, Andrea J.; Rowland, Erika; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-12-18

    Public SummaryWe worked with managers in two focal areas to plan for the uncertain future by integrating quantitative climate change scenarios and simulation modeling into scenario planning exercises.In our central North Dakota focal area, centered on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site, managers are concerned about how changes in flood severity and growing conditions for native and invasive plants may affect archaeological resources and cultural landscapes associated with the Knife and Missouri Rivers. Climate projections and hydrological modeling based on those projections indicate plausible changes in spring and summer soil moisture ranging from a 7 percent decrease to a 13 percent increase and maximum winter snowpack (important for spring flooding) changes ranging from a 13 percent decrease to a 47 percent increase. Facilitated discussions among managers and scientists exploring the implications of these different climate scenarios for resource management revealed potential conflicts between protecting archeological sites and fostering riparian cottonwood forests. The discussions also indicated the need to prioritize archeological sites for excavation or protection and culturally important plant species for intensive management attention.In our southwestern South Dakota focal area, centered on Badlands National Park, managers are concerned about how changing climate will affect vegetation production, wildlife populations, and erosion of fossils, archeological artifacts, and roads. Climate scenarios explored by managers and scientists in this focal area ranged from a 13 percent decrease to a 33 percent increase in spring precipitation, which is critical to plant growth in the northern Great Plains region, and a slight decrease to a near doubling of intense rain events. Facilitated discussions in this focal area concluded that greater effort should be put into preparing for emergency protection, excavation, and preservation of exposed fossils or

  5. Dissimilar responses of larch stands in northern Siberia to increasing temperatures-a field and simulation based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Mareike; Kruse, Stefan; Epp, Laura S; Kolmogorov, Alexei; Nikolaev, Anatoly N; Heinrich, Ingo; Jeltsch, Florian; Pestryakova, Lyudmila A; Zibulski, Romy; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-09-01

    Arctic and alpine treelines worldwide differ in their reactions to climate change. A northward advance of or densification within the treeline ecotone will likely influence climate-vegetation feedback mechanisms. In our study, which was conducted in the Taimyr Depression in the North Siberian Lowlands, w present a combined field- and model-based approach helping us to better understand the population processes involved in the responses of the whole treeline ecotone, spanning from closed forest to single-tree tundra, to climate warming. Using information on stand structure, tree age, and seed quality and quantity from seven sites, we investigate effects of intra-specific competition and seed availability on the specific impact of recent climate warming on larch stands. Field data show that tree density is highest in the forest-tundra, and average tree size decreases from closed forest to single-tree tundra. Age-structure analyses indicate that the trees in the closed forest and forest-tundra have been present for at least ~240 yr. At all sites except the most southerly ones, past establishment is positively correlated with regional temperature increase. In the single-tree tundra, however, a change in growth form from krummholz to erect trees, beginning ~130 yr ago, rather than establishment date has been recorded. Seed mass decreases from south to north, while seed quantity increases. Simulations with LAVESI (Larix Vegetation Simulator) further suggest that relative density changes strongly in response to a warming signal in the forest-tundra while intra-specific competition limits densification in the closed forest and seed limitation hinders densification in the single-tree tundra. We find striking differences in strength and timing of responses to recent climate warming. While forest-tundra stands recently densified, recruitment is almost non-existent at the southern and northern end of the ecotone due to autecological processes. Palaeo-treelines may therefore

  6. Comparative analysis of atmosphere temperature variability for Northern Eurasia based on the Reanalysis and in-situ observed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgina, T.; Genina, E.; Gordov, E.; Nikitchuk, K.

    2009-04-01

    At present numerous data archives which include meteorological observations as well as climate processes modeling data are available for Earth Science specialists. Methods of mathematical statistics are widely used for their processing and analysis. In many cases they represent the only way of quantitative assessment of the meteorological and climatic information. Unified set of analysis methods allows us to compare climatic characteristics calculated on the basis of different datasets with the purpose of performing more detailed analysis of climate dynamics for both regional and global levels. The report presents the results of comparative analysis of atmosphere temperature behavior for the Northern Eurasia territory for the period from 1979 to 2004 based on the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis AMIP II, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25 Reanalysis, ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis data and observation data obtained from meteorological stations of the former Soviet Union. Statistical processing of atmosphere temperature data included analysis of time series homogeneity of climate indices approved by WMO, such as "Number of frost days", "Number of summer days", "Number of icing days", "Number of tropical nights", etc. by means of parametric methods of mathematical statistics (Fisher and Student tests). That allowed conducting comprehensive research of spatio-temporal features of the atmosphere temperature. Analysis of the atmosphere temperature dynamics revealed inhomogeneity of the data obtained for large observation intervals. Particularly, analysis performed for the period 1979 - 2004 showed the significant increase of the number of frost and icing days approximately by 1 day for every 2 years and decrease roughly by 1 day for 2 years for the number of summer days. Also it should be mentioned that the growth period mean temperature have increased by 1.5 - 2° C for the time period being considered. The usage of different Reanalysis datasets in conjunction with in-situ observed

  7. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  8. Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

    2014-09-01

    Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

  9. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  10. Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Punique virus in northern Tunisia: a microneutralisation-based seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sakhria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV and Punique virus (PUNV was previously demonstrated. In contrast to TOSV, a prominent human pathogen, there is no data supporting that PUNV is capable to infect and cause disease to humans. We studied the respective involvement of TOSV and PUNV in human infections in northern Tunisia through a seroprevalence study. METHODS: The presence of TOSV and PUNV neutralising antibodies (NT-Ab was tested in human sera collected from 5 districts of the governorate of Bizerte, and the titres of NT-Ab were estimated by microneutralisation (MN assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,273 sera were processed. TOSV and PUNV NT-Ab were detected in 522 (41% and 111 sera (8.72% respectively. TOSV seroprevalence varied from 17.2% to 59.4% depending on the district. Analysis of TOSV geometric mean titre values demonstrated a constant increase according to the age. The vast majority of sera containing NT-Ab were found to be more reactive toward TOSV than PUNV. Indeed, past infections with PUNV and TOSV were undisputable for 5 and 414 sera, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PUNV may be capable to infect humans but at a low rate. TOSV is responsible for the vast majority of human infections by sand fly-borne phleboviruses in northern Tunisia. TOSV must be considered by physician and tested in diagnostic laboratories for patients with meningitis and unexplained fever in northern Tunisia.

  11. Why Electricity Demand Is Highly Income-Elastic in Spain: A Cross-Country Comparison Based on an Index-Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Spain has had one of the highest elasticities of electricity demand in the European Union. We provide an in-depth analysis into the causes of this high elasticity, and we examine how these same causes influence electricity demand in other European countries. To this end, we present an index-decomposition analysis of growth in electricity demand which allows us to identify three key factors in the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP and electricity demand: (i structural change; (ii GDP growth; and (iii intensity of electricity use. Our findings show that the main differences in electricity demand elasticities across countries and time are accounted for by the fast convergence in residential per capita electricity consumption. This convergence has almost concluded, and we expect the Spanish energy demand elasticity to converge to European standards in the near future.

  12. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  13. Human predatory behavior and the social implications of communal hunting based on evidence from the TD10.2 bison bone bed at Gran Dolina (Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Saladié, Palmira; Ollé, Andreu; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2017-04-01

    Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language. Late and Middle Paleolithic faunal assemblages in Europe have produced convincing evidence of communal hunting of large ungulates allowing for the formation of hypotheses concerning the skills of Neanderthals anatomically modern humans as social predators. However, the emergence of this cooperative behavior is not currently understood. Here, faunal analysis, based on traditional/long-established zooarcheological methods, of nearly 25,000 faunal remains from the "bison bone bed" layer of the TD10.2 sub-unit at Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Spain) is presented. In addition, other datasets related to the archeo-stratigraphy, paleo-landscape, paleo-environmental proxies, lithic assemblage, and ethno-archeological information of communal hunting have been considered in order to adopt a holistic approach to an investigation of the subsistence strategies developed during deposition of the archeological remains. The results indicate a monospecific assemblage heavily dominated by axial bison elements. The abundance of anthropogenic modifications and the anatomical profile are in concordance with early primary access to carcasses and the development of systematic butchering focused on the exploitation of meat and fat for transportation of high-yield elements to somewhere out of the cave. Together with a catastrophic and seasonal mortality pattern

  14. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  15. Singular Strategic Project for the Development, Demonstration and Evaluation of Energy Crop Biomass-based Energy Production in Spain (On Cultivos); Proyecto Singular y Estragetico para el desarrollo, demostracion y evaluacion de la produccion de energia en Espana a partir de la biomasa de cultivos energeticos (On Cultivos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, E.; Maleta, E. J.; Carrasco, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The Singular Strategic Project (PSE) On Cultivos, Development, demonstration and evaluation of the viability of energy crop biomass-based energy production in Spain, has been under way since 2005. This article describes the project objectives and general data indicating the current project status and the most relevant preliminary results obtained since it began. The On Cultivos PSE is proving to be an effective tool to channel the R and D efforts required to achieve the integral commercial implementation of energy crops in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  16. Eating out in Spain: Motivations, sociability and consumer contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Méndez, Cecilia; García-Espejo, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    Eating out is a consumer practice which is difficult to define. The study of this practice has traditionally been based on the work/leisure dichotomy. However, in Spain this is not so clear. If we analyse profiles, motivations, places and relationships, we discover an eating-out food model which is specific to Spain and in which food is not limited by this dual link with work and leisure. Eating linked to work does not respond only to instrumental needs. Leisure eating is not always a choice based on preference. Both contain a strong element of sociability which acts as a motivator and are linked to the familisme of Spanish society, whilst at the same time de-routinizing daily life, both at home and at work. This study is based on a national survey carried out in 2014 and helps to understand this consumer practice and those elements which are specific to Spain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economics of a small wind pump system based on estimated petrol and diesel cost savings from use in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ejieji, C. J.; Olayaki-Luqman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Eleven years of daily wind records were analyzed for the estimation of available wind energy for water pumping at three selected locations in Northern Nigeria, namely Jos, Kano and Sokoto. This formed the basis for investigating the economics of the use of an imported small wind pump under a deregulated energy market environment.  The estimated available energy for water pumping at the installation height of 9m was 190 kwh/m2/yr for Jos, 225 kwh/m2/yr for Kano and 348 kwh/m2/yr for Sokot...

  18. Epidemiological changes in leishmaniasis in Spain according to hospitalization-based records, 1997-2011: raising awareness towards leishmaniasis in non-HIV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6% were males and 2240/3442 (65.1% aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6% of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL, while 118/3442 (3.4% hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1% were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113. Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021 while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717. Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04, 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3, visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28 and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04. The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57, other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32 and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07. Our findings suggest a significant increase

  19. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  20. The Situation of Open Access Institutional Repositories in Spain: 2009 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Remedios; Abadal, Ernest; Abad, Francisca; Rodriguez-Gairin, Josep Manel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The DRIVER I project drew up a detailed report of European repositories based on data gathered in a survey in which Spain's participation was very low. This created a highly distorted image of the implementation of repositories in Spain. This study aims to analyse the current state of Spanish open-access institutional repositories…

  1. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Correa, Patricio E; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge; Rondán-Cataluña, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model.

  2. Model of hydrological behaviour of the anthropized semiarid wetland of Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (Spain) based on surface water-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, H.; Castaño, S.; Moreno, L.; Jiménez-Hernández, M. E.; de la Losa, A.

    2013-05-01

    Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (TDNP) in Spain is one of the most important semiarid wetlands of the Mediterranean area. The inversion of the regional groundwater flow, primarily due to overexploitation and inadequate aquifer management, has led to degradation. The system has turned from a groundwater discharge zone into a recharge zone, and has remained mostly dry since the 1980s. High heterogeneity and complexity, enhanced by anthropogenic management action, hampers prediction of the surface-groundwater system response to flooding events. This study analyses these interactions and provides empirical evidence to define a conceptual model of flooding-infiltration-groundwater dynamics through the application of a few simple analysis tools to basic hydrological data. Relevant surface water-groundwater interactions are mainly localized in the left (west) margin of TDNP, as confirmed by the fast responses to flooding observed in the hydrochemic, hydrodynamic and isotopic data. During drying periods, small artificial and/or low-flow natural floods are followed by infiltration of evaporated poor-quality ponding water into saline low-permeability layers. The results allow an improved understanding of the hydrological behaviour essential to support efficient management practices. The relative simplicity of the methodology allows for its application in other similar complex groundwater-linked wetlands where detailed knowledge of local geology is still absent.

  3. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model. PMID:26465895

  4. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  5. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  6. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  7. New Variable Stars in the KP2001 Catalog from the Data Base of the Northern Sky Variability Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, G. V.

    2018-03-01

    The optical variability of stars in the KP2001 catalog is studied. Monitor data from the automatic Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) are used for this purpose. Of the 257 objects that were studied, 5 are Mira Ceti variables (mirids), 33 are semiregular (SR), and 108 are irregular variables (Ir). The light curves of the other objects show no noticeable signs of variability. For the first time, 11 stars are assigned to the semiregular and 105 stars to the irregular variables. Of the irregular variables, the light curves of two, No. 8 and No. 194, are distinct and are similar to the curves for eclipsing variables. The periods and amplitudes of the mirids and semiregular variables are determined using the "VStar" program package from AAVSO. The absolute stellar magnitudes M K and distances are also estimated, along with the mass loss for the mirids. The behavior of stars from KP2001 in 2MASS and WISE color diagrams is examined.

  8. The seismic microzonation of level 3 of Sant’Agata Fossili (northern Italy based on a multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Capua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a detailed seismic microzonation, performed at Sant’Agata Fossili (Piemonte region, northern Italy are presented. We study the local seismic response of this small village using a level 3, that is the most accurate level following the Italian code of seismic microzonation. The activity steps consist in a gradual widening of knowledge of the different aspects of the amplification phenomena. A multidisciplinary approach has been performed to obtain the local seismic response: including a study of local geology, geophysical and geotechnical characterization of the lithologies, and numerical and experimental analyses. We finally compare the obtained elastic response spectra to the prescribed spectra of the Italian Building Code (in Italian: Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni. Our results show the geologic and geophysical differences of the subsoil, that produce different local seismic response in terms of amplification factors and acceleration response spectra.

  9. The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmens, Karin F.

    2014-02-01

    Current multi-proxy studies on a long sediment sequence preserved at Sokli (N Finland), i.e. in the central area of Fennoscandian glaciations, are drastically changing classic ideas of glaciations, vegetation and climate in northern Europe during the Late Pleistocene. The sediments in the Sokli basin have escaped major glacial erosion due to non-typical bedrock conditions. In this review, the Sokli record is compared in great detail with other long proxy records from central, temperate and northern, boreal Europe. These comprise the classic records of La Grande Pile (E France) and Oerel (N Germany) and more recently obtained records from Horoszki Duże (E Poland) and Lake Yamozero (NW Russia). The focus of the review is on pollen, lithology and macrofossil- and insect-based temperature inferences. The long records are further compared with recent proxy data from nearby terrestrial sites as well as with the rapidly accumulating high-resolution proxy data from the ocean realm. The comparison allows a re-examination of the environmental history and climate evolution of the Last Interglacial-Glacial (LI-G) cycle (MIS 5-2). It shows that environmental and climate conditions during MIS 5 (ca 130-70 ka BP) were distinctly different from those during MIS 4-2 (ca 70-15 ka BP). MIS 5 is characterized by three long forested intervals (broadly corresponding to MIS 5e, 5c, 5a), both in temperate and northern boreal Europe. These mild periods were interrupted by two short, relatively cold and dry intervals (MIS 5d and 5b) with mountain-centered glaciation in Fennoscandia. Millennial scale climate events were superimposed upon these longer lasting climate fluctuations. The time interval encompassing MIS 4-2 shows open vegetation. It is characterized by two glacial maxima (MIS 4 and 2) with sub-continental scale glaciation over northern Europe and dry conditions in strongly continental eastern European settings. High amplitude climate oscillations of millennial duration

  10. Satellite Image-based Estimates of Snow Water Equivalence in Restored Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, T.; Springer, A. E.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Donald, J.; McVay, J.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service plans to conduct forest restoration treatments through the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) on hundreds of thousands of acres of ponderosa pine forest in northern Arizona over the next 20 years with the goals of reducing wildfire hazard and improving forest health. The 4FRI's key objective is to thin and burn the forests to create within-stand openings that "promote snowpack accumulation and retention which benefit groundwater recharge and watershed processes at the fine (1 to 10 acres) scale". However, little is known about how these openings created by restoration treatments affect snow water equivalence (SWE) and soil moisture, which are key parts of the water balance that greatly influence water availability for healthy trees and for downstream water users in the Sonoran Desert. We have examined forest canopy cover by calculating a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a key indicator of green vegetation cover, using Landsat satellite data. We have then compared NDVI between treatments at our study sites in northern Arizona and have found statistically significant differences in tree canopy cover between treatments. The control units have significantly greater forest canopy cover than the treated units. The thinned units also have significantly greater tree canopy cover than the thin-and-burn units. Winter season Landsat images have also been analyzed to calculate Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), a key indicator of snow water equivalence and snow accumulation at the treated and untreated forests. The NDSI values from these dates are examined to determine if snow accumulation and snow water equivalence vary between treatments at our study sites. NDSI is significantly greater at the treated units than the control units. In particular, the thinned forest units have significantly greater snow cover than the control units. Our results indicate that forest restoration treatments result in increased snow pack

  11. Spain's magic mountain: narrating prehistory at Atapuerca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain is ranked among the most important excavation sites in human origins research worldwide. The project boasts not only spectacular hominid fossils, among them the 'oldest European', but also a fully fledged 'popularization industry'. This article interprets this multimedia industry as a generator of different narratives about the researchers as well as about the prehistoric hominids of Atapuerca. It focuses on the popular works of the three co-directors of the project. Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro and Eudald Carbonell make deliberate use of a variety of narrative devices, resonant cultural references and strategies of scientific self-commodification. All three, in different ways, use the history of science and of their own research project to mark their place in the field of human origins research, drawing on mythical elements to tell the story of the rise of a humble Spanish team overcoming all odds to achieve universal acclaim. Furthermore, the co-directors make skilful use of palaeofiction - that of Björn Kurtén and Jean Auel, as well as writing their own - in order to tell gripping stories about compassion and solidarity in human prehistory. This mixture of nationalist and universalist narratives invites the Spanish audience to identify not just with 'their ancestors' but also with the scientists, as objects and subjects of research become conflated through popularization.

  12. Combined microstructural and mineralogical phase characterization of gallstones in a patient-based study in SW Spain - Implications for environmental contamination in their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Annika; Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; Garrido, Carlos J; Cobo-Cárdenas, Gema

    2016-12-15

    This study explores the environmental impact of metal exposure on humans through detailed phase and structural characterization of gallstones from two environmentally contrasting populations in Huelva Province (SW Spain). A total of 42 gallstone samples, obtained after surgical intervention at the Riotinto Hospital, were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), FTIR-μ-ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) coupled with an optical microscope, and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS), and subsequently classified according to their phase composition and structure. Additionally, the patients were enquired for their living habits in order to analyze the source of possible exposure to metal contamination. The gallstones were classified into pure, mixed and composite cholesterol stones, black and brown pigment stones, and carbonate stones. The patients from the study group residing in a region with acknowledged metal contamination of both natural and anthropogenic origin have a higher risk of metal exposure through contaminated soil, particle matter in the air, and consumption of local water and food products. According to our findings, the metal exposure is related to a higher tendency of forming black pigment stones in the study group in comparison to the control group residing in a natural park with nearly pristine environmental conditions. Moreover, the gallstones from the study group showed to contain more abundant metal components, such as Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn, than those from the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the regional environmental impact of metal exposure on human gallstones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metal speciation of historic and new copper mine tailings from Repparfjorden, Northern Norway, before and after acid, base and electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    the new mine tailings. Electrodialysis, based on applying an electric field of low intensity to extract metals from polluted soils/sediments, was designed for acidic and alkaline extraction, and in both cases more Cu was extracted than in the pure acid/base extractions, while maintaining low mobilisation......In Kvalsund, Northern Norway, a permit for submarine mine tailings disposal in Repparfjorden was recently issued for a copper mine with expected operation from 2019. A copper mine was active in the same area in the 1970s and also deposited mine tailings in the fjord. Investigations of the metal...... tailings. Substantial desorption (>40%) for both historic and new mine tailings occurred at pH values below 3 and above 12. These results combined with metal speciation, showing that the binding of Cu in the sediment changes around pH values 3 and 10, indicate potential for extraction of more Cu from...

  14. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  16. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  17. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  18. Country policy profile - Spain. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in the year 2020 for Spain is 20% (according to EurObserv'ER calculation the share was 14.2% in 2012). The Directive has a mandatory 10 % target for transport to be achieved by all Member States, which refers to renewable sources as a whole, not bio-fuels alone. In Spain, the main support scheme called 'Regimen Especial' (Royal Decree 661/2007) operated until the end of 2011 was suspended at the beginning of 2012. The price regulation system is currently phased out trough Real Decreto 9/2013. In the former system, operators could choose between two options: a guaranteed feed-in tariff and a guaranteed bonus (premium) paid on top of the electricity price derived on the free market. More recently, the 6 June, Spain approved a clean energy bill that introduces an entirely new subsidy system. The FiT and market price plus premium systems have effectively been abolished retroactively and replaced by a sum to be allocated based on the plant's installed capacity to compensate for investment-related financial outlay. Under the decree, generators will earn a rate of return of about 7.5 percent over their lifetimes. This rate, which may be revised every three years, is based on the average interest of a 10-year sovereign bond plus 3 percentage points. These measures will be implemented retroactively to apply from July 2013. Currently, there is no support scheme for RES-H and C in place in Spain but building must satisfy a minimal solar contribution of warm sanitary water. Approved in March 2006, through Royal Decree 314/2006 of 17 March 2006, the Building Technical Code (CTE - Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion) requires all new or renovated buildings to cover 30%-70% of the Domestic Hot Water demand with solar thermal energy. Some

  19. The impact of the school-based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program on conflict-affected children in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-11-01

    Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention comprised a series of 15 class sessions designed to progressively increase children's resilience through structured activities involving drama, movement, music and art (with additional components addressing parental support and community involvement). Eight schools were selected by random quota sampling from those schools receiving the PSSA intervention. Two hundred and three children were identified in these schools as being scheduled to receive intervention, and were followed up 12 months later following engagement with PSSA activities. A comparison group comprised 200 children selected from schools that had met inclusion criteria for receipt of intervention, but were not scheduled for intervention coverage until later. Preliminary research used participatory focus group methodology to determine local indicators of child well-being as viewed by parents, teachers, and children respectively. Pre- and post- assessments focused on ratings for each child - by parents, teachers and children - with respect to these indicators. Significant increases in ratings of child well-being were observed in both intervention and comparison groups over a 12-month period. However, the well-being of children who had received the PSSA intervention increased significantly more than for children in the comparison group, as judged by child and parent (but not teacher) report. This effect was evident despite considerable loss-to-follow-up at post-testing as a result of return of many households to communities of origin. General improvement in child well-being over a 12-month period suggests that recovery and reconstruction efforts in Northern Uganda following

  20. ALS-based hummock size-distance relationship assessment of Mt Shasta debris avalanche deposit, Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, Riccardo; Carn, Simon; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The failure of destabilized volcano flanks is a likely occurrence during the lifetime of a stratovolcano, generating large debris avalanches and drastically changing landforms around volcanoes. The significant hazards associated with these events in the Cascade range were demonstrated, for example, by the collapse of Mt St Helens (WA), which triggered its devastating explosive eruption in 1980. The rapid modification of the landforms due to these events makes it difficult to estimate the magnitude of prehistoric avalanches. However, the widespread preservation of hummocks along the course of rockslide-debris avalanches is highly significant for understanding the physical characteristics of these landslides. Mt Shasta is a 4,317 m high, snow-capped, steep-sloped stratovolcano located in Northern California. The current edifice began forming on the remnants of an ancestral Mt Shasta that collapsed ~300-380k years ago producing one of the largest debris avalanches known on Earth. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) covers a surface of ~450 km2 across the Shasta valley, with an estimated volume of ~26 km3. We analyze ALS data on hummocks from the prehistoric Shasta valley DAD in northern California (USA) to derive the relationship between hummock size and distance from landslide source, and interpret the geomorphic significance of the intercept and slope coefficients of the observed functional relationships. Given the limited extent of the ALS survey (i.e. 40 km2), the high-resolution dataset is used for validation of the morphological parameters extracted from freely available, broader coverage DTMs such as the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The ALS dataset also permits the identification of subtle topographic features not apparent in the field or in coarser resolution datasets, including a previously unmapped fault, of crucial importance for both seismic and volcanic hazard assessment in volcanic areas. We present evidence from the Shasta DAD of neotectonic

  1. Slow Slip Predictions Based on Gabbro Dehydration and Friction Data Compared to GPS Measurements in Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.; Liu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    For episodic slow slip transients in subduction zones, a large uncertainty in comparing surface deformations predicted by rate and state friction modeling [Liu and Rice, JGR, 2007] to GPS measurements lies in our limited knowledge of the frictional properties and fluid pore pressure along the fault. In this study, we apply petrological data [Peacock et al., USGS, 2002; Hacker et al., JGR 2003; Wada et al., JGR, 2008] and recently reported friction data [He et al., Tectonophys, 2006, 2007] for gabbro, as a reasonable representation of the seafloor, to a Cascadia-like 2D model in order to produce simulations which show spontaneous aseismic transients. We compare the resulting inter-transient and transient surface deformations to GPS observations along the northern Cascadia margin. An inferred region along dip of elevated fluid pressure is constrained by seismological observations where available, and by thermal and petrological models for the Cascadia and SW Japan subduction zones. For the assumed a and a-b profiles, we search the model parameter space, by varying the level of effective normal stress σ, characteristic slip distance L in the source areas of transients, and the fault width under that low σ, to identify simulation cases which produce transient aseismic slip and recurrence interval similar to the observed 20-30 mm and 14 months, respectively, in northern Cascadia. Using a simple planar fault geometry and extrapolating the 2D fault slip to a 3D distribution, we find that the gabbro gouge friction data allows a much better fit to GPS observations than is possible with the granite data [Blanpied et al., JGR, 1995, 1998] which, for lack of a suitable alternative, has been used as the basis for most previous subduction earthquake modeling, including ours. Nevertheless, the values of L required to reasonably fit the geodetic data during a transient event are somewhat larger than 100 microns, rather than in the range of 10 to a few 10s of microns as might be

  2. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Patricia; Iriondo, José María

    2014-01-01

    The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos was created in 2008 and currently holds 235 accessions and 96 species. This bank focuses on the conservation of wild-plant communities and aims to conserve ex situ a representative sample of the plant biodiversity present in a habitat, emphasizing priority ecosystems identified by the Habitats Directive. It is also used to store plant material for research and teaching purposes. The collection consists of three subcollections, two representative of typical habitats in the center of the Iberian Peninsula: high-mountain pastures (psicroxerophylous pastures) and semi-arid habitats (gypsophylic steppes), and a third representative of the genus Lupinus. The high-mountain subcollection currently holds 153 accessions (63 species), the semi-arid subcollection has 76 accessions (29 species,) and the Lupinus subcollection has 6 accessions (4 species). All accessions are stored in a freezer at -18 °C in Kilner jars with silica gel. The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos follows a quality control protocol which describes the workflow performed with seeds from seed collection to storage. All collectors are members of research groups with great experience in species identification. Herbarium specimens associated with seed accessions are preserved and 63% of the records have been georreferenced with GPS and radio points. The dataset provides unique information concerning the location of populations of plant species that form part of the psicroxerophylous pastures and gypsophylic steppes of Central Spain as well as populations of genus Lupinus in the Iberian Peninsula. It also provides relevant information concerning mean seed weight and seed germination values under specific incubation conditions. This dataset has already been used by researchers of the Area of Biodiversity and Conservation of URJC as a source of information for the design and implementation of experimental designs in these plant communities. Since

  3. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos was created in 2008 and currently holds 235 accessions and 96 species. This bank focuses on the conservation of wild-plant communities and aims to conserve ex situ a representative sample of the plant biodiversity present in a habitat, emphasizing priority ecosystems identified by the Habitats Directive. It is also used to store plant material for research and teaching purposes. The collection consists of three subcollections, two representative of typical habitats in the center of the Iberian Peninsula: high-mountain pastures (psicroxerophylous pastures and semi-arid habitats (gypsophylic steppes, and a third representative of the genus Lupinus. The high-mountain subcollection currently holds 153 accessions (63 species, the semi-arid subcollection has 76 accessions (29 species, and the Lupinus subcollection has 6 accessions (4 species. All accessions are stored in a freezer at -18 °C in Kilner jars with silica gel. The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos follows a quality control protocol which describes the workflow performed with seeds from seed collection to storage. All collectors are members of research groups with great experience in species identification. Herbarium specimens associated with seed accessions are preserved and 63% of the records have been georreferenced with GPS and radio points. The dataset provides unique information concerning the location of populations of plant species that form part of the psicroxerophylous pastures and gypsophylic steppes of Central Spain as well as populations of genus Lupinus in the Iberian Peninsula. It also provides relevant information concerning mean seed weight and seed germination values under specific incubation conditions. This dataset has already been used by researchers of the Area of Biodiversity and Conservation of URJC as a source of information for the design and implementation of experimental designs in these plant

  4. First survey on canine leishmaniasis in a non classical area of the disease in Spain (Lleida, Catalonia) based on a veterinary questionnaire and a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, Cristina; Alcover, M Magdalena; Picado, Albert; Nieto, Javier; Castillejo, Soledad; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish distribution of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is heterogeneous and very few data are available for the north of the country, including the province of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain). This work describes the results obtained from a questionnaire sent to veterinarians throughout the province of Lleida. The majority of veterinarians (25/32, 78.1%) believed CanL cases were increasing and that the dogs had been infected locally (30/32, 93.8%). Also, a cross-sectional study was performed on the seroprevalence of CanL in kennel dogs, with and without compatible clinical signs, in the county of Pallars Sobirà (Pyrenees of Lleida), where an autochthonous case of CanL had been previously detected. Four serological tests were used (IFAT, ELISA, Western blot, ICF) and dogs that tested positive with at least two immunological methods were considered seropositive and probably infected. 33.1% (48/145) of the dogs were seropositive. The results of a mixed logistic regression model showed that the risk of seropositivity increased with age (OR=1.35, p-value=0.002), among dogs living in the southern part of Pallars Sobirà (OR=6.20, p-value=0.025) and among dogs whose owners considered their animals to be at risk of leishmaniasis infection (OR=1.26, p-value=0.024) and who were unaware of anti-sand fly preventive methods (OR=11.6, p-value=0.009). The risk decreased when dogs lived in an urban-periurban habitat (OR=0.17, p-value=0.002). The information gathered in the veterinary questionnaires helped us to define the knowledge, perception and awareness of the disease in a naïve region, supporting the hypothesis of an existing CanL focus in Pallars Sobirà, which was confirmed by the seroepidemiological survey. The seroprevalence study carried out on kennel dogs of local origin proved useful for detecting an autochthonous focus of leishmaniasis through the analysis of a small number of animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Red Beads and Love Magic. Cross-Cultural Exchanges Between Spain and new Spain in Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Andreia Martins Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the significance of particular red beads used in love magic during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically on the construction of symbolic universe through perceptions based on «others» materiality. It aims to provide a connected studied between Spain and New Spain through the histories of the gipsy Generosa Vicente and mestiza Margarita Palacios recovered from the Inquisition authorities notes. This is the way to understand the extent to which cross-cultural contacts privilege the transmission of ideas associated with objects, and how they were used apparently with similar purposes but with a very different meaning.

  6. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  7. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  8. Women, University and Science in Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to question the widely accepted idea that female university students in Spain have, in the past, tended to opt for degrees in the field of humanities. Based on an analysis of the official statistics that are currently available, the paper demonstrates that Spanish female university students showed a clear preference for…

  9. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, Miguel; Agustí, Jorge; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these

  10. [Simulation of rainfall and snowmelt runoff reduction in a northern city based on combination of green ecological strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin Feng; Liu, Shuo; Dai, Jun; Qiu, Hao

    2018-02-01

    With the aim to control and reduce rainfall and snowmelt runoff in northern cities in China, the summer runoff and spring snowmelt runoff in the studied area were simulated with the establishment of storm water management model (SWMM). According to the climate characteristics and the situation of the studied area, the low impact development (LID) green ecological strategies suitable for the studied area were established. There were three kinds of management strategies being used, including extended green roof, snow and rainwater harvesting devices, and grass-swales or trenches. We examined the impacts of those integrated green ecological measures on the summer rainfall and spring snowmelt runoff and their mitigation effects on the drainage network pressure. The results showed that the maximum flow rates of the measured rainfall in May 24th, June 10th and July 18th 2016 were 2.7, 6.2 and 7.4 m 3 ·s -1 respectively. The peak flow rates at different return periods of 1, 2, 5, 10 years were 2.39, 3.91, 6.24 and 7.85 m 3 ·s -1 , respectively. In the snowmelt period, the peak flow appeared at the beginning of March. The LID measures had positive effect on peak flow reduction, and thus delayed peak time and relieved drainage pressure. The flow reduction rate was as high as 70%. Moreover, the snow harvesting devices played a positive role in controlling snowmelt runoff in spring.

  11. The Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Women using Liquid Base Pap Smear in Rasht, Northern of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Seyed Mohamad Mohseni; Ghanaei, Mandana Mansour; Mojtehadi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about its prevalence in the female population in Rasht, Northern of Iran. The aim of this study was to find the incidences of HPV viruses in high-risk women in Rasht by wet Pap smear from 2010 to 2015. This cross-sectional study investigated HPV prevalence and its genotype distribution among 103 apparently healthy and non- healthy women with abnormal cells in pap exam. DNA samples were extracted by boiling and phenol - chloroform methods, then used as template for amplifying of specific fragment of HPV genome by PCR using GP5+ / GP6+ primers. PCR products were electrophoresed in 1.5% agarose gel (Roche, Germany) containing Sybrsafe. DNA ladder (Roche Co, Germany) was used to detect the molecular weights of observed bands under UV lamp. Overall, 4/98 women (4.08%) with normal cells and 1/5 women (20%) with abnormal cells were positive for at least one of the high risk HPV types in wet Pap smear. The most HPV infection was found in 26 to 39-year-old individuals. We evidenced a moderate prevalence of HPV infection but needs to be given more attention because in apparently healthy women also, HPV infection was observed. Health officials should conduct the study and wider screening of this infection occurring in this province. Screening for this infection must be recommended in this region.

  12. Application of PCR-Based Tools to Explore Strongyloides Infection in People in Parts of Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma J. Robertson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis, which is caused by infection with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is endemic to areas of northern Australia. Diagnosis in this region remains difficult due to the distances between endemic communities and diagnostic laboratories, leading to lengthy delays in stool processing for microscopy and culture. PCR represents a viable solution to this difficulty, having potential for high sensitivity detection of S. stercoralis, even in older, unpreserved faecal samples. We prospectively collected 695 faecal specimens that were submitted to The Townsville Hospital Microbiology Laboratory from the North Queensland region for routine parasitological examination, and subjected them to a Strongyloides sp. real-time (qPCR. Results were confirmed with a novel nested conventional PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP. Of the 695 specimens tested, S. stercoralis was detected in three specimens (0.4% by classical parasitological methods (direct microscopy and formyl-ether acetate concentration, whereas 42 positives were detected by qPCR (6.0%. Conventional PCR confirmed the real-time PCR results in 24 of the samples (3.5%. Several apparent false-positive results occurred at higher cycle times (Ct in the qPCR. Use of real-time PCR in these populations is promising for the enhanced detection of disease and to support eradication efforts.

  13. History of health technology assessment: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Asua, Jose; Briones, Eduardo; Gol, Jordi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the introduction and diffusion of health technology assessment (HTA) in Spain. A survey to summarize the evolution of HTA was sent to representatives of different HTA initiatives in Spain. HTA was introduced in the late 1980s. The main factors were the trend to an increase in healthcare expenditure, concerns regarding efficiency in providing health care, as well as in the level of rationality introducing high technology. Spain has direct (i.e., regulation) and indirect (i.e., payment systems, evidence-based programs, HTA) mechanisms to control health technologies. A recent high priority regulation has established the need of HTA to decide the introduction of a new health technology in the lists of public healthcare coverage, although similar regulations existed in the past and were scarcely implemented. HTA initiatives started at the regional government level. Its introduction followed a progressive pattern among regions. In the beginning, resources were scarce and expertise limited, with work done at intramural level. With time, expertise increase, and promotion of commissioned work was implemented. HTA knowledge transfer in the healthcare system has been carried out through courses, publications, and commissioned research. Currently, there are seven HTA units/agencies, which coordinate their work. HTA in Spain is in its maturity. Facing the unavoidable change of health care environment over time, HTA is also evolving and, currently, there is a trend to broaden the areas of influence of HTA by devolving capacity to hospitals and applying principles to very early phases of health technology development, under the umbrella of regional HTA units/agencies. However, there are two main challenges ahead. One is to have a real impact at the highest level of healthcare policy coordination among Spanish regions, which is done at the Central Ministry of Health. The other is to avoid the influence of political waves

  14. A GEOMETRICAL SIMILARITY PATTERN AS AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR SHAPES IN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE: A CASE STUDY OF THE BASE OF THE PILLARS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF SEVILLE AND THE CHURCH OF SANTIAGO IN JEREZ, SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Moyano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for the search of a geometrical similarity pattern in architectural heritage by means of calculating probability indexes to support hypotheses initially endorsed by documentary sources. The buildings analysed are the Cathedral of Seville and the Church of Santiago, in Jerez, Spain. The 3D models of their selected pillars are obtained by means of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS, Optical Scanning (OS and photogrammetry through image-based modelling software (SFM-IBM. To this end, a procedure for the comparison of shapes is established. It is based on similarity statistics, the determination of homologous points and the agreement of characteristic sections. Here, two key aspects are considered: on the one hand, the metric standpoint; on the other hand, historical-graphical features of the 3D models: composition, techniques, styles, and historical-graphical documentary sources. Thus, putting aside the mere dimensional analysis, the sections are compared with graphical patterns and models of which the same authorship – stonemasons working in that age – is accurately known. As a result, the outcomes of this research reveal the geometrical similarity between the elements of the pillars of the Cathedral of Seville and the Church of Santiago.

  15. Community-based technology transfer in rural aquaculture: the case of mudcrab Scylla serrata nursery in ponds in Northern Samar, Central Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baticados, Didi B; Agbayani, Renato F; Quinitio, Emilia T

    2014-12-01

    Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from 4.0 cm for 42 days, or by-phases. However, technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies.

  16. Summer Temperature Extremes in the Northern Rockies: A Tree-Ring-Based Reconstruction (1670-2014) from the Bighorn Mountains, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, A.; Alfaro-Sanchez, R.; Belmecheri, S.; Moore, D. J.; Trouet, V.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has caused global temperatures to rise in recent decades. Temperatures at the regional scale are influenced by various factors including topography, atmospheric circulation, and seasonality that superimpose year-to-year variability on this global warming trend. Here, we develop a tree-ring based summer temperature reconstruction for the northern Rockies in order to investigate the drivers of the year-to-year temperature variability in this region. For this purpose, we sampled 10 sites in the semi-arid Bighorn Mountains, WY and developed two tree-ring width chronologies for differing elevations. The high elevation Picea engelmannii chronology (>2,630m) is positively correlated with July temperature variability, whereas the low elevation (<2,580m) chronology - consisting of Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Pinus albicaulis - is sensitive to summer precipitation and negatively correlated with June and July temperatures. A reconstruction based on a combination of the two chronologies explains 30% of the variance in regional June and July temperatures over the instrumental period, covers the period 1670-2014, and is representative for the central United States and southern Canada region. Our reconstruction shows significantly lower summer temperatures in the year following the 16 largest tropical eruptions from 1670 to the present. The reconstruction further captures the high summer temperatures during the 1930s dust bowl era and shows a steep increase in variance in the late 20th century. Enhanced late 20th century variance has also been detected in climate and ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific, which suggests an impact of an amplified meridional flow on northern Rockies summer temperatures.

  17. Incorporating Problem-Based Learning Into A Petrology Course Through A Research Project In The Local Northern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    A research project into the local petrology was integrated into the Spring 2016 Petrology and Optical Mineralogy course at California State University, Chico. This is a required majors course, typically taken during spring of the junior year, with an enrollment of 10-20 students. Since the labs for this course have a strong focus on petrography, a research project was introduced to give students experience in using a multi-faceted approach to investigate a problem. In many cases, this is their first taste of research. During the first week of the Spring 2016 class, students were introduced to the research question: In the broader context of Californian tectonic history, are the Bucks Lake and Grizzly plutons of the northern Sierra Nevada petrogenetically related? With faculty guidance over the course of the semester, students carried out fieldwork and sampling, lithologic description, selection of the best samples for further analysis, thin section production, petrographic description, and analysis and interpretation of published geochemical data. Research activities were strategically scheduled within the course framework such that students were academically prepared to carry out each task. Each student was responsible for generating all the data for one sample, and data were then collated as a class, so students wrote their individual final reports using all the data collected by the class. Careful scaffolding of writing assignments throughout the semester guided students through the preparation of an academic-style scientific report, while allowing for repeated feedback on their writing style and content. In mid-May, the class presented a group poster at the College of Natural Sciences annual poster symposium, and were awarded `Best Student Class Project' by the judges. Anecdotal student feedback indicated they highly valued the research experience and some were inspired to pursue individual undergraduate research projects under faculty supervision.

  18. Source Of Hydrogen Sulfide To Sulfidic Spring And Watershed Ecosystems In Northern Sierra De Chiapas, Mexico Based On Sulfur And Carbon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Lagarde, L.; Boston, P. J.; Campbell, A.

    2013-12-01

    At least four watersheds in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico are fed by conspicuous karst sulfide-rich springs. The toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in these springs nurtures rich ecosystems including especially adapted microorganisms, invertebrates and fish. Sulfur and carbon isotopic analysis of various chemical species in the spring water are integrated within their hydrogeologic context to evaluate the hydrogen sulfide source. Constraining the H2S origin can also increase the understanding of this compound effect in the quality of the nearby hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the extent to which its oxidation to sulfuric acid increases carbonate dissolution and steel corrosion in surface structures. The SO42-/H2S ratio in the spring water varies from 70,000 to 2 meq/L thus sulfate is the dominant species in the groundwater system. This sulfate is mainly produced from anhydrite dissolution based on its isotopic signature. The Δ SO42--H2S range of 16 spring water samples (30-50 ‰) is similar to the values determined by Goldhaber & Kaplan (1975) and Canfield (2001) for low rates of bacterial sulfate reduction suggesting that this is the most important mechanism producing H2S. Although the carbon isotopes do not constrain the nature of the organic matter participating in this reaction, this material likely comes from depth, perhaps as hydrocarbons, due to the apparent stability of the system. The organic matter availability and reactivity probably control the progress of sulfate reduction. The subsurface environments identified in the area also have different sulfur isotopic values. The heavier residual sulfate isotopic value in the Northern brackish springs (δ34S SO42- ≥ 18 ‰) compared to the Southern springs (δ34S SO42- ~18 ‰) suggests sulfate reduction is particularly enhanced in the former, probably by contribution of organic matter associated with oil produced water. In comparison, the composition of the Southern aquifer is mainly influenced by halite

  19. Can performance-based incentives improve motivation of nurses and midwives in primary facilities in northern Ghana? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aninanya, Gifty Apiung; Howard, Natasha; Williams, John E; Apam, Benjamin; Prytherch, Helen; Loukanova, Svetla; Kamara, Eunice Karanja; Otupiri, Easmon

    2016-01-01

    Lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce has emerged as the biggest barrier to scaling up health services provision in sub-Saharan Africa. As the global community commits to the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage, health workforce challenges are critical. In northern Ghana, performance-based incentives (PBIs) were introduced to improve health worker motivation and service quality. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of PBIs on maternal health worker motivation in two districts in northern Ghana. A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and post-intervention measurement was used. PBIs were implemented for 2 years in six health facilities in Kassena-Nankana District with six health facilities in Builsa District serving as comparison sites. Fifty pre- and post-intervention structured interviews and 66 post-intervention in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers. Motivation was assessed using constructs for job satisfaction, pride, intrinsic motivation, timelines/attendance, and organisational commitment. Quantitative data were analysed to determine changes in motivation between intervention and comparison facilities pre- and post-intervention using STATA™ version 13. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 to explore possible reasons for quantitative findings. PBIs were associated with slightly improved maternal health worker motivation. Mean values for overall motivation between intervention and comparison health workers were 0.6 versus 0.7 at baseline and 0.8 versus 0.7 at end line, respectively. Differences at baseline and end line were 0.1 ( p =0.40 and p =0.50 respectively), with an overall 0.01 difference in difference ( p =0.90). Qualitative interviews indicated that PBIs encouraged health workers to work harder and be more punctual, increasing reported pride and job satisfaction. The results contribute evidence on the effects of PBIs on motivational constructs among

  20. Can performance-based incentives improve motivation of nurses and midwives in primary facilities in northern Ghana? A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifty Apiung Aninanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce has emerged as the biggest barrier to scaling up health services provision in sub-Saharan Africa. As the global community commits to the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage, health workforce challenges are critical. In northern Ghana, performance-based incentives (PBIs were introduced to improve health worker motivation and service quality. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of PBIs on maternal health worker motivation in two districts in northern Ghana. Design: A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and post-intervention measurement was used. PBIs were implemented for 2 years in six health facilities in Kassena-Nankana District with six health facilities in Builsa District serving as comparison sites. Fifty pre- and post-intervention structured interviews and 66 post-intervention in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers. Motivation was assessed using constructs for job satisfaction, pride, intrinsic motivation, timelines/attendance, and organisational commitment. Quantitative data were analysed to determine changes in motivation between intervention and comparison facilities pre- and post-intervention using STATA™ version 13. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 to explore possible reasons for quantitative findings. Results: PBIs were associated with slightly improved maternal health worker motivation. Mean values for overall motivation between intervention and comparison health workers were 0.6 versus 0.7 at baseline and 0.8 versus 0.7 at end line, respectively. Differences at baseline and end line were 0.1 (p=0.40 and p=0.50 respectively, with an overall 0.01 difference in difference (p=0.90. Qualitative interviews indicated that PBIs encouraged health workers to work harder and be more punctual, increasing reported pride and job satisfaction. Conclusions: The results contribute

  1. Community Development to Feed the Family in Northern Manitoba Communities: Evaluating Food Activities based on Their Food Sovereighnty, Food Security, and Sustainable Livelihood Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashraful Alam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores food-related activities and their impacts on sustainable livelihood assets, food sovereignty, and food security, and provides insight for future food-related community development. Analysis is based on community food assessments conducted in 14 Northern Manitoba communities and included a food security survey, price survey, and interviews. The lack of community control over development in First Nation and other Northern remote and rural communities in Northern Manitoba is found to undermine both food sovereignty and sustainable livelihoods, while creating high levels of food insecurity. According to logit models, sharing country foods increases food sovereignty and sustainable livelihoods, and has a stronger relationship to food security than either road access to retail stores in urban centres or increased competition between stores. The model predicts that rates of food insecurity for a community with a country foods program and with access to public transit and roads at 95% would be lower than the Canadian average of 92%.RÉSUMÉCet article explore les activités relatives à l’alimentation et leur impact sur les biens durables ainsi que sur la souveraineté et la sécurité alimentaires tout en ouvrant des perspectives sur le développement communautaire futur relatif à l’alimentation. L’analyse se fonde sur une recherche menée dans quatorze communautés du nord du Manitoba et comprend un premier sondage sur la sécurité alimentaire, un second sondage sur les prix, et des entrevues. Le manque de contrôle du développement dans les communautés reculées du nord du Manitoba, tant autochtones que non-autochtones, mine à la fois la souveraineté alimentaire et les moyens d’existence durables tout en provoquant de hauts niveaux d’insécurité alimentaire. Selon un modèle Logit, le partage d’aliments locaux permet une souveraineté alimentaire et une autonomie durable tout en ayant un meilleur impact sur la

  2. Application of MODIS Land Products to Assessment of Land Degradation of Alpine Rangeland in Northern India with Limited Ground-Based Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tasumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation of alpine rangeland in Dachigam National Park, Northern India, was evaluated in this study using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land products. The park has been used by a variety of livestock holders. With increasing numbers of livestock, the managers and users of the park are apprehensive about degradation of the grazing land. However, owing to weak infrastructure for scientific and statistical data collection and sociopolitical restrictions in the region, a lack of quality ground-based weather, vegetation, and livestock statistical data had prevented scientific assessment. Under these circumstances, the present study aimed to assess the rangeland environment and its degradation using MODIS vegetation, snow, and evapotranspiration products as primary input data for assessment. The result of the analysis indicated that soil water content and the timing of snowmelt play an important role in grass production in the area. Additionally, the possibility of land degradation in heavily-grazed rangeland was indicated via a multiple regression analysis at a decadal timescale, whereas weather conditions, such as rainfall and snow cover, primarily explained year-by-year differences in grass production. Although statistical uncertainties remain in the results derived in this study, the satellite-based data and the analyses will promote understanding of the rangeland environment and suggest the potential for unsustainable land management based on statistical probability. This study provides an important initial evaluation of alpine rangeland, for which ground-based information is limited.

  3. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  4. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  6. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  7. Causes of perinatal death at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Tanzania 2000–2010: a registry based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmbaga Blandina T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal mortality reflects maternal health as well as antenatal, intrapartum and newborn care, and is an important health indicator. This study aimed at classifying causes of perinatal death in order to identify categories of potentially preventable deaths. Methods We studied a total of 1958 stillbirths and early neonatal deaths above 500 g between July 2000 and October 2010 registered in the Medical Birth Registry and neonatal registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC in Northern Tanzania. The deaths were classified according to the Neonatal and Intrauterine deaths Classification according to Etiology (NICE. Results Overall perinatal mortality was 57.7/1000 (1958 out of 33 929, of which 1219 (35.9/1000 were stillbirths and 739 (21.8/1000 were early neonatal deaths. Major causes of perinatal mortality were unexplained asphyxia (n=425, 12.5/1000, obstetric complications (n=303, 8.9/1000, maternal disease (n=287, 8.5/1000, unexplained antepartum stillbirths after 37 weeks of gestation (n= 219, 6.5/1000, and unexplained antepartum stillbirths before 37 weeks of gestation (n=184, 5.4/1000. Obstructed/prolonged labour was the leading condition (251/303, 82.8% among the obstetric complications. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the leading cause (253/287, 88.2% among the maternal conditions. When we excluded women who were referred for delivery at KCMC due to medical reasons (19.1% of all births and 36.0% of all deaths, perinatal mortality was reduced to 45.6/1000. This reduction was mainly due to fewer deaths from obstetric complications (from 8.9 to 2.1/1000 and maternal conditions (from 8.5 to 5.5/1000. Conclusion The distribution of causes of death in this population suggests a great potential for prevention. Early identification of mothers at risk of pregnancy complications through antenatal care screening, teaching pregnant women to recognize signs of pregnancy complications, timely access to obstetric care

  8. Economics of a small wind pump system based on estimated petrol and diesel cost savings from use in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Ejieji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven years of daily wind records were analyzed for the estimation of available wind energy for water pumping at three selected locations in Northern Nigeria, namely Jos, Kano and Sokoto. This formed the basis for investigating the economics of the use of an imported small wind pump under a deregulated energy market environment. The estimated available energy for water pumping at the installation height of 9m was 190 kwh/m2/yr for Jos, 225 kwh/m2/yr for Kano and 348 kwh/m2/yr for Sokoto. The monetary value of the available wind energy was considered as saved energy cost. The saved cost was obtained in terms of the unsubsidized cost of the petrol and diesel that an internal combustion engine (ICE would consume to produce energy equivalent to the available wind energy. At the prevailing interest and inflation rates of 21.96 % and 12.1% respectively, and unsubsidized prices of N 131.32/l and N 140.23/l for petrol and diesel respectively, investment in the wind pump was not found to be economically competitive relative to using a pump with ICE prime mover at the three locations unless the cost of the pump was subsidized. For Sokoto, the estimated subsidy for initial cost of the wind pump required for the investment to be competitive relative to the use of a pump driven by a petrol ICE was 16%. Relative to a pump driven by a diesel ICE, the required subsidy was 24%. The corresponding subsidy estimates for Kano were 48 % and 51 % respectively. For Jos, it was 56% relative to the use of a pump driven by a petrol ICE and 60 % relative to that driven by a diesel ICE. Considering the potential environmental and social and environmental benefits however, subsidy support by government for local manufacturing of the pumps was recommended since shipping cost and custom tariff constituted over 36% of the initial cost of the wind pump.

  9. Oral health behaviours of parents and young children in a practice-based caries prevention trial in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Lucy; Worthington, Helen V; Donaldson, Michael; O'Neil, Ciaran; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Tickle, Martin

    2018-06-01

    The NICPIP trial evaluated the costs and effects of a caries prevention intervention delivered to 2- to 3-year-old children attending dental practices in Northern Ireland. This supplementary study explored the oral health behaviours of children and their parents to help understand the reasons for the trial's findings. A mixed methods study that included a questionnaire completed by all parents (n = 1058) at the time they brought their child for the NICPIP final clinical assessment. The questionnaire collected data on frequency of toothbrushing and sugar consumption. Questionnaire data were analysed by trial group and caries status. Parents of trial participants (n = 42) were invited to take part in telephone interviews. Parents were purposively sampled according to trial group and whether or not their child developed caries. The interviews explored how and why oral health behaviours happened. Interview data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The questionnaire data indicated that toothbrushing and between-meal sugar snacking were common in the majority of children. The children of parents who automatically reminded their child to brush their teeth were more likely to remain caries-free (Odds Ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.08, 1.41; P = .002). Frequency of sweet drink consumption was associated with the child developing caries (Odds Ratio 0.88; 95% CI 0.79, 0.98; P = .021). The interview data showed that parents had positive attitudes towards brushing both in terms of perceived importance and expected outcomes. Attitudes towards sugar snacking were more complex, with parents reporting difficulties in controlling this behaviour. Sugar was described as being something that was "ever present" in children's lives. Toothbrushing was widely adopted from a young age, but between-meal sugar consumption was highly prevalent. The results suggest that effective family-level and population-level interventions are needed to reduce sugar consumption

  10. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-12

    Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach's alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource-constrained settings.

  11. Implications of climate change on winter road networks in Ontario's Far North and northern Manitoba, Canada, based on climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Y.; Cheng, V. Y. S.; Gough, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    A network of winter roads in northern Canada connects a number of remote First Nations communities to all-season roads and rails. The extent of the winter road networks depends on the geographic features, socio-economic activities, and the numbers of remote First Nations so that it differs among the provinces. The most extensive winter road networks below the 60th parallel south are located in Ontario and Manitoba, serving 32 and 18 communities respectively. In recent years, a warmer climate has resulted in a shorter winter road season and an increase in unreliable road conditions; thus, limiting access among remote communities. This study focused on examining the future freezing degree-days (FDDs) accumulations during the winter road season at selected locations throughout Ontario's Far North and northern Manitoba using recent climate model projections from the multi-model ensembles of General Circulation Models (GCMs) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. First, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall correlation test and the Theil-Sen method were used to identify any statistically significant trends between FDDs and time for the base period (1981-2010). Second, future climate scenarios are developed for the study areas using statistical downscaling methods. This study also examined the lowest threshold of FDDs during the winter road construction in a future period. Our previous study established the lowest threshold of 380 FDDs, which derived from the relationship between the FDDs and the opening dates of James Bay Winter Road near the Hudson-James Bay coast. Thus, this study applied the threshold measure as a conservative estimate of the minimum threshold of FDDs to examine the effects of climate change on the winter road construction period.

  12. Air-sea exchange of CO2 in the Gulf of Kutch, northern Arabian Sea based on bomb-carbon in corals and tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Ramesh, R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1994-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses were carried out in the annual bands of a 40 year old coral collected from the Gulf of Kutch (22.6degN, 70degE) in the northern Arabian Sea and in the annual rings of a teak tree from Thane (19deg14'N, 73deg24'E) near Bombay. These measurements were made in order to obtain the rates of air-sea exchange of CO 2 and the advective mixing of water in the Gulf of Kutch. The Δ 14 C peak in the Thane tree occurs in the year 1964, with a value of ∼630 part per thousand, significantly lower than that of the mean atmospheric Δ 14 C of the northern hemisphere (∼1000 part per thousand). The radiocarbon time series of the coral was modelled considering the supply of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf through air-sea exchange and advective water transport from the open Arabian Sea. A reasonable fit for the coral data was obtained with an air-sea CO 2 exchange rate of 11-12 mol m -2 yr -1 , and an advective velocity of 28 m yr -1 between the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Kutch; this was based on a model generated time series for radiocarbon in the Arabian Sea. The deduced velocity (∼ 28 m yr -1 ) of the advective transport of water between the Gulf and the Arabian Sea is much lower than the surface tidal current velocity in this region, but can be understood in terms of net fluxes of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf to match the observed coral Δ 14 C time series. (author). 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  14. The Basque farmhouses of Zelaa and Maiz Goena : New dendrochronology-based findings about the evolution of the built heritage in the northern Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susperregi, J.; Telleria, I.; Urteaga, M.; Jansma, E.

    2017-01-01

    The Basque farmhouse, a characteristic building type for north-western Spain, is an architectural solution that allows the combined management of different rural activities. In addition to providing living quarters and a space for a cider press these farmhouses were designed to function as, among

  15. From Scandinavia to Spain: a Viking-Age reliquary in León and its meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2010-01-01

    Presentation and discussion of a small box, which is highly decorated in the Scandinavian Mammen style and preserved in the treasury of the Church of San Isodoro in León, in northern Spain. This is the only Viking objects so far identified in Spain. The box, which is from the late 10th century an...... and probably was a reliquary, may be an aristocratic gift to the local royalty brought by a pilgrim on his way to Santiago de Compostela....

  16. Revenue Based Budgeting at VA Northern California Health Care System: A Model for Financially Aligning Organizational Incentives and Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stockwell, David

    1999-01-01

    .... In 1996 the Veterans Equitable Resource Allocation (VERA) model began to disperse the annual congressional appropriation based upon numbers of veterans seen within each of the integrated service networks (VISNs...

  17. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  18. Identification of suitable areas for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that may produce a considerable impact on the economy in affected countries. In the last decades, the geographic distribution of RVF virus has increased including most of the countries in Africa, Arabia Saudi and Yemen. This situation has raised the concerns regarding its potential introduction in the European Union (EU) countries where the high number of susceptible species and competent vectors may contribute to the spread of the disease and challenge its rapid control. Thus, the identification of the areas and time periods with highest suitability for RVF outbreak occurrence would be useful for improving the early detection and rapid response of the disease into free countries. The objective of this study was to identify suitable areas for the occurrence of RVF outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision making model based on weighted linear combination of factors in geographical information systems (GIS). To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first comprehensive GIS-based framework that provides risk maps for RVF suitability in an EU country. Spanish zones with the highest suitability for RVF were concentrated in the regions of Extremadura, south-western Castile and Leon, eastern Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, northern-central and southern region of Andalusia and in the Balearic Islands. October and May were the most suitable months for RVF outbreak occurrence. Methods and results presented here may be useful to target risk-based surveillance strategies and to more cost-effectively control potential RVFV incursions into Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioactivity measurement in spring waters of Cantabria, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Torres, J.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the radioactivity existing in a high number of springs located in Cantabria, Northern Spain, was made. The spring analyzed in three sampling campaign's, And alpha and beta total activities and 226 Ra and 222 Rn concentrations were determined for each sample. The measuring techniques employed were gamma spectrometry with Ge detector, counting with gas flow proportional counter, and counting with ZnS(Ag) scintillating detector. Results show that springs with high radon water concentration have high values respect to the national mean. The springs with the highest radium and radon levels have thermal waters and are located on two deep fault, those have historic seismicity and seismical and geomorphological evidences of recent tectonic activity

  20. Soil solution and sugar maple response to NH(4)NO (3) additions in a base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean-David; Houle, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Nitrogen additions (NH4NO3) at rates of three- and ten-fold ambient atmospheric deposition (8.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) were realised in an acid- and base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada. Soil solution chemistry, foliar chemistry, crown dieback and basal area growth of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were measured. Except for a transitory increase of NO3 and NH4 concentrations, there was no persistent increase in their level in soil solution 3 years after N treatments, with the exception of one plot out of three, that received the highest N addition, beginning to show persistent and high NO3 concentrations after 2 years of N additions. Three years of N additions have significantly increased the N DRIS index of sugar maple but not N foliar concentration. Potassium, Ca and Mn foliar concentrations, as well as P and Ca DRIS indices, decreased in treated plots after 3 years. No treatment effect was observed for basal area growth and dieback rate. One unexpected result was the significant decrease in foliar Ca even in the treated plots that received low N rates, despite the absence of significant NO3-induced leaching of Ca. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in foliar Ca is not known. Our results, however, clearly demonstrate that increased N deposition at sites with low base saturation may affect Ca nutrition even when clear signs of N saturation are not observed.

  1. Mitigating Satellite-Based Fire Sampling Limitations in Deriving Biomass Burning Emission Rates: Application to WRF-Chem Model Over the Northern sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yi; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Zeng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Largely used in several independent estimates of fire emissions, fire products based on MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua polar-orbiting satellites have a number of inherent limitations, including (a) inability to detect fires below clouds, (b) significant decrease of detection sensitivity at the edge of scan where pixel sizes are much larger than at nadir, and (c) gaps between adjacent swaths in tropical regions. To remedy these limitations, an empirical method is developed here and applied to correct fire emission estimates based on MODIS pixel level fire radiative power measurements and emission coefficients from the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) biomass burning emission inventory. The analysis was performed for January 2010 over the northern sub-Saharan African region. Simulations from WRF-Chem model using original and adjusted emissions are compared with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from MODIS and AERONET as well as aerosol vertical profile from CALIOP data. The comparison confirmed an 30-50% improvement in the model simulation performance (in terms of correlation, bias, and spatial pattern of AOD with respect to observations) by the adjusted emissions that not only increases the original emission amount by a factor of two but also results in the spatially continuous estimates of instantaneous fire emissions at daily time scales. Such improvement cannot be achieved by simply scaling the original emission across the study domain. Even with this improvement, a factor of two underestimations still exists in the modeled AOD, which is within the current global fire emissions uncertainty envelope.

  2. Association of stress and depression with chronic facial pain: A case-control study based on the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Netta; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Mäki, Pirjo; Ek, Ellen; Taanila, Anja; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to study the association between stress level and chronic facial pain, while controlling for the effect of depression on this association, during a three-year follow-up in a general population-based birth cohort. In the general population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, information about stress level, depression and facial pain were collected using questionnaires at the age of 31 years. Stress level was measured using the Work Ability Index. Depression was assessed using the 13-item depression subscale in the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Three years later, a subsample of 52 subjects (42 women) with chronic facial pain and 52 pain-free controls (42 women) was formed. Of the subjects having high stress level at baseline, 73.3% had chronic facial pain, and 26.7% were pain-free three years later. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that high stress level at 31 years increased the risk for chronic facial pain (crude OR 6.1, 95%, CI 1.3-28.7) three years later. When including depression in a multivariate model, depression associated statistically significantly with chronic facial pain (adjusted OR 2.5, 95%, CI 1.0-5.8), whereas stress level did not (adjusted OR 2.3, 95%, CI 0.6-8.4). High stress level is connected with increased risk for chronic facial pain. This association seems to mediate through depression.

  3. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  4. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  5. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Objective Classification of Rainfall in Northern Europe for Online Operation of Urban Water Systems Based on Clustering Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Madsen, Henrik; McSharry, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    operators to change modes of control of their facilities. A k-means clustering technique was applied to group events retrospectively and was able to distinguish events with clearly different temporal and spatial correlation properties. For online applications, techniques based on k-means clustering...... and quadratic discriminant analysis both provided a fast and reliable identification of rain events of "high" variability, while the k-means provided the smallest number of rain events falsely identified as being of "high" variability (false hits). A simple classification method based on a threshold...

  7. TBT: Telecommunications-Based Training in the 90s (DELTA Programme--Action Line III). Proceedings of the Workshop (Madrid, Spain, January 21-22, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report contains a collection of papers presented at a workshop on telecommunications-based training systems as part of the DELTA (Developing European Learning through Technological Advance) Action Line III, which addressed research in telecommunications for open and distance education. The following presentations are included: (1)…

  8. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanh, Nguyen Tt; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  9. The implementation of unit-based perinatal mortality audit in perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diem, M.T.; Timmer, A.; Bergman, K.A.; Bouman, K.; van Egmond, N.; Stant, D.A.; Ulkeman, L.H.M.; Veen, W.B.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perinatal (mortality) audit can be considered to be a way to improve the careprocess for all pregnant women and their newborns by creating an opportunity to learn from unwanted events in the care process. In unit-based perinatal audit, the caregivers involved in cases that result in

  10. Funding in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Juan Luis

    2006-01-01

    billing throughout the entire electricity sector. For other producers, tariffs for services rendered. General Radioactive Plan (June 2004 Rev.), Economic and Financial Aspects: The total amount obtained electricity tariff, plus the corresponding financial yield, shall cover the following costs: The management of radioactive wastes generated during electricity production by nuclear means from the origin. The management of radioactive wastes arising from research activities that, in the opinion of the Ministry of Economy, have been directly related to electricity production by nuclear means. The D and D of nuclear electricity generating facilities, as well as management of the resulting radioactive wastes. The D and D operations carried out as a result of uranium mining and milling activities performed prior to the constitution of ENRESA Other costs to be incurred by ENRESA for the performance of its missions in relation to the activities set out above. Financial Parameters: The Fund has to be provided during the operating lifetime of the nuclear power plants. The Fund includes provisions for waste/spent fuel management and decommissioning. The Fund required is based on Discounted Costs (Base Year: 1999, Inflation Rate: 2%, Discount Rate: 2.5%)

  11. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  12. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  13. Performance evaluation of object based greenhouse detection from Sentinel-2 MSI and Landsat 8 OLI data: A case study from Almería (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Antonio; Aguilar, Manuel A.; Nemmaoui, Abderrahim; Aguilar, Fernando J.; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-10-01

    This paper shows the first comparison between data from Sentinel-2 (S2) Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) and Landsat 8 (L8) Operational Land Imager (OLI) headed up to greenhouse detection. Two closely related in time scenes, one for each sensor, were classified by using Object Based Image Analysis and Random Forest (RF). The RF input consisted of several object-based features computed from spectral bands and including mean values, spectral indices and textural features. S2 and L8 data comparisons were also extended using a common segmentation dataset extracted form VHR World-View 2 (WV2) imagery to test differences only due to their specific spectral contribution. The best band combinations to perform segmentation were found through a modified version of the Euclidian Distance 2 index. Four different RF classifications schemes were considered achieving 89.1%, 91.3%, 90.9% and 93.4% as the best overall accuracies respectively, evaluated over the whole study area.

  14. The Impacts of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Processes on Permafrost Soils and USAF Infrastructure within Northern Tier Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    radiation from clouds, snow, soil , and water surfaces (the Earth’s albedo), the distribution of continents and oceans, and topography (Davis, 2001, pp...facilities will be built on the north end of the base. Two of the borehole samples were found to have traces of massive-ice permafrost soils (Inc, 2016b...J. L. (2008). Evaluation of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel, (August). Bonan, G. B. (1989). A computer model of the solar radiation , soil moisture

  15. The sedimentary regime around northern Sylt, South-eastern North Sea, based on shallow seismic (sparker and Chirp III) information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldreel, Lars Ole; Kuijpers, Antoon; Madsen, Emil B

    2010-01-01

    on a workstation. Interpretation of the data reveals bedforms, with their internal structures representative of the “present sedimentation regime”. In addition, the sparker data show 2-3 well-defined deeper regional reflectors and pronounced erosion channels at greater subbottom depth. Using various bedform....... The sparker seismic and Chirp III data show that the processes responsible for the bedforms have been persistent throughout the Holocene. Based on the study, a model for the current and sedimentation regime is proposed....

  16. Rock cliffs hazard analysis based on remote geostructural surveys: The Campione del Garda case study (Lake Garda, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A. M.; Migliazza, M.; Roncella, R.; Segalini, A.

    2011-02-01

    The town of Campione del Garda (located on the west coast of Lake Garda) and its access road have been historically subject to rockfall phenomena with risk for public security in several areas of the coast. This paper presents a study devoted to the determination of risk for coastal cliffs and the design of mitigation measures. Our study was based on statistical rockfall analysis performed with a commercial code and on stability analysis of rock slopes based on the key block method. Hazard from block kinematics and rock-slope failure are coupled by applying the Rockfall Hazard Assessment Procedure (RHAP). Because of the huge dimensions of the slope, its morphology and the geostructural survey were particularly complicated and demanding. For these reasons, noncontact measurement methods, based on aerial photogrammetry by helicopter, were adopted. A special software program, developed by the authors, was applied for discontinuity identification and for their orientation measurements. The potentially of aerial photogrammetic survey in rock mechanic application and its improvement in the rock mass knowledge is analysed in the article.

  17. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  19. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  20. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  1. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  2. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thach Duc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21 for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Results Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. Conclusions The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource

  3. Quality of in-hospital stroke care according to evidence-based performance measures: results from the first audit of stroke, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Sònia; Gallofré, Miquel; Ribera, Aida; Sánchez, Emília; Tresserras, Ricard

    2009-04-01

    Evidence-based standards are used worldwide to determine quality of care. We assessed quality of in-hospital stroke care in all acute-care hospitals in Catalonia by determining adherence to 13 evidence-based performance measures (PMs) of process of care. Data on PMs were collected by retrospective review of medical records of consecutive stroke admissions (January to June, 2005). Compliance with PMs was calculated according to 3 hospital levels determined by their annual stroke case-load (level 1, 350). We defined sampling weights that represented each patient's inverse probability of inclusion in the study sample. Sampling weights were applied to produce estimates of compliance. Factors that predicted good/bad compliance were determined by multivariate weighted logistic regression models. An external monitoring of 10% of cases recruited at each hospital was undertaken, after random selection, to assess quality of data. We analyzed data from 1791 stroke cases (17% of all stroke admissions). Global interobserver agreement was 0.7. Eight PMs achieved compliances >or=75%, 4 of which were more than 90%, and the remaining showed adherences Catalonia was heterogeneous across hospital levels. Rehabilitation-related measures showed poor compliances compared to acute care-related ones, which achieved more satisfactory adherences.

  4. Component analysis of a school-based substance use prevention program in Spain: contributions of problem solving and social skills training content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Pereira, Juan R; Orgilés, Mireia; García-Fernández, José M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to examine the contribution of two intervention components, social skills training and problem solving training, to alcohol- and drug-related outcomes in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 341 Spanish students from age 12 to 15 who received the prevention program Saluda in one of four experimental conditions: full program, social skills condition, problem solving condition, and a wait-list control group. Students completed self-report surveys at the pretest, posttest and 12-month follow-up assessments. Compared to the wait-list control group, the three intervention conditions produced reductions in alcohol use and intentions to use other substances. The intervention effect size for alcohol use was greatest in magnitude for the full program with all components. Problem-solving skills measured at the follow-up were strongest in the condition that received the full program with all components. We discuss the implications of these findings, including the advantages and disadvantages of implementing tailored interventions to students by selecting intervention components after a skills-based needs assessment.

  5. Thermal usage of drainage water at the northern entrance to the Gotthard base railway tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Nordportal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for 2004 presents a review of the results of work done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on research into the possible uses of the rock water collected behind the tunnel linings of the new Gotthard base tunnel under the Swiss Alps. This report regards only the northern entrance. Estimates of the quantity of drainage water and its temperature are presented, as are possible uses for the warm water as a basis for district heating, individual heat-pumps as well as for greenhouses, fish breeding and mushroom farming. Figures are quoted on effective heating-energy costs and reductions in fossil-fuel use to be attained. The high sensitivity of the energy price to changes in electricity prices and to the degree to which buildings are connected to a district heating system is discussed. Possible use of the tunnel water in other municipalities in the area are also listed. Figures on heating-power and heating-energy supply are quoted for several of the various possible projects.

  6. Long Term Subsidence Analysis and Soil Fracturing Zonation Based on InSAR Time Series Modelling in Northern Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Llanet Siles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study deformation processes in northern Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico (ZMVM are evaluated by means of advanced multi-temporal interferometry. ERS and ENVISAT time series, covering approximately an 11-year period (between 1999 and 2010, were produced showing mainly linear subsidence behaviour for almost the entire area under study, but increasing rates that reach up to 285 mm/yr. Important non-linear deformation was identified in certain areas, presumably suggesting interaction between subsidence and other processes. Thus, a methodology for identification of probable fracturing zones based on discrimination and modelling of the non-linear (quadratic function component is presented. This component was mapped and temporal subsidence evolution profiles were constructed across areas where notable acceleration (maximum of 8 mm/yr2 or deceleration (maximum of −9 mm/yr2 is found. This methodology enables location of potential soil fractures that could impact relevant infrastructure such as the Tunel Emisor Oriente (TEO (along the structure rates exceed 200 mm/yr. Additionally, subsidence behaviour during wet and dry seasons is tackled in partially urbanized areas. This paper provides useful information for geological risk assessment in the area.

  7. A chironomid-based record of temperature variability during the past 4000 years in northern China and its possible societal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haipeng; Chen, Jianhui; Zhang, Shengda; Zhang, David D.; Wang, Zongli; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Shengqian; Wang, Shijin; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Fahu

    2018-03-01

    Long-term, high-resolution temperature records which combine an unambiguous proxy and precise dating are rare in China. In addition, the societal implications of past temperature change on a regional scale have not been sufficiently assessed. Here, based on the modern relationship between chironomids and temperature, we use fossil chironomid assemblages in a precisely dated sediment core from Gonghai Lake to explore temperature variability during the past 4000 years in northern China. Subsequently, we address the possible regional societal implications of temperature change through a statistical analysis of the occurrence of wars. Our results show the following. (1) The mean annual temperature (TANN) was relatively high during 4000-2700 cal yr BP, decreased gradually during 2700-1270 cal yr BP and then fluctuated during the last 1270 years. (2) A cold event in the Period of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period (STWP), the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) can all be recognized in the paleotemperature record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. This suggests that our chironomid-inferred temperature record for the Gonghai Lake region is representative. (3) Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature, and the relationship is a good example of the potential societal implications of temperature change on a regional scale.

  8. Stress state reconstruction and tectonic evolution of the northern slope of the Baikit anteclise, Siberian Craton, based on 3D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, A. N.; Khudoley, A. K.; Khusnitdinov, R. R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we consider application of an original method for determining the indicators of the tectonic stress fields in the northern Baikit anteclise based on 3D seismic data for further reconstruction of the stress state parameters when analyzing structural maps of seismic horizons and corresponded faults. The stress state parameters are determined by the orientations of the main stress axes and shape of the stress ellipsoid. To calculate the stress state parameters from data on the spatial orientations of faults and slip vectors, we used the algorithms from quasiprimary stress computation methods and cataclastic analysis, implemented in the software products FaultKinWin and StressGeol, respectively. The results of this work show that kinematic characteristics of faults regularly change toward the top of succession and that the stress state parameters are characterized by different values of the Lode-Nadai coefficient. Faults are presented as strike-slip faults with normal or reverse component of displacement. Three stages of formation of the faults are revealed: (1) partial inversion of ancient normal faults, (2) the most intense stage with the predominance of thrust and strike-slip faults at north-northeast orientation of an axis of the main compression, and (3) strike-slip faults at the west-northwest orientation of an axis of the main compression. The second and third stages are pre-Vendian in age and correlate to tectonic events that took place during the evolution of the active southwestern margin of the Siberian Craton.

  9. An Aircraft-Based Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere O3, CO, and H2O Climatology for the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Pan, L. L.; Hoor, P.; Atlas, E.; Avery, M. A.; Campos, T.; Christensen, L. E.; Diskin, G. S.; Gao, R.-S.; Herman, R. L.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a climatology of O3, CO, and H2O for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), based on a large collection of high ]resolution research aircraft data taken between 1995 and 2008. To group aircraft observations with sparse horizontal coverage, the UTLS is divided into three regimes: the tropics, subtropics, and the polar region. These regimes are defined using a set of simple criteria based on tropopause height and multiple tropopause conditions. Tropopause ]referenced tracer profiles and tracer ]tracer correlations show distinct characteristics for each regime, which reflect the underlying transport processes. The UTLS climatology derived here shows many features of earlier climatologies. In addition, mixed air masses in the subtropics, identified by O3 ]CO correlations, show two characteristic modes in the tracer ]tracer space that are a result of mixed air masses in layers above and below the tropopause (TP). A thin layer of mixed air (1.2 km around the tropopause) is identified for all regions and seasons, where tracer gradients across the TP are largest. The most pronounced influence of mixing between the tropical transition layer and the subtropics was found in spring and summer in the region above 380 K potential temperature. The vertical extent of mixed air masses between UT and LS reaches up to 5 km above the TP. The tracer correlations and distributions in the UTLS derived here can serve as a reference for model and satellite data evaluation

  10. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  11. The Local Value Chain of Hunted Red Deer Meat: A Scenario Analysis Based on a Northern Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gaviglio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although in recent decades, meat from hunted wild ungulates has shown interesting results in terms of market opportunities, the scientific literature is still lacking in economic studies concerning the estimation of the meat’s value for involved stakeholders. We present an analysis of the evolution of price in the local red deer meat supply chain. This analysis has been conducted through a survey based on in-depth interviews with the stakeholders involved in an Italian local supply chain. Findings derived from this study describe a case study, however, they also represent the potential dynamics of the value of Italian game meat, highlighting that the development of a sustainable local supply chain of this product may represent an economic resource for involved stakeholders.

  12. Corrosion and Scaling Potential in Drinking Water Distribution of Babol, Northern Iran Based on the Scaling and Corrosion Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Corrosion and scaling play undesirable effects on transmission and distribution system of drinking water. The aim of this study was to assess the corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources in Babol city, Iran. Materials and Methods: Totally, 54 water samples were collected from 27 wells in spring and autumn. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, and temperature were measured, using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices were calculated and data were analyzed by SPSS 19. To compare the mean values of each index, the results were analyzed using t-test. Results: The range of temperature, pH, TDS, total alkalinity and calcium hardness were 16-24°c; 6.8-7.89; 445-1331 mg/l; 322.9-396 mg/l and 250.50-490 mg/l, respectively. The mean of Langelier and Ryznar indices in drinking water samples in spring and autumn was 0.14, 0.15; 7.28 and 7.35, respectively. The mean of Puckhorius and Larson indices in these seasons was 11.9, 11.95 and 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The mean of aggressive index was 6.17 and 6.27, respectively. Overall, 82.2%, 100%, 94.6%, 100% and 85.7% of water samples were corrosive based on the Langelier, Ryznar, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices, respectively. Conclusion: According to these results, drinking water of Babol city has corrosion potential. Therefore, the water quality should be controlled based on pH, alkalinity and hardness parameters, along with the use of corrosion resisting materials and pipes in drinking water distribution systems.

  13. Climate variability in Andalusia (southern Spain during the period 1701–1850 based on documentary sources: evaluation and comparison with climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Montávez Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a reconstruction of climatic conditions in Andalusia (southern Iberian Peninsula during the period 1701–1850, as well as an evaluation of its associated uncertainties, is presented. This period is interesting because it is characterized by a minimum in solar irradiance (Dalton Minimum, around 1800, as well as intense volcanic activity (for instance, the eruption of Tambora in 1815, at a time when any increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations was of minor importance. The reconstruction is based on the analysis of a wide variety of documentary data. The reconstruction methodology is based on counting the number of extreme events in the past, and inferring mean value and standard deviation using the assumption of normal distribution for the seasonal means of climate variables. This reconstruction methodology is tested within the pseudoreality of a high-resolution paleoclimate simulation performed with the regional climate model MM5 coupled to the global model ECHO-G. The results show that the reconstructions are influenced by the reference period chosen and the threshold values used to define extreme values. This creates uncertainties which are assessed within the context of climate simulation. An ensemble of reconstructions was obtained using two different reference periods (1885–1915 and 1960–1990 and two pairs of percentiles as threshold values (10–90 and 25–75. The results correspond to winter temperature, and winter, spring and autumn rainfall, and they are compared with simulations of the climate model for the considered period. The mean value of winter temperature for the period 1781–1850 was 10.6 ± 0.1 °C (11.0 °C for the reference period 1960–1990. The mean value of winter rainfall for the period 1701–1850 was 267 ± 18 mm (224 mm for 1960–1990. The mean values of spring and autumn rainfall were 164 ± 11 and 194 ± 16 mm (129 and 162 mm for 1960–1990, respectively. Comparison of the distribution

  14. Application of OMI tropospheric NO2 for air quality monitoring in Northern Europe: shipping and land-based case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Hakkarainen, Janne; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Boersma, Folkert; Krotkov, Nickolay; Tamminen, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    Satellite-based data are very important for air quality applications in the Baltic Sea area, because they provide information on air pollution over sea and there where ground-based network and aircraft measurements are not available. Both the emissions from urban sites over land and ships over sea, contribute to the tropospheric NO2 levels. The tropospheric NO2 monitoring at high latitudes using satellite data is challenging because of the reduced light hours in winter and the snow-covered surface, which make the retrieval complex, and because of the reduced signal due to low Sun. This work presents a detailed characterization of the tropospheric NO2 columns focused on part of the Baltic Sea region using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 standard product. Previous works have focused on larger seas and lower latitudes. The results showed that, despite the regional area of interest, it is possible to distinguish the signal from the main coastal cities and from the ships by averaging the data over a seasonal time range. The summertime NO2 emission and lifetime values (E = (1.0 ± 0.1)x1028 molec. and τ = (3.0 ± 0.5) h, respectively) in Helsinki were estimated from the decay of the signal with distance from the city center. The method developed for megacities was successfully applied to a smaller scale source, in both size and intensity (i.e., the city of Helsinki), which is located at high latitudes (~ 60oN). The same methodology could be applied to similar scale cities elsewhere, as far as they are relatively isolated from other sources. The transport by the wind plays an important role in the Baltic Sea area. The NO2 spatial distribution is mainly determined by the contribution of strong westerly winds, which dominate the wind patterns during summer. The comparison between the emissions from model calculations and OMI NO2 tropospheric columns confirmed the applicability of satellite data for ship emission monitoring. In particular, both the

  15. A Dynamic Model for Construction and Demolition (C&D Waste Management in Spain: Driving Policies Based on Economic Incentives and Tax Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Calvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent Spanish legislation, the amount of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste (C&D waste by weight must be reduced by at least 70% by 2020. However, the current behavior of the stakeholders involved in the waste management process make this goal difficult to achieve. In order to boost changes in their strategies, we firstly describe an Environmental Management System (EMS based on regulation measures and economic incentives which incorporate universities as a key new actor in order to create a 3Rs model (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle in the C&D waste management with costs savings. The target areas are focused mainly on producer responsibility, promotion of low-waste building technologies and creation of green jobs to fulfill three main objectives: valorization of inert wastes, elimination of illegal landfills and stimulation of demand for recycled C&D wastes. To achieve this latter goal, we have also designed a simulation model—using the Systems Dynamic methodology—to assess the potential impact of two policies (incentives and tax penalties in order to evaluate how the government can influence the behavior of the firms in the recycling system of C&D waste aggregates. This paper finds a broader understanding of the socioeconomic implications of waste management over time and the positive effects of these policies in the recycled aggregates market in order to achieve the goal of 30% C&D waste aggregates in 12 years or less.

  16. The Air Traffic Controller Work-Shift Scheduling Problem in Spain from a Multiobjective Perspective: A Metaheuristic and Regular Expression-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Tello

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an air traffic control operator (ATCo work-shift scheduling problem. We consider a multiple objective perspective where the number of ATCos is fixed in advance and a set of ATCo labor conditions have to be satisfied. The objectives deal with the ATCo work and rest periods and positions, the structure of the solution, the number of control center changes, or the distribution of the ATCo workloads. We propose a three-phase problem-solving methodology. In the first phase, a heuristic is used to derive infeasible initial solutions on the basis of templates. Then, a multiple independent run of the simulated annealing metaheuristic is conducted aimed at reaching feasible solutions in the second phase. Finally, a multiple independent simulated annealing run is again conducted from the initial feasible solutions to optimize the objective functions. To do this, we transform the multiple to single optimization problem by using the rank-order centroid function. In the search processes in phases 2 and 3, we use regular expressions to check the ATCo labor conditions in the visited solutions. This provides high testing speed. The proposed approach is illustrated using a real example, and the optimal solution which is reached outperforms an existing template-based reference solution.

  17. Analysis of a dryline-like feature in northern Germany detected by ground-based microwave profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaenkuch, Dietrich [Leibniz-Soziaetet der Wissenschaften zu Berlin e.V. (Germany); Gueldner, Juergen [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg - Richard-Assmann-Observatorium; Bender, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (DE). Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ); Steinhagen, Hans

    2011-08-15

    Two dryline-like humidity drops without considerable temperature change were detected by the ground-based microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) at the Richard-Assmann-Observatory Lindenberg (52.21 N, 14.12 E) on April 28, 2007. The detailed analysis of these two events includes cloud radar and radar wind profiler measurements at the site as well as data from the surface synoptic network and from integrated water vapour (IWV) maps derived from GPS. The first more pronounced humidity drop is part of a roughly 200 km long line that meets the criterion of a classical dryline or dewpoint front, namely of a moisture gradient larger 3.5 g m{sup -3} per 100 km. This dewpoint front is ahead of an approaching cold front and is caused by strong downdraft induced by low tropospheric wind shear due to weakening of a midtropospheric high over Germany. It consisted in particular in two kernels of variable size depending on their stage. The fate of the kernels - migration, speed, unification and divorce - is described in detail. Their lifetime was a bit more than 9 hours. The second humidity drop at the site was observed after the passage of the cold front and was caused by dry advection behind the front. Both events are predicted by the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-EU of the German Weather Service to some extent.

  18. The Investigate Factors on Screening of the Breast Cancer Based on PEN-3 Model in Iranian Northern Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolhassan Naghibi

    2015-09-01

    Materials and Methods: The present study was cross-sectional. The samples studied were women above 20 years and the sample size was 1416 people. The method of sampling was a random cluster. The tools of data collection questionnaire with 70 questions which approved its content validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by using software of SPSS Ver. 20. Results: The average age of samples was 35.71±6.1. Only 14.3% of samples are regularly conducted to the self-examination. Also, 38.5% of women had a history of the clinical examination. The difference of observed in performance the breast self-examination and clinical breast examination were the statistical significant by variables of rural or urban (P= 0.005, the marital status (P = 0.013 and a background of having breast cancer (P <0.001. The results of the study based on PEN-3 model were showed that there were a statistical significant relationship between the structure of perceptual factors and reinforcing factors (P=0.002 and between the perceptual factors and enabling factors (P=0.006. Conclusion: According to the results of presented, the women`s performance in using the screening was low. Also, the components status of the PEN-3 Model (factors of perceptual, enabling, and reinforcing for the breast cancer screening in women studied were not suitable.

  19. GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

  20. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the community-based chronic disease prevention program Meta Salud in Northern Mexico, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Catalina A; Rosales, Cecilia; Cornejo, Elsa; Bell, Melanie L; Munguía, Diana; Zepeda, Tanyha; Carvajal, Scott; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill

    2014-09-11

    Meta Salud is a community health worker-facilitated intervention in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, and was adapted from Pasos Adelante, a similar evidence-based intervention developed for a Latino population in the United States-Mexico border region. The objective of this study was to examine outcomes for Meta Salud and compare them with outcomes for Pasos Adelante. This pretest-posttest study took place during 13 weeks among low-income residents of an urban area. The program provided information on topics such as heart health, physical activity, nutrition, diabetes, healthy weight, community health, and emotional well-being; included individual and group activities aimed at motivating behavior change; and encouraged participants to engage in brisk physical activity. We found significant decreases from baseline to conclusion in body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. From baseline to 3-month follow-up, we found significant decreases in body mass index, waist circumference, weight, LDL cholesterol, and glucose, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Outcomes for Meta Salud were similar to those found for Pasos Adelante. The physiological improvements found among participants in Meta Salud and comparable changes among participants in Pasos Adelante suggest a scalable and effective behavioral intervention for regions of the United States and Mexico that share a common boundary or have similar cultural and linguistic characteristics.

  2. Challenges in conducting a community-based influenza vaccine trial in a rural community in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Amarchand, Ritvik; Narayan, Venkatesh Vinayak; Saha, Siddhartha; Lafond, Kathryn E; Kapoor, Suresh K; Dar, Lalit; Jain, Seema; Krishnan, Anand

    2018-04-04

    Evidence on influenza vaccine effectiveness from low and middle countries (LMICs) is limited due to limited institutional capacities; lack of adequate resources; and lack of interest by ministries of health for influenza vaccine introduction. There are concerns that the highest ethical standards will be compromised during trials in LMICs leading to mistrust of clinical trials. These factors pose regulatory and operational challenges to researchers in these countries. We conducted a community-based vaccine trial to assess the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine and inactivated influenza vaccine in rural north India. Key regulatory challenges included obtaining regulatory approvals, reporting of adverse events, and compensating subjects for trial-related injuries; all of which were required to be completed in a timely fashion. Key operational challenges included obtaining audio-visual consent; maintaining a low attrition rate; and administering vaccines during a narrow time period before the influenza season, and under extreme heat. We overcame these challenges through advanced planning, and sustaining community engagement. We adapted the trial procedures to cope with field conditions by conducting mock vaccine camps; and planned for early morning vaccination to mitigate threats to the cold chain. These lessons may help investigators to confront similar challenges in other LMICs.

  3. Trends in motor neuron disease: association with latitude and air lead levels in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Villar, Alejandro; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Riancho, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MND) are a group of disorders characterized by motor neuron degeneration. Among them, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is by far the most common in adulthood. This paper assesses the trend and geographical pattern in MND incidence in Spain and the possible air lead levels effect on this pathology. To confirm this concept, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deaths due to MND in Spain during 2000 and 2013, determined the geographical differences, and explored the relationship between MND and the air levels of lead. Overall, between 2000 and 2013, 11,355 people died in Spain because of MND. Disease mortality significantly increased in recent years (2007-2013) when compared with the first time of the period. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient also showed a statistically significant positive trend (CC = 0.824, p = 0.0002). Among people over 65 years, mortality rates were higher in Northern provinces. Moreover, we found a significant association of MND mortality with higher air lead levels (CC = 0.457, p = 0.01). Our study confirms that MND mortality is increasing in Spain, with a significant latitude gradient, which suggests an important role of environmental exposures. This ecological study suggests that air lead levels may be implicated in ALS pathogenesis.

  4. Low knowledge and anecdotal use of unauthorized online HIV self-test kits among attendees at a street-based HIV rapid testing programme in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M José; Figueroa, Carmen; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Ruiz, Mónica; Vallejo, Fernando; de la Fuente, Luis

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentage of potential users who know that unauthorized HIV self-tests can be purchased online and the percentage of those who have already used them, and to determine socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data from attendees at a street-based HIV testing programme. Logistic regression for rare events was performed. Of the 3340 participants, 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-6.0%) had knowledge of self-tests being sold online and 7.5% (95% CI 6.6-8.5%) thought they existed but had never seen them; only 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-0.9%) had ever used one. Knowing that self-tests are sold online (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% CI 2.4-5.4) and using them (OR 7.3, 95% CI 2.2-23.8) were associated with having undergone more than two previous HIV tests. Use was also associated with being neither Spanish nor Latin American (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.0) and with having a university degree (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). At the time of the study, the impact on the population of issues related to the use of unauthorized tests was very low. However, media coverage following the approval of self-testing in the USA might have changed the situation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Experiences on the development of a Community Based Early Warning System for mountain risks in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina; Sterlacchini, Simone; de Amicis, Mattia; Fontana, Michele; Trozzi, Arianna; Frigerio, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the European project Mountain Risks (http://mountain-risks.eu/), one of the projects currently developed is a methodology to integrate risk management and evacuation emergency plans, focused on prevention as a key element for disaster risk reduction, applied in the Mountain Community Valtellina of Tirano, an area recurrently affected by several mountain hazards. Taking into account the actual state of disaster risk reduction initiatives in the study area, including the existence of a real time emergency plan based on GIS (Geographical Information Systems), DSS (Decision Support Systems), and ICT (Information & Communication Technology), but knowing the lack involvement of the general community in any of the preparation activities developed until the present and the lack of divulgation of the current emergency plan, it was decided that the methodology that could better adapt to the actual conditions of the study area would be a non structural Community Based Early Warning System (CBEWS). A CBEWS has been recognized by institutions as the UN and the INSDR, as an effective and important strategy for disaster risk reduction. This strategy is broadly used especially in developing countries and has proved its effectiveness in many disasters crisis all over the world. In spite of that, possibly for political and social reasons, there are really few applications of CBEWS in developed countries which has made the elaboration of this research project a particularly difficult process due to the lack of previous references with similar conditions to the one in the study area. Difficulties related to any multidisciplinary work which also involves the general community have been faced during the development of the project such as the differences in language (both the technical jargon of the different disciplines and the native language), time restrictions, the process of learning and adapting to different social structures, the process of contacting several

  6. Marginalisation and cardiovascular disease among rural Sami in Northern Norway: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2013-05-29

    Like other indigenous peoples, the Sami have been exposed to the huge pressures of colonisation, rapid modernisation and subsequent marginalisation. Previous studies among indigenous peoples show that colonialism, rapid modernisation and marginalisation is accompanied by increased stress, an unhealthy cardiovascular risk factor profile and disease burden. Updated data on the general burden of cardiovascular disease among the Sami is lacking. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between marginalisation and self-reported lifetime cardiovascular disease (CVD) by minority/majority status in the rural Sami population of Norway. A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study) was carried out in 2003-2004. The overall participation rate was 60.9% and a total of 4027 Sami individuals aged 36-79 years were included in the analyses. Data was collected by self-administrated questionnaires and a clinical examination. The logistic regression showed that marginalised Sami living in Norwegian dominated areas were more than twice as likely to report CVD as non-marginalised Sami living in Sami majority areas (OR 2.10, 95% CI: 1.40-3.14). No sex difference was found in the effects of marginalisation on self-reported life-time cardiovascular disease. Moderate to no intermediate effects were seen after including established CVD risk factors. This study showed that marginalised Sami living in Norwegian dominated areas were more than twice as likely as non-marginalised Sami from Sami majority areas to report lifetime cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moderate to no intermediate effects were seen after including established CVD risk factors, which suggest little difference in lifestyle related factors. Chronic stress exposure following marginalisation may however be a plausible explanation for some of the observed excess of CVD.

  7. Occupation and bladder cancer in a population-based case-control study in Northern New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Joanne S; Karagas, Margaret R; Schwenn, Molly; Baris, Dalsu; Johnson, Alison; Stewart, Patricia; Verrill, Castine; Moore, Lee E; Lubin, Jay; Ward, Mary H; Samanic, Claudine; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cantor, Kenneth P; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Schned, Alan; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T

    2011-04-01

    We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont to examine relationships between occupation, industry and bladder cancer risk. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by personal interview from 1158 patients newly diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in 2001-2004, and from 1402 population controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and employment in other high-risk occupations. Male precision metalworkers and metalworking/plasticworking machine operators had significantly elevated risks and significant trends in risk with duration of employment (precision metalworkers: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, p(trend) = 0.0065; metalworking/plasticworking machine operators: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.6, p(trend) = 0.047). Other occupations/industries for which risk increased significantly with duration of employment included: for men, textile machine operators, mechanics/repairers, automobile mechanics, plumbers, computer systems analysts, information clerks, and landscape industry workers; for women, service occupations, health services, cleaning and building services, management-related occupations, electronic components manufacturing and transportation equipment manufacturing. Men reporting use of metalworking fluids (MWF) had a significantly elevated bladder cancer risk (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). Our findings support the hypothesis that some component(s) of MWF may be carcinogenic to the bladder. Our results also corroborate many other previously reported associations between bladder cancer risk and various occupations. More detailed analyses using information from the study's job-specific questionnaires may help to identify MWF components that may be carcinogenic, and other bladder carcinogens associated with a variety of occupations.

  8. Phenotype- and SSR-Based Estimates of Genetic Variation between and within Two Important Elymus Species in Western and Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elymus nutans and Elymus sibiricus are two important perennial forage grasses of the genus Elymus, widely distributed in high altitude regions of Western and Northern China, especially on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Information on phenotypic and genetic diversity is limited, but necessary for Elymus germplasm collection, conservation, and utilization. In the present study, the phenotypic and genetic differentiation of 73 accessions of the two species were evaluated using 15 phenotypic traits and 40 expressed sequence tag derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs. The results showed that only 7.23% phenotypic differentiation (Pst existed between the two Elymus species based on fifteen quantitative traits. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that leaf traits, spike traits, and some seed traits were dominant factors in phenotypic variation. Moreover, 396 (97.8% and 331 (87.1% polymorphic bands were generated from 40 EST-SSR primers, suggesting high levels of genetic diversity for the two species. The highest genetic diversity was found in the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau groups. Clustering analysis based on molecular data showed that most accessions of each Elymus species tended to group together. Similar results were described by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA and structure analysis. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA revealed that 81.47% and 89.32% variation existed within the geographical groups for the two species, respectively. Pearson’s correlation analyses showed a strong positive correlation between Nei’s genetic diversity and annual mean temperature. These results could facilitate Elymus germplasm collection, conservation, and future breeding.

  9. Epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease in the Reggio Emilia area of Northern Italy: a seventeen-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Carlo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Catanoso, Maria Grazia; Cimino, Luca; Tumiati, Bruno; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Olivieri, Ignazio; Boiardi, Luigi

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease (BD) over a 17-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident BD diagnosed over a 17-year period (from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 2004) living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified through the following sources: physicians at Reggio Emilia Hospital, medical practitioners, and community-based specialists. We identified all patients registered in a centralized index and in the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or April 1, 2005. Eighteen patients (9 men and 9 women) had complete BD. Mean +/- SD age at diagnosis was 33 +/- 7 years. The incidence rate of BD was 0.24 per 100,000. The prevalence of BD on January 1, 2005 was 3.8 per 100,000. No patients died during the followup period. Although all patients developed oral ulceration during the disease course, 22.2% had no oral lesions at disease onset. Eye disease occurred in 55.6%. Ocular disease was more common in men and appeared at disease onset or within the first few years of disease onset (median 3 years). Only 1 patient had loss of useful vision in at least 1 eye at the end of followup. In all affected patients, visual acuity improved once treatment was started. This population-based study is the first to report the prevalence and incidence of BD in Italy. In Italian patients, BD is nonfatal and the prognosis of eye disease is good.

  10. Knowledge and Skills of Mothers/Care Givers of Children Under Five Years in Communities with Home Based Management of Malaria in Tamale, Northern Region, Ghana, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaila Z. Mumuni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is still one of the major public health problems. More than 400 million cases of malaria are reported each year worldwide, Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region where about 90% of all malaria deaths in the world occur especially in children under five years of age. Home based management of Malaria showed a tremendous effect on reducing mortalities among children in Ghana. Objectives: to determine the current level of knowledge and skills of mothers in Tamale Metropolitan Area in the northern region of Ghana in terms of disease identification, management and transmission of malaria. Methodology: A cross sectional study conducted in 2013 involved 400 families and mothers/care givers with children less than five years were selected randomly and represented urban, peri-urbanand rural settings. Results: More than 90% of respondents identified malaria by presence of fever while 57.5% used fever as a cardinal sign. 91% of participants sought early treatment in urban and peri-urban settings while 85% did so in rural sites. 55% of participants administered the correct doses daily but only 17% of them knew the side effects of Antimalarial medications used. Almost all participants were aware about transmission of malaria, when to repeat the drug dose and usage of paracetamol as a medicine to reduce body temperature. Conclusion: The overall knowledge and skills demonstrated are encouraging, there is no much difference between urban and rural settings. Community based initiatives should be strengthened and promoted to provide homemade solutions to saving lives and resources.

  11. Migratory circularity between Ecuador and Spain. Educational transformation and mobility strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vega Solís

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The migration pattern between Ecuador and Spain has undergone changes since the start of the 2008 crisis. A slowdown in inflows to Spain and increasing Ecuadorian returnees, today add the Spanish skilled migration to this country in entering higher education as well as the exit of young Ecuadorians to acquire fourth level´s degree in Spain, or Europe in general. The context of crisis and unemployment in education in Spain and education reform policies being carried out in Ecuador is articulated in shaping this circularity between the two countries. Through a quantitative and qualitative multi-situated methodology based on a poll and in-depth interviews, this paper estimates the volume of these displacements and explores the motivations, conditions and strategies that are influencing.

  12. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  13. Field-based Constraints on Lower Crustal Flow From the World's Largest Exposure of Lower Continental Crust, Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, G.; Gonclaves, P.; Williams, M. L.; Bowring, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    mantles of Pl-porphyroclasts. Relatively H2O-poor and/or CO2-rich conditions are required by the preservation of fine-grained microstructures and absence of grain-coarsening or recrystallization in the S1 tectonite. We speculate that the shallow S1 tectonite exposed in the central Snowbird tectonic zone transect represents an important and unique field-based analog for the nature of deep crustal reflectivity and lower crustal flow in collisional orogens. Furthermore, our results suggest that the strength of the lower continental crust is dynamic and evolving. In this particular case, flow of relatively weak lower crust during production of S1 was followed by a period of near-isobaric cooling and strengthening. Subsequent deformation events produced steep fabrics (e.g. S2), 10s of m- to 100s of km-scale moderately- to steeply-dipping shear zones, and local reactivation of S1, reflecting the dramatic effects of strain partitioning in a heterogeneous and anisotropic medium.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  15. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  16. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  17. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  18. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  19. Characterization of hydraulic connections between mine shaft and caprock based on time series analysis of water level changes for the flooded Asse I salt mine in northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauchler, Ralf; Mettier, Ralph; Schulte, Peter; Fuehrboeter, Jens Fred

    2015-01-01

    In the context of safe enclosure of nuclear waste in salt formations, one of the main challenges is potential water inflow into the excavations. In this context, the hydraulic relationship between the abandoned Asse I salt mine and the salt dissolution network at the base of the caprock of the Asse salt structure in northern Germany is characterized by utilizing time series analysis of water level changes. The data base comprises a time series of water level measurements over eight years with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes (in general) and up to 2 minutes for specific intervals. The water level measurements were collected in the shaft of the flooded mine, which is filled with ground rock salt until a depth of 140 m, and a deep well, which is screened in 240 m depth at the salt dissolution zone at the base of the caprock. The distance between the well and the shaft is several hundred meters. Since the beginning of the continuous observations in the 1970s, the shaft has shown periodically abrupt declines of the water level of several meters occurring in intervals of approx. 8 to 10 years. The time series analysis consists of trend, Fourier-, autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis showed that during times with small water level changes the measured water level in the well and the shaft are positively correlated whereas during the abrupt water level drops in the shaft, the measured water levels between the shaft and the well are negatively correlated. A potential explanation for this behavior is that during times with small changes, the measured water levels in the well and in the shaft are influenced by the same external events with similar response times. In contrast, during the abrupt water level decline events in the shaft, a negatively correlated pressure signal is induced in the well, which supports the assumption of a direct hydraulic connection between the shaft and the well via flooded excavations and the salt dissolution network

  20. Characterization of hydraulic connections between mine shaft and caprock based on time series analysis of water level changes for the flooded Asse I salt mine in northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, Ralf; Mettier, Ralph; Schulte, Peter [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland); Fuehrboeter, Jens Fred [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the context of safe enclosure of nuclear waste in salt formations, one of the main challenges is potential water inflow into the excavations. In this context, the hydraulic relationship between the abandoned Asse I salt mine and the salt dissolution network at the base of the caprock of the Asse salt structure in northern Germany is characterized by utilizing time series analysis of water level changes. The data base comprises a time series of water level measurements over eight years with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes (in general) and up to 2 minutes for specific intervals. The water level measurements were collected in the shaft of the flooded mine, which is filled with ground rock salt until a depth of 140 m, and a deep well, which is screened in 240 m depth at the salt dissolution zone at the base of the caprock. The distance between the well and the shaft is several hundred meters. Since the beginning of the continuous observations in the 1970s, the shaft has shown periodically abrupt declines of the water level of several meters occurring in intervals of approx. 8 to 10 years. The time series analysis consists of trend, Fourier-, autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis showed that during times with small water level changes the measured water level in the well and the shaft are positively correlated whereas during the abrupt water level drops in the shaft, the measured water levels between the shaft and the well are negatively correlated. A potential explanation for this behavior is that during times with small changes, the measured water levels in the well and in the shaft are influenced by the same external events with similar response times. In contrast, during the abrupt water level decline events in the shaft, a negatively correlated pressure signal is induced in the well, which supports the assumption of a direct hydraulic connection between the shaft and the well via flooded excavations and the salt dissolution network

  1. Significant Influences on Nature Experiences: A Comparative Study of Southern German and Northern Spanish Pupils Aged 14-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation of nature experiences among adolescents is of critical importance for the protection of nature. The participants of this study are 14-15 year-old pupils from Bavaria (Southern Germany) and Asturias (Northern Spain). In particular, the author was interested in a) the level of outdoor experiences of each…

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and post-stroke dementia: a hospital-based study from northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Sajjad; Asgari Mobarake, Karim; Saberi, Alia; Keshavarz, Parvaneh; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnejad

    2016-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with functional and cognitive outcomes of stroke and plays a key role in preventing neuronal death. This study aimed to answer the following question: does BDNF Val66Met polymorphism prognosticate survival status and risk of post-stroke dementia (PSD)? In a retrospective cohort study, 206 patients with ischemic stroke (IS) entered the study. They were consecutively being admitted to the neurology clinic in Poursina Hospital (northern Iran) from 2012 to 2014. The diagnosis of PSD was based on DSM-5 criteria. The current and the premorbid cognitive statuses of the patients were respectively assessed through the third edition of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP. On average, 48 patients (23.3 %) developed PSD 6 months after IS. Log-rank test showed that the survival rate of at least one Val-allele carriers was significantly lower than that of Met/Met homozygotes (P = 0.0005), and the former developed PSD sooner than the latter (375, 492 days, respectively). Cox model showed that heterozygous carriers of Val/Met were at greater risk of PSD over time (HR 2.280, 95 % CI 1.566-4.106, P = 0.006). However, the risk ratio of patients with PSD among different BDNF genotypes decreased after adjusting demographic, clinical, and vascular risk factors, and was no longer statistically significant (AHR 2.434, 95 % CI 0.597-9.926, P = 0.215). Val-allele carriers or Val/Met genotypes were more quickly diagnosed as having dementia after IS. However, this genetic vulnerability became more destructive when it was added to demographic, clinical, and vascular risk factors.

  3. Five-day planetary waves in the middle atmosphere from Odin satellite data and ground-based instruments in Northern Hemisphere summer 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that 5-day planetary waves modulate noctilucent clouds and the closely related Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE at the summer mesopause. Summer stratospheric winds should inhibit wave propagation through the stratosphere and, although some numerical models (Geisler and Dickinson, 1976 do show a possibility for upward wave propagation, it has also been suggested that the upward propagation may in practice be confined to the winter hemisphere with horizontal propagation of the wave from the winter to the summer hemisphere at mesosphere heights causing the effects observed at the summer mesopause. It has further been proposed (Garcia et al., 2005 that 5-day planetary waves observed in the summer mesosphere could be excited in-situ by baroclinic instability in the upper mesosphere. In this study, we first extract and analyze 5-day planetary wave characteristics on a global scale in the middle atmosphere (up to 54 km in temperature, and up to 68 km in ozone concentration using measurements by the Odin satellite for selected days during northern hemisphere summer from 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007. Second, we show that 5-day temperature fluctuations consistent with westward-traveling 5-day waves are present at the summer mesopause, using local ground-based meteor-radar observations. Finally we examine whether any of three possible sources of the detected temperature fluctuations at the summer mesopause can be excluded: upward propagation from the stratosphere in the summer-hemisphere, horizontal propagation from the winter-hemisphere or in-situ excitation as a result of the baroclinic instability. We find that in one case, far from solstice, the baroclinic instability is unlikely to be involved. In one further case, close to solstice, upward propagation in the same hemisphere seems to be ruled out. In all other cases, all or any of the three proposed mechanisms are consistent with the observations.

  4. A microsatellite-based analysis for the detection of selection on BTA1 and BTA20 in northern Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng-Hua

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites surrounding functionally important candidate genes or quantitative trait loci have received attention as proxy measures of polymorphism level at the candidate loci themselves. In cattle, selection for economically important traits is a long-term strategy and it has been reported that microsatellites are linked to these important loci. Methods We have investigated the variation of seven microsatellites on BTA1 (Bos taurus autosome 1 and 16 on BTA20, using bovine populations of typical production types and horn status in northern Eurasia. Genetic variability of these loci and linkage disequilibrium among these loci were compared with those of 28 microsatellites on other bovine chromosomes. Four different tests were applied to detect molecular signatures of selection. Results No marked difference in locus variability was found between microsatellites on BTA1, BTA20 and the other chromosomes in terms of different diversity indices. Average D' values of pairwise syntenic markers (0.32 and 0.28 across BTA 1 and BTA20 respectively were significantly (P FST-test indicated elevated or decreased genetic differentiation, at SOD1 and AGLA17 markers respectively, deviating significantly (P SOD1 and AGLA17. Our data also indicate significant intergenic linkage disequilibrium around the candidate loci and suggest that hitchhiking selection has played a role in shaping the pattern of observed linkage disequilibrium. Conclusion Hitchhiking due to tight linkage with alleles at candidate genes, e.g. the POLL gene, is a possible explanation for this pattern. The potential impact of selective breeding by man on cattle populations is discussed in the context of selection effects. Our results also suggest that a practical approach to detect loci under selection is to simultaneously apply multiple neutrality tests based on different assumptions and estimations.

  5. Social movements and access to assets and services. Proposal of an analytical framework based on a comparative analysis of cases: political confrontation of unemployed persons (Argentina and occupancy of housing (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Rosa Herrera-Gutierrez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of collaboration between researchers from two Academic Units of Social Work located in Spain and Argentina. The overall objective is to explore the analytical frameworks and empirical objects of research projects linked to social movements developed in both countries. Specifically, two phenomena that lead to social mobilization, unemployment through the territorial expressions of the unemployed (Córdoba, Argentina and housing through the occupation of buildings by people who are evicted (Seville, Spain are compared. The work includes the description of the cases in each country, and the nuclear concepts of analysis, community social innovation in the Spanish case of occupation of housing and political confrontation in the case of Argentina. Finally, we discuss some conclusions that present the proposed dimensions for an analytical framework that responds to the relationship between social movements and access to assets and services.

  6. The reduction of the metabolyc syndrome in Navarra-Spain (RESMENA-S) study; a multidisciplinary strategy based on chrononutrition and nutritional education, together with dietetic and psychological control

    OpenAIRE

    Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles); Bondia-Pons, I. (I.); Abete, I. (Itziar); Iglesia, R. (Rocío) de la; Lopez-Legarrea, P. (Patricia); Forga, L. (Luis); Navas-Carretero, S. (Santiago)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Spain requires additional efforts for prevention and treatment. Objective: The study RESMENA-S aims to improve clinical criteria and biomarkers associated with MS though an integral therapy approach. Methods: The study is a randomized prospective parallel design in which is expected to participate a total of 100 individuals. The RESMENA-S group (n = 50) is a personalized weight loss (30% energy restriction) diet, with a mac...

  7. Social movements and access to assets and services. Proposal of an analytical framework based on a comparative analysis of cases: political confrontation of unemployed persons (Argentina) and occupancy of housing (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Rosa Herrera-Gutierrez; Maria-Inés Peralta; Silvina Cuella; Rosa-María Díaz-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    This work is the result of collaboration between researchers from two Academic Units of Social Work located in Spain and Argentina. The overall objective is to explore the analytical frameworks and empirical objects of research projects linked to social movements developed in both countries. Specifically, two phenomena that lead to social mobilization, unemployment through the territorial expressions of the unemployed (Córdoba, Argentina) and housing through the occupation of buildings by peo...

  8. Performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and a Simplified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score in a Community-Based, Cross-Sectional Programme for Screening of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Dysglycaemia in Madrid, Spain: The SPREDIA-2 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Salinero-Fort

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC and a simplified FINDRISC score (MADRISC in screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (UT2DM and dysglycaemia.A population-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with participants with UT2DM, ranged between 45-74 years and lived in two districts in the north of metropolitan Madrid (Spain. The FINDRISC and MADRISC scores were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve method (ROC-AUC. Four different gold standards were used for UT2DM and any dysglycaemia, as follows: fasting plasma glucose (FPG, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, HbA1c, and OGTT or HbA1c. Dysglycaemia and UT2DM were defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria.The study population comprised 1,426 participants (832 females and 594 males with a mean age of 62 years (SD = 6.1. When HbA1c or OGTT criteria were used, the prevalence of UT2DM was 7.4% (10.4% in men and 5.2% in women; p<0.01 and the FINDRISC ROC-AUC for UT2DM was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.74. The optimal cut-off point was ≥13 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 65.1%. The ROC-AUC of MADRISC was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.81 with ≥13 as the optimal cut-off point (sensitivity = 84.8%, specificity = 54.6%. FINDRISC score ≥12 for detecting any dysglycaemia offered the best cut-off point when HbA1c alone or OGTT and HbA1c were the criteria used.FINDRISC proved to be a useful instrument in screening for dysglycaemia and UT2DM. In the screening of UT2DM, the simplified MADRISC performed as well as FINDRISC.

  9. Agronomical evaluation and chemical characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. as oilseed crop for bio-based products in two environments of Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tavarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, new perspectives for linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. are open as renewable raw material for bio-based products (Bb, due to its oil composition, and the interesting amounts of coproducts (lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the possibility to introduce linseed crop in two environments of central and northern Italy, traditionally devoted to cereal cultivation, has been evaluated. Twoyears field trials were carried out in the coastal plain of Pisa (Tuscany region and in the Po valley (Bologna, Emilia Romagna region, comparing two linseed varieties (Sideral and Buenos Aires. Agronomical evaluation (yield and yield components, seed and oil characterization (oil, protein content, and fatty acid composition, together with carbon (C and nitrogen (N content of the residual lignocellulosic biomass were investigated. The two varieties, grown as autumn crop, showed a different percentage of plant survival at the end of winter, with Sideral most resistant to cold. The achieved results showed significant influence of cultivar, location and growing season on yield and yield components, as well as on chemical biomass composition. In particular, Sideral appeared to be the most suitable variety for tested environments, since higher seed yield (3.05 t ha–1 as mean value over years and locations and above-ground biomass (6.98 t ha–1 as mean value over years and locations were recorded in comparison with those detected for Buenos Aires (1.93 and 4.48 t ha–1 of seed production and lignocellulosic biomass, respectively. Interestingly, in the northern area, during the 1st year, Buenos Aires was the most productive, despite its low plant survival at the end of winter, which determined a strong reduction in plant density and size. In such conditions, the plants produced a larger number of capsules and, consequently, high seed yield (3.18 t ha–1. Relevant differences were also observed between the two years, due to the variability of climatic

  10. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Quemada, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  11. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  12. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  13. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  14. Assessing Mobile Phone Access and Perceptions for Texting-Based mHealth Interventions Among Expectant Mothers and Child Caregivers in Remote Regions of Northern Kenya: A Survey-Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul Momin; Carmichael, Jason-Louis; Hapanna, Galgallo Waqo; Wangoo, Patrick Gikaria; Karanja, Sarah; Wanyama, Denis; Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Kyomuhangi, Lennie Bazira; Loolpapit, Mores; Wangalwa, Gilbert Bwire; Kinagwi, Koki; Lester, Richard Todd

    2017-01-30

    With a dramatic increase in mobile phone use in low- and middle-income countries, mobile health (mHealth) has great potential to connect health care services directly to participants enrolled and improve engagement of care. Rural and remote global settings may pose both significant challenges and opportunities. The objective of our study was to understand the demographics, phone usage and ownership characteristics, and feasibility among patients in rural and remote areas of Kenya of having text messaging (short messaging service, SMS)-based mHealth intervention for improvements in antenatal care attendance and routine immunization among children in Northern Kenya. A survey-based descriptive study was conducted between October 2014 and February 2015 at 8 health facilities in Northern Kenya as part of a program to scale up an mHealth service in rural and remote regions. The study was conducted at 6 government health facilities in Isiolo, Marsabit, and Samburu counties in remote and northern arid lands (NAL). Two less remote health facilities in Laikipia and Meru counties in more populated central highlands were included as comparison sites. A total of 284 participants were surveyed; 63.4% (180/284) were from NAL clinics, whereas 36.6% (104/284) were from adjacent central highland clinics. In the NAL, almost half (48.8%, 88/180) reported no formal education and 24.4% (44/180) self-identified as nomads. The majority of participants from both regions had access to mobile phone: 99.0% (103/104) of participants from central highlands and 82.1% (147/180) of participants from NAL. Among those who had access to a phone, there were significant differences in network challenges and technology literacy between the 2 regions. However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of participants from NAL and central highlands who indicated that they would like to receive a weekly SMS text message from their health care provider (90.0% vs 95.0%; P=.52). Overall, 92

  15. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities,…

  16. A review of prehistoric and early historic mainland salt marsh vegetation in the northern-Netherlands based on the analysis of plant macrofossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, M.; Cappers, R. T. J.; Bekker, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of archaeobotanical research on artificial dwelling mounds, so-called 'terps', in the northern-Netherlands. A total of 40 studies carried out over the past 40 years is evaluated. The vegetation diversity in the area as well as the differences with the present marsh

  17. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  18. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  19. Female health workers at the doorstep: a pilot of community-based maternal, newborn, and child health service delivery in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzondu, Charles A; Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Ager, Alastair

    2015-03-01

    Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Poor health outcomes are linked to weak health infrastructure, barriers to service access, and consequent low rates of service utilization. In the northern state of Jigawa, a pilot study was conducted to explore the feasibility of deploying resident female Community Health Extension Workers (CHEWs) to rural areas to provide essential maternal, newborn, and child health services. Between February and August 2011, a quasi-experimental design compared service utilization in the pilot community of Kadawawa, which deployed female resident CHEWs to provide health post services, 24/7 emergency access, and home visits, with the control community of Kafin Baka. In addition, we analyzed data from the preceding year in Kadawawa, and also compared service utilization data in Kadawawa from 2008-2010 (before introduction of the pilot) with data from 2011-2013 (during and after the pilot) to gauge sustainability of the model. Following deployment of female CHEWs to Kadawawa in 2011, there was more than a 500% increase in rates of health post visits compared with 2010, from about 1.5 monthly visits per 100 population to about 8 monthly visits per 100. Health post visit rates were between 1.4 and 5.5 times higher in the intervention community than in the control community. Monthly antenatal care coverage in Kadawawa during the pilot period ranged from 11.9% to 21.3%, up from 0.9% to 5.8% in the preceding year. Coverage in Kafin Baka ranged from 0% to 3%. Facility-based deliveries by a skilled birth attendant more than doubled in Kadawawa compared with the preceding year (105 vs. 43 deliveries total, respectively). There was evidence of sustainability of these changes over the 2 subsequent years. Community-based service delivery through a resident female community health worker can increase health service utilization in rural, hard-to-reach areas. © Uzondu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under

  20. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.