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Sample records for northern parana state

  1. Energy balance of the Parana State - 1980-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the energetic balance of Parana State - 1980/1994, including the energy fluxes from primary and secondary energy sources in the main sectors of Parana economy. It informs consumption, production and energy external dependence. 26 figs., 88 tabs

  2. Energy matrix in the Parana State. Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The energy sector in the Parana State, Brazil, is analyzed. The supply, demand, investment, environmental, social and economic aspects are described, and the necessary action for satisfying the energy demand in the year 2000 are presented. 69 tabs., 11 figs

  3. Energy balance from Parana State - 1980-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The energy flows of primary and secondary energy sources since the production to the end consumption in the main sectors of Parana State economy during 1980 to 1992, are presented. The supply and demand, consumption and production of energy sources are shown. Some information about resources and reserves are also cited. (C.G.C.)

  4. Energy balance from Parana State: 1980-1993; Balanco energetico do Parana: 1980-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This energetic balance from the Parana State, Brazil, includes the data referent to the year of 1993. It aims to be a planning tool to the public sector embraced to the energetic question and to orient productive investments to the private sector. It also shows the energetic information during the period of 1980-1993, presenting energetic streams of energetic primary and secondary sources, since its production to the final consumption, according to the main sectors of the economy in the Parana State. The balance is divided in seven chapters, as follows: resume - a synthetic analysis of the energetic sector evolution during the last 14 years and the consolidated data about production, consumption, etc concerning to 1993; energetic supply and demand; energetic interchange transformation centers; another energetic information; energy and socio economy; consolidated energetic balances; and annex - balance structure, information treatment, units, conversion table to medium tEP and specific masses and higher calorific capacities 5 figs., 7 graphs, 1 map, 92 tabs.

  5. Management report 2001 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil - management report of calendar year of 2000 is presented, covering the following topics: COPEL - standing for much more than energy; extending the benefits of electricity to everyone in Parana state, Brazil; protecting and recovering the environment; philanthropy and volunteer work; education; social integration; support to cultural expression and gratitude

  6. Social balance sheet 2000 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil social balance report of calendar year of 2000 is presented, covering the following topics: COPEL - standing for much more than energy; extending the benefits of electricity to everyone in Parana state, Brazil; protecting and recovering the environment; philanthropy and volunteer work; education; social integration; support to cultural expression and gratitude

  7. Natural and artificial radionuclides in soils from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.; Barreto, W.O.; Cardoso, A.

    1994-01-01

    Soil samples from Parana State, Brazil, were collected in 1991 and compared with others collected at some location in March 1977 and at the end of 1983. Pedological analyses were practiced on the samples and 137 Cs and 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K activities were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. A latitude dependence of 137 Cs was found as well. It was impossible to determine the 137 Cs contribution from Chernobyl nuclear accident because of low fallout and intense leaching, erosion and re-suspension in soils of regions with high annual precipitation. Natural radionuclides did not show such effects. (author) 39 refs; 6 tabs

  8. Survey of the energy balance in the State of Parana, Brazil, 1980-1995; Sinopse do balanco energetico do Parana, 1980-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    A summary of energy consumption in the state of Parana, Brazil, in the period 1980-1995 is presented. The data includes energy from different sources, the share of each sector of the economy, the quantity of energy imported and exported by the state, the energy resources and reserves and the regional consumption distribution 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Radiation traces in exportation food samples of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2002-02-01

    This work deals with radioactive traces measurements in foodstuffs produced at the State of Parana, with large export rate and also of nutritious products of some regional trading companies. The measured foods were: sulfite treated sugar, tea, mint candy, soy in grain, soy crumb, gross soy oil, gum free oil and commercial refined soy oil. Six samples of each lot of the analyzed material were prepared, which represent a sampling with 90% of confidence. The samples were sealed in Marinelli beaker of 2.1 L completely filled and kept during 40 days until secular equilibrium was achieved. The counting time for each measure was of 48 hours. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a HPGe detector with 10% of relative efficiency, coupled to standard nuclear electronics and a 8 l multichannel card. The acquisition of the data was accomplished with the software Maestro TM , version 3.2. The energy resolution of the 137 Cs 661.62 keV gamma line was 1.75 keV. The larger intensity gamma lines observed in the spectra were from the following radionuclides: 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 212 Pb of the 232 Th series, 214 Bi and 214 Pb from the 238 U series, 227 Ac from the 235 U series and 40 K. Activities and lower level of detection limits were calculated according to the International Agency of Atomic Energy norms.The detector efficiency was measured using a 152 Eu certified source and IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 certified reference materials. For most of the radionuclides it was possible only the measurement of the minimum activity detectable in the foodstuffs. Self-attenuation corrections were accomplished with support literature results. The most important activity observed was that of 40 K, whose value measured for soy in natura was 745.0 + - 9 .1 Bq/kg and for the crumb soy 1473 ± 15 Bq/kg.. he measured activities of the several analyzed foods were compatible with the values expected for non contaminated normal environmental samples, except for soy crumb, whose 40 K

  10. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE STATE OF PARANA – BRAZIL (1970, 1996 AND 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucir Reinaldo Alves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper analyzes the spatial displacement of the productivity of Gross Value of Agricultural Production of the main activities and cultures of Parana’s State in 1970, 1996 and 2007. To this, we used a database of pre-existing on the Gross Value of Agricultural Production - the VBPA contained in the Agricultural Censuses (IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the SEAB (Secretary of Agriculture and Supply of Paraná. The results showed that the VBPA of Paraná State has a spatial displacement during the period, where it was concentrated in 1970 in the northern portion of the state, influenced mainly by coffee plantations. In 2007, the most visible concentration hovered over the West and Southwest regions, and motion to expand the activities poultry and swine in those regions as well as crop production technicality as soybeans and corn. The findings of this study confirm the dynamism of the regions, as well as the impact of modernization on the field, and also highlights the role that agricultural activities have on the economy of the state of Parana.

  11. Annual report 2000 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil, during the calendar year of 2003 is presented, comprising: a management report, portraying the Company's accomplishments during the year in connection with its core businesses and a social balance sheet, addressing the Company's efforts to contribute to the development and well-being of the community by means of socially oriented projects

  12. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Both; Christi Noriko Sonoo; Juarez Vieira Nascimento; Hudson de Resende Moreira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL) and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women), corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection....

  13. Soil quality indicators in a rhodic kandiudult under different uses in northern Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biana Harumi Kuwano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of soil, maintaining or improving its quality, is one of the goals of diversification in farmlands. From this point of view, bioindicators associated with C, N and P cycling can be used in assessments of land-use effects on soil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil associated with C, N and P under different land uses in a farm property with diversified activity in northern Parana, Brazil. Seven areas under different land uses were assessed: fragment of native Atlantic Forest; growing of peach-palm (Bactrys gasipaes; sugarcane ratoon (Saccharum officinarum recently harvested, under renewal; growing of coffee (Coffea arabica intercropped with tree species; recent reforestation (1 year with native tree species, previously under annual crops; annual crops under no-tillage, rye (Cecale cereale; secondary forest, regenerated after abandonment (for 20 years of an avocado (Persea americana orchard. The soil under coffee, recent reforestation and secondary forest showed higher concentrations of organic carbon, but microbial biomass and enzyme activities were higher in soils under native forest and secondary forest, which also showed the lowest metabolic coefficient, followed by the peach-palm area. The lowest content of water-dispersible clay was found in the soil under native forest, differing from soils under sugarcane and secondary forest. Soil cover and soil use affected total organic C contents and soil enzyme and microbial activities, such that more intensive agricultural uses had deeper impacts on the indicators assessed. Calculation of the mean soil quality index showed that the secondary forest was closest to the fragment of native forest, followed by the peach-palm area, coffee-growing area, annual crop area, the area of recent reforestation and the sugarcane ratoon area.

  14. Radiation traces in exportation food samples of Parana State, Brazil; Tracos radioativos em amostras alimentares de exportacao do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2002-02-01

    This work deals with radioactive traces measurements in foodstuffs produced at the State of Parana, with large export rate and also of nutritious products of some regional trading companies. The measured foods were: sulfite treated sugar, tea, mint candy, soy in grain, soy crumb, gross soy oil, gum free oil and commercial refined soy oil. Six samples of each lot of the analyzed material were prepared, which represent a sampling with 90% of confidence. The samples were sealed in Marinelli beaker of 2.1 L completely filled and kept during 40 days until secular equilibrium was achieved. The counting time for each measure was of 48 hours. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a HPGe detector with 10% of relative efficiency, coupled to standard nuclear electronics and a 8 l multichannel card. The acquisition of the data was accomplished with the software Maestro{sup TM}, version 3.2. The energy resolution of the {sup 137} Cs 661.62 keV gamma line was 1.75 keV. The larger intensity gamma lines observed in the spectra were from the following radionuclides: {sup 228} Ac, {sup 208} Tl, {sup 212} Pb of the {sup 232} Th series, {sup 214} Bi and {sup 214} Pb from the {sup 238} U series, {sup 227} Ac from the {sup 235} U series and {sup 40} K. Activities and lower level of detection limits were calculated according to the International Agency of Atomic Energy norms.The detector efficiency was measured using a {sup 152} Eu certified source and IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 certified reference materials. For most of the radionuclides it was possible only the measurement of the minimum activity detectable in the foodstuffs. Self-attenuation corrections were accomplished with support literature results. The most important activity observed was that of {sup 40} K, whose value measured for soy in natura was 745.0 {sup +}-{sup 9}.1 Bq/kg and for the crumb soy 1473 {+-} 15 Bq/kg.. he measured activities of the several analyzed foods were compatible with the values

  15. Plant survival of barbados cherry genotypes after frost injury in northern Parana State/ Recuperação de plantas de genótipos de aceroleira afetadas por geada no norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Barbados cherry is a tropical fruit that when cultivated in subtropical areas is exposed to frosts which cause considerable damages to the leaves and can kill plants. The frosts of July 2000 in Northern Paraná State made possible the evaluation of 19 Barbados cherry genotypes propagated through cuttings. A minimum air temperature of –1,3°C was recorded on 17 July at the meteorological station; the minimum ground temperature was around –5,4°C. All plants were severely injured in 100% of leaves. The evaluation was made the following year to the frost, through sprouts status. It was observed that Barbados cherry genotypes present differences in cold hardiness. Some genotypes were killed and others survived, with good vegetation on the next year. The following genotypes presented the best recovery: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ and ‘Lígia.’ The findings are discussed in relation to temperature limits reported in the literature.A aceroleira é uma planta de clima tropical que também tem sido cultivada em áreas subtropicais, ficando com isso sujeita à ocorrência de geadas, que causam danos consideráveis à folhagem e podem levar as plantas à morte. As geadas de julho de 2000 no Norte do Paraná possibilitaram a avaliação de 19 genótipos de acerola, propagados vegetativamente. A temperatura mínima foi de –1,3° C no abrigo meteorológico em 17 de julho, que corresponde a – 5,4 °C na relva. Todas as plantas tiveram danos em 100% das folhas. No ano seguinte à geada, avaliou-se a recuperação das plantas com base na brotação apresentada. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que os genótipos de aceroleira apresentam respostas diferentes à geada, sendo que alguns são levados à morte e outros conseguem se recuperar na estação de crescimento seguinte. Os genótipos que apresentaram melhor recuperação foram: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ e ‘Lígia’. Os resultados são discutidos em rela

  16. Molluskan fauna in two shell mounds in the State of Parana coast, Brazil

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    Marcos de Vasconcellos Gernet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shell mounds are artificial formations consisting mostly of mollusk shells used in the feeding of the prehistoric peoples which inhabited our coast. These sites are found throughout the Brazilian coast, and hundreds of them were cataloged in the State of Paraná since the 1940s. The fragility of these sites, their importance as evidences of our prehistoric period, and its abrupt disappearance, justify the need for new researches which contribute to contextualize and draw up plans to preserve this heritage. The works related to the molluskan fauna found in the shell mounds are restricted to refer to the most common species and, sometimes, just their popular names. A greater knowledge on these prehistoric inhabitants’ diet allows a better understanding of ancient natural ecosystems. The survey of mollusks was carried out in the shell mounds Guaraguaçu and Boguaçu, in the towns of Pontal do Parana and Guaratuba, respectively, and performed through visual inspection, reading of specialized bibliography and comparison to previous works on the fauna of the shell mounds in the State of Parana coast. Altogether, 29 species were observed in the shell mound Guaraguaçu and 17 species were observed in the shell mound Boguaçu, resulting in a total of 31 species.

  17. Methodology for getting the end use of energy in the industrial sector from Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag Filho, A.

    1990-03-01

    A methodology for a survey on the utilization of energy in the industrial sector from Parana state, at low costs, and aiming the supply of data with the desired reliability and disaggregation is presented. The obtained data shall provide elements for the adoption of short term actions as well as serve as a basis for the elaboration of medium and long terms scenarios. The survey shall be conducted throughout the state, comprising all fields of activity and having the following objectives: determine the state's energetic consumption profile by industrial segment and by end use of energy; determine the state's energetic profile with the spatial distribution of consumption and detect the industrial segments which are more sensitive to the energetic substitution programs and/or of energy conservation. (author)

  18. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chernaki-Leffer,AM.; Almeida,LM.; Sosa-Gómez,DR.; Anjos,A.; Vogado,KM.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter a...

  19. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Both

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women, corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Spearman’s correlation test. The results showed the dissatisfaction of teachers with wages, working conditions and balance between work and leisure. Most subjects presented positive lifestyle behaviors, but the components nutrition, physical activity and stress management were a matter of concern. Internal evaluation of QWL yielded higher correlation coefficients than lifestyle. When comparing the two analytical matrices, low levels of correlation were observed between components and overall assessment of the constructs.

  20. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of archaeological ceramics from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Richard M.C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Coimbra, Melayne M.; Aragao, Pedro H.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work demonstrates an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μρ) of irregular form samples. This methodology aims the study of indigenous archaeological ceramics from the region of Londrina, North of Parana State, Brazil. These ceramics are from Padre Carlos Weiss Historic Museum, Londrina University and belong to the Kaingaing tradition. Firstly, μρ determination by two mean method was performed by the gamma ray beam attenuation of the immersed ceramics, by using two different means with well-known linear attenuation coefficient. Beyond, the deduction of the equation for the μρ determination by the two-means methods, was also realized. By the other side, μρ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer program. This program uses the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. To verify the two-means method efficiency, five ceramics sample of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Theses ceramics, we used for the μρ determination using the attenuation method, and two-means method. The results and the μρ obtained deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two-means method is applicable for the mass attenuation coefficient determination for the archaeometry studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. The tunas massif, state of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, C.B.; Barbieri, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Tunas massif, outcropping 80 km from the city of Curitiba, Parana State, southern Brazil, covers about 22 km 2 . It intruded into Precambrian metaigneous and metasedimentary units about 80 Ma ago (K/Ar and Rb/Sr data); five subcircular volcanic structures are recognized. Syenites and alkali syenites (plus some pulaskites) are the main rock-types, with subordinate alkali gabbros, syenogabbros, essexites and syenodiorites; small late syenitic dikes are also found. Magmatic breccias containing clasts of all rock-types are widespread. Main minerals are feldspars (both alkali feldspars and plagioclases, varying from bytownite to more sodic members), Ca-pyroxenes (Ti-salites grading towards ferrosalites and aegirine-augites), amphiboles (mainly pargasites, although kaersutites and katophorites are also present), Fe-biotites (sometimes enriched in Ti), olivines (hortonolites to ferrohortonolites), quartz and feldspathoids (both fresh and altered nephelines and sodalites); main accessories are Ti-magnetites (with exsolved ilmenite) and apatite. In the AFM diagram, whole rock chemistry depicts a typical alkaline trend. Binary variation diagrams (D.I. vs. several elements) show positive correlation for Si, Na and K, and negative slopes for Mg and Ca. The variation in the amounts of Ni, Cr and V with differentiation can be explained by withdrawal of olivine, Ca-pyroxenes and magnetite, and that of Sr and Ba by the fractionation of feldspars. The rocks are also relatively enriched in REE, a trend which is more pronounced for the light REE. Mass balance calculations show that the overall differentiation trend of the Tunas rocks can be explained by crystal fractionation, although several complexities arise and point to more complex genetic patterns. Isotopic Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with a mantle origin for the parental magma; dike rocks, however, with 87 Sr 86 Sr i = 0.70777 - 0.70806, were probably contaminated by crustal material. (author) [pt

  2. Evaluation of radon concentration in dwellings and well water of Parana State-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi

    2011-01-01

    Considering the growing interest of International Agencies and national Governmental organs in studies and measurements of radon activity in air, soil gas and ground water (mainly from artesian wells) as well as scarceness of such measurements at Brazilian territory, present studies were initiated by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN) of Brazilian Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN). This Collaboration started in 2003. Radon monitoring program is based mainly on use of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors for radon activity measurements in air. Continuous electronic radon detectors are used for radon measurements in soil gas and water. Current work presents the results of indoor 222 Rn activity of dwellings and working places of Curitiba-PR and radon concentration in ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the same area. The indoor measurements of radon activity were performed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors CR-39. After the exposition, CR-39 detectors were submitted to chemical development which permitted to make alpha particle tracks counting. The results of calibration of CR-39 together with efficiency of used exhalation chambers as well as alpha particle tracks chemical development procedure were performed in cooperation with CDTN and collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The major part of indoor 222 Rn concentration in residences was found below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements present 222 Rn concentration bellow 100 Bq/m3. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the samples of water from artesian wells submitted to recursive measurements by instant radon detector AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO during few weeks with intervals of about 4 days between each measurement

  3. Mineralogical and structural transformations related to alterations in hydrothermal and climatological conditions of basic vulcanic rocks from northern Parana (Ribeirao Preto region, SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, N.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed studies of the basic vulcanic rocks of northern Parana basin (Region of Ribeirao Preto, SP) reveled that these rocks were affected by pre-meteoric activity (hydrothermal alteration) before being exposed to the supergene system of alteration linked to the lithosphere/atmosphere interface. Mineralogical and structural transformation are studied. The appearance of sequential crystalline-chemical paragenesis in zones suggest that the hydrothermal activity occurred during two successives processes of alteration: the expulsion of the water from the rock during the later stages of magma cooling and the continous process of dissolution of the rock wall and the ionic diffusion involving the rock sistem of structural voids. The hydro-thermal action was followed by weathering action developing a thin 'front' of superficial alteration. This alteration system, can lead to the formation of three major levels of alteration horizons and superficial accumulations: alterites, glebular and suil surface materials. (C.D.G.) [pt

  4. Deuterium and oxygen-18 concentrations in rain and river waters from Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana States, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Oliveiro J.; Salati, Eneas

    1982-01-01

    The main object of this paper was to study the concentration of deuterium (D) and Oxygen-18 ( 18 O) in the rain and river waters from the States of Minas Gerais, Sao paulo and Parana. Monthly samples were prepared and analysed at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-ESALQ-USP) with the use of CH-4 ( 18 O) and GD-150 (D) mass spectrometers of Varian-Mat. In order to correlate the D and 18 O of the rain water the equation δD = 9.22 + 7.17δ18 was found. Considering the three equations separately it was observed that the parameter a = δD -bδ18 increases from the South to the North. For the Piracicaba River (city of Piracicaba only), the D and 18 O relationship was expressed by δD = -10.98 + 4.88δ18. The States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo can be divided according to the weight-average concentrations (δ18 m% 0 ). This division is not possible from Parana. Considering the average from the weight average concentration (annually and summer) for the three States, the annual average (D and 18 O) is slightly richer than the summer average, showing the importance of the amount effect, mainly for the States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The rivers studied had little variation in the 18 O concentrations with no definite periodicity. The rivers from the North of Minas Gerais are slightly richer in 18 O than the rivers from the South. The waters from Rio Grande in the South of Minas Gerais State are poorer in 18 O than the water of the same river in the 'Triangle'region. The δ18% 0 data for the rivers Grande, Parnaiba and Parana are very similar, so there is no way to compute the contribution of the first and the second rivers in the formation of the third. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Characterization and technological properties of mineral clays used in the Southwest of Parana and West of Santa Catarina states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdameri, C.Z.; Ciesca, D.F.; Zatta, L.; Anaissi, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize clay minerals used in the ceramic industry in southwestern region of Parana and west of Santa Catarina states. The precursors used were the same used by industries in these regions for the production of bricks. The precursors were characterized,preliminary results are shown with respect to structural, chemical and physical precursors (XRD, EDS and plasticity). The specimens were characterized for technological burning properties: linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural tension and density. The results show that the clays present Typical chemical composition of raw clay, however, the evaluation of technological properties after burning indicate negative results to be applied to the manufacture of red ceramic because did not meet the regulatory requirements. (author)

  6. Analysis of inter-organizational relationships in hospitality business at Curitiba (Parana State, Brazil. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio João Hocayen-da-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality business in Curitiba City (Parana State, Brazil turned to be a good investment for national and international hotel chains due to the settlement of assembly industries as well as several multinational companies in the dwellings,  which increased demand for hospitality services.  This study sought to examine the inter-organizational relationships held by hospitality business companies in Curitiba. To achieve that goal semi-structured interviews with owners, directors and managers were conducted in two hotels belonging to locals, either persons or groups. Secondary data were collected in printed or on line newspapers and magazines. It was possible to note the absence of formal practices of alliances and partnerships between companies of the analyzed sector, which  hinders the achievement of sustainable competitive advantage.

  7. EVALUATION OF FACTORS OF THE WORKPLACES IN MATE INDUSTRY (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. AT CENTRAL-SOUTH IN PARANA STATE

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    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed in the maté process industry workplaces, located in central-south of the Parana State, Brazil, from June to August 2005. The climate conditions, noise and light level were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The results showed that the climate conditions through the Wet Bulle Globe Temperature (WBGT was in accordance with NR 15 standard, with a maximum of 17.0 ºC at 15:00 p.m. in the “Barbaquá” sector. The noise levels were above allowed by legislation in the “Barbaquá” sector at finally work day. The light conditions were not in accordance with NBR 5413/92 in the majority of the workplaces evaluated, mainly after the 18:00 p.m, when the artificial illumination became necessary.

  8. SITE INDEX CURVES AND HYPSOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP FOR Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR THE CAMPOS GERAIS REGION, PARANA STATE

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    Fabiane Aparecida de Souza Retslaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to fit mathematical models for the construction of Site Index curves and to estimate heights at different ages for Eucalyptus grandis in the Campos Gerais region, Parana State. The data used to fit the models came from permanent, temporary plots and pre-harvesting inventory, covering ages from 2.5 to 26.5 years. Several models were tested to represent the sites and the hypsometric relationship. The Site Index curves were constructed by the guide-curve method. For the Site Index, the Chapman-Richards model showed the best fit and precision statistics, generating 5 Site Index curves (range of 5 m with the Chapman-Richards model. The four hypsometric models tested showed satisfactory performance and similar statistics and the inclusion of the variables dominant height or site index did not substantially improve the goodness of fit statistics, but the residues were more homogeneous and closer to zero.

  9. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured {sup 222}Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m{sup 3} and 320.82 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m{sup 3} and 67.50 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m{sup 3}. Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m{sup 3} taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  10. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured 222 Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m 3 and 320.82 Bq/m 3 resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m 3 . Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m 3 and 67.50 Bq/m 3 resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m 3 . Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m 3 taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  11. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaki-Leffer, A M; Almeida, L M; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Anjos, A; Vogado, K M

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week). Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points). There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  12. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. Chernaki-Leffer

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22 for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week. Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points. There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  13. Adaptation of rural electricity cooperatives in the State of Parana to the scenario of the electric sector; Adaptacao das cooperativas de eletrificacao rural do estado do Parana ao cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], Email: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmenan, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Reisdoerfer, Eli Carlos; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Email: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Rural Electrification Cooperatives (REC) has already played a fundamental role in rural electrification process. Bearing in mind changes in legislation towards specific laws that tend to facilitate energy distribution and trade relations, REC has increased there potential to contribute even more to above mentioned process. The present work intended to assess how REC settled in Parana State have adapted themselves to the privatised electrical business scenario as well as to new legal requirements and the presence of great national and international corporations disputing the energy market. Such new electrical market model favors huge changes to the electrification cooperatives, with the possibility of transforming cooperatives into public service energy with governmental permission. Moreover, it also represents a giant challenge for their insertion and continuity in such new scenario, in as much as the REC classification process as public service companies for electric energy distribution has been carried out for years, added to the scarcity of investments on state cooperatives, therefore restricting electric energy supply to residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  14. Preliminary survey of soil erosion in a micro-basin in the Brazilian state of Parana, using the Cs-137 methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of the 137 Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion or deposition in an area. The 137 Cs activities were measured in soil samples to determine the soil losses or gains in a basin at the north of Parana State. The detection efficiency was determined by measurement of standards, prepared with well-known activities of 137 Cs. The soil losses or gains were determinate in up-slope, hill-slope and down-slope, in six different transect in the studied basin using three models of the literature. (author)

  15. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2000-01-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial 14 C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. 14 C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of Δ 14 C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout 14 C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11 S , 49 deg 58 O ). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its 14 C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the Δ 14 C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO 2 mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  16. Geochemical characterization of Parana Basin volcanic rocks: petrogenetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the geochemical characteristics of Parana Basin volcanic rocks is presented. The results are based on the analyses of major and trace elements of 158 samples. Ninety three of these volcanic samples belong to 8 flow sequences from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States. The remaining sixty five samples are distributed over the entire basin. In order to study the influence of crustal contamination processes in changing chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks, 47 samples representative of the crystalline basement of the southern and southeastern Parana Basin were also analysed. Several petrogenetic models were tested to explain the compocional variability of the volcanic rocks, in particular those of southern region. The results obtained sugest an assimilation-fractional crystallization process as viable to explain the differences of both the chemical characteristics and Sr isotope initial ratios observed in basic and intermediate rocks. A model involving melting processes of basic material, trapped at the base of the crust, with composition similar to low and high TiO 2 basalts appears to be a possibility to originate the Palmas and Chapeco acid melts, respectively. The study of ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated low TiO 2 basic rocks from the southern, central and northern regions shows the existence of significant differences in the geochemical charactetistics according to their geographical occurrence. A similar geochemical diversity is also observed in high TiO 2 basalts and Chapeco volcanics. Differences in incompatible element ratios between low and high TiO 2 ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated basalts suggest that they could have been produced by different degrees of melting in a garnet peridotite source. Geochemical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) data also support the view that basalts from northern and southern regions of Parana Basin originated from mantle source with different composition. (author) [pt

  17. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Marli Candalaft Alcantara Parra; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ralisch, Ricardo; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ripol, Cristovon Videira; Instituto Paranaense de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural do Paraná/EMATER

    2009-01-01

    Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environment...

  18. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  19. National program of family farm credit and impact on local economies in the state of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lopes Antunes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the national credit for family farmers (PRONAF in savings of 60 municipal districts that hired credit between 2000 and 2005. The development of rural credit shows that from the 1990s, there is an expansion of contracts and resources, intensification occurs after 1999, when he introduces the distinction between family farmers. Family farming has great importance for the state economy, accounting for 45% of the production of major crops and 65% of animals. The study is empirical in nature econometric cross-section, is to determine the effect of PRONAF resources on social, tax and productive state. We conclude that there are statistically significant relationships between PRONAF and the variables selected for analysis and that after 13 years of its institutionalization, continues to fulfill the objective of promoting the development of family farming.

  20. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State.

  1. Population aging in the state of Parana and impact of pensions and retirements in income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Diane Nakatani-Macedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the aging process of the population of Paraná municipalities and its consequences in participation of pensions in total income. Were used the Census database obtained from IPARDES 1980, 1991, 2000 and 2010, in 399 municipalities of Paraná. PNAD (National Research of Household Samples, from years 1988 to 2012, database were used to measure the evolution of rent share due by pensions and annuities, through the decomposition of the Gini index methodology. We concluded that within 30 years the share of elderly in the population increased over three times, on average, for the localities of the state, going from 3.81% in 1980 to 12.83% in 2010 and there is a higher concentration of elderly in the municipalities located further north of the state. Income from pensions and retirements expanded their shares over total income by 125%; in 1988 presented a share of 7.5% over total income, increasing to 15.9% in 2012.

  2. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  3. Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility of agricultural soils in the Northwest region of the Parana State, Brazil; Gamaespectrometria, resistividade eletrica e susceptibilidade magnetica de solos agricolas no noroeste do estado do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becegato, Valter Antonio [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina-UDESC, Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias, Lages, SC (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: becegato@cav.udesc.br, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (LPGA/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada

    2005-10-15

    Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were taken from agricultural areas near the City of Maringa, in the Northwest region of the Parana state, south Brazil, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of radionuclides (K, eU, and eTh), the apparent resistivity, and the magnetic susceptibility determined for soils. Three different types of soils are present in this agricultural area: Alfisoil, clayey texture Oxisoil, both deriving from Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Serra Geral Formation; and medium texture Oxisoil from reworked Serra Geral and Goio-Ere formations, the latter deriving from sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Caiua Group. It could be observed that in more clayey soils both concentration of radionuclides and susceptibility values are higher than in more sandy soils, especially due to the higher adsorption in the former and to the higher availability of magnetic minerals in the latter. The average ppm and Bq Kg{sup -1} grades for K, eU, and eTh in the areas under anthropic activity are of 1766-54.75, 0.83-10.22, and 1.78-7.27, respectively. These grades are significantly higher than those of non-occupied or non-fertilized areas (1101-34.15 K, 0.14-1.69 eU, and 1.31-5.36 eTh in ppm and Bq Kg-1, respectively.) Correlations were observed between uranium and clay, uranium and magnetic susceptibility, uranium and organic matter, and between electric resistivity and clay grades. Varied concentrations of radionuclides were also observed in different fertilizer formulations applied to soy and wheat cultures. Apparent electric resistivity values between 25 and 647 Ohm.m and magnetic susceptibility values between 0.28 e 1.10 x 10-3 SI due to clay and magnetic minerals represented important soil discrimination factors in the study area that can be incorporated as easy, low-cost soil mapping tools. (author)

  4. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th series and the natural 40 K and the internal dose, due mainly to 222 Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the 226 Ra activity concentration, the 222 Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of 222 Rn. The exhalation rate was determined by the passive detection technique

  5. A preliminary survey of soil erosion in a small basin in the Parana state by using 137Cs methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, A.C.; Appoloni, C.R.; Parreira, P.S.; Guimaraes, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of 137 Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. 137 Cs is an artificial radionuclide that was introduced in the environment through nuclear tests and deposited as radioactive fallout. 137 Cs has a relatively long half-life of 30.2 years and when in contact with the soil is rapid and strongly adsorbed by clay an organic particles. The adsorbed 137 Cs in soil is a useful tracer of soil erosion when soil 'labeled' with 137 Cs is eroded, the 137 Cs is transported with the soil in the same proportion. A 137 Cs inventory for an individual sampling point, which is less than the reference sample value, is indicative of erosion, whereas an inventory greater than the reference sample value, indicates deposition. With the objective of a preliminary verification of using this methodology, seven areas were chosen for soil sampling in a small basin at Parana state, Brazil. Six of them were cultivated areas and also a reference area, without agricultural use, that didn't presents signs of soil erosion and deposition. 137 Cs activity of soil samples was measured employing a HpGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. The activities of the 18 samples of the six measured areas (3 samples from each area, one at the top, one at the medium level and one at the lower level), varied from 0.39 Bq.kg -1 to 2.31 Bq.kg -1 . The measured activity of the reference area was 1.39 Bq.kg -1 . Losses (or gains) of soil in the different areas were determined making use of three published equations. These equations were derived in terms of 137 Cs activity, but we adapted them only in terms of the area under 137 Cs peak, in counts per second (cps), and the mass of the samples in order to avoid the deviation in the efficiency of the system. One of this equations , in cps, is: Y = [(N s . (m r /m s ) - N r )/N r ] . (2640/28), where Y is loss or gain of the soil; N s is the area under the 137 Cs peak in the

  6. Curvas de lactação de vacas holandesas do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Lactation curves of Holstein cows in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Forte Maiolino Molento

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Dados do Programa de Análise de Rebanhos Leiteiros do Paraná (PARLPR - APCBRH, contendo 27029 lactações encerradas de 422 rebanhos, foram utilizados para a visualização das curvas de lactação. As curvas foram calculadas de acordo com três grupos de parição e seis níveis de produção. A produção no momento do pico aumenta à medida que aumenta o nível de produção do rebanho ou a ordem de parição. O declínio diário aumenta à medida que aumenta o nível de produção do rebanho, para animais de segunda ou mais lactações; para animais de primeira lactação, não se observou tendência para esta característica. As curvas e os valores de pico e persistência obtidos podem ser utilizados como instrumentos de manejo em fazendas leiteiras do Paraná.A data set from the dairy herd analysis system in the State of Parana, Brazil (PARLPR - APCBRH, containing 27029 lactation records from 422 herds, was used to plot lactation curves. Lactation curves were plotted according to three parity groups and six levels of production. Production at peak increases with increases in herd production level and with increases in lactation number. Daily decline increases with increases in herd production level, in the case of second or greater lactation; for first lactation animals, no trend was identified for this characteristic. The curves, peak and persistency values obtained are to be used as management tools on dairy farms in the State of Parana.

  7. Diapause and different seasonal morphs of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Northern Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Ana P. M.; Panizzi, Antonio R.

    2000-01-01

    The Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabr.), was collected on sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], star bristle [Acanthospermum hispidum (DC.)], and under fallen leaves of mango tree [Mangifera indica (L.)] and privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.), during one year, to evaluate the diapause incidence and the occurrence of different seasonal morphs. The majority of the insects (ca. 90%) with mature reproductive organs was observed during the summer (December-March), when E. heros was found on soybean or on sunflower; in the beginning of autumn, most insects (87%) showed immature reproductive organs, and they were found on star bristle and under fallen leaves. Bugs with mature reproductive organs had more developed shoulders (3.23 and 3.27 mm, for males and females, respectively) than bugs with immature organs (2.91 and 2.89 mm, for males and females, respectively). Two distinct body colors, dark brown and reddish brown, were observed. Nevertheless, the reddish brown was the predominant color of both mature and immature adults during all year. Adults were parasitized by Hexacladia smithii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tachinidae mainly Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) (80% and 40% of parasitism in male and female, respectively) during summer (December), when the bugs colonized sunflower. In soybean, 12% of males and 10% of females were parasitized, whereas in fallen leaves, the parasitism rate was 5% in both sexes.These results showed that in autumn/winter (shorter photoperiod) the majority of the insects were inactive under fallen leaves, showing immature reproductive organs and less developed shoulders, indicating that, at this time, these bugs were in diapause. (author)

  8. Bed load determination in Parana river by radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.E.; Enokihara, C.T.; Rocca, H.C.C.; Bittencourt, A.V.L.

    1988-10-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with marked sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana river, near the future site for the ''Ilha Grande'' Dam in Guaira City (State of Parana). 198 Au radioisotope was employed and measurements had been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 952,3 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 m mean thickness and 1.65 m/day mean velocity. (author) [pt

  9. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation

  10. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  11. Use of Pb and Sr isotopes on the determination of lead mineralization sources from Ribeira valley - Sao Paulo and Parana states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Barbour, A.P.; Sato, K.; Daitx, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    A lead and strontium isotope study was carried out on galena, barite and calcite from Pb-Ag syngenetic stratiform (Perau type) and hydrothermal veins (Panela type) deposits from Vale do Ribeira region (Sao Paulo and Parana states). The leads from the Perau and Panelas type deposits have respectively isotope ratios (sup(206)Pb/ sup(204)Pb 16.157 to 16.505 amd 16.520 to 17.273; sup(207)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 15.466 to 15.720 and 15.470 to 15.780 and sup(208)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 36.370 to 36.763 and 37.043 to 38.243), that defined a Stacey and Kramers model ages mainly concentrate within 1.7-1.5Ga. A review of published Pb isotopic compositions for these deposits and considerations of new Sr isotope data and Pb results using plumbotectonics model, indicate that the Perau type mineralizations are related to the syngenetic process and the Pb are derived from upper crust with a short crustal residence time. For the Panelas type deposits the Pb and Sr isotope studies support the conclusion that the ores were emplaced during regional metamorphism and the Pb were derived from lithologically complex source which may include metasedimentary and basement rocks. (author)

  12. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil doi: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n6p435

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Resende Moreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women, corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Spearman’s correlation test. The results showed the dissatisfaction of teachers with wages, working conditions and balance between work and leisure. Most subjects presented positive lifestyle behaviors, but the components nutrition, physical activity and stress management were a matter of concern. Internal evaluation of QWL yielded higher correlation coefficients than lifestyle. When comparing the two analytical matrices, low levels of correlation were observed between components and overall assessment of the constructs.

  13. The Sr:Ba:Rb ratio and zircon typology in granitoid complexes of Sao Paulo, Parana and Minas Gerais states (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, E.; Galembeck, T.M.B.; Artur, A.C.; Rigo Junior, L.; Weber-Diefenbach, K.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical (Sr: Ba: Rb) and zircon typology data from the Nazare Paulista, Mairipora/Cantareira, Cunhaporanga, Tres Corregos, Morungaba, Socorro, Itu, Graciosa and Serra Carambei granitoid complexes from the states of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana (SE/S Brazil) are presented and discussed. By the zircon typology method these complexes are reffered, respectively, to the 2nd crustal, 3rd crustal/low temperature C-A, low temperature C-A, medium temperature C-A, medium/high temperature C-A, K-SA/Alkaline and alkaline serie which are considered as generated under increasing temperature associated with a progressive major participation of mantellic material. All these series, with the exception of the medium to high temperature calc-alkaline complexes Socorro and Morungaba whose chemical data come from several laboratories, display different positions and behaviour in the Sr: Ba: Rb diagram which reinforce the use of the zircon typology method in the study of granitoids. From the 2nd crustal serie up to the medium temperature C-A serie the complexes show a regular shift in their chemical composition which became progressively richer in Sr and depleted in Rb. The highly differentiades hypersolvus Serra do Carambei granite is strongly enriched in Rb and impoverish in Ba with respect to the Itu and the Graciosa complex which itself is slighly more depleted in Sr than the Itu granite. (author)

  14. Gamma-ray measurements in uppermost soil profile of a grazing area around Londrina city, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution .-ray spectrometry, soil profiles were measured to assess the depth distribution of 232 Th, 238 U, 226 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs. The surveyed soil is the Latossolo Vermelho Distroferrico, clayey texture, in a soft wave relief area used for grazing, near Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. Knowledge of radioelement depth distributions is important to understand their behavior along soil history, and in the same time, give clues about it, from pedogenesis to more recent events, such as weathering, erosion or interaction with biosphere. Five points were sampled, three of them in increment depths of 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 15 cm, 15 to 20 cm, 20 to 35 cm, and for two of them the increment 35-50 cm was collected either. These totalized 27 samples, each of them dried in open air during 48 hours, sieved through 2 mm mesh, sealed in 1-litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory. It was employed a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain, with a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. Measurement of the efficiency in the range from 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with certified IAEA 375 soil sample. From the measured γ-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 232 Th (from 15.4 to 25.1 Bq kg -1 ), 238 U (from 11.0 to 18.9 Bq kg -1 ), 226 Ra (from 4.0 to 10.9 Bq kg -1 ), 40 K (from 36.0 to 133.9 Bq kg -1 ) and 137 Cs (from 0.0 to 2.2 Bq kg -1 ). Average values and respective deviations are 21.0 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, 13.8 ± 1.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 7.8 ± 1.9 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 72.8 ± 30.5 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, and 0.8 ± 0.8 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs. Depth distributions of each radioelement are presented and possible relations among activities are analyzed (author)

  15. Application Self-organizing Map Type in a Study of the Profile of Gasoline C Commercialized in the Eastern and Northern Parana Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Ramazzoti Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks self-organizing map type (SOM was used to classify samples of automotive gasoline C marketed in the eastern and northern regions of the state of Paraná, Brazil. The input order of parameters in the network were the values of temperature of the first drop, the 10, 50 and 90% distilled bulk, the final boiling point, density, residue content and alcohol content. A network with a topology of 25x25 and 5000 training epochs was used. The weight maps of input parameters for the trained network identified that the most important parameters for classifying samples were the temperature of the first drop and the temperature of the 10% and 50% of the distilled fuel. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.732 

  16. Deuterium and oxygen-18 concentrations in rain and river waters from Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana States, Brazil; Concentracoes de deuterio e oxigenio-18 nas aguas de precipitacao e de superficie dos Estados de Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo e Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Oliveiro J [Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras, MG (Brazil); Salati, Eneas [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    1982-07-01

    The main object of this paper was to study the concentration of deuterium (D) and Oxygen-18 ({sup 18} O) in the rain and river waters from the States of Minas Gerais, Sao paulo and Parana. Monthly samples were prepared and analysed at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-ESALQ-USP) with the use of CH-4 ({sup 18} O) and GD-150 (D) mass spectrometers of Varian-Mat. In order to correlate the D and {sup 18} O of the rain water the equation {delta}D = 9.22 + 7.17{delta}18 was found. Considering the three equations separately it was observed that the parameter a = {delta}D -b{delta}18 increases from the South to the North. For the Piracicaba River (city of Piracicaba only), the D and {sup 18} O relationship was expressed by {delta}D = -10.98 + 4.88{delta}18. The States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo can be divided according to the weight-average concentrations ({delta}18 m%{sub 0}). This division is not possible from Parana. Considering the average from the weight average concentration (annually and summer) for the three States, the annual average (D and {sup 18} O) is slightly richer than the summer average, showing the importance of the amount effect, mainly for the States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The rivers studied had little variation in the {sup 18} O concentrations with no definite periodicity. The rivers from the North of Minas Gerais are slightly richer in {sup 18} O than the rivers from the South. The waters from Rio Grande in the South of Minas Gerais State are poorer in {sup 18} O than the water of the same river in the `Triangle`region. The {delta}18% {sub 0} data for the rivers Grande, Parnaiba and Parana are very similar, so there is no way to compute the contribution of the first and the second rivers in the formation of the third. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Eimeria species in young and adult sheep raised under intensive and / or semi-intensive systems of a herd from Umuarama city, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify Eimeria species in young and adult sheep raised under intensive and / or semi-intensive systems of a herd from Umuarama city, Parana State, Brazil using the traditional diagnostic methods and to correlate the infection level/types of infection in the different age/system in this herd. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of 210 sheep and were subjected to laboratory analysis to differentiate the species. Furthermore, animals were observed to determine the occurrences of the clinical or subclinical forms of eimeriosis. Out of the 210 collected fecal samples, 147 (70% were positive for Eimeria oocysts, and 101 (47.86% belonged to young animals that were raised under intensive and / or semi-intensive farming systems. Oocysts from 9 species of Eimeria parasites were identified in the sheep at the following prevalence rates: E. crandallis, 50.0%; E. parva, 21.6%; E. faurei, 8.1%; E. ahsata, 8.1%; E. intricata, 5.4%; E. granulosa , 2.7%; E. ovinoidalis , 2.0%; E. ovina , 1.3%; and E. bakuensis , 0.6%. There were no differences regarding the more frequent Eimeria species among the different ages of animals or between the different farming management systems. Based on these data, E. crandallis was the most prevalent, followed by E. parva and E. faurei species, regardless of the age. Higher parasitism was diagnosed in the young animals that were raised in a confinement regime, and the disease found in the herd was classified as subclinical. Further studies should be conducted in this herd, to verify if the eimeriosis subclinical can cause damage especially in young animals with a high level of infection.

  18. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies of ground water from Botucatu Aquifer - Partial results for North region of Parana Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.B.G. da; Kimmelmann, A.A.; Cunha Reboucas, A. da

    1985-01-01

    The first results of an investigation, to study the flow path, the processes controlling the chemical composition, the recharge, as well as, the origin, apparent ages and dynamic of the groundwater of the Botucatu Aquifer in the Brazilian part of the Parana Basin (818.000 Km 2 ), using hydrochemical and environmental isotope technics ( 2 H, 18 O, 13 C, 3 H, 14 C), are presented. Samples of 20 deep wells, located in the northern part of the Basin (states of Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias), were analysed. (Author) [pt

  19. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1996-01-01

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr 87 / Sr 86 initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle

  20. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Renato Oliveira da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Oliveira, Elson Paiva de

    1996-01-01

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  1. Soil fertility, humic fractions and natural abundance of "1"3C and "1"5N in soil under different land use in Parana State, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, Arcangelo; Pereia, Marcos Gervasio; Costa, Elias Mendes; Beutler, Sidinei Julio; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia

    2016-01-01

    Humic fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) and measurements of "1"3C and "1"5N isotope can be used to highlight differences between management systems with different intensities of land use. This study characterized soil fertility, quantified carbon levels in the humic fractions and evaluated the natural abundance of "1"3C and "1"5N in systems cultivated under no-tillage system (NTS) and conventional tillage system (CTS) or used with secondary forest or perennial pasture in Marmeleiro, Parana State, Southern Brazil. NTS was more efficient than the conventional tillage system (CTS) in increasing pH (0.0-0.10 m layer), Ca (0.0-0.05 m layer), P (except 0.05-0.10 m layer) and N (0.0-0.10 m) levels, total organic carbon (TOC) stocks (0.0-0.20 and 0.0-0.40 m layers); carbon of the humin fraction (C-HUM) in 0.0-0.40 m; the fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF) and humic acid (C-HAF) in 0.0-0.05 m. The use of grasses, in NTS and pasture, increased TOC stocks compared to the other soil use or management systems evaluated in the 0.0-0.40 m layer. In the topsoil layer, the anthropogenic influence of plowing and harrowing in CTS promoted greater loss of carbon in C-HUM, C-FAF and C-HAF than NTS, forest and pasture. In CTS, growing corn for 42 years after the removal of forest cover did not alter the "1"3C at 0.0-0.40 m. In pasture, the absence of legumes, constant deposition of cattle manure and a more stable organic matter favored high "1"5N levels (except at 0.0-0.05 m in CTS). The decrease in "1"5N values from the 0.0-0.10 to 0.10-0.20 m layer in CTS indicates that soil turnover (by plowing and harrowing) has the potential to disturb the depth-related variation in soil "1"5N, accelerating decomposition and compromising N transformations. Among the variables analyzed, the determination of carbon in humic fractions and "1"5N values were efficient in identifying soil changes produced by land use or management systems

  2. Geochemical and isotope aspects of calcite deposits and calcitic marbles hosts mineralizations, Serra do Carumbe, Vale do Ribeira, Parana state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venusso, Gerson Caetano; Andrade e Silva, Antonio C. Gondim de

    2011-01-01

    The calcite deposits and the calcitic marbles hosts occur in Serra do Carumbe, in the Vale do Ribeira region, Parana State, were studied in their geochemical and isotopic aspects viewing the gathering of information about their genesis and economical use. The calcite deposits are constituted by veins and lenses, being three of them concordant and one discordant in relation to the S_0 from the hosting marbles. In these deposits four main types of calcite were recognized: rombohedrical, fibrous, banded and microcrystalline. The calcite reveal themselves having high purity, with CaO concentration above 55.30% and MgO below 0.42%. The lithogeochemical study of the marbles sequence was conducted in various suites revealing an uniformity in their composition, with high values of CaO (above 46.92%) in relation to the MgO values (below 3,37%), what favors their use for cement manufacture, except in sectors that suffered fault influences, where the marbles are impure (siliceous, magnesian, ferruginous and aluminous). Regarding their trace elements content, the hosting calcitic marbles have higher concentrations than the calcite, in the elements Sr, B, Ba and Mg, what makes evident their different formation environments. The δ"1"3C values from calcite range from –9,02 to –12,24 ‰ , referring to PDB, while the values δ"1"8O range from 24,48 to 25,23 ‰, referring to SMOW; meanwhile, for the calcitic marbles, the δ"1"3C values range from –4,03 to 1,42‰ and of δ"1"8O range from 20,71 to 23,00 ‰. The high δ"1"8O values would indicate enrichment referring to the interaction of the calcite's generator fluid with the carbonatic host rock. The δ"1"3C values indicate origin from hydrothermal solution for the calcite, although they would not allow to conclude if their sources would be superficial or profound. As for the hosting calcitic marbles, the isotopic values indicate genesis from pre-cambrian marine limestone. (author)

  3. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  4. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil....

  5. Social and Economic Impacts of Climatic Water Balance in Four Microregions of the Western Parana State Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Moreira Garcia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to look in a certain degree of depth at a possible relationship established between climatic aspects such as the phenomena of El Niño and La Niña, water retention at soil level and the influence on economic life of four most agricultural cities in western Paraná State/Brazil The depth of the study is given by statistical data and specific statistics performed on it. Methodology includes techniques such as specific spreadsheet development, statistical tests to confirm the results. Once the tests have confirmed the climatic characteristics, statistical tests have also been performed on the data concerning El Niño and La Niña phenomena in order to have their degree of impact on the studied cities, confirmed. The foreseen and expected results were with respect to the relationship established at the level of water excess in the ground in the periods of El Niño and water scarcity in the ground in the woolen periods of La Niña, and its impact on the economic life of the whole region.

  6. Methodology of the 137 Cs for the soil erosion and deposition determination in a micro basin from the north of Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of 137 Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. The 137 Cs activity of soil samples, taken from a small basin at the North of Parana, were measured employing a HPGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. Standard oil samples with known concentrations of 137 Cs were prepared for the detection efficiency determination. Soil loss or gain was measured at the top, midslope and low slope regions, for six different transects at the investigated small basin. (author)

  7. Determination of solid flow for bottom sediment drag of Parana river using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Pedro E.; Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rocca, Hector C.C.; Bittencourt, Andre V.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with labeled sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana River, near Guaira City, State of Parana. 198 Au radioisotope was used and measurements have been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 914,8 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 mean thickness and 1,65 m/day mean velocity. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  8. SEGURANÇA PÚBLICA EM PEQUENAS CIDADES DO NORTE DO PARANÁ / PUBLIC SECURITY IN SMALL TOWNS OF NORTHERN PARANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Carnevalli Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article contemplates some aspects of the research carried out next to the PhD course of the Postgraduate Program of the State University of Maringa (UEM and aims to address public safety in the small cities of the North of the State of Paraná. In this paper, municipal expenditures and homicide rates were analyzed. The procedures a based on bibliographical and secondary data, with municipal expenditures by the Paraná Institute for Economic and Social Development (Ipardes and homicide rates constructed from Datasus, the Mortality Information System (SIM, and the Ministry of Health of the Federal Government. The results confirm the occurrence of occurrences that generate insecurity in small cities. Despite this, little public municipal investment was observed with public safety, collaborating with the perspective that the number of inhabitants does not define whether the city is safe or not to live.

  9. The Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (Parana State-Southern Brazil): Geochemical and isotopic evidence of magmatic focus migration and its tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeres Fihlo, H.J.; Baei, M.A.S.; Harara, O.M.M.; Passarelli, C.R.; Siga Jr, O; Reis Neto, J.M; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    The present location of the geological units which comprise the Precambrian of the south-southeastern part of the Ribeira fold belt in Parana State, Brazil, is the result of a series of superposed tectono-metamorphic events. During this evolution, and especially at the end of the Neoproterozoic, between 640 and 550 Ma, an important crustal accretion event within the Brasiliano Megacycle was responsible for the generation of the Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (ARMA). This arc is now represented by a large volume of granitic rocks amongst which the Cunhaporanga (CPB) and Tres Corregos (TCB) granitic batholiths stand out. The SSE part of the Ribeira belt forms an long, NE strip with a mainly NE trend, formed by deformed middle to upper crustal rocks, metamorphosed in greenschist to amphibolite facies (Basei et.al.1992; Fiori, 1993; Hackspacher et.al. 1997; Campanha and Sadowski 1999). These rocks are intruded by the Neoproterozoic CPB, TCB and the Agudos Grandes batholith, and many granite stocks. The CPB and TCB are elongated bodies with NE-SW major axes which occur north and south, respectively, of the Itaiacoca metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. Together, they occupy about 6,500 km 2 . The southeastern contact between the CPB and the Itaiacoca country rocks is intrusive, while the northwestern contact of the BCT with this group is tectonic, represented by the Itapirapua shear zone. Its contact with rocks of the Agua Clara Formation of the Acungui Group is intrusive. The mineral assemblages in the rocks of the two main batholiths are typically calc-alkaline. The CPB is more homogeneous, being mainly composed of porphyritic to inequigranular, isotropic monzogranite which are accompanied by rare granodiorite. The TCB is more heterogeneous, and includes undeformed or deformed quartz monzonite, granodiorite and monzogranite, as well as rare tonalite and syenogranite. The rocks of the CPB (with 65 - 73% SiO 2 ) and the TCB (60-76% SiO 2 ) are meta- to weakly per-aluminous in

  10. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  11. Executive Summary: Forests of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary provides an overview of the 200-page report, Forests of the Northern United States, which covers in detail current forest conditions, recent trends, issues, threats and opportunities in the forests in the 20 Northern States. It provides a context for subsequent Northern Forest Futures Project analyses that will forecast alternative future...

  12. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  13. Geochemistry contribution of Pb isotopes on basalts origin study from Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.; Dupre, B.; Allegre, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents thirty new Pb-isotope and concentration data for low- and high-tiO sub(2) continental flood basalts of the Parana Basin. The results obtained from representative samples show significant differences with respect to type and location of these basic rocks. The low- and high-TiO sub(2) basalts from the northern region of the Parana Basin exhibit very similar Pb-isotope compositions. On the other hand, the low-TiO sub(2) basalts of central and southern areas, which exhibit low Sr initial isotope ratios (less than 0,7060), show very small variation in Pb isotope compositions which are highly enriched in radiogenic Pb in comparison with the analogues of northern region. The high-TiO sub(2) basic rocks analysed from northern and central regions have the same values for Pb isotope ratios, which are slightly more radiogenic compared with high-TiO sub(2) basalts from southern region. The data obtained, combined with other geochemical (major and trace elements, including rare earths) and isotope (Sr and Nd) results support the view that the basalts from northern and southern areas of the Parana Basin originated in lithospheric mantle reservoirs with different geochemical characteristics. (author)

  14. Methodology of the {sup 137} Cs for the soil erosion and deposition determination in a micro basin from the north of Parana State; Metodologia do {sup 137} Cs para determinacao da erosao e deposicao de solo em uma microbacia do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    1997-12-31

    The measurement of {sup 137} Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. The {sup 137} Cs activity of soil samples, taken from a small basin at the North of Parana, were measured employing a HPGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. Standard oil samples with known concentrations of {sup 137} Cs were prepared for the detection efficiency determination. Soil loss or gain was measured at the top, midslope and low slope regions, for six different transects at the investigated small basin. (author) 47 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Methodology of the {sup 137} Cs for the soil erosion and deposition determination in a micro basin from the north of Parana State; Metodologia do {sup 137} Cs para determinacao da erosao e deposicao de solo em uma microbacia do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    1998-12-31

    The measurement of {sup 137} Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. The {sup 137} Cs activity of soil samples, taken from a small basin at the North of Parana, were measured employing a HPGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. Standard oil samples with known concentrations of {sup 137} Cs were prepared for the detection efficiency determination. Soil loss or gain was measured at the top, midslope and low slope regions, for six different transects at the investigated small basin. (author) 47 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Aphid parasitoids that occur on wheat crops of Northeast of the Parana State with recovery of Aphidius rhopalosiphi in BrazilParasitoides de pulgões-do-trigo que ocorrem no Norte do estado do Paraná e recaptura de Aphidius rhopalosiphi no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Thibes Hoshino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae are the main pest of wheat (Hemiptera: Aphididae in several countries. In Brazil, the Biological Control of Wheat Aphids released millions of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Aphelinidae on wheat fields and in the present moment the chemical control is rarely necessary. However, since the 80’s few studies was carried out to evaluate the species established in Brazil. For this reason, the aim of this study was to record the species of aphid parasitoids that occur in wheat in the northern region of Parana state, Brazil. Four commercial wheat fields were investigated in the agricultural years of 2008 and 2009. The aphid parasitoids were captured with traps (Moericke and Malaise and aphid mummified were collected. In total, six species of parasitoids were found, Aphidius colemani, A. uzbekistanicus, A. ervi, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Diaeretiella rapae e Lysiphlebus testaceipes. These results contribute with the register of three exotic species in Parana, and confirm the establishment of A. rhopalosiphi in the country. We emphasize the need for further studies in other regions of the country, as other species introduced also need to have their establishment confirmed.Os pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae são pragas de extrema importância em cereais de inverno no mundo todo. No Brasil, o programa Controle Biológico de Pulgões do Trigo liberou milhões de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae e Aphelinidae nas áreas tritícolas, reduzindo expressivamente a população da praga, e atualmente raramente o controle químico se faz necessário. Entretanto, desde a década de 80 poucos trabalhos de campo tem sido realizados para verificar as espécies efetivamente estabelecidas no País. Por esta razão, este estudo objetivou registrar as espécies de parasitoides de pulgões ocorrentes em lavouras de trigo na região Norte no Paraná. O trabalho foi realizado em quatro áreas comerciais de trigo, durante as safras

  17. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  18. Diapause and different seasonal morphs of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Northern Parana State; Diapausa e diferentes formas sazonais em Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) no Norte do Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Ana P. M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2000-06-15

    The Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabr.), was collected on sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], star bristle [Acanthospermum hispidum (DC.)], and under fallen leaves of mango tree [Mangifera indica (L.)] and privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.), during one year, to evaluate the diapause incidence and the occurrence of different seasonal morphs. The majority of the insects (ca. 90%) with mature reproductive organs was observed during the summer (December-March), when E. heros was found on soybean or on sunflower; in the beginning of autumn, most insects (87%) showed immature reproductive organs, and they were found on star bristle and under fallen leaves. Bugs with mature reproductive organs had more developed shoulders (3.23 and 3.27 mm, for males and females, respectively) than bugs with immature organs (2.91 and 2.89 mm, for males and females, respectively). Two distinct body colors, dark brown and reddish brown, were observed. Nevertheless, the reddish brown was the predominant color of both mature and immature adults during all year. Adults were parasitized by Hexacladia smithii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tachinidae mainly Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) (80% and 40% of parasitism in male and female, respectively) during summer (December), when the bugs colonized sunflower. In soybean, 12% of males and 10% of females were parasitized, whereas in fallen leaves, the parasitism rate was 5% in both sexes.These results showed that in autumn/winter (shorter photoperiod) the majority of the insects were inactive under fallen leaves, showing immature reproductive organs and less developed shoulders, indicating that, at this time, these bugs were in diapause. (author)

  19. The Influence of the Miles and Snow strategic typology in the degree of market orientation in institutions of primary/secondary education in the State of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Sparano Martins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of a strategic typology in the performance of grade schools and high schools in the state of PR, taking into account the degree of market orientation. The model was developed based on two concepts: the strategic typology of Miles and Snow (1978 and market-orientation in the model of Kohli, Jaworski and Kumar (1993. To conduct this study, a cross-sectional survey was done. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire sent to the directors of all 699 schools associated with SINEPE-PR (The Association for Privately Owned Educational Institutions in State of Paraná. A total of 153 cases were considered valid for the research. To analyze the data the H Kruskal-Wallis Test was used through the Minitab statistical software version 15. It was found that the typology is a strategic factor that influences the market orientation variables in analyzed industry

  20. Radiological safety programme for the health departments in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly, J.G. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of Brazil's centralized administration in the past, various parts of the public service were somewhat inefficient. Another reason was the size of the country. To improve the situation in the health sector, it was decided to transfer administrative responsibility to the municipal authorities. Accordingly, the public health system is now defined under the appropriate legislation as the 'Unified Health System' (SUS), comprising federal, state and municipal levels. This system promotes decentralization of therapeutic or preventive services (including the Radiation Facility Health Inspectorate) and proposes any additional legislation required. In Parana the Radiation Facility Health Inspectorate has 3600 organizations listed, employing ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research, which need to be regularly inspected for licensing and control. In 1994, 50% of the annual inspection target in the state was attained. The Radiation Safety Programme for the Health Departments in Parana directs these activities in this State. Its strategies are: (1) to establish implementation phases for activities planned for each area; (2) to take advantage of the SUS structure to introduce or expand operational services at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels with appropriate equipment. The tertiary level involves co-ordination of the Programme and complementary executive functions, as well as maintaining an information system with other related organizations. The other levels include licensing, control and emergency response. As the Programme develops, indicators will be established to help identify progress achieved and correct operating strategy where necessary. Thus, the services provided to the public will be enhanced in quality and the radiation doses reduced. In addition, in emergency situations, the time elapsing between the event and its notification to the authorities will be reduced, minimizing the consequences of any accidents. (author)

  1. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  2. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients' domicile, how they were referred, types of diagnoses and ... The intention was to offer a more accessible and affordable service to more patients in the Free State and Northern Cape, in accordance with provincial policy.' The Departments of ... The cost would have been higher if consultants had had to stay over.

  3. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rogério

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France. The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France. The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22.

  4. The prevalence of blinding trachoma in northern states of Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Separate, population based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 88 localities (districts in 12 northern states of Sudan between 2006 and 2010. Two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. Key prevalence indicators were trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years and trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults aged 15 years and above. The sample comprised 1,260 clusters from which 25,624 households were surveyed. A total of 106,697 participants (81.6% response rate were examined for trachoma signs. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts. TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%. The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds = 26,125-36,955. CONCLUSION: Trachoma mapping is complete in the northern states of Sudan except for the Darfur States. The survey findings will facilitate programme planning and inform deployment of resources for elimination of trachoma from the northern states of Sudan by 2015, in accordance with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH objectives.

  5. Estrutura populacional de Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Population structure of Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae from the tidal flat of Baixio Mirim, Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Di Benedetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre a flutuação anual da abundância, composição de tamanho dos indivíduos, proporção de sexos, período reprodutivo e de recrutamento dos juvenis de uma população de Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 foi realizado no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Os animais foram coletados mensalmente, de fevereiro/2005 a janeiro/2006, durante as marés baixas de sizígia, e a sua largura da carapaça (LC medida. A temperatura pontual do ar variou de 17 a 29ºC, a luminosidade de 8.740 a 151.300 lux, a salinidade de 8 a 25 e a temperatura do solo (superfície, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm e 20 cm de profundidade de 18,3 a 28,9ºC. Foram analisados 7.120 indivíduos, dos quais, 2.578 juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2.377 machos e 2.165 fêmeas. A abundância da população variou de 341 (abril a 994 indivíduos (janeiro, mas a sua flutuação anual não esteve relacionada com a das variáveis abióticas estudadas. A proporção de sexos foi de 1:1 e a reprodução da espécie é do tipo contínuo, com dois picos de intensidade: um em abril e outro em novembro. O recrutamento de juvenis, também, é contínuo com dois períodos mais intensos no ano, um em julho e outro em dezembro-janeiro. A LC da população variou de 1,14 a 2,62 mm para juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2,58 a 17,83 mm para machos juvenis, 2,60 a 11,72 mm para fêmeas juvenis, 17,85 a 35,81 mm para machos maduros e 11,75 a 31,76 mm para fêmeas maduras. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores do que as fêmeas.A study about the annual fluctuation of the abundance, size composition, sexual proportion, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment of the fiddler crab Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 was carried out in a population living in a tidal flat at Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Crabs were obtained from February 2005 to January 2006, during low spring tides, in monthly collections, and their carapace width was measured

  6. Extension of the Parana Basin to offshore Brazil: Implications for coalbed methane evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, M.; Kalkreuth, W.; Rolim, S.B.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is a worldwide exploration target of the petroleum industry. In Brazil, the most important coal-bearing succession is associated with the Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin. The gas-prone areas are located at the southeastern margin of the Parana Basin and possibly in the offshore region of the northern part of the Pelotas Basin. Coalfields end abruptly at the present day shoreline, a result of rifting of Gondwana and the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean. All geologic indicators suggest that in pre-rift times the coal seams extended further eastwards, probably now lying deeply buried below the sedimentary succession of the Pelotas Basin. The present paper discusses structural, stratigraphic, seismic and aeromagenetic data that support the preservation of continental crust beneath ocean sediment. If the coal beds had similar lateral extent to known onshore coals, and coal beds extended across the projected extension of the Parana basin, and there was a conservative 5 m of cumulative coal thickness, then a potential methane volume can be estimated for this newly inferred resource. Average onshore coal gas content is 32 scf/ton (1.00 m(3)/ton). If this is similar in the offshore coal deposits, then the hypothetical methane volume in the offshore area could be in excess of 1.9 x 10(12) scf (56 x 10(9) m(3)). Metamorphism from dikes associated with rifting are potential complicating factors in these deposits, and since no borehole reaching the deep-lying strata in the offshore area are available, this is a hypothetical gas resource with a certain level of uncertainty which should be tested in the future by drilling a deep borehole.

  7. Rheology of irradiated honey from Parana region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, S.F. E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Viscosity characteristics can be governed by the molecular chain length of sugars present in the honey. Honey is essentially a mixture of sugar and water. When a physical treatment, as gamma radiation, is applied to food, some changes on its viscosity may occur. Viscosity is one of the important properties of honey and depends on water and sugar quantities. The objective of this work was to verify the rheological behavior of irradiated honey from Parana region in comparison to the unirradiated one. Each rheogram was measured at different shear rates that was increased to a certain value then immediately decreased to the starting point ('up and down curves'). These measurements were made for control and irradiated samples (5 and 10 kGy) in different temperatures (30 deg. C, 35 deg. C and 40 deg. C). The curves constructed with shear stress against shear rate presented linearity. Honey, irradiated and control, showed a Newtonian behavior and gamma radiation did not affect it.

  8. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  9. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  10. Groundwater movement study of Guarani Aquifer System through isotopes in Parana Sao Paulo and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Chemas Hindi, E.; Lima Bittencourt, A.; Aravena, R.; Montano, J.; Duarte, U.

    2007-01-01

    The current conceptual models of the Guarany Aquifer System (GAS), found in Galboa et al. (1976), Fraga (1992); Campos (1994), Araujo et al. (1995), Rosa Filho et al. (1998) and Campos (2000), are in regional scale, taking only intoaccount the aquifer stratigraphic characteristics, showing the Piramboia and Botucatu Formations gently dipping under the Serra Geral Formation. This model represents the aquifer like an almost homogeneous and isotropic layer, desregarding local influences caused by fauts and intrusive bodies on the groundwater flow or on the water volume stored in the aquifer, as quoted by Sinelli et al. (1984). The GAS shows many structural conditioning, with highligts to the depocenters of Serra Geral Formation, reactivation of faulting systems, the uplift of the present basin s borders and the activation of the Rio Grande and Ponta Grossa Arches (Araujo et al., 1995). Regarding the structural control due to the Ponta Grossa Arch, it is worthwhile to point out the ocurrence along the mentioned arch, of innumerous diabase dykes predominately striking NW (Ferreira 1982a,b).The dykes and regional geological structures (faultings) play an important role on the structural compartimentation of the GAS. The strategy for the GAS exploitation, inside Parana State, must involve technical, scientific (geology, geophysics, hydrochemistr y and isotopic studies) and socio-economic approaches, in order to select the favourable targets for groundwater withdraw and, simultaneously, allow a proper management that result in a good balance between water production and use and protection of the GAS. Therefore, the knowledge of local geological factors controling the aquifer hydrodynamic (flow pattern, volume of stored water, well yieldings and water quality) besides its geometric compartimentation (unities with different hydrodynamic behaviour), will contribute to the development of a conceptual qualitative model to be used as a tool for the SAG mangement. The results of

  11. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Luiz, Tatiane; Roquetti Velludo, Marcela; Carvalho Peret, Alberto; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Moldenhauer Peret, André

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the ...

  12. Environmental restoration with forest trees in the Southern State of Parana grasslands Recuperação ambiental em áreas de estepe do Primeiro Planalto Paranaense, mediante plantio de espécies arbóreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Penno de Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human development activities as water reservoir construction have great impact on the vegetation, thus changing its floristic, as well as its structure and ecology functions. Parana Pine Forest alongside with grasslands have been highly modified and in particular to the last one, there are few works related to its restoration. In the border of Irai water reservoir (Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, PR, where occurs grasslands associated to the Parana Pine Forest, where it were established
    tree plantations aiming rescue tree vegetation lost due to the flooding. Inside these plantations, an experiment was established to compare growth and survival of eight local native species in 12 months, in single species plots and under the same environmental conditions. Results for the species Escallonia  montevidensis, Lafoensia pacari, Lithraea molleoides, Luehea divaricata, Mimosa scabrella, Podocarpus lambertii and Vitex megapotamica presented very undesirable attributes, where height ranged between 10 cm and 33 cm, diameter ranged between 2.5 mm a 6.6 mm and survival percentage was between 9.1 and 66. 7 . It was possible to claim these results to water deficit, soil with low base saturation, to delayed planting
    and to high plant evapotranspiration. Actions dealing with restoration must consider limits and possibilities concerning each phytoecological region and proper restoration techniques as well.A diversidade e a intensidade das atividades antrópicas implicam em grandes impactos sobre a vegetação,
    alterando sua florística, estrutura e funções. A Floresta Ombrófila Mista, assim como as estepes, estão fortemente descaracterizadas, tendo essas últimas poucas e incipientes informações sobre recuperação ambiental. Às margens da Represa do Iraí (Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, PR, em área de estepe associada à Floresta Ombrófila Mista, foram realizados plantios com espécies arbóreas como forma de dar início

  13. Assessment of terrestrial gamma-radiation in Northern State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, E. H.

    2007-07-01

    This study is primarily conducted at the request of Northern State government to investigate the present of abnormal radioactivity in Northern State as claimed publicly. Activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples collected from different locations have been measured using high resolution γ-spectrometry. The average concentration were 19±4 Bg/kg for 238 U, 47±11 Bq/kg for 232 Th, 317±65 Bq/kg for 40 K and 2.26 Bq/kg for 137 Cs which means a very little contribution to the total exposure. The obtained results were found to be lower than the corresponding global values reported in the UNSCEAR publication for normal background areas. Absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1m from the ground was calculated using six sets of dose rate conversion factors and corresponding annual effective dose was estimated. On the average, the values obtained were 52.90, 50.43, 50.41, 43.54, 44.07 and 45.85 nGy.h -1 with corresponding annual effective doses of 64.93, 61.89, 61.87, 53.43, 54.08 and 56.27 μSv/y respectively. These values lie with in the worldwide range for normal radiation areas. The results obtained using these different DRCFs, although the approach used for their estimation was different, revealed no remarkable variation. Using Geographical Information System (GIS), prediction maps for concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs was produced. Also a map for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of one-meter above ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increase form the west towards south-east of the State.(Author)

  14. The Northern States Power Company welding manual advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yi; Wood, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Welding Manual Advisor (WMA) is an object oriented expert system designed to assist Northern States Power (NSP) personnel in implementing the company's Welding Manual. The expert system captures the knowledge of welding experts, addresses important issues in welding activities and automates the use of the Welding Manual. It is estimated that use of the WMA will save $81,000 over the next six years at NSP, because of the reduction of labor and errors in the use of the Welding Manual, and facilitation of training of NSP personnel. The important features of the WMA include the accuracy and consistency in determining welding procedure and requirements, update capability, user friendly interface, on-line help function, back-up capability, and well-documented manuals

  15. High Lassa Fever activity in Northern part of Edo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose was to establish simple statistics of the effects of lassa fever in northern part of Edo State, Nigeria. Lassa fever activity in the northern part of Edo state, Nigeria, was confirmed in 2004 by laboratory analysis of samples sent to Bernhard–Nocht Institute (BNI) for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Germany.

  16. Refining aging criteria for northern sea otters in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Baker, Bridget B.; Mayer, Karl A.; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Holahan, Paula M.; Thomas, Nancy J.; White, C. LeAnn

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid fossa can be used to differentiate male subadults from adults. To assist field biologists or others without access to cementum annuli or skull ossification analysis techniques, a suite of morphologic, physiologic, and developmental characteristics were analyzed to assess whether a set of these more easily accessible parameters could also predict age class for the Washington population of otters. Tooth condition score, evidence of reproductive activity in females, and tooth eruption pattern were identified as the most useful criteria for classifying Washington sea otters as pups, juveniles, subadults, or adults/aged adults. A simple decision tree based on characteristics accessible in the field or at necropsy was created that can be used to reliably predict age class of Washington sea otters as determined by cementum annuli.

  17. Phenology and thermal summation (degree days for ‘Isabel’ grape (Vitis labrusca produced in the Northwest of Parana State/ Fenologia e soma térmica (graus-dia para a videira ‘Isabel’ (Vitis labrusca cultivada no Noroeste do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Genta

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this research was to characterize the phenological performance of ‘Isabel’ grape (Vitis labrusca produced in the northwest of Parana state, as well to characterize its thermal demand in degree-days. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard of Vinícola Intervin®, Maringá, PR. The vineyard was planted in August of 2000 and the trees were trained in a pergola system, in a 4.0 x 1.0 m spacing. The evaluations started from the winter pruning of 2003. The random design was used as the statistical model with 20 replications and each plot was composed by one tree. The phenology of grapes was evaluated considering the duration in days of each one of the following subperiods: pruning to bud swell, pruning to beggining of shoot growth, pruning to visible cluster, pruning to flowering, pruning to early ripening and pruning to harvest. The thermal demand of ‘Isabel’ grape was determined using the degree-days summation from the pruning to harvest, as well for each of the subperiods, considering two base-temperatures (10oC and 12oC. It was possible to conclude that: the duration of the ‘Isabel’ grape (pruning to harvest in the northwest of Parana is 127 days, and its thermal demand is 1,238.20 degree-days. The most suitable base-temperature to calculate this demand was 10oC.O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o comportamento fenológico da videira ‘Isabel’ (Vitis labrusca cultivada no norte do Estado do Paraná, bem como caracterizar sua exigência térmica em graus-dia. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, PR. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em agosto de 2000 e as plantas foram conduzidas no sistema latada no espaçamento de 4,0 m x 1,0 m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir da poda de frutificação realizada no fim do inverno de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado

  18. Private forest-land owners of the Northern United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Northern United States. Landowner characteristics attitudes harvesting experience tenure and management planning are discussed.

  19. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil; Atividade de {sup 14} C do 'fallout' em aneis anuais de crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia, de Arapoti - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de 14 C; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais. Lab. de Dendrocronologia

    2000-07-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial {sup 14} C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. {sup 14} C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of {delta}{sup 14} C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout {sup 14} C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11{sup S}, 49 deg 58{sup O}). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its {sup 14} C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the {delta} {sup 14} C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO{sub 2} mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  20. The Current State of Reproductive Health in Rural Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and most deaths occur in the northern part of the country. Concerns about the persistence of the problem prompted some Nigerian academics to partner with their American colleagues to establish a postgraduate fellowship programme that builds the ...

  1. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and western blots (WB were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato; a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96% were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4% for brucellosis, 25 (12.1% for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1% for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH that was considered to be average (0.733 in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population.

  2. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1996-12-31

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  3. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1997-12-31

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  4. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected

  5. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  6. Isolation of Streptococcus spp from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and quality of water in hapas nets in North Region of Parana State, Brazil/ Isolamento de Streptococcus spp de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e qualidade da água de tanques rede na Região Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Machado Moreno

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated 12 intensive breed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in four properties localized in the north of Parana State, Brazil. In the period of 13 months, 71 fishes were collected and analyzed of hapas nets that presenting morbidity and mortality of tilapias. Parallel, to evaluate the quality of the water of these hapas nets, there was measured the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia. Of the 71 fishes, were collected 220 biological samples. 17 (23.94% fishes were positive for Streptococcus spp. Of the 53 biological samples from 17 fishes, in 24 (45.28% were isolated streptococci. The main clinical signs and macroscopic lesions in the fishes with isolation of Streptococcus spp. were hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, skin lesion and base of the fins and exoftalmia with cornea opacity. The higher incidence of infections caused by streptococci happened in the months with higher temperatures, mainly in the transition period winter for spring. The values of dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia of the water were normal.Foram estudados doze tanques-rede de quatro propriedades de criação intensiva de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochomis niloticus da região Norte do Paraná, Brasil. No período de 13 meses foram analisados 71 peixes provenientes de tanques apresentando morbidade e mortalidade de tilápias. Paralelamente, para avaliar a qualidade da água destes tanques, foi medida a temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade, nitrito e amônia. Dos 71 peixes, foram coletadas 220 materiais biológicos. Em 17 (23.94% peixes foram isolados Streptococcus spp e dos 53 materiais biológicos provenientes destes peixes, 24 (45.28% apresentaram Streptococcus spp. Os principais sinais clínicos e lesões macroscópicas nos peixes com isolamento de Streptococcus spp foram hepatomegalia e esplenomegalia, lesão de pele e base das nadadeiras e exoftalmia com opacidade de córnea. O maior número de

  7. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environmental preservation and law. The results by means of interviews with the farmers and county leaders. It was concluded that the reparian forest state program was efficient due to the partner ship between Pitangueiras City Hall, Government Department of Environment and Coffee Farmer Association. The installation of a native tree nursery in Pitangueiras offered plants to farmers at the opportune period for planting; the farmers have conscience about the necessity of planting riparing forests; and is necessary to do a public policy to include the farmers in the carbon credict projects created with the riparian forest restoration.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjeric

  8. Fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo herpesvírus bovino 1 em rebanhos bovinos da região Oeste do Estado do Paraná Risk factors for bovine herpesvirus 1 infection in cattle herds in the West region of Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Dias

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de rebanhos positivos (focos e identificar os fatores de risco que possam estar associados com a infecção pelo herpesvírus bovino 1 (BoHV-1 em rebanhos bovinos com atividade reprodutiva, na região Oeste do Estado do Paraná. O delineamento estatístico, amostras de soro e informações referentes às propriedades foram as empregadas para o estudo da brucelose bovina no Estado do Paraná dentro do contexto do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose. Foram avaliadas 1930 fêmeas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses, provenientes de 295 rebanhos não vacinados contra o BoHV-1. Para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção pelo BoHV-1, foi utilizado um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA indireto. Em cada propriedade foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico, afim de obter informações epidemiológicas e práticas de manejo empregadas. Dos 295 rebanhos analisados, 190 foram considerados positivos para o BoHV-1, com a prevalência de rebanhos de 64,41% (I.C.95% = 58,65-69,87%. As variáveis consideradas fatores de risco para a infecção pelo BoHV-1 na análise de regressão logística multivariada foram: i número (>23 fêmeas com idade >24 meses (OR=2,22; IC: 1,09-4,51; ii compra de reprodutores (OR=2,68; IC: 1,48-4,82; iii uso de pastagens comuns (OR=5,93; IC: 1,31-26,82; iv histórico de abortamento nos últimos 12 meses (OR=2,37; IC: 1,09-5,16; v presença de animais silvestres (OR=8,86; IC: 1,11-70,73. Estes resultados indicam que a infecção pelo BoHV-1 está amplamente distribuída na região estudada e que fatores relacionados às características das propriedades e ao manejo estão associados à infecção.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive herds and to identify the risk factors for BoHV-1 infection in breeding cattle herds in the Western region of Parana State. The statistic delineation, the serum samples and

  9. Zoneamento agroclimático para o pessegueiro e a nectarineira no Estado do Paraná Agroclimatic zoning for peach and nectarine in the State of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Caramori

    2008-12-01

    state of Paraná. The objective of this research was to indicate zones with lower climatic risk for production of these crops in the state of Paraná, Brazil, using climatic risk analysis and agronomic data. Historical data of 32 weather stations of IAPAR were analyzed to estimate and map the risks of late frost and the average totals of chilling hours above 7.2ºC accumulated from May to September. The regions in which the last frost occurs before flowering and with the total chilling hours suitable to the cultivars needs were considered apt. Most of the north, west and the coast of Paraná do not have enough chilling hours. The areas located in the south with altitudes above 800 m are the most suitable. Within the apt areas eight zones were classified according to the chilling requirements of peaches and nectarine varieties and climatic conditions of each region: zone 1 (75 to 150 hf; zone 2 (150 to 200 hf; zone 3 (200 to 250 hf; zone 4 (250 to 300 hf; zone 5 (300 to 350 hf; zone 6 (350 to 400 hf, zone 7 (400 to 450 hf and zone 8 (> 450 hf. The zones with lower altitude and higher temperatures accumulate less chilling hours from May to September and are indicated for cultivars with lower chilling requirement. The zones with higher altitudes and high chilling accumulation are suitable for varieties with high chilling requirements (> 400 chilling hours. The last frost is likely to occur in the last ten days of August in the colder regions and do not cause damages to suitable varieties of peaches and nectarine. The results obtained in this work support the adoption of policies to foment these crops in the state of Paraná with low risk.

  10. Futures project anticipates changes and challenges facing forests of the northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; Michael E. Goerndt; Nianfu Song; Mark D. Nelson; David J. Nowak; Patrick D. Miles; Brett J. Butler; Ryan D. DeSantis; Francisco X. Aguilar; Brian G. Tavernia

    2014-01-01

    The Northern Forest Futures Project aims to reveal how today's trends and choices are likely to change the future forest landscape in the northeastern and midwestern United States. The research is focused on the 20-state quadrant bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota. This area, which encompasses most of the Central Hardwood Forest region, is the...

  11. A inserção do aluno surdo no ensino regular: visão de um grupo de professores do Estado do Paraná Deaf student insertion in regular schools: deaf teachers from Parana State views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Guarinello

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de debater a problemática que envolve a inclusão do aluno surdo no ensino regular, esse estudo se propõe a analisar aspectos envolvidos em tal problemática a partir da visão de um grupo de professores. Para tanto, foi aplicado questionário junto a 36 professores inseridos na Rede Pública do Ensino Fundamental e Médio do Estado do Paraná. A análise dos dados evidencia que as principais dificuldades citadas ora relacionam-se aos próprios professores - à falta de conhecimento acerca da surdez, à dificuldade de interação com o surdo, ao desconhecimento de LIBRAS -, ora aos sujeitos surdos - a própria surdez e a dificuldade de compreensão que tais sujeitos apresentam na ótica dos professores. Cabe ressaltar que os professores, sujeitos dessa pesquisa, não relacionam as suas dificuldades para ensinar com as dificuldades de seus alunos para aprender, como se o desconhecimento dos professores acerca da surdez, por exemplo, não tivesse implicações diretas na aprendizagem dos surdos. Conclui-se que a inclusão de surdos no ensino regular significa mais do que apenas criar vagas e proporcionar recursos materiais, é necessário que a escola e a sociedade sejam inclusivas, assegurando igualdade de oportunidades a todos os alunos e contando com professores capacitados e compromissados com a educação de todos.Since this study aims to discuss the placement of deaf students in regular schools, we intend to analyze various aspects pertaining to such issues from the perspective of a group of teachers of deaf students. We applied a questionnaire to 36 teachers working in public schools in elementary, middle and high school levels in the state of Paraná. The data analysis showed that the main difficulties mentioned were related either to the teachers themselves or to their students. Teacher related issues ranged from the teachers' lack of knowledge about deafness, or to problems concerning interaction with the deaf and lack

  12. 77 FR 46008 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air Quality Maintenance Area... the Northern Ada County Air Quality Maintenance Area Second 10-year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan...-Northern Ada County Air Quality Maintenance Area will maintain air quality standards for carbon monoxide...

  13. Fractal properties of fractured sandstones of the Guartela Canyon, Parana Basin - Brazil; Propriedades fractais de arenitos fraturados do Canyon Guartela, Formacao Furnas, Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jeferson de; Figueira, Isabela Francoso Rebutini; Santos, Thais Borba [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGG/DG/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Programa de Pos-Graducao em Geologia; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DG/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Pierin, Andre Ramiro; Spisila, Andre Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DG/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Programa de Iniciacao Cientifica

    2008-03-15

    The statistical and geometrical properties of fracture systems were obtained by analyzing remote sense images and outcrop data, in the Region of Guartela Canyon, in the central-eastern of Parana State. The probability distributions of fractures, with their parameters and attributes, were obtained through extensive statistical exploration of data. These parameters were used as input data for generating 3-D stochastic fractures models through the 'discrete fracture network - DFN' method. The modeling is performed by using the code FRED. To study the persistence of statistical parameters in multiple scales were used remote sensing images (SRTM, Landsat TM7 and aerial photos), covering a scale range from outcrops (few meters) to basin scales (hundreds of kilometers). The results indicated the presence of power-law (fractal) statistics for the spatial and size distributions. Fractals distributions were found for all sets studied, in some cases with different fractal exponents. The implications of fractal behavior for the generation of discrete fracture network, and consequently for the hydraulic properties, are briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S

    1987-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S.

    1986-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. REGIONAL MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS IN HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION, PARANA BASIN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William D.; Saad, Antonio; Ohofugi, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The mangetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with sounding spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas. Refs.

  17. Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene H.S.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

  18. War and early state formation in the northern Titicaca Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Charles; Levine, Abigail

    2011-08-23

    Excavations at the site of Taraco in the northern Titicaca Basin of southern Peru indicate a 2,600-y sequence of human occupation beginning ca. 1100 B.C.E. Previous research has identified several political centers in the region in the latter part of the first millennium B.C.E. The two largest centers were Taraco, located near the northern lake edge, and Pukara, located 50 km to the northwest in the grassland pampas. Our data reveal that a high-status residential section of Taraco was burned in the first century A.D., after which economic activity in the area dramatically declined. Coincident with this massive fire at Taraco, Pukara adopted many of the characteristics of state societies and emerged as an expanding regional polity. We conclude that organized conflict, beginning approximately 500 B.C.E., is a significant factor in the evolution of the archaic state in the northern Titicaca Basin.

  19. Composição florística e distribuição sazonal do banco de sementes em Floresta Ombrófila Mista Aluvial, Araucária, PR Floristic composition and distribution of soil seed bank in Subtropical Ombrophilous Alluvial Forest in Araucaria, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Henrique Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa avaliou-se o banco de sementes do solo em um remanescente da Floresta Ombrófila Mista Aluvial, em Araucária, PR, através da análise quali-quantitativa da germinação. Adicionalmente, foi verificado se houve variação sazonal do banco. Localizado no Primeiro Planalto Paranaense, o remanescente encontra-se sob influência do rio Barigüi, tributário do rio Iguaçu. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, formadas por amostras compostas. O banco de sementes foi coletado em três estações do ano, sendo retiradas amostras de 10 cm de profundidade com serrapilheira, com auxílio de um gabarito quadrado de 40 cm de lado. As amostras de cada estação foram dispostas em caixas de madeira em casa de vegetação, por oito meses. Foi observada a ocorrência média, nas três estações, de 5.732 sementes m-2, pertencentes a 276 espécies, distribuídas em 120 gêneros e 54 famílias, num total de 34.780 sementes germinadas. O tamanho do banco de sementes não variou significativamente entre as estações do ano. A composição florística do banco de sementes é influenciada pelas áreas antropizadas do entorno.doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.77In this research it was evaluated the potential of the soil seed bank in a remaining of Subtropical Ombrophilous Alluvial Forest (Araucaria Forest, by quali-quantitative analysis of seed germination. Additionally it was tested the occurrence of seasonal variation of the soil seed bank. The forest remaining located in Araucaria county, Parana State, Brazil, and it is influenced by Barigui river, affluent of Iguaçu river. It was used the completely randomized experimental design with ten replications. The soil seed bank was collected in three seasons at depth (of 10 cm plus litter, using a 0.40 m x 0.40 m sample square. The collected samples were placed in wood boxes in greenhouse, during 8 months. It was observed a season average of 5,732 individuals m-2

  20. Maternal Mortality At The State Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To analyse and document our experiences with maternal mortality with the view of finding the trends over the last seven years, common causes and attributing socio-demographic factors. Design: A prospective analysis of maternal mortality. Setting: State Specialists Hospital Bauchi, Bauchi Northeastern Nigeria.

  1. Timber harvesting patterns for major states in the central, northern, and mid-Atlantic hardwood regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2018-01-01

    Timber harvesting is a major disturbance agent influencing the composition and structure of eastern hardwood forests. To better understand timber harvesting practices, we examined roundwood harvesting patterns in 13 eastern states in the Central, Mid-Atlantic, and Northern regions that contained high proportional volumes of hardwood in their forest inventories. Nearly...

  2. Ostrich Management practices in three states of Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshelia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify management practices associated with ostrich farming in Kano, Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. Seven farms were purposively selected as units of analysis. Primary data were generated by means of a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, administered to the sampled respondents. A simple inductive statistics was applied to the primary data. The result reveals a commercial production of ostrich by 86 % with all the farms engaged in production of other livestock species. Similarly, all the farms had shelter for chicks and breeders which were all erected using wire mesh and poles at above 5 feet fencing level. More over, 100 % of the farms were densely stocked (below 500 m2 for a pair of ostrich with facilities below recommended levels. The result also showed that 100 % of the farms compound feed locally using premix without no providing grit and low (14 % usage of succulent feed. About 29 % of the farms use endoparasitic and anthelminthic drugs as health management practices. On the reproductive practices, only trio (29 % and colony (71 % configurations were practiced. The prominent biosecurity measures include division of farm into disease control unit (100 % and employee enlightenment (86 %. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 64-67

  3. Potential of production of biodiesel starting from the chicken oil in the cooperatives of the West of Parana, Brazil; Potencial de producao de biodiesel a partir do oleo de frango nas cooperativas do oeste do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], Email: ssouza@unioeste.br; Neitzke, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (PIBIC/CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica; Gomes, Luis Fernando Souza [Colegio Estadual Presidente Castelo Branco, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], Email: luisfsg@ibest.com.br; Bariccatti, Reinaldo Aparecido [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CECE/UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas], Email: bariccatti@unioeste.br

    2006-07-01

    Brazil occupies a prominence place in the development and use of sources renovate of energy, due to its great territorial extension, climate and several alternatives. One of these it is the bio diesel,o production which can substitute the oil diesel, decreasing the impacts to the environment. In the productive chain of chicken meat a residue, chicken oil, is generated with potential for biodiesel production. In this work they were certain characteristics physical chemistries, that can influence in the reactions of transesterification of the chicken oil. It was lifted up the potential of production of chicken oil in the cooperatives of the area west of the state of Parana and yield in biodiesel. The bio diesel production by cooperatives could be of 19.525.209,0 kg/year of bio diesel and the yield of 95%. (author)

  4. The study of ground water movements about Guarani Aquifer system through Parana, Sao Paulo isotopes and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Lima Bittendourt, A.; Chemas Hindt, E.; Duarte, U.; Montano, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study relates tectonic features to hydrochemistry properties in order to show an example where the Guarany Aquifer behaves like a closed compartiment. This situation can be used as a model to other localities with similar geological structures where the aquifer is not recharged by modern waters, therefore, groundwater withdrawal from deep wells depletes the aquifer turning its exploitation not recommended. This study area was located inside the limits of the Ponta Grossa Arch, especially by the the Rio Alonzo and Sao Jeronimo-Curiuva lineaments. Among the waters that had been already classified in Sao Paulo and Parana States (Brazil), predominate the calcium-bicarbonate and sodiumbicarbonate types and the characteristic of the water in this particular case is sodiumsulfate- chloride type with TDS above 1000 mg/L

  5. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Both districts are required under Part C of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement SIP- approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit programs. These proposed revisions update the definitions used in the districts' PSD permit programs.

  6. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Both districts are required under Part C of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement SIP-approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit programs. These revisions update the definitions used in the districts' PSD permit programs.

  7. Practitioner survey of the state of health integration in environmental assessment: The case of northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Bronson, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of health integration in Canadian northern EA, this paper further demonstrates the lack of consistent integration of health in EA practice. A survey was administered to northern EA and health practitioners, administrators and special interest groups to assess current northern health assessment practices, the scope of health in EA, EA performance with regard to health assessment and the perceived barriers to health integration. Results suggest that health is currently recognized as an important component of northern EA and is addressed in the majority of cases; however, health is addressed primarily during the pre-decision stages of EA and less often during post-decision follow-up and monitoring. Moreover, when health is addressed, attention is limited to the physical components of health and health impacts due to physical environmental change, with considerably less attention given to the social aspects of health. Results also suggest dissent between EA practitioners, health practitioners and other interests concerning the overall state of health in EA; however, there is consensus on the key challenges to improved integration, namely differences in understanding of the scope of health and expectations of EA to assess health impacts; limited coordination between EA and health practitioners; limited scope and requirements of current EA legislation for health assessment; and the lack of supporting EA methods and frameworks

  8. [Poles of American tegumentary leishmaniasis production in northern Paraná State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Neitzke, Herintha Coeto; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teodoro, Ueslei; Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira Costa

    2009-05-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic in the State of Paraná, with 99.3% of the cases reported in the South of Brazil. Spatial distribution of the disease in northern Paraná was verified, identifying the most relevant geographic areas in epidemiological terms. The study used data recorded on epidemiological forms from the Teaching and Research Clinical Test Laboratory of the State University in Maringá, from 1987 to 2004. The study only included individuals that were infected in the municipalities (counties) in northern Paraná. Identification of the epidemiological units (poles and circuits) was based on spatial density of cases, according to the model proposed by the National Health Foundation, considering the most likely infection sites. Considering 1,933 reported cases, 1,611 were infected in northern Paraná. American tegumentary leishmaniasis distribution in Paraná State suggests two circuits for production of the disease: Paraná-Paranapanema, highlighting the Cinzas-Laranjinha, Tibagi, Ivaí-Pirapó, Piquiri, and Baixo Iguaçu poles, and Ribeira, highlighting the Alto Ribeira pole.

  9. 77 FR 45962 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air Quality Maintenance Area... (IDEQ) submitted the Northern Ada County Air Quality Maintenance Area Second 10-year Carbon Monoxide... Ada County Air Quality Maintenance Area will maintain air quality standards for carbon monoxide (CO...

  10. Geochemistry of the Upper Parana River floodplain. Study of the Garcas Pond and Patos Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelo Bevilacqua Remor; Silvio Cesar Sampaio; Marcio Antonio Vilas Boas; Ralpho Rinaldo dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the supply of chemical elements to the Upper Parana River floodplain and identify trends in the geochemistry of its drainage basin. The primary factor that regulates the supply of chemical elements of the Upper Parana River floodplain is the flood pulse, which can be magnified by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Garcas Pond is affected by agriculture, urbanization, discharge of industrial effluents and hydroelectric power production activities. Patos Pond is affected by sugarcane burning, gold mining, agriculture and urbanization. (author)

  11. Fatores de risco relacionados com o desempenho de leitões lactentes em granjas de suínos da região norte do Paraná The relation of the risk factors on the suckling piglets performance in farms of north Parana state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    1998-12-01

    maximizar a produtividade na fase de maternidade.Eighteen farms of swine from North of Parana State, Brazil, were evaluated during the year of 1994. In the herd, at least six sows and her litters were evaluated from the birth up to weaning by four objetive variables (diarrhoea in the suckling, mortality rate, weight variation coefficient at weaning and average daily weight gain in the period, and were observed sixteen explainatory variables: (daily thermal amplitude, % area of the windows in the pant, pen 's area, corporal status of the sow, creep presence, farrowing assistance, weight at birth, onfalite presence, internal minimal temperature in the plant, litter size at birth, colibacilosis vaccination, sows per plant, coletive suckling, roof presence in the plant, intestinal parasites presence and sanitary breack utilization. The variables were evaluated by the ECOSUI program developed by EMBRAPA/CNPSA. The main risk factors observed were: high internal minimal temperature, high thermal amplitude, sanitary break absence, roof absence, high sows per plant, insufficient pen's area, onfalite and intestinal parasites presence and colibacilosis vaccination absence (founded in 50% of farms. The rates of the objetive variables were insatisfatory. The relation of diarrhoea presence was 8/18; to mortality rate the relation was 5/17; to weight variation coefficient, 0/18; and to the average daily weight gain, 9/17. The results indicate that the preventive veterinary medicine is very importam to reduce these risk factors to improve the suckling pigs performance.

  12. Síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de 23 casos Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba regions, State of Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: clinical-epidemiological aspects of 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ezequiel Limongi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os achados epidemiológicos, clínicos, laboratoriais e terapêuticos de 23 casos de síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus, identificados sorologicamente ou por imunohistoquímica em hospitais do município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Febre (100%, dispnéia (100% e mialgias (78% foram os sintomas mais frequentemente observados nesta casuística. Os sinais físicos mais prevalentes foram hipotensão (65% e taquicardia (65%. Achados laboratoriais mais comuns incluíram trombocitopenia (96%, hemoconcentração (83% e leucocitose (74%. Valores anormais de enzimas hepáticas foram encontrados em todos os pacientes testados e alterações em radiografias de tórax foram muito (95,6% freqüentes. Em 55,5% dos pacientes, foi necessário intubação orotraqueal e suporte hemodinâmico. O presente estudo confirmou o padrão sazonal da síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus na região de Uberlândia e o envolvimento, no ciclo de transmissão da doença, de grupos profissionais considerados de baixo risco de infecção. A alta (39% taxa de letalidade e a gravidade da doença observadas neste estudo podem estar associadas ao atendimento tardio dos pacientes.The epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment findings from 23 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome were analyzed. These cases were identified either serologically or immunohistochemically in hospitals in the municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais. Fever (100%, dyspnea (100% and myalgia (78% were the symptoms most frequently observed in this sample. The most prevalent physical signs were hypotension (65% and tachycardia (65%. The most common laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia (96%, hemoconcentration (83% and leukocytosis (74%. Abnormal values for liver enzymes were found in all the patients tested and abnormalities in chest radiography were very frequent (95.6%. In 55.5% of the patients, orotracheal intubation and hemodynamic support were

  13. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halila GC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0 for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05. Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97% and adverse effects (62.3% were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence

  14. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  15. Influence of temperature on power output of a panel of polycrystalline silicon in the west region of Parana, Brazil; Influencia da temperatura sobre a potencia de saida de um painel de silicio policristalino na regiao oeste paranaense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, Roger Nabeyama; Santos, Jose Airton Azevedo dos; Gnoatto, Estor; Kawanagh, Edward; Fischborn, Marcos [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Photovoltaic panels have been confirmed as an alternative source of electric energy. However, the output power of a photovoltaic panel is strongly dependent on solar intensity modifications and ambient temperature too. Then, it is necessary to know like the panels work under these alterations. This work intend to analyze the influence of the temperature on the output power of a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic panel in Medianeira City located in West Region of Parana State by one year observation period. (author)

  16. State-building, migration and economic development on the frontiers of northern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bleuer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kunduz River Valley of northern Afghanistan and the Vakhsh River Valley of southern Tajikistan followed what initially appear to be vastly different trajectories. Despite these two adjacent areas having had much in common throughout many periods of history, the present-day region of northern Afghanistan was eventually taken under the control of the Afghan state while the areas north of the Amu Darya and Panj River were to become part of the Soviet Union. However, instead of a divergent course of development and state-building, these two regions were subjected to very similar patterns of agricultural development and migration policies. “Empty” areas were to be populated, by force if necessary, wetlands were to be drained for agriculture, and cotton farming was to become pre-eminent. The end result in both areas was the creation of a socially diverse and economically significant region that was fully integrated into the modern state’s economy and politics. This article analyzes and compares the motives and implementation of the state-building projects in both of these now domestically important regions and finds remarkable similarities despite the obvious differences in the structure of the Afghan and Soviet states.

  17. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po and 210 Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: → Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. → Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. → Contribution of 226 Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. → Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  18. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos, E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Av. 24-A, No. 1515 - CP 178, CEP 13506-900-Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: > Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. > Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. > Contribution of {sup 226}Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. > Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  19. Ecological impact from large constructions of hydroelectric power plants in Parana River, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Argentino A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis over environmental impacts on Parana River as a result of the hydroelectric power plants construction is presented. Hydroelectric dams, also including the planned ones, are showing during the explanation, and biologic aspects are discussed. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.

  1. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    stream_size 30182 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Marine Pollution... Bulletin, Volume 27, pp. 85-91, 1993. 0025-326X/93 $6.00+0.00 Printed in Great Britain. O 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd State of Oil Pollution in the Northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf Oil Spill R. SEN GUPTA, S. P. FONDEKAR and R. ALAGARSAMY National...

  2. Hedychium putaoense (Zingiberaceae, a new species from Putao, Kachin State, Northern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedychium putaoense Y.H. Tan & H.B. Ding, a new species of Zingiberaceae from Putao, Kachin state, Northern Myanmar, is described and illustrated. It is similar to H. densiflorum Wall. and H. longipedunculatum A.R.K. Sastry & D.M. Verma, but differs by its very small bract (4–6 × 2.5–3 mm vs. 18–19 × 5–5.5 mm and ca. 11 × 7 mm, respectively, semicircle and dark red bracteole, orange flower and broadly falcate to lanceolate lateral staminodes.

  3. Phytogeographical patterns of dry forests sensu stricto in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Daniel M; Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Duque-Brasil, Reinaldo; Schaefer, Carlos E R

    2013-01-01

    The Deciduous Complex that occurs in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, raises questions about the floristic affinities of these formations in relation to neighboring phytogeographical domains. Little is known about the identity of the seasonal forest formations that comprise this complex, or about its relationships to abiotic components, such as soils, topography and climate. This study aimed to recognize the patterns of floristic similarity of all studied fragments of dry forest of northern Minas Gerais with soil and climate attributes, based on the available database. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of two floristic groups that had clear associations with either the Koppen's BSh (semi-arid) or Aw (seasonal tropical) climates. Likewise, the subdivisions of these groups showed clear associations with the dominant soil classes in the region. The Red-Yellow Latosol is the dominant soil classes in the BSh climatic domain, seconded by alluvial areas associated with Fluvic Neosols. The Aw domain comprised a much varied set of soils: Nitosols, Argisols, Cambisols and Litholic Neosols, most derived from the Bambuí limestone/slate formation. The ecotonal nature of northern Minas Gerais State provides a complex interaction between the flora of neighboring phytogeographical domains. This, allied to pedogeomorphological factors, allowed a better understanding of the effects of late Quaternary climate changes for the Deciduous Complex evolution. We conclude that the Latosols under present-day semi-arid climates (BSh) are relicts of former wetter climates, during which humid forest (semideciduous) expansion took place. Later, these semideciduous forests were subjected to a much drier climate, when selection for deciduousness led to the present-days Deciduous Complex scenario.

  4. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Tatiane Ferraz; Velludo, Marcela Roquetti; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Peret, André Moldenhauer

    2011-06-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish.

  5. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.

  6. On achieving the state's household recycling target: A case study of Northern New Jersey, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otegbeye, M.; Abdel-Malek, L.; Hsieh, H.N.; Meegoda, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities

  7. Employability of People with Disabilities in the Northern States of Peninsular Malaysia: Employers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Suet Leng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates employers’ perspective towards employing people with disabilities  in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia. The research also endeavoured to identify factors that promote or hinder gainful employment of people with disabilities in Malaysia.Method: The data was collected through postal questionnaires distributed to several types of industries in the northern region of Malaysia.Results: The results indicated that most of the employers are in favour of employing persons with disabilities. However, very few have such enabling policies, or a mechanism to handle issues related to persons with disabilities, or a built environment which is fully accessible to persons with disabilities.  They are also concerned about the  ability of workers with disabilities to comprehend and follow orders, as well as the costs involved in employing and training them. These results imply that if employers  want to fulfil their intentions of recruiting persons with disabilities, a lot has to be done to employ and sustain them in their jobs.Key words: Employment, People with Disabilities, Malaysiadoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.28

  8. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  9. Soil erosion determination in an watershed from Northern Parana (Brazil) using 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Guimaraes, Maria de Fatima

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was study the soil losses or gains in a watershed in the municipal district of Ca mbe, P R, Brazil using 137 Cs as marker for the determination of soil redistributions. A transect sampling was used to evaluate the influence of different tillage on soil erosion. One point, located in a forest area was sampled and analyzed to determine the reference inventory of cesium-137 deposited by fallout. The average value of the reference inventory was 292 Bq m -2 . The cesium-137 inventory of the transect samples varied from 80 Bq m -2 to 403 Bq m -2 . The sampling points in pasture presented soil losses. The sampling points in coffee plantation did not present losses or gains. The sampling points in soybean cultivated areas presented soil losses. (author)

  10. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil; Programa de seguridad radiologica para las oficinas de salud en Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G. [Secretaria de Saude do Estado do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. The sexual games of the body politic: fantasy and state violence in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxaga, B

    2001-03-01

    This article analyzes the practice of strip searching women political prisoners in Northern Ireland as a violent technology of control aimed at breaking the political identity of prisoners. Focusing on a controversial case of a mass strip search carried out in 1992, the article examines the phantasmatic investements pervading this seemingly rational technology of control. Using a psychoanalytic notion of fantasy against the backdrop of a Foucaultian theory of power, this article argues that strip searches constitute a gendered form of political domination driven by, and performed within, a phantasmatic scenario of sexual violence. In this scenario both the political and gender identities of prisoners are re-inscribed with the power of a state acting as a male body politic. The article argues that the phantasmatic support of rational technologies of control betrays the contingent and shifting character of domination as well as its ambiguous effects.

  12. Chemical characteristics and global density of an eutroferric red latosol cultivated with cover crops in Toledo District, Parana StateCaracterísticas químicas e densidade global de um latossolo vermelho eutróferrico cultivado com plantas de cobertura em Toledo-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Vendrúscolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agricultural frontier through deforestation, adoption of mechanization and intensive use of inappropriate management practices, has promoted changes in the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, resulting in degradation processes, thus reducing productivity. Based on this, the objective the work was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and the global density of an Eutroferric Red Latosol of the experimental area of the Parana Catholic University, Toledo Campus. The experimental design used was casualized blocks with four replicates, in which the treatments were: millet, hairy vetch and control (spontaneous vegetation. The evaluations were: dry mass production, with the highest amount for millet (7.07 Mg ha¹, global soil density in which the lowest value was under control and the highest in hairy vetch; density of weeds population in which the control treatment had the highest value on; soil chemical characteristics, in which both hairy vetch and millet presented higher results compared to the control, being different in some nutrients, such as phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.A expansão da fronteira agrícola através de desmatamentos, adoção de mecanização intensiva e uso de práticas de manejo inadequadas, tem promovido alterações nas propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, resultando em processos de degradação, reduzindo desta maneira a produtividade. Com base no exposto, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar características químicas e densidade global de um Latossolo Vermelho Eutróferrico, da área experimental da Fazenda da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Campus Toledo, sob tratamentos do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum e da ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa como plantas de cobertura. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em que os tratamentos foram: milheto, ervilhaca peluda e testemunha (vegetação espontânea. As avalia

  13. Considerations on fluorides anomalies in Botucatu-Piramboia aquifers system, Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmelmann, A.A.; Reboucas, A.C.; Reboucas, A.M.; Heine, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater of a great number of deep wells dug to exploit the Botucatu-Piramboia aquifer system in the Parana Basin, Brazil, have high fluoride concentrations, over 1 ppm, that turns groundwater useless for human supply. Investigations being carried out a the Center for Groundwater Research (CEPAS) of the Institute of Geosciences at USP, Sao Paulo, indicate a relationship between fluoride concentration and groundwater age, dated with radiocarbon. (author)

  14. The Northern Climate Exchange Gap Analysis Project : an assessment of the current state of knowledge about the impacts of climate change in northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Climate ExChange (NCE) Gap Analysis Project was launched in 1999 with an objective to assess the state of knowledge on climate change in northern Canada. Resulting products of the project have included the Infosource Database, an on-line database of published climate change research related to the Canadian North, the Directory of Contacts, another on-line database of interested parties to climate change issues, and a set of tables that rate the level of available information on climate change as it relates to natural, economic and community systems. Other products include a report of a workshop on climate change research, 2 reports assessing the level of traditional northern knowledge about climate change, 2 reports assessing the completeness and value of the Infosource Database, a web site for NCE, and this report. All products are available to the public on the Internet or on a CD-ROM. The NCE Gap Analysis Project has shown there are inequalities in the amount of information across different systems, and that there is more knowledge on predicted temperature changes than for other climate components. The study notes that there are strong regional trends for compiled knowledge, with some regions having been better studied than others. The project revealed that traditional knowledge of climate change has not been well documented, and that more information exists about climate change impacts on biological systems with an economic component than those without economic significance. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Bentonites of the Irati Formation in the southern sector of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Bentonitas da Formacao Irati no setor sul da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aurelio Fagundes; Dani, Norberto; Remus, Marcus Vinicius Dornelles; Sommer, Margot Guerra, E-mail: norberto.dani@ufrgs.br, E-mail: marcus.remus@ufrgs.br, E-mail: margot.sommer@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl, E-mail: brunoldhorn@gmail.com [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Recife, PE (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional

    2017-01-15

    This paper aims to identify and to present mineralogical and chemical arguments that demonstrate the existence of bentonite levels in the Irati Formation, found in outcrops to the west Acegua in southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). These levels are thin, on average 4 cm thick, large in area, and are composed of grayish-white to greenish massive clay stones that contrast, in the field, with the shales of the Irati Formation. The bentonite levels of the Irati Formation are predominantly composed of Ca-montmorillonite, which constitutes the fine matrix of the rock; and scattered primary or magmatic crystals not larger than very fine sand. Among the main primary minerals representative of volcanic setting, it is possible to identify β-quartz paramorphs, sanidine, biotite, zircon, apatite and ilmenite, in addition to quartz and feldspar shards (splinters). More rarely, fragments of meso and macrocharcoals are found within the bentonite layers, which contrast with the maturity and type of non-vegetal organic matter of the Irati shale. Therefore, the nature of the precursor volcanism is inferred on the basis of rock geochemistry and crystal chemistry of the neoformed montmorillonite in the bentonite levels. Both methodologies indicate that during this period the volcanic ashes that reached the Parana Basin were generated by volcanism of intermediate composition, which is in accordance with what is known about the Lower Choiyoi Volcanic Province manifestations, which were synchronous with the sedimentation of the Irati Formation in the Parana Basin. (author)

  16. Grassland to shrubland state transitions enhance carbon sequestration in the northern Chihuahuan Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M D; Collins, S L; Swann, A M; Ford, P L; Litvak, M E

    2015-03-01

    The replacement of native C4 -dominated grassland by C3 -dominated shrubland is considered an ecological state transition where different ecological communities can exist under similar environmental conditions. These state transitions are occurring globally, and may be exacerbated by climate change. One consequence of the global increase in woody vegetation may be enhanced ecosystem carbon sequestration, although the responses of arid and semiarid ecosystems may be highly variable. During a drier than average period from 2007 to 2011 in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, we found established shrubland to sequester 49 g C m(-2) yr(-1) on average, while nearby native C4 grassland was a net source of 31 g C m(-2) yr(-1) over this same period. Differences in C exchange between these ecosystems were pronounced--grassland had similar productivity compared to shrubland but experienced higher C efflux via ecosystem respiration, while shrubland was a consistent C sink because of a longer growing season and lower ecosystem respiration. At daily timescales, rates of carbon exchange were more sensitive to soil moisture variation in grassland than shrubland, such that grassland had a net uptake of C when wet but lost C when dry. Thus, even under unfavorable, drier than average climate conditions, the state transition from grassland to shrubland resulted in a substantial increase in terrestrial C sequestration. These results illustrate the inherent tradeoffs in quantifying ecosystem services that result from ecological state transitions, such as shrub encroachment. In this case, the deleterious changes to ecosystem services often linked to grassland to shrubland state transitions may at least be partially offset by increased ecosystem carbon sequestration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Time-series Oxygen-18 Precipitation Isoscapes for Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavau, Carly J.; Chun, Kwok P.; Stadnyk, Tricia A.; Birks, S. Jean; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-05-01

    The present and past hydrological cycle from the watershed to regional scale can be greatly enhanced using water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H), displayed today as isoscapes. The development of water isoscapes has both hydrological and ecological applications, such as ground water recharge and food web ecology, and can provide critical information when observations are not available due to spatial and temporal gaps in sampling and data networks. This study focuses on the creation of δ18O precipitation (δ18Oppt) isoscapes at a monthly temporal frequency across Canada and the northern United States (US) utilizing CNIP (Canadian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) and USNIP (United States Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) measurements. Multiple linear stepwise regressions of CNIP and USNIP observations alongside NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) climatological variables, teleconnection indices, and geographic indicators are utilized to create empirical models that predict the δ18O of monthly precipitation across Canada and the northern US. Pooling information from nearby locations within a region can be useful due to the similarity of processes and mechanisms controlling the variability of δ18O. We expect similarity in the controls on isotopic composition to strengthen the correlation between δ18Oppt and predictor variables, resulting in model simulation improvements. For this reason, three different regionalization approaches are used to separate the study domain into 'isotope zones' to explore the effect of regionalization on model performance. This methodology results in 15 empirical models, five within each regionalization. A split sample calibration and validation approach is employed for model development, and parameter selection is based on demonstrated improvement of the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). Simulation results indicate the empirical models are generally able to capture the overall monthly variability in δ18Oppt. For the three

  18. Effects of the "great recession" on the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; William G. Luppold; Peter J. Ince; Ronald J. Piva; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the United States has demonstrated a notable decline in terms of employment, number of mills, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000--a downturn exacerbated by the "Great Recession" of 2007-2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary product (e.g.,...

  19. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  20. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... and DPR-60] Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... assessment, and behavioral observation) of the unescorted access authorization program when making the... under consideration to determine whether it met the criteria established in NRC Management Directive (MD...

  1. State formation and water-resource management in the Horn of Africa: the Aksumite Kingdom of the northern Ethiopian Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Madella, Marco; French, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Intensification of agriculture and irrigation are often considered triggers for both the flourishing and demise of civilizations. Was irrigation a key factor of state formation and urban development in northern Ethiopia? We argue that a household-based management of farmland and water would have ...... likely that ancient Aksumites utilized seasonal rainfall and water conservation methods to sustain food production....

  2. Use of damage surveys and field inventories to evaluate oak and sugar maple health in the northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S Morin; Christopher W. Woodall; Jim Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Oak species (Quercus spp.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) are substantial components of the forest ecosystems in the 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, both damage surveys and forest inventories have documented declines of sugar maple and oak health. In order to more fully assess the status of oak and sugar maple health, we examined...

  3. Responding to the Needs of Young People Leaving State Care: Law, Practice, and Policy in England and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John; Stein, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for state child welfare services when young people leave care is to prepare them to cope with pressures surrounding this transition. Reviews existing research to explore current practice in England and Northern Ireland, and considers whether recent legislative reform in the two jurisdictions will help develop policy and…

  4. Optimization, water reuse and biomass energy potential from waste water poultry slaughterhouse in Matelandia-Parana, Brazil; Otimizacao, reuso de agua e potencial energetico da biomassa presente nas aguas residuarias de abatedouro de aves em Matelandia, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formentini, Diana Fatima [Fundacao Parque Tecnologico de Itaipu (PTI), Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mpbambiental@yahoo.com.br; Costanzi, Ricardo Nagamine [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UFTPR), PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The alternative sources for energy generation through anaerobic digestion assist in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and increase the efficiency removing wastewater organic load. This study aimed to identify opportunities for optimization and water reuse in industry and energy potential of biomass present in wastewater from poultry slaughterhouse in Matelandia Parana state, through the anaerobic digestion process. The company slaughtered 130,000 poultries d{sup -1} and generates a wastewater flow of 3,398.77 m{sup 3}.d{sup -}1. Measurements of water consumption were made by water meters installed at seven points of the production process, which resulted in consumption values by sector. The treatment system used consists of pre-treatment in sieve flotator static and physical, followed by stabilization ponds. Two anaerobic ponds were covered with a geo membrane and installed a gas meter to measure the flow of biogas production. The average production of biogas produced in each month was approximately 2,100 m{sup 3}. The use of biomass poultry slaughterhouse is viable for generating electricity and that you can reuse 255.80 m{sup 3}.d{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Northern States Power Company's open transmission tariff from a customer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, K.E.; Achinger, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    In October of 1990, Northern States Power Company (NSP or Company), filed a unique open transmission tariff for both captive customers and through-system transactions. This is an important step towards expanding transmission services in the United States. Many individuals in the utility industry, who may be considering Imposing generation costs on transmission services, have been closely monitoring NSP's case which is currently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). NSP's innovative generation costs include charges for reactive power production, frequency control, load dispatching, and load following. The results of this case may also have an important impact on the future of open transmission tariffs. Rates for these services depend on the customer's classification as either a captive or through-system consumer. The proposed tariff raises critical issues related to the costing of these transmission services. NSP's methodology has caused serious concern because the proposed tariff would increase transmission costs by an average of 53%. This paper will discuss the benefits of transmission, proposed rates, contract terms, and costing methodologies of NSP's plan

  6. BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE STATE OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Montiel-Peña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and its DNA in blood samples from bovine females from the northern region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 13 municipalities, with a sample size of 821 animals. Blood and serum samples were analyzed through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Overall prevalence was 20.8 %; the highest specific prevalences were obtained in breeding cows (27.4 %, crossbred cows (20.9 %, second-calving cows (23.2 %, three year-old cows (20.6 % and cows with abortion history (20 %. The risk factors associated with seropositivity were dairy cattle (OR = 1.9; IC95 %: 1.1-3.4 and dog presence in the farms (OR = 5.3; IC95 %: 1.3-22.3. The presence of N. caninum DNA was demonstrated in 4 out of 12 blood samples tested, which evidenced the existence of active infection. In conclusion, there were risk factors associated with bovine neosporosis, which proved the existence of active infection by N. caninum in cows from the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  7. Current state and prospects of carbon management in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2010-05-01

    The current state and trajectories of future development of natural landscapes in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia are defined inter alia by (1) current unsatisfactory social and economic situation in boreal Northern Eurasia; (2) the dramatic magnitude of on-going and expected climatic change (warming up to 10-12oC under global warming at 4oC); (3) increasing anthropogenic pressure, particularly in regions of intensive oil and gas exploration and extraction; (4) large areas of sparsely populated and practically unmanaged land; (5) vulnerability of northern ecosystems which historically developed under cold climates and buffering capacity of which is not well known; (6) risk of catastrophic natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks) whose frequency and severity have accelerated during recent decades; and (7) high probability of irreversible changes of vegetation cover. These specifics are overlapped with insufficient governance of natural renewable resources (e.g., forests) and destructed practice of industrial development of new territories (oil and gas extraction and exploration, metallurgy etc.). Based on a full carbon account for terrestrial vegetation ecosystems of Northern Eurasia, we analyze the relative impacts of major drivers on magnitude and uncertainty of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) under current and expected climate and environment. Dynamic trends and interannual variability of NECB are mostly dependent on weather conditions during growth seasons of individual years, regimes of natural disturbances, and anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems. In a short term, disturbances and human impacts cause a theoretically 'manageable' part of the full carbon account, which on average is estimated to be of about 20% of annual net primary production. In a long term, thawing of permafrost and change of hydrological regimes of vast territories may result in a catastrophic decline of the forested area and wide distribution of 'green desertification'. The

  8. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  9. New record of the mangrove rivulid Kryptolebias hermaphroditus Costa, 2011 (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) in the Pará state, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães-Costa, Auryceia; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2017-01-01

    The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias herma­phro­ditus is reported to the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Recently, a specimen of K. hermaphroditus was collected in a shallow running seawater stream at Ajuruteua beach, Pará state, northern Brazil. This new record is ca. 1,350 km from the nearest previously known occurrence in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects of this species are described.

  10. Status of oak seedlings and saplings in the northern United States: implications for sustainability of oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris W. Woodall; Randall S. Morin; Jim R. Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Oak species are a substantial component of forest ecosystems in a 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, it has been documented that the health of oak forests has been experiencing large-scale decline. To further evaluate the sustainability of oak forests in nearly half the states of the U.S., the current status of oak seedlings and saplings...

  11. Major and minor elements and traces in igneous rocks from crystalline basement of Parana by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar O.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R.

    2015-01-01

    Major and minor components of 30 acid and basic igneous rocks (granites, syenites, riolites and a basalt) of the Parana state crystalline basement were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF), in order to evaluate the similarity in terms of the compositional content. The corrections of interelements effects (absorption/intensification) were performed by means of the fundamental parameters (FP) method. The methodology was validated using a certificated reference material. The main oxides found associated with the quantified elements are SiO_2, Al_2O_3, Na_2O, K_2O, Fe_2O_3, CaO, MgO, TiO_2, P_2O_5, MnO, SO_3, NiO, ZnO, Rb_2O. Through statistical analysis, the studied samples were organized in 3 groups of similar compositions: syenites, light granites and basalt and dark granites. The results show that the WDXRF technique is a robust tool that enables distinction even between similar geological samples. (author)

  12. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  14. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, M.S.M.; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs

  15. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, M.S.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J. [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs.

  16. Manager's handbook for northern hardwoods in the north-central states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Provides a key for the resource manager to use in choosing silvicultural practices for the management of northern hardwoods. Control of stand composition, growth, and stand establishment for timber production, water, wildlife, and recreation are discussed.

  17. Chagas disease ecoepidemiology and environmental changes in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; Souza E Guimarães, Ricardo José de Paula; Souza, Christian Rezende; Gorla, David; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2017-11-01

    Triatoma sordida and Triatoma pseudomaculata are frequently captured triatomine species in the Brazilian savannah and caatinga biomes, respectively, and in Brazilian domiciles. This study identified eco-epidemiological changes in Chagas disease in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and considered the influence of environmental shifts and both natural and anthropogenic effects. Domicile infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates were obtained from triatomines and sylvatic reservoirs during the following two time periods: the 1980s and 2007/2008. Entomological and climatic data with land cover classification derived from satellite imagery were integrated into a geographic information system (GIS), which was applied for atmospheric correction, segmentation, image classification, and mapping and to analyse data obtained in the field. Climatic data were analysed and compared to land cover classifications. A comparison of current data with data obtained in the 1980's showed that T. sordida colonised domiciliary areas in both periods, and that T. pseudomaculata did not colonise these areas. There was a tendency toward a reduction in T. cruzi infection rates in sylvatic reservoirs, and of triatomines captured in both households and in the sylvatic environment. T. sordida populations have reduced in the sylvatic environment, while T. pseudomaculata showed an expanding trend in the region compared to counts observed in the 1980's in the sylvatic environment. This may be related to high deforestation rates as well as gradual increases in land surface temperature (LST) and temperatures along the years. Our results suggest a geographical expansion of species into new biomes as a result of anthropogenic and climatic changes that directly interfere with the reproductive and infection processes of vectors.

  18. Chagas disease ecoepidemiology and environmental changes in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Neves Vianna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Triatoma sordida and Triatoma pseudomaculata are frequently captured triatomine species in the Brazilian savannah and caatinga biomes, respectively, and in Brazilian domiciles. OBJECTIVES This study identified eco-epidemiological changes in Chagas disease in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and considered the influence of environmental shifts and both natural and anthropogenic effects. METHODS Domicile infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates were obtained from triatomines and sylvatic reservoirs during the following two time periods: the 1980s and 2007/2008. Entomological and climatic data with land cover classification derived from satellite imagery were integrated into a geographic information system (GIS, which was applied for atmospheric correction, segmentation, image classification, and mapping and to analyse data obtained in the field. Climatic data were analysed and compared to land cover classifications. RESULTS A comparison of current data with data obtained in the 1980's showed that T. sordida colonised domiciliary areas in both periods, and that T. pseudomaculata did not colonise these areas. There was a tendency toward a reduction in T. cruzi infection rates in sylvatic reservoirs, and of triatomines captured in both households and in the sylvatic environment. T. sordida populations have reduced in the sylvatic environment, while T. pseudomaculata showed an expanding trend in the region compared to counts observed in the 1980's in the sylvatic environment. This may be related to high deforestation rates as well as gradual increases in land surface temperature (LST and temperatures along the years. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest a geographical expansion of species into new biomes as a result of anthropogenic and climatic changes that directly interfere with the reproductive and infection processes of vectors.

  19. Different Stratospheric Polar Vortex States linked to Cold-Spells in North America and Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, M.; Cohen, J. L.; Runge, J.; Coumou, D.

    2017-12-01

    The stratospheric polar vortex in boreal winter can influence the tropospheric circulation and thereby surface weather in the mid-latitudes. Weak states of the vortex, e.g. associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs), often precede a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and thus increase the risk of mid-latitude cold-spells especially over Eurasia. Here we show using cluster analysis that next to the well-documented relationship between a zonally symmetric disturbed vortex and a negative NAO, there exists a zonally asymmetric pattern linked to a negative Western Pacific Oscillation (WPO) and cold-spells in the northeastern US, like for example observed in February 2014. The latter is more synoptic in time-scale but occurs more frequently than SSWs. A causal effect network (CEN) approach gives insights into the underlying physical pathways and time-lags showing that high-pressure around Greenland leads to vertical wave activity over eastern Siberia leading to downward propagating waves over Alaska and high pressure over the North Pacific. Moreover, composites propose that a rather strong mid-stratospheric vortex seems to be favorable for this zonally asymmetric and reflective mechanism. Overall, the mutual relationship between stratospheric circulation and high-latitude blocking in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans is complex and involves mechanisms operating at different time-scales. Our results suggest that the stratospheric influence on winter circulation should not exclusively be analyzed in terms of a downward propagating Northern Annular Mode (NAM) signal and SSWs. In particular when studying the stratospheric impacts on North American temperature it is crucial to also consider the more transient and zonally asymmetric events which might help to improve seasonal winter predictions for this region.

  20. The ethnoecological knowledge of fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Alexandre Ferreira; Bozelli, Reinaldo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the ethnoecological knowledge developed by fishermen through their fishing activities and searched for ways to match such knowledge to empirical data available in the scientific literature. The research involved fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who were consulted through semi-structured interviews after the establishment of a trustful relationship over a period of three years with the interviewer...

  1. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Damascena da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012.

  2. Politika «Severnogo izmerenija»: sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy razvitija [The Northern Dimension policy: current state and development prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotnikova Yekaterina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution and current state of the Northern Dimension policy and its role in Russia-EU relations. The authors analyse the discrepancy between the actual achievements of the Northern Dimension and its potential and the over-high expectations, which accompanied the policy renewal.

  3. Radiotherapy in Northern Germany: Facts and figures about radiooncology in 6 states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, H.J.; Heilmann, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally there was a close cooperation between the Roentgen Society of Northern Germany and the Society of 'Niedersachsen' and 'Sachsen-Anhalt'. Therefore, hospital departments and free standing office-type facilities in radiooncology from 6 states have put together a regional North German data-base. Detailed questionnaires were sent out in order to get data on heads of departments, professional staff, technical equipment, workload, diagnoses and training facilities. The collected data were distributed to all participating centers for confidential individual analysis. This paper reports the data collected. The survey 1995/96 had an unexpected return. Thirty-six from 38 centers in a region with 17.36 million inhabitants in 6 states (21.3% of Germany) took part. There were 73 megavolt machines and 31 afterloading facilities. Two hundred and forty physicians, 110 physicists, and 350 radiographers were working in radiooncology; and there were 852 hospital beds specifically assigned to radiooncology for the care of in-patients. In 1995, 32,000 patients were treated with 37,000 series, 570,000 treatment visits and 1,600,000 radiation fields. The average patient got 1.2 series, 18 treatment visits and 50 fields. Equipmentwise, an average department runs a mean of 2 megavolt machines and 1 afterloading facility. The corresponding data for 1 megavolt machine were 3.5 physicians, 1.6 physicists, 5 radiographers and 13 hospital beds. There was 1 machine for 240,000 inhabitants. The average workload of a megavolt machine was 439 patients a year with 513 series, 7,813 treatment visits and 21,845 radiation fields. A regional data-base for radiooncology is being described. It is demonstrated that it is possible to get detailed and current data by this method. It provides transparent data on equipment, personnel and workload in radiooncology. It should set an example for other regions to collect their data in the same fashion, and then compile all such data for the whole

  4. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.El pez tucunaré (Cichla piquiti, nativo del sistema de la cuenca del rio Tocantins-Araguaia, fue introducido en la cuenca del río Paranaíba, parte del sistema del río Paraná. En este ecosistema trófico de planicie aluvial, las relaciones entre comunidades de peces están definidas por diferentes factores que pueden ser modificados debido a la represa del río, y da como resultado grandes cambios en la interacción biológica en éstos hábitats. La represa de Cachoeira Dourada forma parte de una serie de represas en el río Paranaíba en el Brasil central, donde el tucunaré se ha establecido. Una investigación sobre su espectro alimentario, combinado con información sobre sus caracter

  5. Impacto da consulta de enfermagem na frequência de internações em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca em Curitiba - Paraná El impacto de la consulta de enfermería en la frecuencia de internaciones en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca en Curitiba, Paraná Impact of the nursing consultation on the frequency of hospitalizations in patients with heart failure in Curitiba, Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2009-06-01

    tasas de internaciones y readmisiones hospitalarias, aun en pacientes sometidos a las nuevas terapias, sobretodo el uso de IECA y β - bloqueantes. OBJETIVO: Este estudio es un análisis del impacto que la consulta de enfermería promueve en la frecuencia de internaciones de pacientes con IC, residentes en Curitiba y región metropolitana, Paraná. MÉTODOS: Diagnóstico de IC y clasificación funcional por la NYHA, contacto por teléfono, residencia en Curitiba o región metropolitana, expectativa de sobrevida mayor que 3 meses de enfermedades no cardiacas, edad superior a 18 años, no usuario de drogas ilícitas. Los grupos estaban conformados por medio de muestreo aleatorio simple (sorteo, en que un grupo recibió atención médica habitual, consulta de enfermería y monitoreo telefónico quincenal de carácter educativo, grupo intervención (GI y otro, atención médica habitual, monitoreo telefónico mensual de carácter administrativo y epidemiológico, grupo control (GC. El seguimiento se llevó a cabo durante el período de 6 meses. RESULTADOS: El GI necesitó de 0,25±0,79 internamientos y el GC 1,10 ±1,41; p = 0,037. CONCLUSIÓN: La consulta de enfermería promueve reducción de la frecuencia de internaciones hospitalarias de los pacientes con IC en tratamiento, residentes en Curitiba y región metropolitana.BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF has become a public health problem with increased incidence and prevalence in the last decade, a consequence of the aging of the population and improved pharmacological and interventionist therapies. It has high rates of mortality and morbidity, expressed as high rates of hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations, even in patients submitted to new therapies, especially ACEI and beta-blockers. OBJECTIVE: This study is the analysis of the impact that the nursing consultation has on the frequency of hospitalizations in patients with HF living in the city of Curitiba, state of Parana and its metropolitan region. METHOD: Patients

  6. Bioindicators of climate and trophic state in lowland and highland aquatic ecosystems of the Northern Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liseth Pérez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chironomids, diatoms and microcrustaceans that inhabit aquatic ecosystems of the Northern Neotropics are abundant and diverse. Some species are highly sensitive to changes in water chemical composition and trophic state. This study was undertaken as a first step in developing transfer functions to infer past environmental conditions in the Northern lowland Neotropics. Bioindicator species abundances were related to multiple environmental variables to exploit their use as environmental and paleoenvironmental indicators. We collected and analyzed water and surface sediment samples from 63 waterbodies located along a broad trophic state gradient and steep gradients of altitude (~0-1 560m.a.s.l. and precipitation (~400-3 200mm/y, from NW Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico to southern Guatemala. We related 14 limnological variables to relative abundances of 282 diatom species, 66 chironomid morphospecies, 51 species of cladocerans, 29 non-marine ostracode species and six freshwater calanoid copepods. Multivariate statistics indicated that bicarbonate is the strongest driver of chironomid and copepod distribution. Trophic state is the second most important factor that determines chironomid distribution. Conductivity, which is related to the precipitation gradient and marine influence on the Yucatán Peninsula, is the main variable that shapes diatom, ostracode and cladoceran communities. Diatoms, chironomids and cladocerans displayed higher diversities (H=2.4-2.6 than ostracodes and copepods (H=0.7- 1.8. Species richness and diversity were greater at lower elevations (Los quironómidos, diatomeas y microcrustaceos que habitan ecosistemas acuáticos en el norte de los Neotrópicos son abundantes y diversos. Algunas especies son altamente sensibles a cambios en la composición química del agua y en el estado trófico. Este estudio se realizó como el primer paso para desarrollar funciones de transferencia para inferir condiciones ambientales en el norte de las

  7. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    retribution against civilians occurred on August 21, 1863, when following an ambush on a Union picket site, Brevet Brigadier General George A. Custer...Additionally, northern newspapers reported that these “vandal acts” of retribution were not effective in deterring the partisans, nor gaining

  8. Stress state variations among the clay and limestone formations of the molasse basin of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, Tim; Mueller, Herwig; Frieg, Bernd; Klee, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The design of geological repositories for radioactive waste responds to the requirements of technical feasibility and long-term safety in the context of a specific geological setting. An important aspect of the geological setting is the primary stress field. To a large extent the stress state controls repository induced effects such as the excavation damage zone and the associated potential changes in the waste isolation properties of the host rock. Therefore the measurement of the stress state receives some attention where the site selection for geological repositories focuses onto relatively weak host rocks such as clay-stones and marly shales that tend to develop a significant excavation damage zone. Measurements of the minimum stress magnitudes in a recently drilled geothermal well in the Molasse Basin of northern Switzerland have yielded a stress profile reaching from 592 m to 1455 m depth. It straddles several rock units and includes the top of the crystalline basement. The sedimentary sequence consists of Marine limestones, shales and marls unconformably covered by Tertiary rocks of the Molasse. In other parts of the basin the evaporitic rocks of the Triassic Muschelkalk formation at the base of the sedimentary layer served as a regional detachment and enabled thin skinned thrusting and the formation of the Jura Fold and Thrust Belt in the Late Miocene. The stress measurements have been performed in the open hole by Mini-frac tests. The method uses a double packer system to isolate a one meter long interval of the borehole that is then pressurized at high injection rates up to the breakdown of the formation. Repeated pressurization of the interval allows to determine the stress that acts on the newly created fracture. The total injected volume during such a test is in the range of a few litres and the size of the fracture that extends from the borehole normal to the minimum

  9. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  10. Development of essentialist thinking about religion categories in Northern Ireland (and the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Kirsty; Feeney, Aidan; Eidson, R Cole; Coley, John D

    2017-03-01

    Social essentialism, the belief that members of certain social categories share unobservable properties, licenses expectations that those categories are natural and a good basis for inference. A challenge for cognitive developmental theory is to give an account of how children come to develop essentialist beliefs about socially important categories. Previous evidence from Israel suggests that kindergarteners selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (ethnicity) categories, and that this is attenuated among children in integrated schools. In 5 studies (N = 718) we used forced-choice (Study 1) and unconstrained (Studies 2-4) category-based inference tasks, and a questionnaire (Study 5) to study the development of essentialist reasoning about religion categories in Northern Ireland (Studies 1-3 & 5) and the U.S. (Study 4). Results show that, as in Israel, Northern Irish children selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (religion) categories, and that such reasoning is attenuated among children in integrated schools. However, the development trajectory of essentialist thinking and the patterns of attenuation among children attending integrated schools in Northern Ireland differ from the Israeli case. Meta-analysis confirmed this claim and ruled out an alternative explanation of the results based on community diversity. Although the Northern Irish and Israeli case studies illustrate that children develop selective essentialist beliefs about socially important categories, and that these beliefs are impacted by educational context, the differences between them emphasize the importance of historical, cultural, and political context in understanding conceptual development, and suggest that there may be more than one developmental route to social essentialism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Microbial flora in organic honey samples of africanized honeybees from Parana river islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify and compare the main contamination sources and the hygienic/sanitary conditions of organic honey samples of Apis mellifera from Parana River islands. Thirty-three (33 samples were analyzed between January 2005 and August 2006. Eleven (11 samples were collected by beekeepers and twenty-two (22 samples were collected and processed in accordance with ideal personal hygiene norms and good manufacturing practices. The samples underwent microbiological analysis in search of coliforms at 35 ºC and 45 ºC, as well as fungi enumeration analysis. As for fungi counting, the samples harvested by beekeepers showed values above the maximum established by Resolution nº 15/94 of Common Market Group - Mercosul. The results showed that secondary contamination sources are responsible for the reduction of organic honey quality.

  12. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy; Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Khoury, Helen J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  13. Genetic polymorphisms of human platelet antigens in Euro-African and Japanese descendants from Parana, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Ana Paula Avenia; Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2017-09-01

    The frequency distributions of HPA-1 to HPA-6 and HPA-15 were evaluated in two Brazilian populations from Parana: a mixed population of predominantly Caucasians and a population of Japanese descendants. Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP in 364 unrelated individuals. Differences in the distribution of HPA highlight diversity in Brazilian miscegenation and the importance of formation of the HPA panel composed of regional blood donors.

  14. Coal Development in the Northern Great Plains. The Impact on Revenues of State and Local Governments. Agricultural Economic Report No. 394.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Voelker, Stanley W.

    Development of Northern Great Plains coal resources will create new demands for state and local government services. Development will also produce increased government revenues. Special taxes on coal production have been enacted in Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming in order to ensure that state and local governments receive sufficient revenues to…

  15. The current state of abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison

    This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast.

  16. Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate material transported by the Parana and Uruguay rivers during high (december 1993) and low (september 1994) water periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, F.; Thouron, D.; Garcon, V.; Henry, F.; Probst, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Our motivation is to better constrain the neodymium and strontium isotopic signatures of the closest continental riverine source (Parana and Uruguay rivers) to the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence zone in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We thus present new isotopic data on the Nd and Sr of the dissolved and suspended loads of the Parana and Uruguay rivers for two water periods forming the Rio de la Plata whose drainage basin is the second largest one in South America. The Parana dissolved material shows less radiogenic (ε Nd (0) ranging between -12.1 and -8.2) than the Uruguay one with a mean ε Nd (0) value of -6.3 ± 0.3. Suspended particulates display the same isotopic trend (mean ε Nd (0) value of -10.3 and -6.0 for the Parana and Uruguay rivers, respectively). Dissolved load 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Parana (0.7123) is found to be more radiogenic than the Uruguay one (0.7097); the suspended load follows the same trend with 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of 0.7247 and 0.7115 in the Parana and Uruguay rivers, respectively. The relatively radiogenic Nd and non radiogenic Sr of the Uruguay River as compared to the Parana River could be attributed to a predominance of tholeiitic basalts in the drainage basin. A revisited estimation of the fluxes of Nd considering all South American rivers delivering into the western South and Tropical Atlantic Ocean yields a Nd particulate flux to estuarine water two orders of magnitude higher than the Nd dissolved flux. Considering the net dissolved and suspended fluxes of Nd reaching the Rio de la Plata, we have calculated a resulting ε Nd (0) equal to -10.2. The computation of ε Nd (0) of the Rio de la Plata outflow waters gives a value of -8.3, taking into account various removal processes within the estuary. (authors)

  17. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  18. Potencial de utilização do estrato superior do solo laterítico da cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, como material e apoio de aterros sanitários = Utilization potential of the soil layer in the city of Londrina, Parana State, as material and support for landfill solid wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Souza Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação do potencial de utilização da camada de solo laterítico, do perfil característico, da cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, para o uso como material e apoio de aterros sanitários. Neste sentido fez-se necessária uma brevediscussão conceitual sobre resíduos sólidos, tipos de aterros e interação solo-contaminante. Em seguida foi feita uma descrição da localização da área de estudo e das características da camada do solo investigada. A avaliação do solo foi baseada em critérios geotécnicos a partir das características físicas, químicas e mineralógicas do solo, obtidas em ensaio de laboratório e em resultados publicados, em artigos técnicos, tomando-se por base uma pontuação e uma classificação, feitas a partir de atributos sugeridos por Zuquette (1993. A avaliação final, a respeito da utilização da camada de solo laterítico, para a implantação de um aterro sanitário, foi positiva.This paper shows an evaluation of the utilization potential of laterite soil layer, characteristic of the city of Londrina, Paraná State, as material and support for landfill solid wastes. At first, weprovided a brief definition of the solid residue, types of embankments, soil-contaminating interaction and contaminating processes. Then, we described the study area location and the layer characteristics of the soil under investigation. The soil evaluation was based on geotechnical criteria regarding physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the soil, which were obtained from a laboratory experiment and from results published in technical articles. Grading and classification were done according to the attributes suggested by Zuquette (1993. The final evaluation on the use of the layer of laterite soil for the implantation of the sanitary bank was positive.

  19. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  20. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs (Canis familiaris with acute diarrhea from metropolitan region of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil/ Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris com diarréia aguda oriundos da região metropolitana de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty fecal samples from dogs with acute diarrhea (Group 1 and from 50 dogs without diarrhea (Group 2 were collected and analyzed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the State University of Londrina, between October, 2004 and October 2005. From the positive samples (29.3% of Group 1, 72.7% were infected by only one agent, while 27.3% had mixed infection. The following genera wereobserved by coproparasitologic evaluation: Giardia sp. (9.3%, Ancylostoma sp. (7.3%, Cystoisospora (7.3%, Entamoeba sp. (6.7%, Toxocara sp.(4%, Pentatrichomanas hominis (3.3%, and Trichurisvulpis (1.3%. From the 50 animals without diarrhea, six (12% were positive by coproparasitologic evaluation: two (4% for Ancylostoma sp., three (6% with Giardia sp., and one (2% for both Ancylostoma sp. and Cystoisospora sp. There was a significant relationship between infection and diarrhea (P=0,005, age and infection (PForam examinadas 150 amostras de fezes colhidas de cães com diarréia aguda (Grupo 1, e outras 50 de animais sem diarréia (Grupo 2, atendidos entre outubro de 2004 e outubro 2005, no Hospital Veterinário Escola da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Dos 150 animais do G1, 44 (29,3% estavam infectados por helmintos e/ou protozoários, sendo que destes, 32 (72,7% apresentavam infecção simples e 12 (27,3% infecções múltiplas. Os gêneros identificados nestes animais foram: Giardia sp. (9,3%, Cystoisospora sp. (7,3%, Ancylostoma sp. (7,3%, Entamoeba sp. (6,7%, Toxocara sp. (4%, Pentatrichomonas hominis (3,3% e Trichuris vulpis (1,3%. Dos 50 animais sem diarréia, seis (12% eram positivos, dois (4% para Ancylostoma sp., três (6% para Giardia sp. e um (2% para Ancylostoma sp. e Cystoisospora simultaneamente. Houve relação estatisticamente significativa (P=0,005 entre o parasitismo e a ocorrência de diarréia, assim como entre a faixa etária e a proporção de infecções (P<0,001, porém, machos e fêmeas foram igualmente acometidos (P=0,08. O

  1. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935 Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/díspar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  2. Grassland to shrubland state transitions enhance carbon sequestration in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. D. Petrie; S. L. Collins; A. M. Swann; P. L. Ford; M. E. Litvak

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of native C4-dominated grassland by C3-dominated shrubland is considered an ecological state transition where different ecological communities can exist under similar environmental conditions. These state transitions are occurring globally, and may be exacerbated by climate change. One consequence of the global increase in woody vegetation may be...

  3. Radionuclides distribution in blooming of the permian sediments from the Irati Formation of the Parana Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this work is to study natural radionuclides in sedimentary rocks. The concentration of them reflects the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment as well as some mineralogical characteristics of the rock matrix, and also more recent events as weathering and erosion. Using gamma ray high resolution spectrometry, the profile of activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was assessed for 226 Ra, 238 U, 32 Th and 40 K in rocks of the Irati Formation belonging to Parana Sedimentary Basin. The samples were collected at a limestone abandoned mine, in the city of Sapopema, (PR). 24 samples were collected, eleven from the exposed vertical profile with approximately 5.50 m, whose stratigraphy is represented by an alternation among decimetrics layers of limestones, bituminous shales, and some rhythmits layers (milimetric sheets of limestone and bituminous shales), 9 repetitions of a sample to study the variability, and three rigolits samples in sequential apprenticeships of weathering. Each sample was dried in the sun during about 48 hours, broken, drizzled in a sieve of 4 mesh and put, in a cylindrical container. The measures were accomplished using a Germanium Hyper Pure detector (HPGe) with relative efficiency of 66%, connected to a standard spectrometry electronic chain. The measured concentrations of activity of 238 U were smaller for the limestones (17.80 ±0.09 Bq.Kg -1 ), larger for the bituminous shales (125.5 ± 2.6 Bq.Kg -1 with enrichment of uranium in the sample (200), 548 ± 16 Bq.Kg -1 , upper part of the column), and intermediate for the rhythmits (23.0 ± 1,3 Bq.Kg -1 . The ratio eTh/K obtained for the studied profiles has equivalent values, indicating similar mineralogical characteristics for the limestones, bituminous shales, rhythmits and studied rigolits. On the other hand, to the ratio eTh/eU showed that two of the three regolits samples belong to oxidizer atmospheres, favoring the leaching of uranium, what can be

  4. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  5. HYDROGEOLOGY AND CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE KARSTIC COASTAL AQUIFER IN NORTHERN YUCATAN STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Villasuso-Pino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone of northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP is mainly constituted by Tertiary limestones, covered by Pleistocen limestones, where there exist swamps and estuary systems, locally called “rías”, with mouths connecting them to the sea and hence being a way for an important amount of groundwater to discharge, like in Ría Lagartos and Celestún. These limestones have karstic layers located at depths from 8 to 16 meters below terrain surface.  It is in these layers where groundwater mainly flows toward coast, passing below the sand dune and discharging in the sea in the form of submarine springs which in many cases manifest themselves on the marine surface depending on the hydraulic or piezometric fresh water head. The width of the superficial limestone within this coastal fringe, called “caliche”, varies from 5 to 10 kilometers in the study zone (Chuburna-Progreso-Chicxulub.  Its permeability is extremely low, so it constitutes a confining layer that impedes superficial waters to percolate toward groundwater.  The hydraulic head of the groundwater below this confining layer is over the mean sea level and also over the swamp water level, coastal lagoons and estuaries. There are two important hydrological phenomena that occur in this coastal fringe: 1 There is no recharge to the aquifer (groundwater due to limestone rock outcrops is impermeable or semipermeable; and 2 groundwater pressure is not lost, nor saline interfase is rised if the superficial layer is broken.  The groundwater pollution vulnerability within this coastal fringe is less than that for the superficial saline waters of swamps and estuaries, because of caliche’s low intrinsic permeability that impedes percolation.

  6. Soft computing and hydrogeologic characterization of the Serra Geral-Guarani aquifer system, Parana state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, F.; Friedel, M. J.; Ferreira, F. J.; Fraser, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to estimate missing hydrogeologic (hydraulic and hydrochemical) properties and evaluate potential connectivity between the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifer system. K-means clustering of SOM neurons is useful for identifying hydrogeologic units (conceptual models) in which the Serra Geral waters are carbonate-calcium and carbonate-magnesium, and Guarani waters are sodium, chloride, fluoride and sulfate as characteristic elements. SOM predictions appear generally consistent with current connectivity models with vertical fluxes from Guarani aquifer strongly influenced by geological structures. Additionally, we identify other new hydrochemical facies in the Serra Geral aquifer indicating areas with potential connections between the two aquifers.

  7. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant operation - state of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanescu, George; Lima, Joao E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: stanescu@demec.ufpr.br; joeduli@demec.ufpr.br; Andrade, Carlos de [FIGUEIRA Thermal Power Plant, Figueira, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccarlosaandrade@zipmail.com.br

    2000-07-01

    Exergy analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate, design and improve the thermal systems. The method of exergy analysis or availability analysis is well suited for furthering the goal of increasing the efficiency of existing power generation systems, and the capability of more effective energy resource use. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant is presented. Exergy losses occurring in various components are considered and the exergy balance is shown in tabular form. Results clearly reveal that the steam generator is the principal site of thermodynamic losses, while the condenser is relatively unimportant. (author)

  8. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides 40 K, 137 Cs and 232 Th (from 208 Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464± 12 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of 137 Cs and 232 Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452±10 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,19 ± 0,63 and 0,32 ± 0,12 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of 137 Cs and 232 Th, respectively. The statistical analyses performed checked the measurements repeatability by means of the Tukey's average comparison test. A correlation analysis between standard deviations and the mean showed the absence of significant systematic deviation. Comparison the results obtained with literature, it was demonstrated that the values of the activities found are within the normal levels of radioactivity for this kind of product and below the maximum permissible levels established by CNEN, that is, the analyzed milk can be normally consumed. On the other hand, the implemented methodology present a good performance, faced to the available experimental conditions. (author)

  9. Water percolation conditions in Ilha Solteira dam (Parana River), using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Guidicini, G.; Silva, R.F. da.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic techniques used in the study of water perconlation at the exact place of the construction of the canal lock of Ilha Solteira Dam, in its left side is presented. At the time of the drilling operations, it was discovered, by water leakage tests, total lost at 275,00 level. This water lost occurred at the vicinities of basalt lava-flows. The water leakage tests showed that the total absorption of pumping flow was about 80 liters per minute. To determine the velocity of water percolation in the probable cracks or fractures of the basalt a test of radioactive tracer 131 I was used. For the study of the radioactive tracer behaviour two techniques were tried: measurement of its dilution in the original of the well and the measurement of residence time. Results from the tests showed the existence of a crack or a set of cracks oriented from the radcoisotopic injection well to the artesian wells located at the left shore of Parana river, below Ilha Solteira Dam. The mentioned cracks are localized at the 272,00 level, close tr the contact between the basalt lava-flows

  10. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in the native forest soil at Londrina region (Parana, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appolono, Carlos Roberto; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2002-01-01

    The 137 Cs depth distribution has been studied in several areas in the world and its knowledge is very important to verify its behavior in the soil matrix. The form of 137 Cs depth distribution more observed in an undisturbed soil it is exponential type. In this work, the study of 137 Cs depth distribution was accomplished at three native forests and a coffee yard, built before the 137 Cs fallout, in the region of Londrina (Parana). The sampling was conducted in 1 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm increment depth. The 137 Cs inventory observed for the forests was 248 Bq m -2 (Mata1), 338 Bq m -2 (Mata2) and 325 Bq m -2 (MataUEL). No 137 Cs activity was detected in the coffee yard. The 137 Cs depth distribution for the three forests presented the exponential type. For the soil class of the forests, 137 Cs adsorbed on the soil particles can be considered fixed or slowly exchangeable. (author)

  11. Most probable mixing state of aerosols in Delhi NCR, northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    Unknown mixing state is one of the major sources of uncertainty in estimating aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). Aerosol DRF in India is usually reported for external mixing and any deviation from this would lead to high bias and error. Limited information on aerosol composition hinders in resolving this issue in India. Here we use two years of aerosol chemical composition data measured at megacity Delhi to examine the most probable aerosol mixing state by comparing the simulated clear-sky downward surface flux with the measured flux. We consider external, internal, and four combinations of core-shell (black carbon, BC over dust; water-soluble, WS over dust; WS over water-insoluble, WINS and BC over WINS) mixing. Our analysis reveals that choice of external mixing (usually considered in satellite retrievals and climate models) seems reasonable in Delhi only in the pre-monsoon (Mar-Jun) season. During the winter (Dec-Feb) and monsoon (Jul-Sep) seasons, 'WS coating over dust' externally mixed with BC and WINS appears to be the most probable mixing state; while 'WS coating over WINS' externally mixed with BC and dust seems to be the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. Mean seasonal TOA (surface) aerosol DRF for the most probable mixing states are 4.4 ± 3.9 (- 25.9 ± 3.9), - 16.3 ± 5.7 (- 42.4 ± 10.5), 13.6 ± 11.4 (- 76.6 ± 16.6) and - 5.4 ± 7.7 (- 80.0 ± 7.2) W m- 2 respectively in the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Our results highlight the importance of realistic mixing state treatment in estimating aerosol DRF to aid in policy making to combat climate change.

  12. Fishing activity in Northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil and its relation with small cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on fishing activity at Atafona village, in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21°35'S, was carried out between 1987-96 for the purpose of relating it to the accidental capture of small cetaceans and of estimating the relationship between fishing activity and the diet of small cetaceans. Data on fishing operations were obtained at the cold storage plants management, from interviews with fishermen and personal observations. The most representative fishing resources were Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus,and Rhizoprionodon porosus. Gillnets are responsible for the accidental capture of small cetaceans in the region, mainly Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia fluviatilis (marine form. Four types of gillnets that are used on the region ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" were dangerous to these species because they are placed in their preferred habitat. There is no competition between fishermen and small cetaceans due to the selection in the capture of commercialized fishesInvestigação sobre a atividade pesqueira na localidade de Atafona, Norte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21º25`S, foi conduzida entre 1987-96 com o objetivo de relacioná-la com a captura acidental e a dieta dos pequenos cetáceos. Dados sobre as operações pesqueiras foram obtidos na administração dos entrepostos de pesca, através de entrevistas com pescadores e observações pessoais. Os recursos pesqueiros mais representativos foram Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus, and Rhizoprionodon porosus. As redes de espera são responsáveis pela captura acidental de pequenos cetáceos na região, principalmente de Pontoporia blainvillei e Sotalia fluviatilis (forma marinha. Quatro tipos de redes de espera que são usadas na região ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" foram mais perigosas para essas espécies pois são colocadas no seu hábitat preferencial

  13. Food Defense Practices of School Districts in Northern U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed implementation of food defense practices in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The first phase involved a qualitative multi-site case study: one-day visits were made to five school districts in the states of Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. A principal,…

  14. Effects of land use/cover change and harvests on forest carbon dynamics in northern states of the United States from remote sensing and inventory data: 1992-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; James E. Smith

    2011-01-01

    We examined spatial patterns of changes in forest area and nonsoil carbon (C) dynamics affected by land use/cover change (LUC) and harvests in 24 northern states of the United States using an integrated methodology combining remote sensing and ground inventory data between 1992 and 2001. We used the Retrofit Change Product from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics...

  15. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GM WHEAT ON UNITED STATES AND NORTHERN PLAINS WHEAT TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard D.; DeVuyst, Eric A.; Koo, Won W.

    2003-01-01

    The potential introduction of genetically modified (GM) wheat has both supporters and opponents waging battle in the popular press and scholarly research. Supporters highlight the benefits to producers, while the opponents highlight the unknown safety factors for consumers. The topic is very important to the United States, as a large portion of the wheat production is exported overseas. Consumer groups in some countries are resisting GM wheat. This study utilizes a spatial equilibrium model t...

  16. {sup 210}Pb geochronology and chemical characterization of sediment cores from lakes of the Parana river alluvial plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.F.L.; Damatto, S.R.; Scapin, M.A. [IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Remor, M.B.; Sampaio, S.C. [UNIOESTE - Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The flood plain of the upper Parana River is located among the lakes formed by the Brazilian hydroelectric plants being the last part of the Parana river, in Brazil, where there is an ecosystem with interaction river-flood plain. This flood plain has considerable habitat variability, with great diversity of terrestrial and aquatic species, and the floods are the main factor that regulates the operation of this ecosystem. The seasonality of the flood pulses is mainly influenced by the El Nino phenomenon, which increases precipitation in the drainage basin of the flood plain of the upper Parana River. Because of its unique characteristics this ecosystem is the subject of intense study since 1980, mainly from the ecological point of view. Therefore, two sediment cores were collected in the ponds formed by the floods, Patos pond and Garcas pond, in order to characterize the sediment chemically and evaluate a possible historic contamination. The trace element concentrations As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}) and the major elements Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, P, V, Mn, and Na (%) were determined in the sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, using instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gross beta counting, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Ce, Cr, Cs, La, Nd, Sc, Sm and Th are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust for both ponds. The sedimentation rates obtained for Garca pond, 0.77 cm.y{sup -1}, and Patos pond, 0.62 cm.y{sup -1} are in agreement with studies performed in sedimentary environments similar to the present work, such as Brazilian wetland Pantanal. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. Development of the selection system in northern hardwood forests of the Lake States: an 80-year silviculture research legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel Kern; Gus Erdmann; Laura Kenefic; Brian Palik; Terry. Strong

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood research program at the Dukes Experimental Forest in Michigan and Argonne Experimental Forest in Wisconsin has been adapting to changing management and social objectives for more than 80 years. In 1926, the first northern hardwood silviculture study was established in old-growth stands at the Dukes Experimental Forest. In response to social...

  18. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  19. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-03-05

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face.

  20. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Jaqueline de Carvalho; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Liebel, Sandra Mara Rodrigues da Silva; Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Cristovão, Edilson Colhera; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing. PMID:28380111

  1. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Carvalho Gasparotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing.

  2. Landscape structure in the northern coast of Paraná state, a hotspot for the brazilian Atlantic Forest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Emed Kauano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Serra do Mar" region comprises the largest remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The coast of the Paraná State is part of the core area of the "Serra do Mar" corridor and where actions for biodiversity conservation must be planned. In this study we aimed at characterizing the landscape structure in the APA-Guaraqueçaba, the largest protected area in this region, in order to assist environmental policies of this region. Based on a supervised classification of a mosaic of LANDSAT-5-TM satellite images (from March 2009, we developed a map (1:75,000 scale with seven classes of land use and land cover and analyzed the relative quantities of forests and modified areas in slopes and lowlands. The APA-Guaraqueçaba is comprised mainly by the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (68.6% of total area and secondary forests (9.1%, indicating a forested landscape matrix; anthropogenic and bare soil areas (0.8% and the Pasture/Grasslands class (4.2% were less representative. Slopes were less fragmented and more preserved (96.3% of Dense Ombrophilous Forest and secondary forest than lowlands (71.3%, suggesting that restoration initiatives in the lowlands must be stimulated in this region. We concluded that most of the region sustains well-conserved ecosystems, highlighting the importance of Paraná northern coast for the biodiversity maintenance of the Atlantic Forest.

  3. Effects of acacia senegal (L.,Willd.) on sandy soils: A case study of El damokeya forest, Northern Kordofan State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, D. M; Nimer, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Soil properties were studied in El Damokeya forest, located at 30 km east of Elobeid town, Northern Kordofan State, during the rainy season of 1998. The aim was to characterize the soils of the area and to examine the effects of Acacia senegal plantations on the soils physical and chemical properties. The results showed that the soils were sandy, weakly structured, yellowish-red, neutral and poor in nutrient content, and that Acacia senegal plantations had induced considerable changes in the soil morphological, physical and chemical properties. The soil became more differentiated, with a third layer clearly discernible. No change had occurred in the soil texture. But, it became well structured with stable aggregates. Its organic matter content had been augmented to about one and half times, deeply incorporated and stained the whole profile with darker hues. The soil reaction became slightly acidic (ph 6.3). The exchange capacity was improved qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, cation exchange capacity values increased from 2.8 in the bare land to 4.0 meq/100g soil under the forest, and the soil was saturated to 98% with base cations. The major nutrient elements (N,P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) had generally increased with various proportions ranging from 10% to more than 130%, but only Ca showed significant difference at P=0.05. Among the trace elements, Cu and Co had significantly decreased in the forest soil, but Zn and Mn had increased to about 100%.(Author)

  4. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  5. Evaluation of normal values of Ca-15-3 and PSA for the people of Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bafaraj, S.M.I.

    2007-06-01

    In this study blood samples were collected from 665 female from Northern State of Sudan, 606 of those females are married and only 59 females are singles. These samples were used to estimate the normal CA 15-3 which was found to be similar to the international one and that is ranged from zero to 35 mlu/ml. When the same techniques were used using samples collected from patients who have been clinically diagnosed as breast cancer, CA 15-3 levels were found to be higher in most of these samples and the other finding is that the risk of getting breast cancer is starting from age 25 years. On the other hand , 650 males were participated in this study to estimate normal value of PSA, of them 553 were married. And again the levels estimated for this marker was found to be the same as that used globally which is ranged from zero to four ng/ml. When blood samples from prostate patients were assayed for PSA, the results showed high levels of this marker in almost all the samples as expected but the important finding is that prostate cancer is age depend. At the end of the project, many recommendations highlighted to be considered in the near future.(Author)

  6. Evaluation of entrance skin air kerma in digital and conventional pediatric chest examinations performed in Parana-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana L.R.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Lunelli, Neuri; Paschuk, Sergei; Tilly Jr, Joao G.; Rogacheski, Enio; Khoury, Helen J.; Ferreira, Jose R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In pediatric radiology it is important to evaluate patient exposure due to the high sensitivity of his/her tissue and his/her relatively longer life expectancy, which may increase the chance of radiogenic cancer development. Special attention is necessary when digital systems are used since a high dosage level for the patient may go unnoticed because the resulting image is not overexposed. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK) in pediatric patients submitted to digital and conventional chest examinations performed in the State of Parana, located in the Southern region of Brazil. The survey was performed in two hospitals, one located in Curitiba, the Capital of the State (A) and the other in the city of Cascavel (B). Hospital A uses a conventional image system and Hospital B uses a CR digital system. The study group consisted of 50 patients (from 2 days to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination, the exposure parameters (kV, mAs, focal-film distance, etc) and the gender, height, weight and age of the patient were recorded. To evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK), two TLD-100 dosimeters were packaged in a polyethylene case, heat sealed and placed on the surface of each patient. The TLDs were calibrated the Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation of the Federal University of Pernambuco. The TLDs were processed on a Victoreen readout system model 2800M. The results showed that the kilovoltage values used in Hospital A are in the range of 46 to 65 kV with the average value of 51,7 kV, while the ones in Hospital B are in the range of 65 to 80 kV. On the other hand, even though hospital B uses the CR system, the mAs used for the chest exams are 4 times higher than the ones used in Hospital A. For Hospital A, the mean ESAK value was 0.044 mGy (min: 0.08 and max 0.146 mGy), and for Hospital B the mean ESAK value was 0.368 mGy (min: 0.021 and max 1.21mGy). The results made

  7. Uranium, Thorium and Potassium concentrations and volumetric heat production rates at the eastern border of the Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Telma C.Q.; Ribeiro, Fernando B.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations were measured and volumetric heat production rates were calculated for rocks from the exposed basement at the eastern-southeastern border of the Parana Basin between 23 deg S and 32 deg S. Heat generating element concentration data available in the literature were also used when possible, for volumetric heat production calculations. The uranium concentrations vary from below determination limit (0.51 ppm) and 16 ppm whereas the thorium concentrations vary from below the determination limit (1.26 ppm) and 68 ppm, and K concentrations vary between 0.08% and 5.6%. Volumetric heat production rates vary between 0.07 μW/m 3 to 6.2 μW/m 3 , and the obtained results show a variable heat generation rate with high heat producing bodies scattered along this Parana Basin border. The higher observed values concentrate in the Ribeira fold belt at about 23 deg S and between 30 deg S and 32 deg S in the Down Feliciano fold belt. Isolated high heat production rates can also be observed between 26 deg S and 28 deg S. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  8. The Parana paradox: can a model explain the decadal impacts of climate variability and land-cover change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Livino, A.; Briscoe, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the 1970s, despite a decrease in rainfall, flow in the Parana river has increased. This paradox is explored using the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. If there were no change in land cover, the modeled runoff decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s by 11.8% (with 1970 land cover) or 18.8% (with 2008 land cover). When the model is run holding climate constant, the decadal average of the modeled runoff increased by 24.4% (with the 1970s climate) or by 33.6% (with 2000s climate). When the model is run allowing both the actual climate and land-cover changes, the model gives an increase in the decadal average of runoff by 8.5%. This agrees well with 10.5% increase in the actual stream flow as measured at Itaipu. There are three main conclusions from this work. First, the ED model is able to explain a major, paradoxical, reality in the Parana basin. Second, it is necessary to take into account both climate and land use changes when exploring past or future changes in river flows. Third, the ED model, now coupled with a regional climate model (i.e., EDBRAMS), is a sound basis for exploring likely changes in river flows in major South American rivers.

  9. MEaSUREs Northern Hemisphere State of Cryosphere Daily 25km EASE-Grid 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the location of Northern Hemisphere snow cover and sea ice extent, the status of melt onset across Greenland and Artic sea ice, and the level...

  10. Gender difference in early initiation of methamphetamine use among current methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Yasuoka, Junko; Chan, Nyein; Kham, Nang Pann Ei; Khine, Wint; Cho, Su Myat; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-05-08

    Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk factors among current MA users have been understudied in a developing country setting. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using a computer assisted self-interviewing program from January to March 2013 in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar. A total of 1362 (775 male and 587 female) self-reported current MA users aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Two gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models (models I and II) were done for analysis. For similarities, 73.0% of males and 60.5% of females initiated MA before their 18th birthday. The early age of MA initiation was positively associated with the reasons and places of the first time MA use among both genders. For differences, males [hazard ratio 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.54] had a significantly higher risk than females to initiate MA at earlier age. Among male users, participants who had bisexual/homosexual preferences were more likely to initiate MA use earlier. In contrast, female users who exchanged sex for money and/or drugs were more likely to initiate MA in earlier age. More than 60.0% of male and female participants initiated MA use early; however, males initiated use earlier than females. Although similarities were found among both genders, differences found in key risk factors for early age MA initiation suggest that gender-specific, MA prevention programs are urgently needed in Myanmar.

  11. História e etnicidade: apontamentos sobre a produção de narrativas identitárias em uma colônia de refugiados da segunda guerra mundial no Paraná / History and ethnicity: notes about the production of identity narratives in a colony of second world war refugees in Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nestor Stein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Localizada no município de Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, a Colônia Entre Rios surgiu a partir da vinda e fixação, em 1951, de refugiados da Segunda Guerra Mundial, que se identificam como Suábios do Danúbio (Donauschwaben. No Paraná, verifica-se a produção e reprodução de narrativas que visam preservar essa identificação. Este texto aborda algumas narrativas que produzem a identificação suábia-danubiana nesta Colônia.Abstract Entre Rios Colony, located in the city of Guarapuava, Parana State, Brazil, arose in 1951 from the arrival and establishment of refugees from Second World War, known as Danube Swabians (Donauschwaben. In the Parana State, there is a production and 186 reproduction of narratives that aim to preserve that identity. This text shows some of this narratives that produce idenfication Danube-Swabian this colony.

  12. Extent of Parent-Teacher Association Involvement in the Implementation of Universal Basic Education Program in Primary Schools in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Nnebedum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pupil’ absenteeism and lateness to school, dilapidated and shortage of relevant facilities in primary schools in the Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State seems to suggest lapses in parent-teacher association involvement in school affairs. This prompted the researchers to ascertain the extent of parent-teacher association (PTA involvement in the implementation of universal basic education program in primary schools in the Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State. Three research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were tested. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was comprised of all 250 head teachers and all PTA members at all 250 primary schools in the Northern Senatorial District. Multiple stage sampling technique was used to sample 205 respondents made up of 75 head teachers and 130 PTA members. The researchers developed an instrument titled “Parent-Teacher Association Involvement in School Questionnaire (PTAISQ” which was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained using Cronbach alpha and it yielded an overall reliability coefficient value of .76. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed among others that the extent of PTA involvement in maintenance of facilities in the implementation of universal basic education program in primary schools in the Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State was high. Based on the findings, recommendations were made and conclusions were drawn.

  13. Alternatives procedures for small farming sustainable management of parana pine Mecanismos alternativos para manejo sustentável de pinheiro-do-paraná na pequena propriedade rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zbigniew Mazuchowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    After the expansion of agricultural frontier occurred in the southern brazilian region, which brought native forest substitution, new  management and alternatives practices were introduced in order to preserve and stimulate new plantings of the parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia . Alongside, in the last years, silviculturists have been promoting activities of forest development, in special with Pinus, Eucalyptus, Grevillea and bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella species to face wood depletion of native forest species. At the same time, new legal procedures also contributed to reduce new plantings of parana pine  because it tried to enforce simple preservation with high demands and tough inspection measures. Thus, representing 85 % of land structure in the State of Paraná, discouraged - small farmers were looking for to erradicate this species due to legal over regulation. Therefore, to  vercome this situation, mechanisms were offered to the silviculture management of Brazilian pine which were based in two central points tupgrading the existing laws and to incentive new plantations, specially in the areas set aside for environmental protection called of "Reserva Legal". In this way, the Extension Service (Emater tried to help this situation with the following prescription: technology diffusion; rewards to stimulate forest producers in the municipality; and formation of farmers groups to collect, select and to sell pine seeds.

    Em substituição às florestas nativas, pela abertura de fronteira agrícola, práticas agropecuárias alternativas foram introduzidas nas propriedades rurais com pinheiro-do-paraná (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kunt. Porém, nos últimos anos, a silvicultura tem  promovido o desenvolvimento de atividades ligadas às madeiras de pínus, eucalipto, grevílea e bracatinga frente à exaustão de madeira oriunda de espécies florestais nativas, na geração de recursos no meio

  14. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil; Avaliacao de kerma de entrada na pele em exames radiologicos no Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE/DEN), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  15. Estratificacion espacial y comportamiento de Prochilodus scrofa en distintas fases del ciclo de vida, en la planici de inundacion del alto rio Parana y embalse de Itaipu, Parana, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho, A.A.; Vazzoler, A.E.A. de; Gomes, L.C.; Okada, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    Les poissons du genre #Prochilodus scrofa$ ont un comportement migratoire et présentent une répartition différenciée dans les bassins des fleuves d'Amérique du Sud. Les migrations et le cycle de la reproduction de #P. scrofa$ ont éété étudiés dans un secteur du Haut Parana, comprenant la retenue d'Itaipu, un bief du fleuve, ses affluents et la plaine d'inondation autour de Porto Rico (23°43'S-53°10'W/25°33'S-54°35'W). Les études ont porté d'octobre 1986 à septembre 1988. En octobre, une fract...

  16. Mid-21st-century climate changes increase predicted fire occurrence and fire season length, Northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Karin L.; Loehman, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to increase fire frequency, fire season length, and cumulative area burned in the western United States. We focus on the potential impact of mid-21st-century climate changes on annual burn probability, fire season length, and large fire characteristics including number and size for a study area in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Although large fires are rare they account for most of the area burned in western North America, burn under extreme weather conditions, and exhibit behaviors that preclude methods of direct control. Allocation of resources, development of management plans, and assessment of fire effects on ecosystems all require an understanding of when and where fires are likely to burn, particularly under altered climate regimes that may increase large fire occurrence. We used the large fire simulation model FSim to model ignition, growth, and containment of wildfires under two climate scenarios: contemporary (based on instrumental weather) and mid-century (based on an ensemble average of global climate models driven by the A1B SRES emissions scenario). Modeled changes in fire patterns include increased annual burn probability, particularly in areas of the study region with relatively short contemporary fire return intervals; increased individual fire size and annual area burned; and fewer years without large fires. High fire danger days, represented by threshold values of Energy Release Component (ERC), are projected to increase in number, especially in spring and fall, lengthening the climatic fire season. For fire managers, ERC is an indicator of fire intensity potential and fire economics, with higher ERC thresholds often associated with larger, more expensive fires. Longer periods of elevated ERC may significantly increase the cost and complexity of fire management activities, requiring new strategies to maintain desired ecological conditions and limit fire risk. Increased fire activity (within the historical range of

  17. An assessment of the downturn in the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; W.G. Luppold; P.J. Ince; R.J. Piva; K.E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the U.S. has declined notably in employment, mill numbers, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000…a downturn exacerbated by the recession of 2007 to 2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary products (e.g., furniture) and print paper manufacturing which can...

  18. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area.

  19. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  20. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system in the United States is a large (953,000 square miles) regional aquifer system of heterogeneous composition. As described in this report, the glacial aquifer system includes all unconsolidated geologic material above bedrock that lies on or north of the line of maximum glacial advance within the United States. Examining ground-water quality on a regional scale indicates that variations in the concentrations of major and minor ions and some trace elements most likely are the result of natural variations in the geologic and physical environment. Study of the glacial aquifer system was designed around a regional framework based on the assumption that two primary characteristics of the aquifer system can affect water quality: intrinsic susceptibility (hydraulic properties) and vulnerability (geochemical properties). The hydrochemical regions described in this report were developed to identify and explain regional spatial variations in ground-water quality in the glacial aquifer system within the hypothetical framework context. Data analyzed for this study were collected from 1991 to 2003 at 1,716 wells open to the glacial aquifer system. Cluster analysis was used to group wells with similar ground-water concentrations of calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate into five unique groups. Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to make the extrapolation from clustered groups of wells, defined by points, to areas of similar water quality (hydrochemical regions) defined in a geospatial model. Spatial data that represented average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, land use, land-surface slope, vertical soil permeability, average soil clay content, texture of surficial deposits, type of surficial deposit, and potential for ground-water recharge were used in the Maximum Likelihood Classification to classify the areas so the characteristics of the hydrochemical regions would resemble the

  1. Functional role of fouling community on an artificial reef at the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werther Krohling

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State lacks natural consolidate substrates, making it a proper environment to the development of researches using artificial structures. After studies about the type of substrate, concrete seems to be the most appropriate for studying fouling community development. This research was carried out to investigate the functional role of biofouling in the development of the ichthyic community in the north of Rio de Janeiro State. Percentage data of the epibenthic organisms' coverage and samples of the fish community with gillnet and visual census showed that biofouling in artificial reefs might have more than one functional role, acting as a facilitator in the recruitment of fish species and as a link in the trophic marine chain. Through the increase of localized structural complexity provided by the reef itself and by the fouling organisms which act as "engineering species", additional protection options are offered to the ichthyic community, especially recruits. Also, the epibiont biomass represents an important link in the food web, acting either as a direct source or in the transference of energy to higher trophic levels. Through the relationship between the ichthyic and fouling communities we concluded that the functional role of the latter in artificial reef habitats could be characterized mainly as shelter and feeding grounds for few fish species.O litoral norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro possui uma escassez de substrato consolidado natural tornando o ambiente propício para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas com estruturas artificiais. Após estudos conclusivos sobre o tipo de substrato, o concreto parece ser o mais apropriado para o desenvolvimento da comunidade incrustante. Novas pesquisas foram realizadas para investigar o papel funcional da bioincrustação no desenvolvimento da comunidade íctica no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dados de porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos epibênticos e

  2. Detection of West Nile virus-specific antibodies and nucleic acid in horses and mosquitoes, respectively, in Nuevo Leon State, northern Mexico, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Juarez, L; Eisen, L; Bolling, B G; Beaty, B J; Blitvich, B J; Sanchez-Casas, R M; Ayala-Sulca, Y O; Fernandez-Salas, I

    2012-09-01

    In the last 5 years, there has been only one reported human case of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in northern Mexico. To determine if the virus was still circulating in this region, equine and entomological surveillance for WNV was conducted in the state of Nuevo Leon in northern Mexico in 2006 and 2007. A total of 203 horses were serologically assayed for antibodies to WNV using an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). Seroprevalences for WNV in horses sampled in 2006 and 2007 were 26% and 45%, respectively. Mosquito collections in 2007 produced 7365 specimens representing 15 species. Culex mosquitoes were screened for WNV RNA and other genera (Mansonia, Anopheles, Aedes, Psorophora and Uranotaenia) were screened for flaviviruses using reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. Two pools consisting of Culex spp. mosquitoes contained WNV RNA. Molecular species identification revealed that neither pool included Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera:Culicidae) complex mosquitoes. No evidence of flaviviruses was found in the other mosquito genera examined. These data provide evidence that WNV is currently circulating in northern Mexico and that non-Cx. quinquefasciatus spp. mosquitoes may be participating in the WNV transmission cycle in this region. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  4. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  5. Factors Affecting Adoption of Agroforestry Farming System as a Mean for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment Conservation in Arid Areas of Northern Kordofan State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Siddig El Tayeb

    2008-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas represent about 60 percent of Sudan total area. One of the main environmental problems in the arid and semi-arid areas is diffraction's which reduces the natural potential of the already fragile ecosystems and renders rural people vulnerable to food shortages, the vagaries of weather and natural disasters. Deforestation which is considered one of the most critical environmental problems facing the world is one of the main causes of diffraction's. Between the years 1990 and 2005 Sudan lost about 8.8 millions hectares of forests, which represents 11%, of its forests mainly because of subsistence activities such as overgrazing, trees cutting and expansion of traditional agriculture. One of the areas that are very much affected by diffraction's is Northern Kordofan State. To rescue the situation the government of Sudan, with assistance from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and some donors, implemented a project that aimed primarily at restocking Acacia Senegal trees in Northern Kordofan State. This study is intended to explore the factors that caused differential rate of farmers' adoption rate of the Acacia Senegal based agroforestry farming system. The study data was collected from a clustered random sample of 300 farmers, through face to face interviews using a questionnaire that was pre-tested and validated. Frequency distribution and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. It has been found that farmers' adoption of agroforestry farming system in Northern Kordofan state was significantly affected by the farmers' level of formal education, contact with extension agents, level of environmental awareness, cosmopoliteness, total area of owned land and extent of social participation. (author)

  6. Radioactive carbon-14 dating of ground waters in IPEN for evaluation of water resources in Rio Grande do Norte and Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Pereira, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dating of deep ground waters from Potiguar basin and Parana basin was carried out to identify zones of recharge. In all 28 samples, five from Potiguar basin and 23 from Parana basin were analyzed for 14 C. The methods of sample collection and analysis are described. The analysis consists of transforming carbon of the sample to benzene, by synthesis process involving four steps i.e. production of carbon dioxide, production of lithium carbide, hydrolysis to acetylene and catalytic polymerization to bezene. The specific activity of the synthertized benzene is measured by liquid scintillation counting. The corrections for initial 14 C content have been made by using the model of Vogel. (Author) [pt

  7. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duílio M Z de A Silva

    Full Text Available Supernumerary (B chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  8. An innovation for improving maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria: a qualitative study of stakeholders' perceptions about clinical mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okereke, Ekechi; Tukur, Jamilu; Aminu, Amina; Butera, Jean; Mohammed, Bello; Tanko, Mustapha; Yisa, Ibrahim; Obonyo, Benson; Egboh, Mike

    2015-02-15

    An effective capacity building process for healthcare workers is required for the delivery of quality health care services. Work-based training can be applied for the capacity building of health care workers while causing minimum disruption to service delivery within health facilities. In 2012, clinical mentoring was introduced into the Jigawa State Health System through collaboration between the Jigawa State Ministry of Health and the Partnership for Transforming Health Systems Phase 2 (PATHS2). This study evaluates the perceptions of different stakeholders about clinical mentoring as a strategy for improving maternal, newborn and child health service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria. Interviews were conducted in February 2013 with different stakeholders within Jigawa State in Northern Nigeria. There were semi-structured interviews with 33 mentored health care workers as well as the health facility departmental heads for Obstetrics and Pediatrics in the selected clinical mentoring health facilities. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the clinical mentors and two senior government health officials working within the Jigawa State Ministry of Health. The qualitative data were audio-recorded; transcribed and thematically analysed. The study findings suggest that clinical mentoring improved service delivery within the clinical mentoring health facilities. Significant improvements in the professional capacity of mentored health workers were observed by clinical mentors, heads of departments and the mentored health workers. Best practices were introduced with the support of the clinical mentors such as appropriate baseline investigations for pediatric patients, the use of magnesium sulphate and misoprostol for the management of eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage respectively. Government health officials indicate that clinical mentoring has led to more emphasis on the need for the provision of better quality health services. Stakeholders report that

  9. Prevalence of HCV infection and associated factors among illicit drug users in Breves, State of Pará, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco,Suzy Danielly Barbosa; Silva-Oliveira,Gláucia Caroline; Maradei-Pereira,Luciana Maria Cunha; Crescente,José Ângelo Barletta; Lemos,José Alexandre Rodrigues de; Oliveira-Filho,Aldemir Branco de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Illicit drug users (DUs) are vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The shared use of illicit drugs is the main method of HCV transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Breves, in northern Brazil. We surveyed 187 DUs to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 36.9%, and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) was 31%. Hepatitis C virus infec...

  10. Radionuclides distribution in blooming of the permian sediments from the Irati Formation of the Parana Basin; Distribuicao de radionuclideos em um afloramento de sedimentos permianos da Formacao Irati na Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this work is to study natural radionuclides in sedimentary rocks. The concentration of them reflects the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment as well as some mineralogical characteristics of the rock matrix, and also more recent events as weathering and erosion. Using gamma ray high resolution spectrometry, the profile of activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was assessed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 32}Th and {sup 40}K in rocks of the Irati Formation belonging to Parana Sedimentary Basin. The samples were collected at a limestone abandoned mine, in the city of Sapopema, (PR). 24 samples were collected, eleven from the exposed vertical profile with approximately 5.50 m, whose stratigraphy is represented by an alternation among decimetrics layers of limestones, bituminous shales, and some rhythmits layers (milimetric sheets of limestone and bituminous shales), 9 repetitions of a sample to study the variability, and three rigolits samples in sequential apprenticeships of weathering. Each sample was dried in the sun during about 48 hours, broken, drizzled in a sieve of 4 mesh and put, in a cylindrical container. The measures were accomplished using a Germanium Hyper Pure detector (HPGe) with relative efficiency of 66%, connected to a standard spectrometry electronic chain. The measured concentrations of activity of {sup 238}U were smaller for the limestones (17.80 {+-}0.09 Bq.Kg{sup -1}), larger for the bituminous shales (125.5 {+-} 2.6 Bq.Kg{sup -1} with enrichment of uranium in the sample (200), 548 {+-} 16 Bq.Kg{sup -1}, upper part of the column), and intermediate for the rhythmits (23.0 {+-} 1,3 Bq.Kg{sup -1}. The ratio eTh/K obtained for the studied profiles has equivalent values, indicating similar mineralogical characteristics for the limestones, bituminous shales, rhythmits and studied rigolits. On the other hand, to the ratio eTh/eU showed that two of the three regolits samples belong to oxidizer

  11. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  12. Regional Characteristics of Stress State of Main Seismic Active Faults in Mid-Northern Part of Sichuan-Yunnan Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, W.; Yaling, W.

    2017-12-01

    We restore the seismic source spectrums of 1012 earthquakes(2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 5.0) in the mid-northern part of Sichuan-Yunnan seismic block(26 ° N-33 ° N, 99 ° E-104 ° E),then calculate the source parameters.Based on the regional seismic tectonic background, the distribution of active faults and seismicity, the study area is divided into four statistical units (Z1 Jinshajiang and Litang fault zone, Z2 Xianshuihe fault zone, Z3 Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone, Z4 Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault zone). Seismic source stress drop results show the following, (1)The stress at the end of the Jinshajiang fault is low, strong earthquake activity rare.Stress-strain loading deceases gradually from northwest to southeast along Litang fault, the northwest section which is relatively locked is more likely to accumulate strain than southeast section. (2)Stress drop of Z2 is divided by Kangding, the southern section is low and northern section is high. Southern section (Kangding-Shimian) is difficult to accumulate higher strain in the short term, but in northern section (Garzê-Kangding), moderate and strong earthquakes have not filled the gaps of seismic moment release, there is still a high stress accumulation in partial section. (3)High stress-drop events were concentrated on Z3, strain accumulation of this unit is strong, and stress level is the highest, earthquake risk is high. (4)On Z4, stress drop characteristics of different magnitude earthquakes are not the same, which is related to complex tectonic setting, the specific reasons still need to be discussed deeply.The study also show that, (1)Stress drops display a systematic change with different faults and locations, high stress-drop events occurs mostly on the fault intersection area. Faults without locking condition and mainly creep, are mainly characterized by low stress drop. (2)Contrasting to what is commonly thought that "strike-slip faults are not easy to accumulate stress ", Z2 and Z3 all exhibit high stress levels, which

  13. Sedimentary thickness and velocity in the northeast boundary of the Parana Basin with Andean earthquakes and local events; Espessura e velocidade das camadas sedimentares na borda nordeste da Bacia do Parana utilizando telessismos da regiao andina e sismos locais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josimar A.; Souza, Luiz M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica; Assumpcao, Marcelo S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Deep Andean earthquakes are a suitable source of high-frequency P-waves (with good signal to noise ratio up to {approx} 10 Hz) that can be used to obtain high-resolution receiver functions at stations in intra-cratonic basins in Brazil. Receiver functions (Gaussian width 20) at five stations in the Bebedouro seismic area (NE Parana Basin) were calculated using the time domain deconvolution of Ligorria and Ammon (1999). Inter-station Rayleigh wave phase velocities were measured using local earthquakes. Joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh phase velocities provided reasonably well constrained S-wave velocity profiles. Shallow seismic refraction surveys were used to fix the velocities of the surface layers during the inversion. The area is characterized by a thin surface layer of sandstones ({approx}60 m), followed by a {approx}500 m thick basalt layer. Beneath the basalts, low-velocity layers define another sedimentary sequence. These features are consistent with the expected values based on well data at regional distances and confirm the usefulness of high-frequency receiver functions to study sedimentary basins. (author)

  14. Revision of the equation Calculated Cetane Index for the characteristics of diesel commercialized in the Parana-Brazil; Revisao da equacao de Calculo do Indice de Cetano para as caracteristicas do diesel comercializado no Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Tatiana Bittencourt de; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Cocco, Lilian Cristina [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Analise de Combustiveis Automotivos (LACAUTets)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the development of models for Calculated Cetane Index (CCI) determination with the purpose of tailor it to the diesel oil sold in Brazil, using optimization techniques. As the diesel is the main fuel on the Brazilian territory, their quality is of great importance. The CCI calculation is important to evaluate the diesel quality. The standard ASTM D 4737 does not take into account the presence of cetane booster additive and biodiesel, which creates the need to recast the equation of the CCI determination. About 300 representative samples were selected of diesel in Parana, during the 2006 to 2007 period, which had their physic-chemical properties determined using the methodology adopted by the ANP - the Brazilian petroleum, natural gas and biofuel agency. The Derived Cetane Number was obtained in the IQT apparatus and several models were proposed, all with better predictive capability than the equation of the standard ASTM D 4737. It is pointed out that biodiesel can act as cetane booster additive depending upon its origin, mostly in concentrations above 5%. The methodology can be expanded to generate a representative equation for the diesel sold in the whole Brazilian territory. (author)

  15. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao de ceramicas arqueologicas do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1998-12-31

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination ({mu} {rho}) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the {mu} {rho} determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for {mu} {rho} determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, {mu} theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, {mu} {rho} was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for {mu} {rho} and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author) 25 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao de ceramicas arqueologicas do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1997-12-31

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination ({mu} {rho}) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the {mu} {rho} determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for {mu} {rho} determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, {mu} theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, {mu} {rho} was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for {mu} {rho} and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author) 25 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Prevalence of HCV infection and associated factors among illicit drug users in Breves, State of Pará, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Suzy Danielly Barbosa; Silva-Oliveira, Gláucia Caroline; Maradei-Pereira, Luciana Maria Cunha; Crescente, José Ângelo Barletta; Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues de; Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir Branco de

    2014-01-01

    Illicit drug users (DUs) are vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The shared use of illicit drugs is the main method of HCV transmission. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Breves, in northern Brazil. We surveyed 187 DUs to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection. The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 36.9%, and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) was 31%. Hepatitis C virus infection was associated with tattoos, intravenous drug use, shared use of equipment for drug use, drug use for longer than 3 years, and daily drug use. Strategies for preventing and controlling HCV transmission should be implemented among DUs.

  18. Prevalence of HCV infection and associated factors among illicit drug users in Breves, State of Pará, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Danielly Barbosa Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Illicit drug users (DUs are vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The shared use of illicit drugs is the main method of HCV transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Breves, in northern Brazil. We surveyed 187 DUs to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 36.9%, and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA was 31%. Hepatitis C virus infection was associated with tattoos, intravenous drug use, shared use of equipment for drug use, drug use for longer than 3 years, and daily drug use. Conclusions: Strategies for preventing and controlling HCV transmission should be implemented among DUs.

  19. Uranium and main oxides in soil in the Northeast part of Parana basil; Uranio e principais oxidos em solo na porcao nordeste da bacia do Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, I.C.; Bonotto, D.M.; Jimenez-Rueda, J.R., E-mail: fagundes.isabella@gmail.com, E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br, E-mail: jairorjr@rc.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Uranium is a litophile element that migrates to crust together with other light silicates. This work evaluated the relationships among the concentrations of uranium, major oxides (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, TiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and organic matter in different horizons of a soil profile located over siltstone from Tatui Formation, Piracicaba River sub-basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Different techniques were utilized for data acquisition, for instance, alpha spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and smectrophotometry. The major U concentrations were found in horizons enriched in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, indicating its tending to be retained in iron oxides. (author)

  20. Major and minor elements and traces in igneous rocks from crystalline basement of Parana by X-ray fluorescence; Elementos maiores, menores e tracos, em rochas igneas do escudo cristalino paranaense por fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar O.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R., E-mail: aoferreira@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br, E-mail: mascapin@ipen.br, E-mail: vsalvado@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Major and minor components of 30 acid and basic igneous rocks (granites, syenites, riolites and a basalt) of the Parana state crystalline basement were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF), in order to evaluate the similarity in terms of the compositional content. The corrections of interelements effects (absorption/intensification) were performed by means of the fundamental parameters (FP) method. The methodology was validated using a certificated reference material. The main oxides found associated with the quantified elements are SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO, TiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MnO, SO{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, Rb{sub 2}O. Through statistical analysis, the studied samples were organized in 3 groups of similar compositions: syenites, light granites and basalt and dark granites. The results show that the WDXRF technique is a robust tool that enables distinction even between similar geological samples. (author)

  1. A Late Jurassic fossil assemblage in Gondwana: Biostratigraphy and correlations of the Tacuarembó Formation, Parana Basin, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel; Soto, Matías; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Martínez, Sergio; Ubilla, Martín

    2009-08-01

    The Tacuarembó Formation has yielded a fossil assemblage that includes the best known body fossils, consisting of isolated scales, teeth, spines, and molds of bones, recovered from thin and patchy bonebeds, from the Botucatu Desert, Parana Basin, South America. The remains are preserved in the sandstones widespread around the city of Tacuarembó. We propose a new formalized nomenclature for the Tacuarembó Formation, naming its "Lower" and "Upper" members as the Batoví (new name) and Rivera (new rank) members, respectively. An assemblage zone is defined for the Batoví Member (fluviolacustrine and aeolian deposits). In this unit, the freshwater hybodontid shark Priohybodusarambourgi D'Erasmo is well represented. This species was previously recorded in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous units of the Sahara and the southern Arabian Peninsula. Globally considered, the fossil assemblage of this member ( P. arambourgi, dipnoan fishes, Ceratosaurus-like theropods, and conchostracans) is indicative of a Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age, which in combination with the stratigraphic relationships of the Tacuarembó Formation with the overlying basalts of the Arapey Formation (132 My average absolute age) implies that the latter was deposited during the Kimmeridgian-Hauterivian interval.

  2. Patherns in the rare earth elements of the Serra do Carambei granite (Parana) and the others associated ignous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto-Coelho, C.V.; Marini, O.J.

    1986-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) distribution patters in igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area (Parana) were a very important tool to elucidate the genetic processes and the cogenetic relationships between these rocks. The porphyroid facies of the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex has a REE distribution pattern characterized by decreasing concentrations in direction to the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and the smooth Eu negative anomalie, compatible with amphibole fractionation during the magma ascent and the incipient plagioclase fractionation. The REE pattern of the Serra do Carambei Granite is characterized by the strong Eu negative anomalie, by the light rare earth element (LREE) depletion and by the HREE increase. This shape of the REE patterns is frequently observed in Sn-W granites, according to French authors. However in the igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area this is not true. ''Rhyolite'' dytes intrusives in the Serra do Carambei Granite exhibit REE pattern similar to the wall rock, indicating then the same genetic processes. The Castro Group rhyolites have REE patterns with decreasing concentrations in direction to the HREE and smooth Eu negative anomalie. The REE distribution patterns is against the consanguinity between the ''rhyolites'' intruded in the Serra do Carambei Granite and the rhyolites of the Castro Group and also between these rhyolites and the above mentioned Granite. (author) [pt

  3. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1997-01-01

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μ ρ) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the μ ρ determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for μ ρ determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, μ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, μ ρ was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for μ ρ and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author)

  4. Stress state reconstruction and tectonic evolution of the northern slope of the Baikit anteclise, Siberian Craton, based on 3D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, A. N.; Khudoley, A. K.; Khusnitdinov, R. R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we consider application of an original method for determining the indicators of the tectonic stress fields in the northern Baikit anteclise based on 3D seismic data for further reconstruction of the stress state parameters when analyzing structural maps of seismic horizons and corresponded faults. The stress state parameters are determined by the orientations of the main stress axes and shape of the stress ellipsoid. To calculate the stress state parameters from data on the spatial orientations of faults and slip vectors, we used the algorithms from quasiprimary stress computation methods and cataclastic analysis, implemented in the software products FaultKinWin and StressGeol, respectively. The results of this work show that kinematic characteristics of faults regularly change toward the top of succession and that the stress state parameters are characterized by different values of the Lode-Nadai coefficient. Faults are presented as strike-slip faults with normal or reverse component of displacement. Three stages of formation of the faults are revealed: (1) partial inversion of ancient normal faults, (2) the most intense stage with the predominance of thrust and strike-slip faults at north-northeast orientation of an axis of the main compression, and (3) strike-slip faults at the west-northwest orientation of an axis of the main compression. The second and third stages are pre-Vendian in age and correlate to tectonic events that took place during the evolution of the active southwestern margin of the Siberian Craton.

  5. A novel assessment of population structure and gene flow in grey wolf populations of the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Bangs, Edward E; Smith, Douglas W; Jimenez, Mike D; Mack, Curt M; Niemeyer, Carter C; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2010-10-01

    The successful re-introduction of grey wolves to the western United States is an impressive accomplishment for conservation science. However, the degree to which subpopulations are genetically structured and connected, along with the preservation of genetic variation, is an important concern for the continued viability of the metapopulation. We analysed DNA samples from 555 Northern Rocky Mountain wolves from the three recovery areas (Greater Yellowstone Area, Montana, and Idaho), including all 66 re-introduced founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the initial 10-year recovery period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (H(O) = 0.64-0.72; allelic diversity k=7.0-10.3) with low levels of inbreeding (F(IS) wolves will rely on management decisions that promote natural dispersal dynamics and minimize anthropogenic factors that reduce genetic connectivity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. “Mother Ireland, get off our backs”: Gender, Republicanism and State Politics in Prison Short Stories by Northern Irish Women Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes del Campo del Pozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Looking into prison short fiction, this article discusses how a number of Northern Irish women writers have challenged male-centred narratives of the Troubles. Mary Beckett, Frances Molloy and Brenda Murphy have created alternative discourses of political violence which differ from the dominant narratives of incarceration. They confront established discourses of masculinity and femininity by subverting social constructs of gender, particularly the models of the rebel-hero and Mother Ireland ingrained in the nationalist/republican traditions. Their prison short stories are excellent examples of how state politics is superseded by gender politics in women’s writing and they are also proof of an emerging gender consciousness that challenged dominant readings of the Troubles in the last decades of the twentieth century.

  7. Operation and extension of the Bavarian state air-hygienic monitoring system and the radioactive nuisance measuring grid in northern Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munzert, K.

    1994-01-01

    The measuring grid of the Bavarian state air-hygienic monitoring system with, currently, 71 measuring points (Upper and Lower Palatine, Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia) in 35 sites measures nuisances in northern Bavaria. 14 of the sites are also used for measuring radioactivity. The measuring stations are situated above all in areas with a high industrial or residential density (established areas of investigation); but also in areas near the border receiving heavy pollutant freights because of long-range pollutant transport (smog areas in the urban and rural district of Hof, rural district of Wundsiedel) and in areas far afield from industrial zones, measurements are carried out.- At each station, the air-analytical, meteorological and radiological readings are continuously processed by computer into half-hourly, hourly or three-hourly means. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Nutrition, fertility and steady-state population dynamics in a pre-industrial community in Penrith, northern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S; Duncan, C J

    1999-10-01

    The effect of nutrition on fertility and its contribution thereby to population dynamics are assessed in three social groups (elite, tradesmen and subsistence) in a marginal, pre-industrial population in northern England. This community was particularly susceptible to fluctuations in the price of grains, which formed their basic foodstuff. The subsistence class, who formed the largest part of the population, had low levels of fertility and small family sizes, but women from all social groups had a characteristic and marked subfecundity in the early part of their reproductive lives. The health and nutrition of the mother during pregnancy was the most important factor in determining fertility and neonatal mortality. Inadequate nutrition had many subtle effects on reproduction which interacted to produce a complex web of events. A population boom occurred during the second half of the 18th century; fertility did not change but there was a marked improvement in infant mortality and it is suggested that the steadily improving nutritional standards of the population, particularly during crucial periods in pregnancy (i.e. the last trimester), probably made the biggest contribution to the improvement in infant mortality and so was probably the major factor in triggering the boom.

  9. Healthcare Utilization by Older Age Groups in Northern States of Peninsular Malaysia: The Role of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Shamzaeffa; Abdullah, Norehan

    2017-06-01

    Determining factors that affect healthcare utilization by the elderly is vital for the health system to be more responsive in providing care to this vulnerable group. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effect of the predisposing, enabling, and need factors on doctor visits and in-patient care for the elderly residing in the northern region of Malaysia. A multistage cluster sampling was used in selecting the sample for the study. A total of 1414 respondents aged 60 and over were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. A probit model was used in estimating the utilization equations. At a significance level of 0.05, except for age, all predisposing and enabling factors were not statistically significant in affecting the doctor visits. On the other hand, being a male, smoker, medical insurance holder or had not actively involved in social interaction within the reference period increases the likelihood of being in-patient. Health-related variables remain the most significant factors that determine healthcare utilization, including both doctor visits and in-patient stays, in the area of study, which suggests that government policies to improve population health may influence the level of healthcare use in the future.

  10. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Induction to Characterize and Map Sodium-Affected Soils in the Northern Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Heilig, J.; Kempenich, J.; Doolittle, J.; Ulmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sodium-affected soils (SAS) cover over 4 million hectares in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Improving the classification, interpretation, and mapping of SAS is a major goal of the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) as Northern Great Plains soil surveys are updated. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as measured with ground conductivity meters has shown promise for mapping SAS, however, this use of this geophysical tool needs additional evaluation. This study used an EM-38 MK2-2 meter (Geonics Limited, Mississauga, Ontario), a Trimble AgGPS 114 L-band DGPS (Trimble, Sunnyvale, CA) and the RTmap38MK2 program (Geomar Software, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario) on an Allegro CX field computer (Juniper Systems, North Logan, UT) to collect, observe, and interpret ECa data in the field. The ECa map generated on-site was then used to guide collection of soil samples for soil characterization and to evaluate the influence of soil properties in SAS on ECa as measured with the EM-38MK2-2. Stochastic models contained in the ESAP software package were used to estimate the SAR and salinity levels from the measured ECa data in 30 cm depth intervals to a depth of 90 cm and for the bulk soil (0 to 90 cm). This technique showed promise, with meaningful spatial patterns apparent in the ECa data. However, many of the stochastic models used for salinity and SAR for individual depth intervals and for the bulk soil had low R-squared values. At both sites, significant variability in soil clay and water contents along with a small number of soil samples taken to calibrate the ECa values to soil properties likely contributed to these low R-squared values.

  11. A multi-state weather generator for daily precipitation for the Torne River basin, northern Sweden/western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rayner

    2016-03-01

    Results showed that the 10-state empirical model represented accumulated 2- to 14-day precipitation most realistically. Further, the distribution of precipitation on wet days in the catchment is related to the placement of a wet day within a wet-spell, and the 10-state models represented this realistically, while the wet/dry models did not. Although all four models accurately reproduced the annual and monthly averages in the training data, all models underestimated inter-annual and inter-seasonal variance. Even so, the 10-state empirical model performed best. We conclude that the multi-state model is a promising candidate for hydrological applications, as it simulates multi-day precipitation well, but that further development is required to improve the simulation of interannual variation.

  12. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.

  13. Changes to the chemical state of the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere during the second half of the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Mike J.; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Helmig, Detlev; Worton, David R.; Hogan, Chris; Sturges, William T.; Reeves, Claire E.

    2017-07-01

    The NOx (NO and NO2) and HOx (OH and HO2) budgets of the atmosphere exert a major influence on atmospheric composition, controlling removal of primary pollutants and formation of a wide range of secondary products, including ozone, that can influence human health and climate. However, there remain large uncertainties in the changes to these budgets over recent decades. Due to their short atmospheric lifetimes, NOx and HOx are highly variable in space and time, and so the measurements of these species are of limited value for examining long-term, large-scale changes to their budgets. Here, we take an alternative approach by examining long-term atmospheric trends of alkyl nitrates, the production efficiency of which is dependent on the atmospheric [NO] / [HO2] ratio. We derive long-term trends in the alkyl nitrates from measurements in firn air from the NEEM site, Greenland. Their mixing ratios increased by a factor of 3-5 between the 1970s and 1990s. This was followed by a steep decline to the sampling date of 2008. Moreover, we examine how the trends in the alkyl nitrates compare to similarly derived trends in their parent alkanes (i.e. the alkanes which, when oxidised in the presence of NOx, lead to the formation of the alkyl nitrates). The ratios of the alkyl nitrates to their parent alkanes increased from around 1970 to the late 1990s. This is consistent with large changes to the [NO] / [HO2] ratio in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere during this period. Alternatively, they could represent changes to concentrations of the hydroxyl radical, OH, or to the transport time of the air masses from source regions to the Arctic.

  14. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  15. New criminal empowerment and global challenges for the States of the Northern Triangle in Central America and for Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Morales Peña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is identifying and scaling all the dynamics that mediate the relationship between the state and the criminal organization. Also, the way this fits into the context of economic globalization, evolving along with processes that are disaggregating competencies that have made its historical development more complex and caused it to collide with the empowerment of new non-state stakeholers vying for jurisdiction and influence in various aspects such as territorial presence, local economy and social control. In this sense, the study exposes the actions and omissions of the State as the main inputs generating the present adverse security environment throughout the Mesoamerican area. This is collected systematically in a synthesized working hypothesis.The challenge lies in exploring the likely thresholds for reconstituting the immune system of the state construct, as an indispensable resource in the fight against criminal powers. Considering it a general effort, this extends to its ability to adapt in real and virtual environments that constantly undermine the attribute of the sovereign state.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1364

  16. Pre-Carboniferous sedimentary sequences of the northeastern flank of the Parana basin and southwestern of the Parnaiba basin and its uraniferous possibilites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1982-01-01

    The analyses of the already existent geological data of the northeastern flank of the Parana Basin and the Southwestern flank of the Parnaiba Basin, added to new data from drilling and geological mapping allowed a better knowledge of the stratigraphy of the pre-carboniferous sedimentary sequences (silurian and devonian ages) as well as provided subsidies for the definition of its uranium possibilites. Besides the already known uranium deposits of the Ponta Grossa Formation, is should be considered as worth while of prospecting the Pimenteiras Formation. (Author) [pt

  17. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  18. Laboratory of computerized tomography and X-ray of Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET) from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelin, Hugo R.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela J.; David, Denise E.H.; Gomes, Cintia L.; Soboll, Daniel S.; Ruehle, Gustavo; Carvalho, Arnolfo

    1996-01-01

    The development of X-ray laboratory at CEFET-PR (Brazil) is considered. The advancement and hospital practice application of an Image Quality Program for X-ray and tomography scanning is studied. A project regarding to the modernization of installed X-ray equipment, particularly X-ray detector, software and hardware is reported

  19. PREMIUM ENERGY FOR LACTEC INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LACTEC R&D DPT. CURITIBA, STATE OF PARANA. BRAZIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvio Vedovatto

    2003-12-31

    On April 2002 a 200KW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Power Plant. was installed at LACTEC Institute For Technology Development, Research and Development facilities. The power plant installed at LACTEC site is the second of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Its presence, not only contributed to the creation of a Fuel Cell Stationary Power market for Brazil and the rest of the region, but increased the knowledge about fuel cell technology, and marked the point of entry as a reference for the education of a new generation of applied scientists. On its first year the power plant has operated 8,558 hours achieving an availability factor of 97% and supplying 730.50MWh of premium energy. As a second regional experience with fuel cell technology, we expect this report about LACTEC PACFC power plant performance, applications and cost-benefit evaluation will provide relevant information for future regional investments on this technology.

  20. Characterization of the natural radioactivity of materials used in civil construction or the Curitiba, Parana state, Brazil, metropolitan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Allan F.N.; Martins, Patricia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Claro, Flavia Del; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper performs an analysis of the natural radioactivity of construction materials (mainly the 222 Rn) which are present in human environment. The main objective of the study is to characterize different building materials which come from the metropolitan region of the Curitiba related to the exhalation of 222 Rn. The applied methodology analyse the samples of ceramic brick, plaster mortar, and fine lime from the concentration measurements of radon using CR-39 type detectors, and gamma spectrometry analysis

  1. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba - Parana State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection.

  2. Economic information on the historical behavior of forest fires in the forest lands in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor Afonso Hoeflich; Alexandre França Tetto; Antonio Carlos Batista

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the fires have caused severe impact in the world, and their frequency and intensity tend to increase as a result of ongoing climate changes which have occurred over the past decades. It should be also noted that the urban-rural interface has attracted the attention of governments by the concentration of the number of fire...

  3. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  4. Efficacy of pyramided Bt proteins Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and cry2Ab2 expressed in Smartstax corn hybrids against lepidopteran insect pests in the northern United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rule, D.M.; Nolting, S.P.; Prasfika, P.L.; Storer, N.P.; Hopkins, B.W.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Siebert, M.W.; Hendrix, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial field corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids transformed to express some or all of the lepidopteran insect-resistant traits present in SmartStax corn hybrids were evaluated for insecticidal efficacy against a wide range of lepidopteran corn pests common to the northern United States, during 2008 to

  5. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  6. Significant impacts of heterogeneous reactions on the chemical composition and mixing state of dust particles: A case study during dust events over northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Xueshun; Fu, Pingqing; Yang, Ting; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu

    2017-06-01

    The impact of heterogeneous reactions on the chemical components and mixing state of dust particles are investigated by observations and an air quality model over northern China between March 27, 2015 and April 2, 2015. Synergetic observations were conducted using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC), a depolarized two-wavelength Lidar and filter samples in Beijing. During this period, dust plume passed through Beijing on March 28, and flew back on March 29 because of synoptic weather changes. Mineral dust mixed with anthropogenic pollutants was simulated using the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) to examine the role of heterogeneous processes on the dust. A comparison of observations shows that the NAQPMS successfully reproduces the time series of the vertical profile, particulate matter concentration, and chemical components of fine mode (diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) and coarse mode (2.5 μm mixed with dust particles. The significant alterations of the chemical composition and mixing state of particles due to heterogeneous reactions are important for the direct and indirect climate effects of dust and anthropogenic aerosols.

  7. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dele Abegunde

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design: We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs. The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results: None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions: Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care

  8. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012-2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a priority, for intensive program scale-up to

  9. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.T.G. de; Formoso, M.L.L.; Trescases, J.J.; Meunier, A.

    1998-01-01

    alterite to kaolinite in the mottled clay facies at the top of the profile. There is also another trend; the presence of a cryptocrystalline material sequence in the weathering of the corestones. This study of two polycyclic profiles developed on basalts shows the presence of iron-rich laterites in the southern ParanáBasin which are closely similar to the laterites in the northern part of the Paraná Basin. (author)

  10. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) within the Hanover-Dunkirk transition, northern Appalachian basin, western New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    In western New York State interbedded pyritic silty green and dark grey shales and siltstone of the Hanover Member, Java Formation, West Falls Group, are overlain by thick pyritic dark grey-black shale of the Dunkirk Member of the Canadaway formation. The dark shales in the upper Hanover and Dunkirk contain a diverse and well preserved conodont fauna which allows precise placement of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary at several described sections. At Pt. Gratiot, in far western New York State, the contact between the Hanover and Dunkirk is disconformable. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary is marked by a pyritic lag deposit at the base of the Dunkirk which contains Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. subperlobata. The underlying upper Hanover is characterized by Pa. bogartensis , Pa. cf. Pa. rhenana, Pa. winchelli, and Ancyrognathus (asymmetricus/calvini) Eastward, in the direction of the paleo-source area, the Frasnian-Famennian boundary is within the upper Hanover Member. At Irish Gulf the boundary is recognized within a 10 cm thick laminated pyritic dark grey shale bed 3.0 m below the base of the Dunkirk. Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. subperlobata occur below a conodont-rich lag layer in the upper 2 cm of the bed. Palmatolepis bogartensis , Pa. cf. Pa. rhenana, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus occur in the underlying 8 cm. Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. winchelli occur in an underlying dark shale bed separated from the boundary bed by a hummocky cross-bedded siltstone layer.

  11. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author) [pt

  12. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a red-yellow podzolic soil in the Northern Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel Netto, A.

    1994-08-01

    The determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil was carried out during an experiment in a plot measuring 3.5 m x 3.5 m, at the Experimental Station of Itapirema, Goiania, in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The internal drainage method proposed by Hillel (1972) was used to obtain the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content, K(θ), in the three characteristic horizons of the soil. Three neutron probes were used for measuring the humidity, that was determined by a calibration curve. Three characteristic horizons of the Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil were investigated for hydraulic conductivity. The sandy A horizon, with large pores, has a high conductivity while the B1t horizon, with a massive structure and few visible pores, has a low infiltration rate. The hydraulic dynamics of the B2 horizon is more complex due to its heterogeneity. (author). 79 refs, 17 figs, 11 tabs

  13. Guidebook of the Western United States: Part A - The Northern Pacific Route, With a Side Trip to Yellowstone Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marius R.; ,

    1915-01-01

    The United States of America comprise an area so vast in extent and so diverse in natural features as well as in characters due to human agency that the American citizen who knows thoroughly his own country must have traveled widely and observed wisely. To 'know America first' is a patriotic obligation, but to meet this obligation the railroad traveler needs to have his eyes directed toward the more important or essential things within his field of vision and then to have much that he sees explained by what is unseen in the swift passage of the train. Indeed, many things that attract his attention are inexplicable except as the story of the past is available to enable him to interpret the present. Herein lie the value and the charm of history, whether human or geologic. The present stimulus given to travel in the home country will encourage many thousands of Americans to study geography at first hand. To make this study most profitable the traveler needs a handbook that will answer the questions that come to his mind so readily along the way. Furthermore, the aim of such a guide should be to stimulate the eye in the selection of the essentials in the scene that so rapidly unfolds itself in the crossing of the continent. In recognition of the opportunity afforded in 1915 to render service of this kind to an unusually large number of American citizens, as well as to visitors from other countries, the United States Geological Survey has prepared a series of guidebooks covering four of the older railroad routes west of the Mississippi. These books are educational in purpose, but the method adopted is to entertain the traveler by making more interesting what he sees from the car window. The plan of the series is to present authoritative information that may enable the reader to realize adequately the scenic and material resources of the region he is traversing, to comprehend correctly the basis of its development, and above all to appreciate keenly the real value of the

  14. Willingness to pay for cataract surgery is much lower than actual costs in Zamfara state, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nazaradden; Ramke, Jacqueline; Pozo-Martin, Francisco; Gilbert, Clare E

    2018-06-01

    Direct medical and non-medical costs incurred by those undergoing subsidised cataract surgery at Gusau eye clinic, Zamfara state, were recently determined. The aim of this study was to assess the willingness to pay for cataract surgery among adults with severe visual impairment or blindness from cataract in rural Zamfara and to compare this to actual costs. In three rural villages served by Gusau eye clinic, key informants helped identify 80 adults with bilateral severe visual impairment or blindness (pay for cataract surgery was determined. The proportion willing to pay actual costs of the (i) subsidised surgical fee (US$18.5), (ii) average non-medical expenses (US$25.2), and (iii) average total expenses (US$51.2) at Gusau eye clinic were calculated. Where participants would seek funds for surgery was determined. Among 80 participants (38% women), most (n = 73, 91%) were willing to pay something, ranging from pay US$18.5 (78% men), one-third (n = 26) were willing to pay US$25.2 (77% men); and 11% (n = 9) were willing to pay US$51.2 (all men). Only six participants (8%) already had the money to pay; one quarter (n = 20) would need to sell possessions to raise the funds. Willingness to pay for cataract surgery among adults with operable cataract in rural Zamfara state is far lower than current costs of undergoing surgery. People who were widowed-most of whom were women-were willing to pay least. Further financial support is required for cataract surgery to be universally accessible.

  15. Modern processes of palynomorph deposition at lakes of the northern region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Barth, Ortrud M; Silva, Cleverson G

    2010-09-01

    Palynological analysis of pollen, Pteridophyta spores and algae deposited in the superficial sediments at Lagoa de Cima and Lagoa do Campelo Lakes, located in the north of Rio de Janeiro state, was used to determine the spatial variation of the palynomorphs deposition. A total of 67 pollen types were identified at Lagoa de Cima, with an expressive contribution of regional arboreous taxa, hydrophytes and ruderal plants of the pastureland. The depositional pattern of palynomorphs depends on the fluvial leakage, the proximity of the local sedimentation to the inlet of the Imbé and Urubu Rivers and the bathymetry of lake bottom. The highest concentrations of palynomorphs were observed in the decentralized and less deeper area, without the interference of the northeastern wind. At Lagoa do Campelo, a total of 58 pollen types were identified, among which the majority of the pollen grains came from hydrophytes, with the highest concentrations found along the northeastern shore. The southeastern shore showed high percentages of pollen and spores with degraded exine and mechanical damage, due to the transport through the lake by the currents caused by the wind, confirmed by the depositional trend of damaged palinomorphs along the same direction as the prevailing winds.

  16. Spatial Distribution and Self-Correlation of Mother and Child Health Indicators in the State of Parana, Brazil Distribución y auto-correlación espacial de indicadores de la salud de la mujer y del niño en el estado de Paraná, Brasil Distribuição e autocorrelação espacial de indicadores da saúde da mulher e da criança, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Cristina Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to analyze the spatial distribution and self-correlation of data of mother-child health in Parana, Brazil, variables were selected from the Information System on Live Births, grouped into socioeconomic indicators: teenage mother, low education, high parity, race/color black of newborn; healthcare indicators: the prenatal coverage, prematurity and cesarean delivery and result indicators: low birth weight. The indicators were distributed in thematic maps and spatial self-correlation was measured using Moran’s index that quantifies the degree of self-correlation. There was significant spatial self-correlation of teenage mother, low education and high parity of the "high-high" type in the macro-regions East, Campos Gerais and South; of low coverage of antenatal care in Campos Gerais, Central-south and North and of cesarean delivery in the Northwest. Elevated proportions of indicators of risk to the health of mother and child were found in the regions East, Campos Gerais and South. These results support the evaluation and planning of health services.Con el objetivo de analizar la distribución y auto-correlación espacial de datos de salud materno-infantil en Paraná, Brasil, fueron seleccionadas variables del Sistema de Información de Nacidos Vivos, agrupadas en indicadores socioeconómicos: madre-adolescente, baja escolaridad, alto número de hijos, recién nacido de raza/color negra; asistenciales: cobertura de prenatal, prematuridad y parto por cesárea y resultante: bajo peso al nacer. Los indicadores fueron distribuidos en mapas temáticos y la auto-correlación espacial fue medida por el índice de Moran que cuantifica el grado de auto-correlación. Hubo auto-correlación espacial significativa de madre adolescente, baja escolaridad y alto número de hijos del tipo "alto-alto" en las macro-regionales Este, Campos Gerais y Sur; de baja cobertura de prenatal en Campos Gerais, Centro-sur y Norte y de parto por cesárea en la Noroeste

  17. A survey exploring knowledge and perceptions of general practitioners towards the use of generic medicines in the northern state of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Gin Nie; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines in a northern state of Malaysia. A postal cross-sectional survey involving registered GPs in Penang, Malaysia was undertaken. A 23-item questionnaire was developed, validated and administered on the GPs. Eighty-seven GPs responded to the survey (response rate 26.8%). The majority of the respondents (85.1%) claimed that they actively prescribed generic medicines in their practice. On the other hand, only 4.6% of the respondents correctly identified the Malaysia's National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau's bioequivalence standard for generic products. There were misconceptions among the respondents about the concepts of "bioequivalence", "efficacy", "safety", and "manufacturing standards" of generic medicines. GPs in this survey believed that a standard guideline on brand substitution process, collaboration with pharmacists, patient education and information on safety and efficacy of generic medicines were necessary to ensure quality use of generics. Furthermore, advertisements and product bonuses offered by pharmaceutical companies, patient's socio-economic factors as well as credibility of manufacturers were factors reported to influence their choice of medicine. Although it appeared that GPs have largely accepted the use of generic medicines, they still have concerns regarding the reliability and quality of such products. GPs need to be educated and reassured about generic products approval system in Malaysia concerning bioequivalence, quality, and safety. The current findings have important implications in establishing generic medicines policy in Malaysia. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Climatic impact on isovolumetric weathering of a coarse-grained schist in the northern Piedmont Province of the central Atlantic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The possible impact of periglacial climates on the rate of chemical weathering of a coarse-grained plagioclase-muscovite-quartz schist has been determined for a small watershed near Baltimore, Maryland. The isovolumetric chemical weathering model formulated from the geochemical mass balance study of the watershed shows that the weathering front advances at a velocity of 9.1 m/m.y., if the modern environmental parameters remain the same back through time. However, recent surficial geological mapping demonstrates that periglacial climates have impacted the area. Such an impact significantly affects two key chemical weathering parameters, the concentration of CO2 in the soil and groundwater moving past the weathering front. Depending upon the assumptions used in the model, the rate of saprolitization varies from 2.2 to 5.3 m/m.y. The possible impact of periglacial processes suggested by the chemical weathering rates indicates a need to reconsider theories of landscape evolution as they apply to the northern Piedmont Province of the mid-Atlantic states. I suggest that from the Late Miocene to the present that the major rivers have become incised in their present locations; this incision has enhanced groundwater circulation and chemical weathering such that crystalline rocks beneath interfluvial areas remain mantled by saprolite; and the saprolite mantle has been partially stripped as periglacial conditions alternate with humid-temperate conditions. ?? 1993.

  19. Chemical control of wild sorghum (sorghum arundinaceum Del. Stapf. in faba bean (vicia faba L.) in the Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedry, K. A. M.; Elamin, A. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Merowe Research Station farm, in the Northern State, Sudan, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the damage inflicted by a wild sorghum species (Sorghum arundinaceum (Del.) Stapf. ) on the yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and to evaluate the efficacy of the post-emergence herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (Topik) on wild sorghum and its effect on faba bean yield. The wild sorghum reduced faba bean crop stand and straw and seed yields by 53% - 76%, 76% - 79% and 88% - 91%, respectively, compared with the hand-weeded control. Faba bean was tolerant to the herbicide. The herbicide, at all rates, effected complete (100%) and persistent control of the wild sorghum and resulted in faba bean seed yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The lowest dose (0.075 kg a.i/ha) of the herbicide used was equal to 75% of the dose recommended for the control of wild sorghum in wheat. It is concluded that clodinafop-propargyl at 0.075 kg a.e/ha could be used in controlling wild sorghum in faba bean. At this rate, the marginal rate of return was about 35 which indicating that every monetary unit (SDG 1) invested in the mentioned treatment would be returned back, plus additional amount of 35 SDG.(Author)

  20. Exploiting differential vegetation phenology for satellite-based mapping of semiarid grass vegetation in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Middleton, Barry R.; Vogel, John M.; Wu, Zhuoting; Velasco, Miguel G.

    2016-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a methodology for subpixel discrimination and large-area mapping of the perennial warm-season (C4) grass component of vegetation cover in mixed-composition landscapes of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. We describe the methodology within a general, conceptual framework that we identify as the differential vegetation phenology (DVP) paradigm. We introduce a DVP index, the Normalized Difference Phenometric Index (NDPI) that provides vegetation type-specific information at the subpixel scale by exploiting differential patterns of vegetation phenology detectable in time-series spectral vegetation index (VI) data from multispectral land imagers. We used modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2) data from Landsat to develop the NDPI, and MSAVI2 data from MODIS to compare its performance relative to one alternate DVP metric (difference of spring average MSAVI2 and summer maximum MSAVI2), and two simple, conventional VI metrics (summer average MSAVI2, summer maximum MSAVI2). The NDPI in a scaled form (NDPIs) performed best in predicting variation in perennial C4 grass cover as estimated from landscape photographs at 92 sites (R2 = 0.76, p landscapes of the Southwest, and potentially for monitoring of its response to drought, climate change, grazing and other factors, including land management. With appropriate adjustments, the method could potentially be used for subpixel discrimination and mapping of grass or other vegetation types in other regions where the vegetation components of the landscape exhibit contrasting seasonal patterns of phenology.

  1. Costing of a State-Wide Population Based Cancer Awareness and Early Detection Campaign in a 2.67 Million Population of Punjab State in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Js; Prinja, Shankar; Jeet, Gursimer; Bhatnagar, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Punjab state is particularly reporting a rising burden of cancer. A 'door to door cancer awareness and early detection campaign' was therefore launched in the Punjab covering about 2.67 million population, wherein after initial training accredited social health activists (ASHAs) and other health staff conducted a survey for early detection of cancer cases based on a twelve point clinical algorithm. To ascertain unit cost for undertaking a population-based cancer awareness and early detection campaign. Data were collected using bottom-up costing methods. Full economic costs of implementing the campaign from the health system perspective were calculated. Options to meet the likely demand for project activities were further evaluated to examine their worth from the point of view of long-term sustainability. The campaign covered 97% of the state population. A total of 24,659 cases were suspected to have cancer and were referred to health facilities. At the state level, incidence and prevalence of cancer were found to be 90 and 216 per 100,000, respectively. Full economic cost of implementing the campaign in pilot district was USD 117,524. However, the financial cost was approximately USD 6,301. Start-up phase of campaign was more resource intensive (63% of total) than the implementation phase. The economic cost per person contacted and suspected by clinical algorithm was found to be USD 0.20 and USD 40 respectively. Cost per confirmed case under the campaign was 7,043 USD. The campaign was able to screen a reasonably large population. High to high economic cost points towards the fact that the opportunity cost of campaign put a significant burden on health system and other programs. However, generating awareness and early detection strategy adopted in this campaign seems promising in light of fact that organized screening is not in place in India and in many developing countries.

  2. Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    *Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary

  3. Perfil da mortalidade materna por aborto no Paraná: 2003-2005 Perfil de la mortalidad materna, por aborto en el Paraná: 2003-2005 Characteristics of maternal mortality by abortion in Parana: 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleyde Ventura de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo cujo objetivo foi identificar o perfil das mulheres que tiveram como causa de morte o aborto, no Estado do Paraná, no período entre 2003 e 2005, com destaque para aspectos sociodemográficos, reprodutivos e relacionados à assistência prestada. Os dados foram obtidos a partir dos estudos de série de casos de óbitos maternos elaborados pelo Comitê Estadual de Prevenção da Mortalidade Materna/Paraná. Foram analisados 17 casos. Os resultados apontaram que 88% dos óbitos poderiam ter sido evitados. O aborto seguido de infecção (59% foi a causa básica de maior concentração entre as mortes. As mulheres jovens, casadas, com baixo status socioeconômico e reprodutivo foram as mais atingidas. Reafirma-se a importância do acesso a bens sociais, da redução das desigualdades sociais e da educação em saúde voltada para o planejamento reprodutivo de qualidade.Estudio descriptivo cuyo objetivo fue identificar las características de las mujeres que tuvieron como causa de muerte el aborto en el estado de Paraná en el período entre 2003 a 2005, con destaque para aspectos sociodemográficos, reproductivos y al cuidado que recibieron. Los datos fueron obtenidos con la serie de casos de óbitos maternos elaborados por el Comité Estadual de Prevención de la Mortalidad Materna/Paraná. Fueron analizados 17 casos. Los resultados mostraron que 88% de los óbitos podrían haber sido evitados. El aborto seguido de infección (59% fue a causa básica de mayor concentración, entre las muertes evitables. Las mujeres jóvenes, casadas; con bajo status socioeconómico y reproductivo fueron las más alcanzadas. Se reafirma la importancia del acceso a bienes sociales y a la educación sanitaria hacia un planeamiento reproductivo calificado.A descriptive study whose objective was to identify the characteristics of women who died while having an abortion in the state of Parana between 2003 and 2005, outlining the sociodemographical

  4. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John T.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a regional assessment of groundwater quality of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, based primarily on raw water samples collected by the NAWQA Program during 1995 through 2007. The NAWQA Program has published findings in local study-unit reports encompassing parts of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system. Data collected from the aquifer system were used in national synthesis reports on selected topics such as specific water-quality constituent classes, well type, or aquifer material; however, a synthesis of groundwater quality at the principal aquifer scale has not been completed and is therefore the major purpose of this report. Water samples collected by the NAWQA Program were analyzed for various classes of characteristics including physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides (tritium, radon, and radium), pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Subsequent sections of this report provide discussions on these classes of characteristics. The assessment objectives of this report are to (1) summarize constituent concentrations and compare them to human-health benchmarks and non-health guidelines; (2) determine the geographic distribution of constituent concentrations and relate them to various factors such as confining conditions, well type, land use, and groundwater age; and (3) evaluate near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections. The most recent sample collected from each well by the NAWQA Program was used for most analyses. Near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections were evaluated for selected well networks by using the most recent sample from each well and comparing it to the results from a sample collected 7 or 11 years earlier. Because some of the NAWQA well networks provide a limited areal coverage of the aquifer system, data for raw water samples from other USGS sources and state agencies were included

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of Taciba and Rio Bonito formations in Mafra, SC area, eastern Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Taciba e Rio Bonito (Membro Triunfo) na regiao de Mafra/SC, leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The Taciba and Rio Bonito ('lower' Triunfo Mbr) formations are divided into six depositional sequences based on cores, gamma-ray and electrical logs from shallow drillings from northern Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Each sequence is formed by two systems tracts, a lower one, sandy (low stand) and an upper one, shaly (high stand). The Taciba Formation has three sequences, S{sub 0} to S{sub 2}; sequence S{sub 0} has a thick turbidite sandstone at the base (Rio Segredo Member) that pinches out towards the eastern margin and even disappears in the Mafra outcrop area. Sequence S{sub 1} varies from a thin fluvial-estuarine system to a thick turbidite sandstone of a channelled fan system; S{sub 1} upper shaly system tract is marine in well PP-11, and it is glacially influenced in well PP-10. Sequence S{sub 2} is a thick sandstone body of shallow marine origin, but restricted to one well (PP-11); its upper shaly tract is dominated by massive siltstones intercalated with thin, distal tempestites. The 'lower' Triunfo Member (or 'Taciba- Triunfo transition') begins with the arrival of deltaic clastics of sequence S{sub 3} lower tract, coarsening-up from medial- to proximal delta front sandstones. Sequence S{sub 4} is quite similar to S{sub 3}, both showing sandstone pro gradation from north to south, as opposed to the southwest-sourced transgressive diamictites. Sequence S{sub 5} consists of fluvial deposits at well PP-12, and two transgressive cycles from wells PP-11 to PP-9, each one of them composed of fluvial-estuarine to marine systems. Well PP-10 is an exception, where the lower cycle presents de glaciation to marine deposits. (author)

  7. Modern processes of palynomorph deposition at lakes of the northern region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia F.P. da Luz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Palynological analysis of pollen, Pteridophyta spores and algae deposited in the superficial sediments at Lagoa de Cima and Lagoa do Campelo Lakes, located in the north of Rio de Janeiro state, was used to determine the spatial variation of the palynomorphs deposition. A total of 67 pollen types were identified at Lagoa de Cima, with an expressive contribution of regional arboreous taxa, hydrophytes and ruderal plants of the pastureland. The depositional pattern of palynomorphs depends on the fluvial leakage, the proximity of the local sedimentation to the inlet of the Imbé and Urubu Rivers and the bathymetry of lake bottom. The highest concentrations of palynomorphs were observed in the decentralized and less deeper area, without the interference of the northeastern wind. At Lagoa do Campelo, a total of 58 pollen types were identified, among which the majority of the pollen grains came from hydrophytes, with the highest concentrations found along the northeastern shore. The southeastern shore showed high percentages of pollen and spores with degraded exine and mechanical damage, due to the transport through the lakeby the currents caused by the wind, confirmed by the depositional trend of damaged palinomorphs along the same direction as the prevailing winds.A análise palinológica de grãos de pólen, esporos de Pteridophyta e algas depositados nos sedimentos superficiais da Lagoa de Cima e Lagoa do Campelo, norte do Rio de Janeiro, foi usada para a avaliação da variação espacial de deposição dos palinomorfos. Um total de 67 tipos polínicos foi identificado na Lagoa de Cima, com expressiva contribuição de taxons arbóreos regionais, plantas hidrófitas e ruderais de pastagens. O padrão deposicional dos palinomorfos está sujeito às vazões fluviais, à proximidade do local de sedimentação em relação à desembocadura dos rios Imbé e Urubu e à batimetria do leito da lagoa. As maiores concentrações de palinomorfos foram

  8. Uranium and main oxides in soil in the Northeast part of Parana basil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, I.C.; Bonotto, D.M.; Jimenez-Rueda, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Uranium is a litophile element that migrates to crust together with other light silicates. This work evaluated the relationships among the concentrations of uranium, major oxides (SiO_2, Al_2O_3, Na_2O, K_2O, CaO, MgO, Fe_2O_3, MnO, TiO_2, P_2O_5) and organic matter in different horizons of a soil profile located over siltstone from Tatui Formation, Piracicaba River sub-basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Different techniques were utilized for data acquisition, for instance, alpha spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and smectrophotometry. The major U concentrations were found in horizons enriched in Fe_2O_3, indicating its tending to be retained in iron oxides. (author)

  9. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais Characterization of Haematobia irritans and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    maior parte das propriedades tende a comprometer não apenas a eficácia dos tratamentos, mas a suscetibilidade dos parasitos e a sustentabilidade do controle.The effective control of Haematobia irritans (horn fly and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (cattle tick is crucial for increasing the productivity of livestock industry in Brazil, but still remains a challenge. A greater knowledge about parasite control in the field is necessary to establish control strategies closer to farmer's reality and easier to be performed. This study characterized the practices adopted for controlling such ectoparasites on 23 cattle ranches from the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba region in the state of Minas Gerais, through interviews. Most interviewees recognized the importance of these parasites to livestock, however, many problems related to parasite control were observed. Control of horn flies and cattle tick was a routine in 17.4% and 95.7% of the ranches, respectively, triggered by high infestations on animals. More than six insecticide/acaricide treatments were applied yearly in all cattle ranches controlling horn flies and in 76.5% of the ranches controlling the cattle tick. Pesticide products were applied mostly by manual backpack sprayers (63.6% without restraining the animals in 45.5% of ranches. Product dilution following manufacturer's recommendations was performed by 45.5% of interviewees, but 63.6% of them used lower doses per animal than technically recommended. Associations of organophosphates and pyrethroids were the main products used to control both parasites. Although pesticide use was a routine practice, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE was not common among surveyed people. Most interviewees were able to recognize epidemiological characteristics of the parasites; however, parasite control measures adopted at most cattle ranches tend to jeopardize the efficacy of products, susceptibility of parasites and sustainability of control programs.

  10. The Association of Arsenic With Redox Conditions, Depth, and Ground-Water Age in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    More than 800 wells in the glacial aquifer system of the Northern United States were sampled for arsenic as part of U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) studies during 1991-2003. Elevated arsenic concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per liter) were detected in 9 percent of samples. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with strongly reducing conditions. Of the samples classified as iron reducing or sulfate reducing, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 19 percent. Of the methanogenic samples, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 45 percent. In contrast, concentrations of arsenic were elevated in only 1 percent of oxic samples. Arsenic concentrations were also related to ground-water age. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 34 percent of old waters (recharged before 1953) as compared to 4 percent of young waters (recharged since 1953). For samples classified as both old and methanogenic, elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 62 percent of samples, as compared to 1 percent for samples classified as young and oxic. Arsenic concentrations were also correlated with well depth and concentrations of several chemical constituents, including (1) constituents linked to redox processes and (2) anions or oxyanions that sorb to iron oxides. Observations from the glacial aquifer system are consistent with the idea that the predominant source of arsenic is iron oxides and the predominant mechanism for releasing arsenic to the ground water is reductive desorption or reductive dissolution. Arsenic is also released from iron oxides under oxic conditions, but on a more limited basis and at lower concentrations. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relative significance of redox, ground-water age, depth, and other water-quality constituents as indicators of elevated arsenic concentrations in the glacial aquifer system. The single variable that explained the greatest amount of variation in

  11. Sunki mandarin and Swingle citrumelo as rootstocks for rain-fed cultivation of late-season sweet orange selections in northern São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazilian regions affected by the citrus sudden death disease, sweet orange cultivation depends on the use of resistant rootstocks. Rangpur lime was mainly replaced by Swingle citrumelo and Sunki mandarin rootstocks, more drought-sensitive ones. The diversification of scion selections is also desirable aiming at the increasing demand for not from concentrate orange juice (NFC that requires high-quality fruits. In this work, we evaluated the performance of 6 selections of Valencia (IAC, Dom João, Late Burjasot IVIA 35-2, Rhode Red SRA 360, Temprana IVIA 25 and Campbell and Natal IAC sweet oranges grafted onto Swingle citrumelo and Sunki mandarin. The planting occurred in 2001 under rain-fed cultivation in Bebedouro, northern São Paulo state, Brazil. The outline was made through randomized blocks in a 7 × 2 factorial design (selections × rootstock, with 4 replications and 2 trees in unit. Both rootstocks performed well in the region. Sunki mandarin rootstock induced greater tree size and production per plant to the scion selections, 38 and 21%, respectively, plus higher precocity of production compared to Swingle citrumelo. The later determined a greater productive efficiency, as well as a greater percentage of juice in general, albeit with lower concentrations of soluble solids and acidity. Natal IAC, Valencia IAC and Rhode Red Valencia selections presented a higher accumulated production, on average, 218.6 kg∙plant−1 (2004 – 2008, and a higher productive efficiency (kg fruit∙m−3 of canopy due to their smaller tree size. All assessed selections produced fruits with high soluble solids content that were suitable for juice processing.

  12. Case history: recovery of the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline at the Vocoroca reservoir crossing Parana state; Caso historico: recuperacao da travessia do gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil no reservatorio da barragem de Vocoroca-Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 Km. Of this total, 2.593 Km are in Brazilian soil. In the kilometer 526+500m of the south spread, GASBOL crosses the reservoir of the Vocoroca's dam (COPEL), which had its operational level reduced, in face of the station of the droughts that usually reaches the area in the months of March to September. The lowing of the reservoir caused the turn of the course of Fojo River (Sao Joaozinho River) to its natural quota, forming a waterfall, whose hydraulic gradient caused the removal of the sediment and part of the foundation soil, discovering the pipe that was with space free from approximately 13 m of length. This paper discusses the solution adopted, as well as the several details of the recovery project, besides geotechnical and hydraulic studies and the aspects of safety of the Gas Pipeline. (author)

  13. Neoproterozoic alkaline magmatism in Ilha do Cardoso, southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    2001-01-01

    This work focuses on the geology and geochronology of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, close to the boundary with Parana State. The island, with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of the Secretariat for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountainous, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Atlantic Forest vegetation. The island is made up mainly of an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium to coarse-grained syenites. The Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, predominates has magmatic flow structures, and it cut by the pinkish grey, leucocratic medium-grained Cambriu alkali-feldspar granites (GC). Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their metaluminous alkaline nature and late orogenic to anorogenic character. The bodies formed between 620 and 570 Ma according to U-Pb dating of zircons and cooled between 597 and 531 Ma (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analyses yield Meso- and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages (1,500 - 2,200 Ma). A belt of low-grade metasedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often-containing andalusite and cordierite, predominate. Geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were continental arc andesites of whose protoliths separated from the mantle between 1,800 and 2,200 Ma during the Paleoproterozoic. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. (author)

  14. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-01-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T DM ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  15. First record of Amphisbaena mertensi Strauch, 1881 (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Adriano; Brites, Vera; Valinhas e Valinhas, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first record of Amphisbaena mertensi in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Through analysis of scientific collections, we found specimens of A. mertensi from municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Indianópolis, Uberlândia and Araguari, in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba regions. These localities are inserted in the Cerrado biome, with Atlantic Forest enclaves, and represent an expansion of the previously known geographic distribution for the species.

  16. Determination of the uranium concentration in samples of raw, retorted and spent shale from Irati, Parana-Brazil, by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    The feasibility of the determination of uranium in oil shale, by the fission track registration technique is studied. The wet and dry methods were employed, using a Bayer policarbonate, Makrofol KG, as detector. It was created a new variant of the dry method. The fission track registration technique was used in samples of raw, retorted and spent shale from Irati, Parana in Brazil, 16 μg U/g, 20 μg U/g and 20μg U/g were found, respectively, with a total error ranging from 19% to 20%. Some experimental results were included for illustration and comparison. The feasibility of the determination of uranium in oil shale from Irati was verified. (Author) [pt

  17. Comparative analysis of the calcretization process in the Marilia formations (Bauru group - Brasil) and Mercedes ( Paysandu group - Uruguay), Upper Cretaceous of the Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veroslavsky, G.; Etchebehere, M.; Sad, A.; Fulfaro, J.

    1998-01-01

    Pedogenic and non-pedogenic calcrete facies are very common feature of Marilia (Brazil) and Mercedes (Uruguay) formations in the Parana Basin. The non-pedogenic ones constitute massive limestone facies that have been recently interpreted as groundwater calcretes. These limestones are exploited in both countries to supply raw materials to Portland cement and soil conditioner in origin and age of calcretization phenomena. In Uruguay, the calcretization process seens to be band formation. Field relationships and fossil assemblage point to a Paleocene (or later) age for the calcretization. In Brazilian territory, the groundwater calcretes aresupposed to be of Upper Cretaceous age due to the presence of dinosaurs scattered through the Bauru Group, including siliciclastic beds below and above the calcretes. The authors assume that calcretization processes are similar in both countries (host rocks, intensity, size, textures, geometries and economic potential). The main difference is in age of the calcretization. (author)

  18. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-12-01

    Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The fundamental structural framework of Goias state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.; Haralyi, N.L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental structural framework of the State of Goias is done by the Araguacema, Porangatu, Brasilia and Parana crustal blocks, linked through obduction zones at late Archean time. This first-order structure deduced from gravimetric and magnetic data is consistent with the distribution of granite-greenstone terrains high-grade terrains and associated supracrustals. This crustal geometry was modified by vertical shear zones and polycyclic faults, mostly of NW to WNW and NE to ENE trends, to which total displacements up to 200 km are related. Some isotope dating of the rocks are also presented. (author)

  20. An update on the fish composition (Teleostei of the coastal lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon, northern Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Dario

    Full Text Available AIM: We present an update on the composition of the fish species of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon, in the northern portion of Rio de Janeiro State, based on collecting efforts of almost two decades, historical museum records, and a review of the literature. METHODS: Specimens were collected using a variety of techniques, mostly between 1994 and 2012, and were fixed with the use of a 10% solution of formalin and subsequently stored in 70% alcohol solution. All specimens examined are deposited in the fish collections of the Núcleo em Ecologia e Desenvolvimento Socioambiental de Macaé, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPM, and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Continental (freshwater fishes and some marine or estuarine species frequently collected were regarded as Resident, whereas marine species collected only sporadically were regarded as Occasional. Possible associations between the orientation of the lagoons and the composition of Resident fishes were explored through a Correspondence Analysis (CA. RESULTS: A total of 100 species, belonging to 19 orders and 41 families of the Teleostei were recorded. When both Resident and Occasional species are considered, families Carangidae and Engraulidae, with nine and eight species respectively, are the most representative. When only Resident species are considered, the Gerreidae and Gobiidae, both with seven species, are the most representative families. The Imboassica Lagoon, with 76 species, has the highest species richness among lagoons included in this study. A total of 81 species were recorded in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, a number two times higher than reported on previous studies. An identification key, including 57 Resident species, is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: Parallel lagoons were characterized by a small group of continental species presumably of marine ancestry (Secondary Division, while marine species

  1. Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the bivalve Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758 on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were studied in Perna perna from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena and Ponta do Retiro on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State by ICP-AES. The average concentration was 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd; 1.9 ± 0.6 (Cr; 6.1 ± 0.7 (Cu; 1,130 ± 113 (Fe; 22 ± 3.2 (Mn; 9.3 ± 4.6 (Ni; 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb; 44 ± 5.8 (Zn µg.g-1 dry weight. There were no significant difference for almost all the studied metals in relation to sex. Although, significant spatial variations (p Este trabalho descreve as concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn em Perna perna das praias de Barra do Furado (BF, Buena (B and Ponta do Retiro (PR na costa Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As concentrações dos metais foram determinadas em ICP-AES. As concentrações médias foram 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd; 1,9 ± 0.6 (Cr; 6,13 ± 0.7 (Cu; 1.130 ± 113 (Fe; 22 ± 3,2 (Mn; 9.3 ± 4,6 (Ni; 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb; 44 ± 5,8 (Zn µg.g-1 de peso seco. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos metais, em relação ao sexo. Variações espaciais significativas (p < 0.05 ocorreram para Cr, Pb e Ni com os maiores valores em BF. Variações temporais significativas (p < 0.05 ocorreram nas três praias, contudo, nenhuma tendência sazonal de acumulação foi observada. As concentrações dos metais foram similares aquelas áreas descritas sob baixo impacto de poluição por metais pesados, exceto para o Fe, cujos altos valores provavelmente estão associados a presença de substratos locais ricos em óxido de Fe.

  2. Autumn migration of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) in the Middle Atlantic and Northeastern United States: what observations from 1995 suggest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. Brinker; Katharine E. Duffy; David M. Whalen; Bryan D. Watts; Kevin M. Dodge

    1997-01-01

    During the autumn of 1995 more than 5,900 migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls were banded in eastern and central North America. Though typical numbers of owls were banded at most Great Lakes stations during 1995, a record number were netted at Hawk Ridge, near Duluth, Minnesota and, when compared with more normal years, a remarkably disproportionate 40 percent of the total...

  3. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  4. Quantitative analysis of the relief in watersheds of the “El Ávila” massif northern hillside (Vargas State, Venezuela and its hydrogeomorphological meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams José Méndez Mata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphological features of the relief and its quantitative morphometric quantification are essential elements in interpreting its influence on the hydrogeomorphological dynamics of watersheds in mountainous environments. This is particularly important when studying small spatial units (micro watersheds and torrential regimes, as this influences the sudden and aggressive hydrological responses of these systems and the likelihood of activation of mass removal processes. In the study region (Vargas State, Venezuela the most important debris flow recorded in Venezuela’s history occurred on December 14, 15 and 16, 1999, as a consequence of extremely heavy rainfall in those dates associated with a very particular weather. For the above reasons, this research conducted a quantitative analysis of the relief features in watersheds of “El Ávila” massive northern hillside and their impact on the local hydrogeomorphological dynamics, aimed at identifying the main attributes influencing these dynamics. The study area is located in the northern-central region of Venezuela, in the central part of Vargas state, delimited by 10º32’25”-10º37’35”N and 66º40’08”- 66º59’12”W, and comprises thirteen micro watersheds of mountainous environment. The methodology consisted of (a the geomorphological characterization of the area, from the review and interpretation of digitized base maps at scales 1:5 000 and 1:25 000, the digital elevation model (DEM, aerial photographs at scale 1:5 000, orthophotomaps at scale 1:25 000, satellite images, Google Earth and Google Maps images, and geomorphological maps (landforms and geomorphological processes at scale 1:25 000; (b measurements and calculations of basic morphometric parameters of watershed relief on digital mapping using the ArcGIS 9.2 and their Spatial Analysis and ArcHydro modules, and the mathematical equations that define the other parameters using MS Excel; (c descriptive statistical

  5. Observations and modeling of air quality trends over 1990-2010 across the Northern Hemisphere: China, the United States and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, J.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wong, D. C.; Wei, C.; Gilliam, R.; Pouliot, G.

    2015-03-01

    Trends in air quality across the Northern Hemisphere over a 21-year period (1990-2010) were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) multiscale chemical transport model driven by meteorology from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations and internally consistent historical emission inventories obtained from EDGAR. Thorough comparison with several ground observation networks mostly over Europe and North America was conducted to evaluate the model performance as well as the ability of CMAQ to reproduce the observed trends in air quality over the past 2 decades in three regions: eastern China, the continental United States and Europe. The model successfully reproduced the observed decreasing trends in SO2, NO2, 8 h O3 maxima, SO42- and elemental carbon (EC) in the US and Europe. However, the model fails to reproduce the decreasing trends in NO3- in the US, potentially pointing to uncertainties of NH3 emissions. The model failed to capture the 6-year trends of SO2 and NO2 in CN-API (China - Air Pollution Index) from 2005 to 2010, but reproduced the observed pattern of O3 trends shown in three World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG) sites over eastern Asia. Due to the coarse spatial resolution employed in these calculations, predicted SO2 and NO2 concentrations are underestimated relative to all urban networks, i.e., US-AQS (US - Air Quality System; normalized mean bias (NMB) = -38% and -48%), EU-AIRBASE (European Air quality data Base; NMB = -18 and -54%) and CN-API (NMB = -36 and -68%). Conversely, at the rural network EU-EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme), SO2 is overestimated (NMB from 4 to 150%) while NO2 is simulated well (NMB within ±15%) in all seasons. Correlations between simulated and observed O3 wintertime daily 8 h maxima (DM8) are poor compared to other seasons for all networks. Better correlation between simulated and observed SO42- was found compared to that for SO2. Underestimation of summer SO42- in

  6. The positive impact of 'Luz do Campo' program in a rural area: the sericulture in Ribeirao Claro, Parana, Brazil; O impacto positivo do programa 'Luz do campo' na extensao rural: a sericicultura em Ribeirao Claro, Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Jose R. do; Marques, Rui Manuel B.S.; Betiol Junior, Genesio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao e Energia], e-mail: jrcarmo@iee.usp.br, e-mail: rmanuel@iee.usp.br, e-mail: genesio.betiol@poli.usp.br; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica de Engenharia], e-mail: fribeiro@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The 'Luz do Campo' program has created positive and favorable impact to the opening of opportunities in the rural area. It has contributed to facilitate the access of workers to energetic facilities and has contributed to providing them with better social and economical conditions. As a consequence after the accomplishment of the rural electrification process in the settlements of 'Anhumas' and 'Maria Neto' implanted in Ribeirao Claro in Parana, it was possible to come to terms with two projects of Sericiculture in that location. The energy consumption of these projects has not been only restricted to human comfort, but has also been aimed at the production. As a result, the economical success achieved in those settlements in less than a year's time, is due to the transformation actions in the countryside that have lowered poverty and raised the perspectives of better life quality to the settlers. (author)

  7. Comparative analysis of the calcretization process in the Marilia formations (Bauru group - Brasil) and Mercedes ( Paysandu group - Uruguay), Upper Cretaceous of the Parana basin; Analisis comparativo de los procesos de calcretizacion en las Formaciones Marilia (Grupo Bauru-Brasil) y Mercedes (Grupo Paysandu-Uruguay), Cretacico Superior de la cuenca de Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veroslavsky, G; Etchebehere, M; Sad, A; Fulfaro, J

    1998-07-01

    Pedogenic and non-pedogenic calcrete facies are very common feature of Marilia (Brazil) and Mercedes (Uruguay) formations in the Parana Basin. The non-pedogenic ones constitute massive limestone facies that have been recently interpreted as groundwater calcretes. These limestones are exploited in both countries to supply raw materials to Portland cement and soil conditioner in origin and age of calcretization phenomena. In Uruguay, the calcretization process seens to be band formation. Field relationships and fossil assemblage point to a Paleocene (or later) age for the calcretization. In Brazilian territory, the groundwater calcretes aresupposed to be of Upper Cretaceous age due to the presence of dinosaurs scattered through the Bauru Group, including siliciclastic beds below and above the calcretes. The authors assume that calcretization processes are similar in both countries (host rocks, intensity, size, textures, geometries and economic potential). The main difference is in age of the calcretization. (author)

  8. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan Gray, D; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field. (paper)

  9. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  10. Ordovician of the Sauk megasequence in the Ozark region of northern Arkansas and parts of Missouri and adjacent states: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Raymond L.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Exposures of Ordovician rocks of the Sauk megasequence in Missouri and northern Arkansas comprise Ibexian and lower Whiterockian carbonates with interspersed sandstones. Subjacent Cambrian strata are exposed in Missouri but confined to the subsurface in Arkansas. The Sauk-Tippecanoe boundary in this region is at the base of the St. Peter Sandstone. Ulrich and associates divided the Arkansas section into formations early in the 20th century, principally based on sparse collections of fossil invertebrates. In contrast, the distribution of invertebrate faunas and modern studies of conodonts will be emphasized throughout this chapter. Early workers considered many of the stratigraphic units to be separated by unconformities, but modern analysis calls into question the unconformable nature of some of their boundaries. The physical similarity of the several dolomites and sandstones, complex facies relations, and lack of continuous exposures make identification of individual formations difficult in isolated outcrops.

  11. Perception of performance and importance to consumers agro-industry of family companies in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Breitenbach

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the strategic direction of agroprocessing enterprises and the level of compliance with consumer requirements, as well as the position of agro-industry enterprises in relation to their primary competitors. To this end, a survey was performed, which included nine family agro-industry enterprises from the Northern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS and their respective buyers. For this research, the Importance-Performance Matrix methodology described by SLACK (2002 was used. The strategy of the analyzed agro-industry enterprises relies on differentiation, presenting most of the items studied in accordance with consumers’ demands. Consequently, they are not at a disadvantage to their competitors in most criteria that consumers consider fundamental at the time of purchase.

  12. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  13. Freqüência de onicomicoses por leveduras em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil Frequency of onychomycoses caused by yeasts in Maringa, Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Alves de Freitas Souza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Onicomicoses são afecções ungueais de origem infecciosa causadas por fungos e estão entre as principais onicopatias em todo o mundo. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a freqüência de leveduras como agentes etiológicos de onicomicoses na cidade de Maringá, PR, Brasil. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo do período entre janeiro de 1997 e dezembro de 2004, em que foram avaliados os resultados de 1.295 pacientes com suspeita de onicomicose, recebidos no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: A confirmação micológica de onicomicose ocorreu em 761 (58,76% desses pacientes. As mulheres foram responsáveis por 71% das onicomicoses, e os homens, por 29%. A prevalência nas unhas das mãos foi de 28,67% e nas unhas dos pés, 71,33%. Em relação aos agentes, as leveduras foram mais freqüentemente isoladas (46,39%, seguidas pelos dermatófitos (40,60% e pelos fungos filamentosos não dermatófitos (13,01%. CONCLUSÃO: A alta freqüência de fungos leveduriformes em onicomicoses indica aprimoramento nas técnicas diagnósticas de confirmação laboratorial de fungos oportunistas. Esses resultados, associados à abordagem clínica do paciente, possibilitam maior segurança no diagnóstico e tratamento.INTRODUCTION: Onychomycoses are infectious ungueal diseases caused by fungi and represent the major onychopathies all over the world. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of yeasts as etiological agents of onychomycoses in the city of Maringa, Parana, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study from January 1997 to December 2004. Results of 1295 patients with suspected onychomycosis were evaluated; tests were performed at the Teaching and Research Pathology Laboratory at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Parana, Brazil. RESULTS: Onychomycosis was confirmed by mycological exam in 761 (58.76% patients; 71% females and 29.00% males. The

  14. Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-02-01

    In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal

  15. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    in significantly larger abundances. We will present the spectral and vertical distribution of Titan's stratospheric particulates during northern winter on Titan. The drastically changing abundance of the haystack over a small latitude range will be highlighted, specifically comparing the IRIS and CIRS epochs, Finally, we will discuss the situation in which CH4 condenses in Titan's lower stratosphere, forming an unexpected quasi steady-state stratospheric Ice cloud.

  16. Survey of elemental concentrations in lichen samples collected from Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Horimoto, L.K.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Coccaro, D.M.B.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Samples of the lichen Canoparmelia texana collected in seven different sites of Sao Paulo State and one site of the Parana State were analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to obtain information on the air quality in these regions and also to select a region of interest for the evaluation of baseline level of elements in lichen species. Concentrations of the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, U, V, Zn and lanthanides were determined and a preliminary comparisons was made between the results obtained for samples collected in different sites. (author)

  17. Relative impact of previous disturbance history on the likelihood of additional disturbance in the Northern United States Forest Service USFS Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Landsat archive is increasingly being used to detect trends in the occurrence of forest disturbance. Beyond information about the amount of area affected, forest managers need to know if and how disturbance regimes change. The National Forest System (NFS) has developed a comprehensive plan for carbon monitoring that requires a detailed temporal mapping of forest disturbances across 75 million hectares. A long-term annual time series that shows the timing, extent, and type of disturbance beginning in 1990 and ending in 2011 has been prepared for several USFS Regions, including the Northern Region. Our mapping starts with an automated detection of annual disturbances using a time series of historical Landsat imagery. Automated detections are meticulously inspected, corrected and labeled using various USFS ancillary datasets. The resulting maps of verified disturbance show the timing and types are fires, harvests, insect activity, disease, and abiotic (wind, drought, avalanche) damage. Also, the magnitude of each change event is modeled in terms of the proportion of canopy cover lost. The sequence of disturbances for every pixel since 1990 has been consistently mapped and is available across the entirety of NFS. Our datasets contain sufficient information to describe the frequency of stand replacement, as well as how often disturbance results in only a partial loss of canopy. This information provides empirical insight into how an initial disturbance may predispose a stand to further disturbance, and it also show a climatic signal in the occurrence of processes such as fire and insect epidemics. Thus, we have the information to model the likelihood of occurrence of certain disturbances after a given event (i.e. if we have a fire in the past what does that do to the likelihood of occurrence of insects in the future). Here, we explore if previous disturbance history is a reliable predictor of additional disturbance in the future and we present results of applying

  18. Regional and forest-level estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Anderson; J. Young; K. Stockmann; K. Skog; S. Healey; D. Loeffler; J.G. Jones; J. Morrison

    2013-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  19. Custo do transplante hepático no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná Cost of liver transplantation at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.U. Coelho

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Determinar o custo do transplante hepático no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. MÉTODO. Os dados do prontuário de 24 pacientes submetidos a 25 transplantes hepáticos foram avaliados do dia da internação para o transplante hepático até a data da alta hospitalar ou óbito para determinar o número de dias de internação, o local de internação, a quantidade de material e medicamentos usados, os exames complementares e procedimentos realizados. Honorários médicos não foram incluídos no estudo. RESULTADOS. A idade dos pacientes variou de 6 a 56 anos, tendo seis deles menos que 14 anos de idade. Cinco pacientes foram a óbito durante a internação hospitalar. Retransplante foi realizado em somente um paciente. O custo médio da retirada do fígado do doador foi de US$ 2,783.19. O custo total do transplante hepático variou amplamente entre os pacientes, na dependência de ocorrência de complicações pós-operatórias, do número de dias de internação hospitalar e da quantidade de transfusão de hemoderivados. O custo total variou de US$ 6,359.84 a US$ 75,434.18, com média de US$ 21,505.53. O item mais caro do transplante hepático foi o custo com a hemoterapia, seguido do custo com medicamentos e diária hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO. O custo do transplante hepático varia muito entre os pacientes e pode ser realizado no Brasil a um custo inferior ao relatado nos Estados Unidos e na Europa.PURPOSE - To determine the cost of liver transplantation at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Parana. METHODS - The data of 24 patients subjected to 25 liver transplantations were evaluated from the day of hospital admission until the day of discharge to determine the length of hospitalization, quantity of material and medications used, and exams and procedures performed. Professional fees were not included in the study. RESULTS - The age of the patients varied from 6 to 56 years. Six patients were

  20. Mortalidad evitable en los estados de la frontera del norte de México: posibles implicaciones sociales y para los servicios de salud / Avoidable mortality in the border states of northern Mexico: potential implications for social determinants and health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. López J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la mortalidad evitable en los estados de la frontera del norte de México entre 1998 y 2007 para indirectamente evaluar la calidad de los servicios de salud en la región. Metodología: se analizó la información sobre mortalidad del Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud (sinais. La unidad de análisis fue la causa básica de la defunción codificada según la décima revisión de la CIE. La mortalidad evitable fue clasificada según el catálogo de causas de muerte propuesto por Gómez. Se hizo un análisis exploratorio de la relación entre la mortalidad evitable y la derechohabiencia y el nivel socioeconómico de los municipios correspondientes a las muertes. Resultados: la tasa de mortalidad evitable global fue de 350,2 muertes por mil habitantes en la región. La mortalidad evitable por diagnóstico y tratamiento médico precoz, violencia y VIH/SIDA tuvo tasas de 223, 60 y 5 por mil habitantes, respectivamente, presentando variaciones de magnitud, sociodemográficas y por derechohabiencia entre estados. Discusión y conclusiones: las poblaciones de los estados de la frontera norte de México se caracterizan por tener una dinámica sociodemográfica y de los servicios de salud muy intensa. Los resultados sugieren que el sistema de salud está siendo rebasado en su respuesta a una alta frecuencia de enfermedades no transmisibles. En el aspecto social existen condiciones estructurales en México que favorecen la presencia de narcotráfico y su consecuente causa de violencia y consumo de drogas ilegales que podrían estar relacionadas con la frecuencia de muertes violentas y en forma subsidiaria con las causadas por el VIH/SIDA. / ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze avoidable mortality between 1998 and 2007 in the border states of Northern Mexico to evaluate, indirectly, the quality of the region's health care services. Methodology: the information on mortality provided by the National Health Information System

  1. What Should Be the Relationship between the National Guard and United States Northern Command in Civil Support Operations Following Catastrophic Events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    catastrophe such as the New Madrid earthquake or pandemic influenza scenarios that required a standard military response across the states, this construct...the next crisis. D. LITERATURE REVIEW USNORTHCOM is a relatively new organization so there is not an abundance of existing literature that...Brigadier General (Retired) Raymond E. Bell proposes making a National Guard general officer the commander of USNORTHCOM. He also suggests the National

  2. Homeland Defense. U.S. Northern Command Has a Strong Exercise Program, but Involvement of Interagency Partners and States Can Be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    fight the nation’s wars, DOD has developed an established, authoritative, time-tested process for planning, conducting, and evaluating exercises in...of mass destruction in Clark County, Nevada • Wildfires in the western United States • 2003 World Gymnastics Championship in California • Ongoing...exercises and, therefore, will be flexible to accommodate other organizations’ training objectives; however, NORTHCOM ultimately has its own

  3. Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals in Farm Produce and Livestock around Lead-Contaminated Goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Orisakwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hitherto studies in response to the June 2010 lead poisoning, Zamfara State, Nigeria, have focused on clinical interventions without information on livestock and other metals. Objective. This study has investigated the distribution of heavy metals in farm produce and livestock around lead-contaminated goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Methods. Vegetables, soil, water, blood, and different meat samples were harvested from goat, sheep, cattle, and chicken from Dareta, Abare, and Gusau communities. The samples were digested with 10 mL of a mix of nitric and perchloric acids; the mixture was then heated to dryness. Lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium, copper, magnesium, and nickel were analysed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The daily intake, bioaccumulation factor, and target hazard quotient (THQ were calculated. Results. Chicken bone-muscles from Dareta had the highest concentrations of lead, zinc, and nickel (28.2750, 16.1650, and 4.2700 mg/kg, resp., while chicken brain had the highest levels of cadmium, magnesium (0.3800 and 67.5400 mg/kg, and chromium (6.1650 mg/kg, kidney tissue inclusive. Conclusion. In addition to lead, cadmium may also be of concern in the contaminated mining communities of Zamfara State, Nigeria, given the high levels of cadmium in meat and vegetables samples from these areas.

  4. Inventory and state of activity of rockglaciers in the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan from satellite SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Kääb, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The best visual expression of mountain permafrost are rockglaciers, which, in contrast to the permafrost itself, can be mapped and monitored directly using remotely sensed data. Studies carried out in various parts of the European Alps have shown surface acceleration of rockglaciers and even destabilization of several such landforms over the two last decades, potentially related to the changing permafrost creep conditions. Changes in rockglacier motion are therefore believed to be the most indicative short- to medium-term response of rockglaciers to environmental changes and thus an indicator of mountain permafrost conditions in general. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements EO products to support research communities and international organizations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Within this project we are building up a worldwide long-term monitoring network of active rockglacier motion investigated using remote sensing techniques. All sites are analysed through a uniform set of data and methods, and results are thus comparable. In order to quantify the rate of movement and the relative changes over time we consider two remote sensing methods: (i) matching of repeat optical data and (ii) satellite radar interferometry. In this contribution, we focus on the potential of recent high spatial resolution SAR data for the analysis of periglacial processes in mountain environments with special attention to the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan at the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, an area which contains a high number of large and comparably fast (> 1m/yr) rockglaciers and is of interest as dry-season water resource and source of natural hazards. As demonstrated in the past with investigations conducted in the Swiss Alps, the visual analysis of differential SAR interferograms can be employed for the rough estimation of the surface deformation rates of rockglaciers and

  5. Characterization of the superficial sediment of Jordão River in Center-South Region of the Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Lowe Pletsch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed to quantify the metals ions (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn of sediments from the two centimeter surface layer of Jordão river in Guarapuava City, PR. Other parameters, such as pH, total phosphate (PT, total organic carbon (COT, total Nitrogen (NT and granulometry were also evaluated. The results were suggestive that local anthropization, mainly originated from agricultural and domestic activities, occurred in that locality. A spatial variation among samples was detected. With concentrations expressed in mg Kg-1 we found: from 8,300 to 19,000 for Al; Cd: < LD; Cr, from 6.1 to 45.2; Cu, from 31.8 to 64.7; Fe, from 17,200 to 69,100; Mn, from 264 to 467; Ni, from 2.3 to 7.3; Pb, from 6.5 to 12.5; Zn, from 46.1 to 139.0. The level of contamination was also assessed by applying a contamination factor. Cu and Zn reached values above the considered moderate contamination. This concentration level may interfere with the equilibrium of the studied ecosystem.

  6. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: fjcastro@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(ELTA/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  7. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  8. Memory and endurance in the migration to the Amazon: the case of Nova Londrina in Ji-Parana, state of Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lediane Fani Felzke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The occupation of Rondônia, from the 1970s, occurred in a disorganized way, since it attracted an amount of migrants which was much bigger than the settling projects could sustain. The aim of this research was to analyze the circumstances in which the district of Nova Londrina was settled, utilizing for this reason a bibliographic survey, as well as the Oral History method. The arrival in Nova Londrina, Ji-Paraná, was highlighted by conflicts between the settlers and the settling company Calama S/A. In spite of the company’s violence, the colonists resisted until there was an intervention from INCRA, through a land regularization program. In this context, the Urban Center for Rural Support (NUAR was implanted, intending to support the agricultural workers

  9. Memory and endurance in the migration to the Amazon: the case of Nova Londrina in Ji-Parana, state of Rondonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lediane Fani Felzke; Dalva Felipe de Oliveira; Jania Maria de Paula

    2014-01-01

    The occupation of Rondônia, from the 1970s, occurred in a disorganized way, since it attracted an amount of migrants which was much bigger than the settling projects could sustain. The aim of this research was to analyze the circumstances in which the district of Nova Londrina was settled, utilizing for this reason a bibliographic survey, as well as the Oral History method. The arrival in Nova Londrina, Ji-Paraná, was highlighted by conflicts between the settlers and the settling company Cala...

  10. Preliminary characterization of the rare earth ore from the Barra do Itapirapua, Sao Paulo and Parana states, Brazil. Detail 1 area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzi, M.L.B.; Lorenzi, V.E.; Kahn, H.

    1996-01-01

    The main rare earth mineralization on Barra do Itapirapua Alkaline-Carbonatitic Complex is related to the weathering mantle of the Serrana Body carbonatite plug - detail 1 area. The present work describes the preliminary RE ore types established from correlation between geological observations, geochemical weathering profile and mineralogical studies. Mineralogical studies, comprising around 40 thin section analysis, were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive systems (EDS). (author)

  11. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  12. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  13. Rio Grande transboundary integrated hydrologic model and water-availability analysis, New Mexico and Texas, United States, and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Ritchie, Andre; Boyce, Scott E.; Ferguson, Ian; Galanter, Amy; Flint, Lorraine E.; Henson, Wesley

    2018-05-31

    , and northern part of the Conejos-Médanos Basin, with the entire region referred to as the “Transboundary Rio Grande” or TRG. These tools provide a means to understand hydrologic system response to the evolution of water use in the region, its availability, and potential operational constraints of the RGP.The conceptual model identified surface-water and groundwater inflows and outflows that included the movement and use of water both in natural and in anthropogenic systems. The groundwater-flow system is characterized by a layered geologic sedimentary sequence combined with the effects of groundwater pumping, operation of the RGP, natural runoff and recharge, and the application of irrigation water at the land surface that is captured and reused in an extensive network of canals and drains as part of the conjunctive use of water in the region.Historical groundwater-level fluctuations followed a cyclic pattern that were aligned with climate cycles, which collectively resulted in alternating periods of wet or dry years. Periods of drought that persisted for one or more years are associated with low surface-water availability that resulted in higher rates of groundwater-level decline. Rates of groundwater-level decline also increased during periods of agricultural intensification, which necessitated increasing use of groundwater as a source of irrigation water. Agriculture in the area was initially dominated by alfalfa and cotton, but since 1970 more water-intensive pecan orchards and vegetable production have become more common. Groundwater levels substantially declined in subregions where drier climate combined with increased demand, resulting in periods of reduced streamflows.Most of the groundwater was recharged in the Rio Grande Valley floor, and most of the pumpage and aquifer storage depletion was in Mesilla Basin agricultural subregions. A cyclic imbalance between inflows and outflows resulted in the modeled cyclic depletion (groundwater withdrawals in

  14. MINAS GERAIS AND THE STARTING-POINT OF THE OCCUPATION OF THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO: THE ROLE OF STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is undergoing an accelerated process of degradation, caused mainly by the expansion of agriculture. The occupation process of this biome began from an agricultural project established in the State of Minas Gerais, the Programa de Assentamento Dirigido do Alto Paranaíba (PADAP. This project served as a model for the implantation of two other major projects that were also had the Cerrado as one of the places chosen for the allocation of its resources. This article has as its main objective, to describe and analyze how was the participation of State and Federal government in the process of occupation of this biome.

  15. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  16. APPLE MANGO VALUE CHAIN IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... This study, conducted in Mereb-Leke district of Tigray, Northern ... development agencies, donors and NGOs are ... Apple Mango Value Chain in Northern Ethiopia: Case Study of Mereb-Leke District. 17 ... of the districts in the Tigray Regional State of ... city, Axum and Rama town, respectively and 5 and.

  17. Faciologic characterization of coal beds in the Cerquilho region, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagalli, J.T.; Consoni, J.O.C.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1981, NUCLEBRAS, researches the Tubarao group in the state of Sao Paulo, in order to evaluate the uraniferous potential of carbonaceous sediments in the Parana Basin. This work discusses geologic information concerning the Cerquilho area, where, the faciologic and structural characterization of the coal beds (or seams) were analyzed, and the main targets for uranium concentration were identified. Such study was performed through detailed field observations, imagery and aerial photograph interpretation as well as well logging analysis. Results suggested that the uraniferous anomalies are controlled by fluvial channels cutting the coal beds, with periglacial influence. (Author) [pt

  18. Geotectonic aspects of the proterozoic triple junction in the center-south part of Goias state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to made up, in a regional synthesis the tectonical framework of intracontinental proterozoic rifts, from the point of view of an evolutive model through plate tectonic mechanism. based upon lithoenvironment and geotectonics. In this context, this analysis take into account the tectonical interpretation and typification of Canastra, Cuiaba, Estrondo and Tocantins Groups. Structurally these geological entities are found to be settled in rifts of triple junction, in the center-south part of Goias State, individualized among the Oriental Plate (Sao Francisco Craton and Goias Central Massif) Occidental Plate (Amazonic Craton) and Meridional Plate (Paramirim Craton and Parana Block). (author)

  19. Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India: Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    Full Text Available Efforts to assess the burden of non-communicable diseases risk factors has improved in low and middle-income countries after political declaration of UN High Level Meeting on NCDs. However, lack of reliable estimates of risk factors distribution are leading to delay in implementation of evidence based interventions in states of India.A STEPS Survey, comprising all the three steps for assessment of risk factors of NCDs, was conducted in Punjab state during 2014-15. A statewide multistage sample of 5,127 residents, aged 18-69 years, was taken. STEPS questionnaire version 3.1 was used to collect information on behavioral risk factors, followed by physical measurements and blood and urine sampling for biochemical profile.Tobacco and alcohol consumption were observed in 11.3% (20% men and 0.9% women and 15% (27% men and 0.3% women of the population, respectively. Low levels of physical activity were recorded among 31% (95% CI: 26.7-35.5 of the participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28.6% (95% CI: 26.3-30.9 and 12.8% (95% CI: 11.2-14.4 respectively. Central obesity was higher among women (69.3%, 95% CI: 66.5-72.0 than men (49.5%, 95% CI: 45.3-53.7. Prevalence of hypertension in population was 40.1% (95% CI: 37.3-43.0. The mean sodium intake in grams per day for the population was 7.4 gms (95% CI: 7.2-7.7. The prevalence of diabetes (hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.7-16.8, 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5-25.1 and 16.1% (95% CI: 13.1-19.2, respectively. In addition, 7% of the population aged 40-69 years had a cardiovascular risk of ≥ 30% over a period of next 10 years.We report high prevalence of risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases among adults in Punjab. There is an urgent need to implement population, individual and programme wide prevention and control interventions to lower the serious consequences of NCDs.

  20. Evaluation of ruminal fluid in buffaloes produced extensively in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duarte Cerqueira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the ruminal fluid has great importance in the diagnosis of microbial and biochemical alterations of reticulum and rumen. In the state of Pará buffaloes are produced extensively, mainly in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha. The physiologic parameters of the ruminal content in buffaloes in this condition had not been determined. The objective of this study was to establish normal values for reticulum-ruminal fluid examination in buffaloes in pastures of B. brizantha. Twenty buffaloes of the Murrah breed were used. Samples of ruminal fluid were obtained during 4 days, twice a day, at 7:00am and 5:00pm. The aspect, color, smell, and the sedimentation and fluctuation period (TSF of the fluid were analyzed macroscopically. Physico-chemical analysis included pH, glucose fermentation, methilene blue reduction (RAM and total acidity. All animal had a green-olive ruminal fluid with viscous consistency, and aromatic smell. The pH varied from 6.95 to 7.03. The RAM test varied from 126.74 to 291.83 seconds and the TSF from 266.7 to 298.89 seconds. Glucose fermentation produced 0.69 to 0.78 ml of gas per hour. Total acidity was 18.11 to 18.32 UC. In the microbiologic examination the number of protozoa was 551,377.31 to 518,860.72 with predominance of Gram negative bacteria.

  1. Potencial atrator de tubarões costeiros em recife artificial no litoral norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Attractive potential of coastal sharks in artificial reef on the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vieira Faria

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs have been used in many countries to increase coastal fishery productivity. In order to increase fish attraction to the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, it was installed an artificial reef (1,500 m² 5 nautical miles off Manguinhos's Bay (São Francisco de ltabapoana, Rio de Janeiro. The artificial structures were made of tires, concrete and cement blocks. A gill net of 125 x 3 m was monthly used in the artificial reef (AR and in a control area (CA to determine the effect of the experimental structures on the stock and diversity of coastal sharks. Considering the complexity of a sustainable elasmobranch exploitation, sharks were focused in this study. During 24 months of investigation (April/96 to March/98, a total of 325 individuais distributed in four shark species were captured in the two areas (AR and CA: Mustelus higmani (Springer & Lowe, 1963 (AR = 70; CA = 82 individuals, Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839 (AR = 86; CA = 56 individuals, R. porosus (Poey, 1861 (AR = 16; CA = 14 individuals and Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870 (AR = 1 individual. The attractive potential of the artificial reef is suggested by the predominance of the shark R. lalandii in the reef complex after the first year of monitoring, with the increase of the structures.

  2. Monitoring the Northern San Francisco Bay Water Quality with Landsat-8. Nicholas B. Tufillaroa , and Curtiss O. Davisa. aOregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA, nbt@coas.oregonstate.edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. O.; Tufillaro, N.

    2016-02-01

    Landsat-8's high spatial resolution ( 30 nm nominal), improved signal-to-noise (12bit digitizer) and expanded band set open up new applications for coastal and in-land waters. We use a recent ocean color processor for Landsat-8 created by Vanhellemont and Ruddick (RSE, 2015)to examine changes in the Northern San Francisco Bay, in particular looking for possiblechanges due to the on-going California drought. For instance, a temporary drought barrier to prevent salt water intrusion was placed during May of 2015 at West False River in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Using the new Landsat-8 ocean color products, we illustrate how to monitor changes in macro algae and plants (Sago pondweed (native), Curly pondweed (non-native)) in regions directly effected,such as the Franks Track region. Product maps using panchromatic enhancement ( 15 m resolution) andscene based atmospheric correction allow a detailed synoptic look every 16 days during theSpring, Summer, and Fall of 2015. This work is part of a larger NASA funded project aimed atimproving the modeling and predictive capabilities of the biogeochemical state for the San Francisco Bay(Davis, PI: Impacts of Population Growth on the San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem, 2014-2017).

  3. Ocorrência de vetores da esquistossomose mansônica no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of schistosomiasis mansoni vectors on the Northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Seguem detalhes da descoberta de exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila (d’Orbigny, 1835, infectados por Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, em Caraguatatuba, e da introdução de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 em Ilha Bela, dois municípios da Região do Litoral Norte do território paulista. O novo foco da esquistossomose situa-se no Bairro Olaria; a presença de B. straminea foi detectada em um córrego da localidade de Barra Velha, juntamente com B. tenagophila. Esses registros motivaram a discussão dos riscos da expansão da esquistossomose, em conseqüência das más condições do saneamento básico predominantes na região.This article comments on the detection of Biomphalaria tenagophila (d’Orbigny, 1835 infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Caraguatatuba and the introduction of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 in Ilha Bela, two municipalities on the Northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Infected snails were collected from a ditch located in the Olaria district. B. straminea and B. tenagophila were living in syntopy in a stream situated in Barra Velha. Such epidemiological findings indicate the risk of spread of schistosomiasis mansoni in the region, a consequence of inadequate basic sanitation.

  4. Recording the transition from flare-up to steady-state arc magmatism at the Purico-Chascon volcanic complex, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Dale H.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Tepley, Frank; Schmitt, Axel K.; Loewen, Matthew W.

    2015-07-01

    The long-term evolution of continental magmatic arcs is episodic, where a few transient events of high magmatic flux or flare-ups punctuate the low-flux magmatism or "steady state" that makes up most of the arc history. How this duality manifests in terms of differences in crustal architecture, magma dynamics and chemistry, and the time scale over which transitions occur is poorly known. Herein we use multiscale geochemical and isotopic characteristics coupled with geothermobarometry at the Purico-Chascon Volcanic Complex (PCVC) in the Central Andes to identify a transition from flare-up to steady state arc magmatism over ∼800 kyr during which significant changes in upper crustal magmatic dynamics are recorded. The PCVC is one of the youngest volcanic centers related to a 10-1 Ma ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. Activity at the PCVC initiated 0.98 ± 0.03 Ma with the eruption of a large 80-100 km3 crystal-rich dacite ignimbrite. High, restricted 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios between 0.7085 and 0.7090 in the bulk rock and plagioclase crystals from the Purico ignimbrite, combined with mineral chemistry and phase relationships indicate the dacite magma accumulated and evolved at relatively low temperatures around 800-850 °C in the upper crust at 4-8 km depth. Minor andesite pumice erupted late in the ignimbrite sequence records a second higher temperature (965 °C), higher pressure environment (17-20 km), but with similar restricted radiogenic bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091 to the dacites. The compositional and isotopic characteristics of the Purico ignimbrite implicate an extensive zone of upper crustal mixing, assimilation, storage and homogenization (MASH) between ∼30 and 4 km beneath the PCVC ∼1 Ma. The final eruptions at the PCVC engine". High magmatic fluxes during the flare-up would lead to elevated geothermal gradients and efficient crustal processing leading to a dominantly "crustal" magmatism feeding the

  5. Avaliação microbiológica, química e físico-química da contaminação do Rio Paranaíba / Microbiological, chemical and physical-chemical assessment of the contamination in the Paranaíba river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Taranto Goulart

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Some samples of Paranaíba river were collected, between July of 2004 and May of 2005, under abridge of BR-365 route (upstream Patos de Minas and under another one, Bigode’s bridge(downstream Patos de Minas, to evaluate a possible contamination, quantifying and qualifyingit. It was done physical-chemical analyses (OD, DBO, DQO, OG, ATA, pH and temperature,microbiological analyses (detection of the biological indicator Escherichia coli and chemicals toheavy metals (cupper, zinc, cadmium and lead. The physical-chemical analyses were done incooperation with Copasa-MG. Among them, only OG analyses have showed some variation. It wasa medium positive variation of 1 mg/L to the samples colleted downstream. Moreover, thecontamination of OG was set four times higher than Brazilian legislation (DN 10/86 allows. Themicrobiological analyses and the detection of heavy metals were done in the Centro Universitáriode Patos de Minas (UNIPAM laboratories. In order to detect E. coli it was used Lactose EC broth,the means agar EMB to the morphological identification and the Gram method. The medium resultdownstream pointed to the level of 3,62 NMP/mL, although it hasn’t overcome the boundaries ofBrazilian legislation (DN 10/86; it was 9,74 times over the result pointed upstream. One atomicabsorption spectrophotometer with flame of air/acetylene was used in order to detect heavy metals.Among them, lead analyses have showed higher levels, overcoming the boundaries of Brazilianlegislation (DN 10/86 to both sampling points. It has showed a medium positive concentration of0,0134 ppm (or 0,0527 times, or 5,27 % to the point downstream compared to another samplingpoint and exceeding 8,93 times the Brazilian legislation (DN 10/86.

  6. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  7. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  8. Determination of nitrate pollution sources by using isotopes and hydro-chemical techniques in the shallow Aquifer of Bara basin Northern Kordofan State Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamien, S. A. A.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the nature of the nitrate concentration and its effect on the quality of groundwater in the Bara basin in North Kordofan State Sudan. The principal objective of this study is to: detect possible NO 3 sources affecting groundwater quality. The δ 15 N results included two range of values, which suggested two different nitrogen sources in different parts of the study area. The data used in this study includes lithological logs, pumping and recovery data and chemical analysis. Rock ware, surfer, aquitest and aquichem software programs were used to analyze the data. which is the based on the lithological logs from nine shallow wells and seven deep boreholes. The geological formation was found to be the Umm Ruwaba formation which consists of two aquifers an upper shallow one and the other deep aquifer. The transmissivity of the upper aquifer was found to be 0.528m 2 / day, which is good and the average of hydraulic conductivity was found to be 0.08 4 m/ day, which is high and the storativity is 0.08 1 . The direction of flow of groundwater was found to be from North West to North East over all the area. Chemical analysis showed that the TDS concentration in the study area is within the permissible limits of the Sudanese and the WHO standards. The calcium concentration in the study area also found to be within the permissible limits of the Sudanese and the WHO standards. The nitrate concentration in the upper aquifer ranges between 9.68 and 891 mg/1 which is above the permissible limit of the Sudanese and the WHO standards. The water type in the upper aquifer was found to be calcium-nitrate-chloride-bicarbonate. It appears that the source of the calcium is either for the decay of dead animal bones or the dissolution of calcareous deposits within the upper aquifer. It can be concluded that the quality of groundwater in the study area is good for the human consumption. (Author)

  9. Caracterização climática da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba e do entorno da Serra da Canastra (MG)

    OpenAIRE

    Novais, Giuliano Tostes

    2011-01-01

    Para caracterizar e definir climaticamente a mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba e também o entorno da Serra da Canastra, este trabalho foi dividido em três capítulos. A caracterização física da área de estudo foi abordada no Capítulo 1, sendo divida em geologia, geomorfologia, vegetação e hidrografia. O Capítulo 2 é dividido em dois itens, população e atividades econômicas. A caracterização climática da região é abordada no Capítulo 3, sendo que a temperatura ...

  10. 78 FR 34095 - Adequacy Status of the Idaho, Northern Ada County PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ..., Northern Ada County PM 10 State Implementation Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY...), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the years 2008, 2015 and 2023 in the Northern Ada County PM... Northern Ada County. The EPA's finding was made pursuant to the adequacy review process for implementation...

  11. Vertical Profiles Of 226Ra, 232Th And 40K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 1.84 Bq·kg -1 for 232 Th and 4.20 Bq·kg -1 for 40 K. Activity concentrations were determined for 226 Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq·kg -1 ), 232 Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq·kg -1 ) and 40 K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq·kg -1 ). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81±0.22 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 4.21±0.07 Bq·kg -1 for 232 Th, and 50.11±0.82 Bq·kg -1 for 40 K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10±12.17 Bq·kg -1 for

  12. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  13. Hydrogeological impacts evaluation like a subsidy for the hydroelectric reservoir installation in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Filho, Jose Luiz; Bottura, Joao Alberto; Borin Junior, Tarcisio; Correa, Wilson Aparecido Garcia

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogeological studies developed in the influence areas of the big reservoirs at the Sao Paulo State, Sao Paulo/Mato Grosso do Sul and Sao Paulo/Parana, dedicated to the pre-filling situation evaluation, facilitated the preventive, corrective or alleviative actions adoption of the possible alterations in the adjacent free aquifers and, consequently, in the land use and occupation, as well as the planning of the rational usage of non-occupied areas in the reservoir margin. It presents the origin, the history and the objectives of the studies as well as the foreseen and confirmed hydrogeological impacts in monitored reservoirs

  14. Cult sites in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brink

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The pagan cult in northern Sweden, i.e, Norrland, has for some decades been a neglected chapter in our history, a situation which unfortunately applies to Sweden as a whole, at least where onomastics are concerned. The aim is thus to deliver an overview of the evidence that we have of pre-Christian religious activities in these northern parts — in this aspect, onomastic material is nearly almost all we have got — and some general remarks about the conversion to the new Christian religion. The area of investigation is what in the (Swedish medieval period was known as Norrland. In other words, the part of Sweden considered here is modern Central Norrland. With our state of knowledge of today it is not so easy to pick out the place-names that have denoted some kind of pagan cult activity. The place-name material can be divided into: 1. Theoforic place-names 2. place-names denoting the site of a pagan cult, which do not however contain theoforic elements 3. place-names with a possible pagan cultic element.

  15. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  16. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  17. Perfil antropométrico e alimentar de pré-escolares de uma escola pública do Alto Paranaíba, MGAnthropometric and dietary profile of preschool children in a public school in Alto Paranaíba, MGdoi:10.12662/2317-3076jhbs.v4i3.864.p166-173.2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriele Pereira Mendes Cornélio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: a fase pré-escolar é um período de importantes mudanças alimentares a qual tem contribuído para o excesso de peso em crianças de todas as classes econômicas. Objetivo: analisar o perfil antropométrico e alimentar de pré-escolares de uma escola pública municipal de Rio Paranaíba, MG. Métodos: para a realização da pesquisa de caráter transversal e quantitativa, analisou-se o perfil antropométrico e alimentar (frequência alimentar de alguns alimentos e a distribuição percentual de nutrientes da alimentação escolar de crianças. Para avaliar o consumo da alimentação escolar entre os gêneros, utilizou-se o Teste Mann Whitney, e na associação do consumo dos alimentos obesogênicos e o estado nutricional, por gênero, utilizou-se o Teste Qui-quadrado, ambos a 5%. Resultados: das 58 crianças avaliadas, os meninos apresentaram mais excesso de peso. Os pré-escolares apresentaram uma ingestão diária elevada de alimentos obesogênicos (achocolatados, biscoitos recheados e suco em pó, e baixo para aqueles considerados saudáveis (beterraba, cenoura, mamão e os folhosos. Entre os alimentos obesogênicos avaliados, o achocolatado em pó foi o mais consumido, e apenas o consumo de salgadinho (chips, pelos meninos, correlacionou-se com o excesso de peso. As meninas com excesso de peso apresentaram uma maior ingestão de proteínas, carboidratos, lipídios e ferro na alimentação escolar. Conclusão: embora somente o consumo de salgadinho correlacionou-se ao excesso de peso, alguns pré-escolares apresentaram uma ingestão diária elevada de alimentos obesogênicos e baixo para aqueles considerados saudáveis, bem como maiores quantidades de proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios na alimentação escolar, fatos que podem contribuir para o excesso de peso apresentado.l das crianças, elevando o peso das mesmas e ocasionar prejuízos funcionais ao organismo.

  18. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  19. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  20. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. As relações entre confiança, valor e lealdade no varejo farmacêutico de Paranaíba [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.2013017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton de Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as relações entre confiança, valor e lealdade no varejo farmacêutico de Paranaíba (MS. Parte-se do pressuposto que o relacionamento de longo prazo com clientes certos confere diferencial estratégico para as organizações. Aplicou-se um survey a 269 consumidores de farmácias entre março e abril de 2012. Foram propostas treze hipóteses, sendo seis confirmadas e sete rejeitadas. Observou-se que a competência operacional dos funcionários de contato leva à confiança nesses mesmos funcionários, que a confiança nos funcionários de contato leva a valor e à confiança nas políticas e práticas gerenciais. Verificou-se ainda que a competência operacional das políticas e práticas gerenciais leva à confiança nas políticas e práticas gerenciais, que a confiança nas políticas e práticas gerenciais leva a valor. Por fim, o valor percebido relaciona-se positiva e significativamente com as intenções de lealdade do consumidor.   Palavras-chave: Confiança; Valor; Lealdade.     THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TRUST, VALUE AND LOYALTY IN RETAIL PHARMACIES OF PARANAÍBA ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the relationship between trust, value and loyalty in the retail pharmacies of Paranaíba (MS. It starts with the assumption that the long-term relationship with certain customers provides some strategic advantages for organizations. A survey was completed by 269 pharmacy customers between March and April 2012. Thirteen hypotheses were proposed; six hypotheses were confirmed, and seven were rejected. It was observed that the operational competence of the frontline employees leads to trust in those same employees, and that trust in the frontline employees leads to value and trust in the management policies and practices. It was also determined that the operational competence of the management policies and practices leads to trust in those management policies and practices, and that trust in the management policies and

  2. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  3. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley

    2009-01-01

    The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.

  4. Education in Parana in the teachers’ formation process in republican Brazil: the contribution of the compendium of pedagogy by Dario Vellozo - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i2.18295

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete dos Anjos Silva Schaffrath

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work has a result the study on the Compendium of Pedagogy (1907 by Dario Vellozo (1869-1937, teacher of Ginasio Paranaense and Escola Normal de Curitiba. The Compendium of Pedagogy by Vellozo was published in 1907 and republished in 1975. It was organized in three parts, one for every year of Teachers’ School. The article refers to the first book of the collection. In the first part of that book, there are ten lessons which covers the Pedagogy subject and their methods, organization of school and definitions of educations, as well as several lessons about Ancient, Medieval and Modern History and the prevailing educational thought in each one of them. The book for the second year, which was also organized in ten lesson, emphasizes the teaching methods, didactics, and physical education (health, moral, intellectual aspects. For the third year of course, Vellozo writes lessons about science, geography, history, drawing, music and a special lesson about kindergartens. The Compendium follows the scientific logics that should guide the school practices in that historical period, but also reflects the current culture in Teachers’ School, as well as  it shows the social-economic, political and cultural influences in Brazil and in Parana.  

  5. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  6. Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.): an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) is arguably one of the least studied commercial tree species in United States and Canada. It is an important source of wildlife habitat and forage, as well as commodities such as fence posts, shingles and siding. Much of the research on this species comes from the Lake States and Canada; few studies have...

  7. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David

    2017-01-01

    . The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better...

  8. Ergonomic activity analysis of the musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Paraná state: risk factors and workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the risk factors present in the work activity and their impact on the health of the musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana state. It is a descriptive qualitative research based on the method of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis of Francophone strand, used as a tool by occupational therapists in the health-work interface. The following procedures were performed: bibliographical survey, documental analysis of productivity data, production and quality of the task, systematic observation of the rehearsals of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana, task and workplace analysis with the application of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA and, confrontation of the data analyzed with an instrumental musician. As a result, the study showed significant deviations with reference to the standards described in Brazilian Norm 17 (Ergonomics, especially regarding individual cognitive and physical demands as well as demands related to work organization, considering each item evaluated by this analytical instrument. The action of occupational therapy was grounded on the insertion in the health and illness process, health promotion, illness prevention, and training of musicians as workers and social actors, envisioning the transformation of work situations.

  9. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  10. Climate change impacts in Northern Canada: Assessing our current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M.J.; Eamer, J. [Environment Canada, Environmental Conservation Branch, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Munier, A.; Ogden, A. [Yukon College, Northern Climate ExChange, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Duerden, F. [Ryerson University, School of Applied Geography, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hik, D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fox, S.; Riedlinger, D.; Thorpe, N. [GeoNorth Limited, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Johnson, I.; Jensen, M. [Legend Seekers Anthropological Research, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A research project by the Northern Climate ExChange at Yukon College, undertaken to bring together into one document all relevant information that will help facilitate the identification of priorities for climate change research, monitoring, technological development and policy development in Canada's North, is described. In addition to the report, project deliverables also include a database of climate change information sources and a database of northern climate change contacts. The review includes scientific, local and Traditional Knowledge sources relating to climate change about each of seventeen natural and human systems (e.g. boreal forests, community health, mining, etc.), synthesized into a table for each system, with projected environmental changes crossed in matrix format with system components. Each cross-relationship was given a ranking; supporting information was included, based on the current state of knowledge of that relationship. In general, current information concerning northern systems, predicted climate changes and the impacts of those changes on northern systems is poor. However, much information does exist and the gap analysis revealed a number of general patterns relating to this information. Clearly, more research is required throughout northern Canada, but in particular, in the eastern Arctic, to provide a greater understanding of the implications of climate changes across the North, and to aid in the development of finer-scale, regional circulation models resulting in better predictive capacity of climate change and its impacts on northern areas.

  11. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  12. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Nest reuse by Northern Spotted Owls on the east slope of the Cascade Range, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan G. Sovern; Margaret Taylor; Eric D. Forsman

    2011-01-01

    During a long-term demography study of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascade Range of Washington State in 1989 to 2008, we documented 276 nests of Northern Spotted Owls at 73 different territories. Of these nests, 90.2% were on platforms, mostly in clumps of deformed limbs caused by dwarf mistletoe (primarily...

  14. Effects of Climate Change on Cultural Resources in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl M. Davis

    2018-01-01

    People have inhabited the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States since the close of the last Pleistocene glacial period, some 14,000 years B.P. (Fagan 1990; Meltzer 2009). Evidence of this ancient and more recent human occupation is found throughout the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area,...

  15. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  16. Radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Kh.; Boboev, B.D.; Bolibekov, Sh.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau. The physicochemical properties of water of northern slopes of Mogoltau were studied. The radiation monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau was carried out during several years under various weather conditions. The exposure rate of human settlements of northern part of Mogoltau was defined.

  17. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  18. The Bero Volganic Group: New Lithological, Stratigraphic, and Geochemical Data of this Extension of the Parana-Etendeka Igneous Province into SW Angola with Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J.; Swart, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Bero Volcanic Group, an extension of the Etendeka-Paraná Igneous Province into SW Angola, forms the eroded basement to the on-shore Namibe Basin, an Early Cretaceous-Cenozoic terrestrial and marine sedimentary sequence. The igneous suite outcrops between latitudes 14.68o and 15.25o S and comprises quartz latite rheoignimbrites/lavas, tholeiitic basaltic lavas, pyroclastic/volcaniclastic deposits, minor aeolian sandstones, and mafic tholeiitic dykes and gabbroic sheets. Quartz latite lithologies dominate. In the Rio Bero area in the S quartz latites are underlain by several thin flows of basalt interbedded with, and underlain by, thin discontinuous lenses of aeolian sandstone. This sequence is consistent with the general stratigraphic sequence in the northern Etendeka of Namibia. To the N basalts and aeolian sandstones are absent and the quartz latites lie directly on Precambrian basement rocks in places. To date, data for a quartz latite correlated with a Chapecó rhyolites of the Paraná are available from only one locality in Angola. This study's wider sampling and major and trace element and radiogenic isotope analysis reveals the following: (1) all mafic rocks are high-Ti, the lavas being equivalent to the Khumiba/Urubici type; (2) mafic dykes cutting the quartz latites having affinities to the Paranapanema-Ribeira mafic lavas; (3) five quartz latite geochemical types are present, three of which are known from Etendeka/Paraná (Sarusas/Guarapuava, Khoraseb/Ourinhos and Ventura) and their stratigraphic relationships in Angola are consistent with those in the Etendeka and Paraná; (4) their Angolan occurrence significantly extends the area covered by, and potential eruptive volumes of, these silicic types; (5) two other quartz latite types are unknown in the Etendeka and Paraná and are probably products of low-volume, local eruptions. The Chinguau type is geochemically similar to the low-Ti quartz lalites of the southern Etendeka but has lower Epsilon Nd

  19. Islamic criminal law in northern Nigeria: politics, religion, judicial practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimann, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001, twelve northern states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria introduced Islamic criminal law as one of a number of measures aiming at "reintroducing the shari'a." Immediately after its adoption, defendants were sentenced to death by stoning or to amputation of the hand. Apart from a

  20. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys…

  1. The regulation of uranium mining in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedd, M.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory framework developed for uranium mining operations in the Northern Territory is reviewed. The respective roles of the Commonwealth Government, State Government and other regulatory authority are described. Whilst complex, expensive and cumbersome the regulatory process has so far ensured input from diverse interest groups and it allowed for environmental protection control in the Alligator River Region

  2. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  3. Strategies for the control of desertification in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Northern part of Nigeria especially the frontline states comprising of Bauchi/ Gombe, Borno, Yobe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto/Zamfara and Kebbi which lie roughly North of latitude 120N face serious threats of desertification occasioned by over exposure of the fragile environment mostly through improper farming ...

  4. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Parameter sensitivity and identifiability for a biogeochemical model of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local sensitivity analyses and identifiable parameter subsets were used to describe numerical constraints of a hypoxia model for bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The sensitivity of state variables differed considerably with parameter changes, although most variables ...

  6. Region 10: Idaho Northern Ada County Adequate Letter (6/21/2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA approves motor vehicle emissions budget in the Northern Ada County PM10 State Implementation Plan, Maintenance Plan: Ten-Year Update for PM10 national ambient air quality standard, adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  7. Two countries, one forest: Working beyond political boundaries in the Northern Appalachian/Acadian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    Two Countries, One Forest (2C1Forest) is a collaboration of conservation organizations and researchers committed to the long-term ecological health of the Northern Appalachian/ Acadian ecoregion of the United States and Canada.

  8. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  9. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  10. Período de interferência de plantas daninhas em mandioca (Manihot esculenta no noroeste do Paraná Period of weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta in northwestern Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Biffe

    2010-01-01

    tolerance of 5% of crop yield reduction, the adjusted PAI was 18 days after crop planting and PTPI was 100 days. Thus, it was concluded that the critical period of weed interference, under the northwestern Parana conditions, was from 18 to 100 days after planting.

  11. Northern micro-grid project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, David; Singh, Bob

    2010-09-15

    The electrical distribution system for the Kasabonika Lake First Nation in northern Ontario (Canada) consumed 1.2 million liters of diesel fuel in 2008, amounting to 3,434 tones of CO2 emissions. The Northern Micro-Grid Project, supported by seven partners, involves integrating renewable generation & storage into the Kasabonika Lake distribution system. Through R&D and demonstration, the objectives are to reduce the amount of diesel consumed, support the distribution system exclusively on renewable resources during light loads, engage and impart knowledge/training to better position the community for future opportunities. The paper will discuss challenges, opportunities and future plans associated with the project.

  12. Bromeliaceae from Pico Piraí, Guaratuba Municipality (Parana, Brazil Bromeliaceae Juss. do Pico Piraí, município de Guaratuba (Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Morokawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a Bromeliaceae Juss. floristic survey in the Piraí Mountain, Araraquara complex(Guaratuba Municipality, Paraná State are presented. Twenty six species included in nine genera and three subfamilies were registered. Bromelioideae presented the highest genera diversity and Tillandsioideae showed the highest species diversity, including twelve species belonging to the genus Vriesea (46%. It was the first register of Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vrieseaflava And.Costa, H. Luther & Wand., Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm. at the Guaratuba Municipality. Dyckia leptostachya Baker was collected for the first time at the coastal zone of Paraná State, being this record done after 40 years since its last register in the State. For each species, information on phenology, geographic distribution and vulnerability level are included. Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Bromeliaceae Juss. no Pico Piraí, Complexo do Araraquara (Guaratuba, Paraná. Verificou-se a ocorrência de 26 espécies pertencentes a nove gêneros e três subfamílias. Bromelioideae englobou a maior diversidade de gêneros e Tillandsioideae registrou-se a maior diversidade de espécies, sendo 12 delas incluídas no gênero Vriesea (46%. As seguintes espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez no município de Guaratuba: Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vriesea flava And. Costa, H. Luther & Wand.,Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm.. Dyckia leptostachya Baker foi registrada pela primeira vez na zona litorânea paranaense e após 40 anos do último

  13. Productive structure and production relations between polarized region by Londrina and the rest of Paraná in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Moretto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article had as objective estimate the sector linkages and the overflowing of the production multiplier between the North of Parana and the Rest of Parana, using the interregional input-output matrix for 1995. The main results showed that a agriculture and food processing sectors stood out in the productive structure of North of Parana State, comparing to the Rest of Parana State, as disseminators of inter-sector relations b the industrial structure of the Rest of Parana presented more diversification as compared to the North Region, showing less dependence on agriculture and food processing sectors for its dynamic; c the overflowing effect of the production multiplier in the direction Rest of Parana-North of Parana was 4,9%, whereas in the direction North of Parana-Rest of Parana it was 12%, revealing a greater dependency of the productive process of the North of Parana vis-a-vis the Rest of Parana; d the Rest of Parana, although more diversified in its productive structure, showed more dependence on the North of Parana as for the answer to the input requirements of the food processing sectors when facing growth in its final demand.

  14. Estabelecimento de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais perenes simultaneamente com as culturas de milho e soja no Norte do RS Perennial tropical forage grasses establishment simultaneously with soybean and maize in northern of RS state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Mariani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternativas econômicas para compor sistemas de produção são indispensáveis para a sustentabilidade de sistemas agrícolas, pecuários ou sistemas integrados. Objetivou-se avaliar a viabilidade técnica do consórcio das culturas produtoras de grãos, soja e milho, com Urochloa brizantha e Panicum maximum no Norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As forrageiras foram semeadas simultaneamente às culturas produtoras de grãos, na entrelinha, e isoladas. Foram utilizadas as cultivares 'Marandu' (braquiária, 'Mombaça' e 'Aruana' (panicum e como testemunha o milheto (Pennisetum americanum. Foram avaliados rendimento de grãos das culturas, seus componentes e o acúmulo de massa seca (MS. O acúmulo de MS das forrageiras isoladas Mombaça e Aruana foi superior às demais, com acúmulo médio de 6.515 e 5.778kg ha-1, respectivamente. No consórcio com o milho, o acúmulo médio de MS das forrageiras foi 2.380kg ha-1, sem diferença significativa entre as espécies, mas, com soja, o maior acúmulo ocorreu para Marandu (3.040kg ha-1. Não houve diminuição no rendimento de grãos da soja e do milho com a presença das forrageiras, porém, para colheita mecânica da soja, serão necessários estudos adicionais. O consórcio de milho com as gramíneas forrageiras tropicais perenes é alternativa viável para o Norte do RS.Economic alternatives to compose production systems are essential to the sustainability of farming systems, livestock or integrated systems. The objective was to evaluate the viability of intercropping grain crops, soybean and maize, with Urochloa brizantha and Panicum maximum in northern of Rio Grande do Sul. The forages were sown simultaneously with grain crops, in the inter-line, and in monoculture. We used 'Marandu' (brachiaria, 'Mombaça' and 'Aruana' (panicum and millet (Pennisetum americanum as a control. Crop yield and their components and accumulation of dry matter (DM were evaluated. The DM accumulation of 'Aruana' and 'Momba

  15. [Reference values for cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in a population of Hispanic children from 6 to 11 y, in the northern border of Mexico and the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Berumen, Ever; Gómez Miranda, Luis Mario; Torres Balcázar, Elías; Padilla Alvarado, Victor Hugo; Renteria, Ivan

    2014-10-31

    Overweight and obesity in children in the Mexico-USA border have evolved differently to the rest of their respective countries. New reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose are required to treatment. To determine the reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years in the Mexico-USA border. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study. A population of Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years of both boys and girls, belonging to three public institutions in the cities of Ensenada and Chihuahua, randomly selected, were studied. The study variables were the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (G). From 300 subjects studied just 54 children completed the study. Higher average values of TC (168.7 ± 27.2 mg / dl), TG (80.6 ± 48.4 mg / dl) and G (88.3 ± 8.9 mg / dl) were observed. An additional behavior was founded, never reported previously to the limit of the knowledge of the authors; glucose levels of the children studied decreased with increased of cholesterol and triglycerides. To discard a random relationship between the variables, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between waist circumference and BMI, verifying an inverse association with G and direct with the TG. The reference values for Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years living on the northern border of Mexico-USA differ with respect to the national average values of the countries studied. Further studies are needed in larger populations to confirm the trend ob served in glucose levels of normal children, overweight and obese. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  18. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  19. Atividade alimentar da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae no rio Paraná Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Peciformes, Sciaenidae feeding activity in Parana river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A atividade alimentar anual, estacional e diária da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 foi avaliada para a planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (município de Porto Rico-PR e para o reservatório de Itaipu. Os peixes foram capturados com redes de espera de diferentes malhagens, sendo as coletas realizadas mensalmente, de outubro de 86 a setembro de 88, no primeiro ambiente, e de novembro de 83 a fevereiro de 89, no segundo. Os aparelhos de pesca ficaram expostos por 24h, com despescas ao amanhecer (7h, durante o dia (15h e ao anoitecer (23h e a cada três horas, em coletas especiais, para determinação do ritmo diário. Foi utilizado o grau de enchimento do estômago e a freqüência de estômagos com alimento como indicadores de repleção estomacal. Registrou-se alta incidência de estômagos vazios, em ambos os ambientes. As variações anuais desses indicadores foram mais pronunciadas no reservatório de Itaipu. Em relação às variações sazonais, a atividade alimentar foi sempre mais elevada nos períodos mais quentes, em contraste com o inverno. A tomada de alimento no período de 24 horas foi mais intensa nas primeiras horas da manhã, revelando-se uma espécie predadora tipicamente diurna, utilizando estímulos visuais para a detecção e perseguição das presas.Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 feeding activity at the upper Paraná river floodplain (Porto Rico region, state of Paraná, Brazil and Itaipu reservoir was investigated. The fishes were collected monthly with different mesh-sized gill nets October, 1986 through September, 1989 at upper Paraná river and November, 1983 through February, 1989 at Itaipu reservoir. The nets were set for 24 hours and the fishes were collected at sunrise (7A.M., afternoon (3P.M. and night (11P.M. at Itaipu reservoir and each, three hours at upper Paraná river floodplain to determine daily feeding rhythm. Stomach repletion degree and food update frequency

  20. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  1. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil Parasitos intestinais em comunidade quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitos intestinais em população quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo. Descendentes de escravos que chegaram ao Brasil a partir do século XVI, essa população estabeleceu-se no município de São Mateus no ano de 1858. Entre agosto de 2009 e julho de 2010, amostras fecais de 82 indivíduos que aceitaram participar do trabalho foram coletadas, a fresco, e, imediatamente, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo da

  2. [The remittances in U.S. dollars that Mexican migrants send home from the United States (a study based on data from the Survey of Migration in the Northern Frontier Region of Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Vasquez, R

    1998-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining reliable data on remittances to Mexico by Mexican immigrants in the United States are first outlined. An analysis of such remittances is then attempted using data from a recent survey, the Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte. Data from this survey are used to analyze several aspects of remittances "such as the direct determination of the amount of the remittances and the identification of the immigrants that send them according to their social and demographic features, and the location of Mexican zones where the remittances arrive, [and] the variations in the amount and frequency of the remittances among the different groups of immigrants." (EXCERPT)

  3. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mailhes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  4. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  5. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  6. Implementing northern goshawk habitat management in Southwestern forests: a template for restoring fire-adapted forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Youtz; Russell T. Graham; Richard T. Reynolds; Jerry. Simon

    2008-01-01

    Developing and displaying forest structural targets are crucial for sustaining the habitats of the northern goshawk, a sensitive species in Southwestern forests. These structural targets were described in Management Recommendations for the Northern Goshawk in the Southwestern United States (MRNG) (Reynolds, et al., 1992). The MRNG were developed in a unique food-web...

  7. Basic and ultrabasic coastal dykes adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (North coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria; Schorscher, Johann Hans Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The portions of the Precambrian Costeiro Complex adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by mafic dykes of basic to intermediate composition, lamprophyres and trachytes. The former have been correlated with the basalts of the Parana Basin, while the lamprophyres are expressions of an alkaline magmatism different from the one that happened approximately 80 Ma ago in the Sao Sebastiao, Buzios, Vitoria and Montao de Trigo islands, where more acid terms predominate with associated trachytes and rare phonolites. The basic-ultrabasic lamprophyric magmatism is widespread along the Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro coasts; they are independent from and most likely older than the stocks and alkaline massifs. (author)

  8. Technological characterization of basaltic rocks of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant, Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo - Parana states, Brazil; Caracterizacao tecnologica das rochas basalticas da Usina Hidroeletrica Canoas I, Rio Paranapanema, SP/PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrano, Antonio

    1997-07-01

    Basaltic litotypes from the rock mass foundation of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant were submitted to technological characterization tests, in order to verify their suitability as construction material. Physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, water absorption, ultrasonic velocity, compressive and splitting tensile strength, among others) were determined, besides petrographic analyses. Weather ability tests were also performed, not only through wetting-drying cycles and by immersion in ethylene glycol but by outdoor exposure as well, using crushed and core drilled specimens. Detailed procedures for the weather ability test using core specimens from rotary drilling are given. It is analyzed the influence of a geological feature (fault zone, about 10 meters thick and 20 degrees dip), that occurs in the rock mass foundation, on the technological properties of these rocks. Basaltic litotypes selected as construction material are then pointed out. (author)

  9. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452{+-}10 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,19{sup {+-}} 0,63 and 0,32{sup {+-}} 0,12 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. The statistical analyses performed checked the measurements repeatability by means of the Tukey's average comparison test. A correlation analysis between standard deviations and the mean showed the absence of significant systematic deviation. Comparison the results obtained with literature, it was demonstrated that the values of the activities found are within the normal levels of radioactivity for this kind of product and below the maximum permissible levels established by CNEN, that is, the analyzed milk can be normally consumed. On the other hand, the implemented methodology present a good performance, faced to the available experimental conditions. (author)

  10. Intoxicação espontânea de bovinos por Senna obtusifolia no Estado do Paraná Spontaneous Senna obtusifolia poisoning in cattle in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Queiroz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas do gênero Senna causam miopatia degenerativa em bovinos e o maior número de relatos envolve Senna occidentalis. O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar, pela segunda vez no Brasil, um surto de intoxicação natural por Senna obtusifolia. É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Senna obtusifolia, na região noroeste do estado do Paraná, que aconteceu em um lote de 200 vacas, com idade entre 45 e 152 meses, introduzidas em um confinamento para melhorar a condição corporal antes do parto. A área do confinamento estava invadida pela planta e as vacas permaneceram no local durante oito dias. Entre quatro e nove dias após a entrada no confinamento 20 vacas adoeceram e somente uma se recuperou. Os sinais consistiram em mioglobinúria, incoordenação e decúbito esternal permanente. As vacas doentes apresentaram aumento das atividades das enzimas creatina quinase, aspartato aminotransferase, gamaglutamiltransferase e fosfatase alcalina. Lesões na musculatura esquelética dos membros posteriores caracterizadas por áreas pálidas representaram as principais alterações observadas à necropsia de quatro bovinos. Necrose segmentar multifocal da musculatura esquelética e necrose paracentral multifocal no fígado foram as alterações histopatológicas mais relevantes. As evidências epidemiológicas, clínicas e patológicas indicam o diagnóstico de intoxicação por Senna obtusifolia. A planta demonstrou ter efeito miotóxico e hepatotóxico nos animais intoxicados e a doença foi quase sempre fatal.Plants of the genus Senna cause a degenerative myopathy in cattle and most of the reports refer to Senna occidentalis. The aim of this paper is to report, for the second time in Brazil, an outbreak of natural poisoning by Senna obtusifolia. It happened in the northwestern Paraná in a herd of 200 cows, 45 to 152 months of age, which had been placed into a feedlot to improve their nutritional status before the calving period. The cows stayed for eight days in this feedlot infested by the plant. Four to nine days after they got into the feedlot, 20 cows became ill and only one recovered. The clinical signs consisted of myoglobinuria, incoordination and permanent sternal recumbency. The affected cows showed increased activity of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase, gama-glutamyltransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The main postmortem changes were in skeletal muscles of the hind limbs characterized by pale areas. The histological alterations were multifocal segmental necrosis of skeletal muscles and hepatic multifocal paracentral necrosis. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data led to the diagnosis of Senna obtusifolia poisoning. The plant showed miotoxic and hepatotoxic effects on the poisoned animals and the disease was almost always lethal.

  11. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452{+-}10 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,19{sup {+-}} 0,63 and 0,32{sup {+-}} 0,12 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. The statistical analyses performed checked the measurements repeatability by means of the Tukey's average comparison test. A correlation analysis between standard deviations and the mean showed the absence of significant systematic deviation. Comparison the results obtained with literature, it was demonstrated that the values of the activities found are within the normal levels of radioactivity for this kind of product and below the maximum permissible levels established by CNEN, that is, the analyzed milk can be normally consumed. On the other hand, the implemented methodology present a good performance, faced to the available experimental conditions. (author)

  12. Preliminary characterization of the rare earth ore from the Barra do Itapirapua, Sao Paulo and Parana states, Brazil. Detail 1 area; Caracterizacao preliminar do minerio de terras raras da Barra do Itapirapua, SP/PR - area de detalhe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzi, M.L.B.; Lorenzi, V.E.; Kahn, H

    1996-12-31

    The main rare earth mineralization on Barra do Itapirapua Alkaline-Carbonatitic Complex is related to the weathering mantle of the Serrana Body carbonatite plug - detail 1 area. The present work describes the preliminary RE ore types established from correlation between geological observations, geochemical weathering profile and mineralogical studies. Mineralogical studies, comprising around 40 thin section analysis, were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive systems (EDS). (author) 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Utilization of the secondary energy of Itaipu, Parana State, Brazil, for electrolytical ammonia production for nitrogenous fertilizers synthesis; Utilizacao da energia secundaria da usina hidreletrica de Itaipu, PR, Brasil para producao de amonia eletrolitica para sintese de fertilizantes nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.N.M. de; Siqueira, J.A.C.

    2000-07-01

    Secondary energy can be described as a surplus of electrical energy in hydraulic power plant due to the lower demand of energy during some periods of time, and the excess of water in the reservoir, during rainy periods. The largest hydroelectric power plant both in Brazil and South America is Itaipu, jointly operated by Brazil and Paraguay. This power plant has a large amount of secondary energy available, and this energy is lost as no turbine spilled water out of the reservoir. This study proposes the using of this energy for electrolytic hydrogen production and ammonia for nitrogenous fertilizers. The hydrogen is produced as a gas by mean of electrolyses and with the atmospheric nitrogen for the electrolytic ammonia synthesis, used as the most important raw material for the nitrogen fertilizers synthesis. This study performs the determination of the minimal cost of hydrogen production and the correspondent hydrogen production capacity in accordance with the ammonia market for nitrogenated fertilizers in the Center/South region, estimating the better production capacity for an ammonia plant to be installed close to Itaipu.

  14. Dioctophymosis occurrence in two dogs in Guarapuava city - Parana State/ Ocorrência da dioctofimose em dois cães no município de Guarapuava - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Laidane Filho

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Dioctophyma renale (GOEZE, 1782 is a worldwide nematode that infects the kidneys and could be found in peritoneal cavity and other organs of dog and another species of domestic and wild animals, includes human species. The life cycle envolves one intermediate and often one paratenic host. In mustelids and in wild and domestic carnivores (DH, the adult parasite is usually located in the right kidney, like this the eggs can be eliminated with the urine. In the environment the eggs request an incubation period in half aquatic, needing to be ingested by IH (an annelid oligochaetes parasite of fish for if they turn infectantes (L3, that it can be ingested by a host paratênico (fish, crab or for HD. This paper reports the occurence of D. renale in two dogs assisted in the Veterinary Hospital in the Guarapuava city, PR.Dioctophyma renale (GOEZE, 1782 é um nematóide de ocorrência mundial que parasita os rins, podendo ser encontrado na cavidade peritoneal e outros órgãos do cão e outras espécies de animais domésticos e silvestres, inclusive o homem. O ciclo deste parasita é indireto, tendo como hospedeiro definitivo (HD os mustelídeos e canídeos; como hospedeiro intermediário (HI, um anelídeo oligoqueta parasita de brânquias de peixe. No HD, o parasita adulto localiza-se geralmente no rim direito, assim os ovos podem ser eliminados com a urina. No meio ambiente os ovos requerem um período de incubação em meio aquático, necessitando ser ingeridos pelo HI para se tornarem infectantes (L3, que pode ser ingerido por um hospedeiro paratênico (peixe, caranguejo ou pelo HD. O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de D. renale em dois cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Escola Superior de Ciências Agrárias de Guarapuava, PR.

  15. COLECCIONES ANTIGUAS, DATOS NUEVOS: PRIMEROS RESULTADOS DEL ANÁLISIS DE LAS COLECCIONES BIOARQUEOLÓGICAS DEL HUMEDAL DEL PARANÁ INFERIOR / Old collections, new data: first results of the analysis of the bioarchaeological collections of the Lower Parana We

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pamela Mazza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX tuvieron lugar varias exploraciones y excavaciones en sitios arqueológicos del humedal del Paraná inferior, originando en consecuencia un gran acervo de materiales bioarqueológicos, entre otros, depositados hoy en día en el Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata y en el Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Si bien algunos de los resultados derivados de aquellos trabajos de campo fueron publicados, otros permanecen inéditos. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer algunas características de dichas colecciones bioarqueológicas a través del análisis de 252 individuos que las conforman. En este sentido, procedimos a la determinación sexual y estimación etaria de la muestra y al registro de variables tafonómicas, este último con el fin de poder identificar el posible contexto de inhumación de donde provienen dichos individuos. A partir de este análisis y siguiendo los datos publicados se discriminaron entre inhumaciones en contacto directo con la tierra o en urnas. A su vez, se dio cuenta de una segmentación espacial en base a categorías de sexo y edad para algunos sitios, como así también de la presencia de adornos personales de metal, ocre y marcas de corte en algunos huesos. De esta manera, esperamos resaltar el valor que tienen las colecciones de museos como así también contribuir y ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre las características de las poblaciones prehispánicas de la región.  Abstract  At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century several explorations and excavations took place in archaeological sites at the lower Parana wetland, giving rise, among others, to a vast body of bioarchaeological remains, currently deposited at the Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata and at the Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. While some of the results from those field works were

  16. Northern tropical Atlantic climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), and increased Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical Atlantic is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical Atlantic. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical Atlantic is important because the tropical Atlantic Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical Atlantic (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for

  17. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...... their children's subjectivities in ways that diminish their personhood. The analysis identifies Buddhist notions of karma, everyday ethics of reciprocity, and party-state discourses of productivity as particularly important forces structuring such social responses to human impairment....

  18. Hermeneutics of differential calculus in eighteenth-century northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mónica

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies comparative textbook analysis to studying the mathematical development of differential calculus in northern German states during the eighteenth century. It begins with describing how the four textbooks analyzed presented the foundations of calculus and continues with assessing the influence each of these foundational approaches exerted on the resolution of problems, such as the determination of tangents and extreme values, and even on the choice of coordinates for both algebraic and transcendental curves.

  19. Exfoliation syndrome in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idakwo U

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ugbede Idakwo,1 Olusola Olawoye,2 Benedictus GK Ajayi,1 Robert Ritch3 1Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Einhorn Clinical Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To estimate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS and its association with ocular diseases in Northern Nigeria.Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who presented to the outpatient department of ECWA Eye Hospital Kano from February 2015 to May 2015 were included in the study. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. The anterior segment examination included tonometry, gonioscopy, and detailed slit-lamp examination to assess for the presence or absence of exfoliation material, inflammatory cells, and other abnormal findings. Patients with exfoliation material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.Results: A total of 620 patients living in Northern Nigeria from the 6 geopolitical zones were examined. The majority of them (34.5% were indigenous Hausas. There was a male preponderance of 56.6%, while the mean age at presentation for examination in all age groups was 55.7±13.7 years. There were 9 patients with XFS; the frequency was 1.5%, with most of the patients being 70–80 years old. In patients who were ≥50 years, the frequency was 2.5%. Patients with XFS had a higher mean age of 68±4.9 years. The frequency of XFS among glaucoma patients was 4.4%, while among cataract patients it was 3.7%. No other associated ocular disease was found in the patients with XFS.Conclusion: This study shows that XFS does exist in Northern Nigeria, as was found in the South. The prevalence of XFS was, however, not reported in the Nigerian

  20. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a red-yellow podzolic soil in the Northern Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State - Brazil; Condutividade hidraulica nao saturada de um solo podzolico vermelho amarelo da Zona da Mata, Norte de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel Netto, A

    1994-08-01

    The determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil was carried out during an experiment in a plot measuring 3.5 m x 3.5 m, at the Experimental Station of Itapirema, Goiania, in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The internal drainage method proposed by Hillel (1972) was used to obtain the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content, K({theta}), in the three characteristic horizons of the soil. Three neutron probes were used for measuring the humidity, that was determined by a calibration curve. Three characteristic horizons of the Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil were investigated for hydraulic conductivity. The sandy A horizon, with large pores, has a high conductivity while the B1t horizon, with a massive structure and few visible pores, has a low infiltration rate. The hydraulic dynamics of the B2 horizon is more complex due to its heterogeneity. (author). 79 refs, 17 figs, 11 tabs.

  1. Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria in the Light of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danja, Isa Ibrahim; Li, Xue; Dalibi, S. G.

    2017-05-01

    Nigeria, a country located in the Western part of Africa has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia and is divided in to Northern and Southern parts with the Hausa-Fulani’s, a diverse but culturally homogeneous people living in the northern part of Nigeria. The vernacular architecture of the Northern Nigeria (VANN) is perhaps one of the least known but most beautiful of the medieval age, over the centuries a tradition of fine architecture has flourished in the area, the variety and quality of buildings are bound to generate much delight and enthusiasm in anyone who is interested in buildings. Many of their early buildings such as mosques and palaces are bright and colorful. This architectural style is known as Tubali which means the traditional architecture in the Hausa language and globally known as Vernacular Architecture (VA). VANN has many unique features which distinguish it from any other architecture. All buildings, be it modern or old has an impact on the environment; hence the need for sustainable measures and practices regarding such buildings. The aim of this research paper is to examine the features of VANN in the light of sustainability. Reviewed literatures were used to identify the various features of the Vernacular Architecture in the Northern Nigeria which were critically examined in the light of sustainability and its concept. The result showcased the various features of VANN in the light of sustainability and also discussed the factors hindering the sustainable endeavors of VANN with respect to such features.

  2. Itaipu: the giant on the Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Hugh

    1999-04-01

    Details to demonstrate the size and engineering achievements of what is called the world's greatest hydroelectric scheme are given. Brazil's need for more power was the driving force behind the scheme. The Itaipu Dam is a product of collaboration between military governments transformed into a partnership between more recent civilian regimes. Principal technical features of construction and operation are tabulated and discussed in detail. The unique nature of the scheme is discussed.

  3. Itaipu: the giant on the Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, Hugh

    1999-01-01

    Details to demonstrate the size and engineering achievements of what is called the world's greatest hydroelectric scheme are given. Brazil's need for more power was the driving force behind the scheme. The Itaipu Dam is a product of collaboration between military governments transformed into a partnership between more recent civilian regimes. Principal technical features of construction and operation are tabulated and discussed in detail. The unique nature of the scheme is discussed

  4. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional--from Myanmar to Thailand-- and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid bord...

  5. «Severnoe izmerenie»: strategii uchastnikov [Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BusyginaIrina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  6. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  7. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  8. A summary of prospecting for radioactive minerals in Brazil 1952/1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.; Pierson, C.

    1974-01-01

    Descriptions of the geologic setting of localities where anomalous radioactivity was detected are presented. The four principal areas where possibly significant uranium deposits were discovered are: the sedimentary rocks of the Tucano Basin in the east-central portion of the State of Bahia; the zirconium ores in the alkaline rocks of Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the State of Minas Gerais; the gold-bearing conglomerates of the Serra de Jacobina in the central part of the state of Bahia and in the coal of southern Brazil, particularly in the Cambui-Figueira area of the Rio do Peixe coal field in northern Parana State. The two principal localities where thorium and associated rare earths were discovered are Morro do Ferro in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau and near the junction of the Ribeira and Itapirapua Rivers on the Sao Paulo-Parana border

  9. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (NMMA, miningacademy.ca) is a new educational institution located in Flin Flon, Manitoba. It is associated with the University College of the North and is specifically intended to serve the needs of the Northern Manitoban communities with regards to job creation by providing training in a variety of mining, construction, and exploration related areas. NMMA's mission is to provide innovative and responsible solutions for the creation of a knowledgeable, skilled, and sustainable workforce within a vibrant, mineral-rich resource industry. It facilitates strategic training initiatives and research activities in order to strengthen the social, economic, and environmental benefits of a robust mining and resources sector. In terms of education, NMMA offers its own programs, mostly short courses in health and safety, courses organized by the University College of the North (wilderness safety, prospecting, and exploration), and courses organized in association with provincial Industries-Based Safety Programs and Associations (a variety of construction-related trades). However, the programming is not limited to those courses already on the syllabus: the Academy operates on open-doors policy and welcomes people with their unique and diverse needs; it prides itself in its ability to tailor or create specific on-demand courses and deliver them locally in the North. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy also provides access to its world-class facilities for field-based undergraduate courses, as well as graduate students and researchers doing field work. Full sample preparation facilities are offered to students and scientists in all natural and environmental sciences.

  10. Northern communities sustainable energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltman, Ursula; Widmeyer, Scott; Moen, Harlan

    2010-09-15

    The Circumpolar North may provide the solution to the world's most urgent problems. Combining new technologies with the resources, opportunities and needs of the north, the Arctic region may become instrumental in promoting nature's ability to sequester natural carbons while supplying future energy demands to the world. With the technologies for efficiencies and CCS, the abundant supply of natural gas exists for an efficient northern network of electrical generating facilities in the circumpolar region. A symbiotic relationship between facilities can ensure dependable clean electricity and support East-West distribution of power across international time zones strategically connected to southern grids.

  11. Nature: a colour comparison between Northern South Africa and Northern Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1983 DSTO in Australia measured the reflectances of grass, trees and soil in northern Australia, using a custom-build spectroradiometer. During 2002 CSIR in South Africa performed similar measurements in northern South Africa, using a...

  12. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: flebotomíneos de área de transmissão no Norte do Paraná, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis: phlebotominae of the area of transmission in the North of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Dos casos de leishmaniose tegumentar diagnosticados no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa de Análises Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá-PR (Brasil, a maioria está relacionada a áreas, no Norte do Paraná, que vem sendo ocupadas desde a década de 1940, quando se iniciou extenso desmatamento naquela Região. A vegetação nativa, já em grande parte destruída, é constituída por mata densa do tipo tropical de transição para subtropical. A paisagem no seu conjunto é de planalto, com clima tropical de transição para subtropical, temperaturas médias anuais entre 20°C e 22°C e média do mês mais quente superior a 22°C. Das florestas nativas restam poucas e esparsas manchas de vegetação, geralmente modificadas, ao longo das bacias dos rios Ivaí, Paranapanema e Paraná, e seus afluentes. Neste ambiente foram feitas 24 capturas de flebotomíneos, 2 por mês, de outubro de 1986 a setembro de 1987, das 18 horas à l hora do dia seguinte. As capturas, com armadilhas de Shannon, foram realizadas às margens de mata modificada, tendo sido classificados 16.496 flebotomíneos, pertencentes na sua quase totalidade a 13 espécies. Observou-se prevalência de Lutzomyia whitmani com 11.188 (67,82% exemplares, seguido por Lutzomyia intermedia com 2.900 (17,58% e Lutzomyia migonei com 1.491 (9,03%. Lutzomyia whitmani e Lutzomyia intermedia vêm mostrando grande capacidade de adaptação nos ambientes antrópicos, onde têm destacado papel na transmissão de leishmaniose.Most of the cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed in the laboratory of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, are related to areas of northern Paraná State, which have been settled since 40 years age, when the destructions of vast areas of forest in this region was begun. The native vegetation, already, in large part, destroyed is constituted of dense forest of the type found in the transition from tropical to subtropical regions. The landscape is

  13. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  14. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  15. An assessment of multiflora rose in northern U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; Mark H. Hansen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) on forest land across the 24 states of the midwestern and northeastern United States based on an extensive systematic network of plots measured by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station (NRS).

  16. Exploring Educators' Perceptions of Internet Technology for Classroom Education in Northern Virginia Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, Sherrill Dean, II.

    2011-01-01

    The pervasiveness of Internet technology in the educational environment of the United States has altered the way educators present information in the classroom. The schools of Northern Virginia, located in several of the financially wealthiest suburbs of the United States, provide a technologically advanced school system to explore Internet…

  17. Vulnerability of crops and croplands in the U.S. Northern Plains to predicted climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    The states of Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming comprise the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. The soil and water resources contained in this region have historically supported a highly diverse and productive agriculture that provides a significant...

  18. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  19. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  20. Geothermal conditions in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.; Griesser, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geothermal field in northern Switzerland, derived from a great number of borehole temperature measurements, is characterized by a strongly positive temperature gradient and heat flow anomaly (>150 mW/m 2 ) in the lower Aare valley. The anomaly is centered above the recently discovered Permocarboniferous trough. Several possibilities to explain the anomaly (thermal disturbance in the mantle, cooling shallow intrusion, locally strong uplift/erosion, local contrasts in petrophysical properties) can be ruled out on the basis of model calculations. Uprising deep groundwater is favoured as the mechanism creating the observed anomaly. Deep groundwater circulation was investigated in detail, especially to clarify the hydraulic role of the Permocarboniferous trough, by coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling, using the integrated finite difference technique. The model was carefully validated by field data. The results reveal the draining effect of the Permocarboniferous trough and indicate that vertical permeability is present in the vicinity of the trough even at depths of several kilometers. They further imply that large parts of the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland have average hydraulic conductivities >10 -9 m/sec and that Darcy velocities in the order of 10 mm/year must be expected. (author) 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Synenco Energy's Northern Lights Project : update and key strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshka, E.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation described the Northern Lights Project and addressed the unique characteristics of oil sands which have led to innovative mine and extraction techniques. A table indicating the mining projects in development was presented with reference to recoverable bitumen and ore grade. The marketing aspects of synthetic crude that influence the choice of bitumen upgrader design and economics were discussed. It was noted that new pipeline developments should open up new market opportunities. The expected market for Synenco crude is the northern portion of the United States Midwest. There may also be a possibility to sell the product as diluent because Synenco crude has a lower vacuum gas oil (VGO) content and more naphtha than other synthetic crude. The properties of Synenco crude components were listed with reference to gravity, density, sulfur content, cetane number, smoke point, and feed quality. The trade-off between capital costs, operating cost and risk mitigation was also examined. tabs., figs

  2. in the Post Colonial State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After nearly 50 years of independence as a nation-state, fierce inter-ethnic competitions for political and ... failure of the post-independence state has failed to permeate the socioeconomic and political lives ...... Northern Ghana", Thesis for the Master of Arts Degree Presented to the McAnulty College and. Graduate School of ...

  3. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  4. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  5. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  6. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  7. Forest resources within the Lake States ceded territories 1980 - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale D. Gormanson; Mark A. Hatfield; Paul A. Sowers; Michael J. Dockry; Marla R. Emery; Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; Grant M. Domke; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra. Wrobel

    2015-01-01

    The Lake States ceded territories are the portions of northern Michigan, northeastern Minnesota, and northern Wisconsin that were ceded by tribes of the Ojibwe to the government of the United States of America in the treaties of 1836, 1837, 1842, and 1854. The tribes retain rights to hunt, fish, and gather in the 1837, 1842, and 1854 treaty areas. This report...

  8. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  9. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  10. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-05

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Look at Child Care in a Northern Industrial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle Russell, Ed.

    This paper presents the results of three child care studies in the Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne Counties of Michigan. In the first study parents were surveyed to determine their child care needs versus the needs met by child care centers. Data was collected from seven child care centers: two franchise, three private, and two in-home. The conclusions…

  12. Factors Affecting Soil Quality Maintenance In Northern Katsina State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    programs or scientifically based soil management strategies. Soil quality ... envelopment analysis techniques in the reconciliation of two ..... integrated plant production and environmental quality. In ..... Handbook of Soil Science. (Ed). Sumner ...

  13. Criminal Violence and State Responses in the Northern Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Organizations: The Changing Relationships in a Time of Turmoil,” February 2013, 9. 48Ibid. 49Ibid., 15. 50Ibid., 9. 51José Miguel Cruz , “Criminal...To make matters worse, in 2009, a coup removed President Manuel Zelaya from office in an attempt to allow democratic leadership to continue.133 As...171Pion-Berlin, Military Missions, 73. 49 Cruz during his talk with WOLA, this structural response from the government stems from over twenty years

  14. Characteristic Flora and Fauna of the Kachin State, Northern Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Yi Win; Cilia Linburt; Yin Yin May

    2005-10-01

    Three biological expeditions was made from June 2003 to June 2004. Altitude is a major factor among the differences of flora and fauna distribution. Hkakaborazi (19296') is a reservoir of glaciers with permanent ice and snow from which rivers. Melikha and Maekha emanate. Ayeyarwaddy river formed from those two rivers and flow beside Myirkyina. Therefore, water quality of each river and their tributaries are cool and fresh. This quality can preserve endemic species. Unknown species of jellyfishes of Ayeyarwaddy river was collected from Myitkyina environ. Also, three different terrestrial habitats namely icy-mountain range, cool temperature and subtropical forest can conserve their characteristic flora and fauna. Flora and fauna distribution is always related to their habitat or environs. Diagnostic features of each species were recorded by photographs. The findings were discussed from conservation point of view.

  15. Bovine Streptococcal Mastitis in Southwest and Northern States of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Mastitis leads to economic losses in terms of reduced milk yield or milk quality, early culling. Manuscript received: February 2009; Accepted: July 2009 .... dispensed from each latex reagent into the six circular rings on the reaction card. Pasteur pipette was used to add 1 drop of extract to each of the six rings. Mixing.

  16. Analysis of viverrid scats from the northern Orange Free State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resulted from grooming since cannibalism has only been recorded once in C. peniciiiata (Zumpt 1968). Thus identifica- tion of hair in scats allows the differentiation of C. penicillata scats from those of the suricate Suricata suricatta. Lynch (1980) previously observed that nutritional studies from scats of these two species are ...

  17. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They repeatedly have to travel hundreds of kilometres, at ... To limit travel, we often monitor patients between their clinic visits with the help of their general practitioners. However, this is not optimal for all conditions and we were looking for alternatives. At the .... Approximately 10% of the patients had medical insurance.

  18. Zooanthroponotic transmission of rotavirus in Haryana State of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, P; Minakshi, P; Ranjan, K; Basanti, B

    Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis and mortality in young children and animals. Due to segmented nature of dsRNA genome and wide host range, vast genetic and antigenic diversity exists amongst different isolates of rotaviruses. A total of 230 fecal ovine and caprine samples collected from organized farms and villages in Haryana were screened for rotavirus detection. Samples were screened by latex agglutination test and RNA-PAGE followed by RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequencing. The latex agglutination test showed 25 newborn lamb and 4 kid fecal samples positive for rotavirus. However, RNA-PAGE showed only 9 lamb fecal samples positive for rotavirus. All the samples were subjected to RT-PCR employing vp4 and vp7 gene specific primers of group A rotavirus of ovine, bovine and human origin. Only two samples from lamb (Sheep18/Hisar/2013 and Sheep22/Hisar/2013) showed vp4 and vp7 gene specific amplification with human group A rotavirus (GAR) specific primer. However, they did not show any amplification with ovine and bovine rotavirus specific primers. The nucleotide as well as deduced amino acid sequence analysis of vp4 gene of these isolates showed >98/97% and vp7 gene >95/94% nt/aa identity with human GAR from different regions of the world. Based on nucleotide similarity search, Sheep18/Hisar/2013 and Sheep22/Hisar/2013 isolates were genotyped as G1P[8] and G1P[4]. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed that these isolates were clustered closely with human rotaviruses from different regions of the world. Earlier, higher prevalence of human rotaviruses was reported from the sample collecting area. The amplification of ovine samples with human rotavirus gene specific primers, sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests the zoonotic transmission of human GAR to sheep.

  19. Xanthophyceae planctônicas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1353 Planktonic Xanthophyceae from upper Parana River floodplain - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1353

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Train

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos abordando a biodiversidade fitoplanctônica em ambientes aquáticos de planície de inundação, o que sugere a necessidade de estudos taxonômicos visando à conservação e recuperação desses ecossistemas. A Classe Xanthophyceae foi estudada quanto à taxonomia e contribuição para a densidade e biomassa fitoplanctônica total. Foram analisadas amostras das regiões pelágica e litorânea de 33 ambientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, entre fevereiro de 2000 e fevereiro de 2001. As xantofíceas ocorreram em 61% dos biótopos, sendo identificados 20 táxons. Gloeobotrys lunatus Ettl, Goniochloris spinosa Pascher, Istmochloron neustonica Zalocar e Pizarro e Pseudostaurastrum limneticum (Borge Chodat constituíram primeira citação para esse sistema. O maior número de táxons ocorreu nos ambientes próximos ao rio Paraná, destacando-se a lagoa do Osmar. A contribuição de Xanthophyceae para a densidade e biomassa foi reduzida em todo o período estudado, sendo maior no período de águas altasThere are scarce studies concerning phytoplankton biodiversity in floodplain environment. This suggest the need of taxonomic studies for the conservation and recuperation of these ecosystems. Xanthophyceae was studied in relation to taxonomy and contribution to phytoplanktonic density and biomass. Samples were taken from limnetic and seaboard regions in 33 biotopes in the Upper Parana River floodplain, between February 2000 and February 2001. This group occurred in 61% of the biotopes and 20 species were registered. Gloeobotrys lunatus Ettl, Goniochloris spinosa Pascher, Istmochloron neustonica Zalocar and Pizarro and Pseudostaurastrum limneticum (Borge Chodat were considered first citation for this system. The highest number of taxa was registered in the biotopes near Parana River, especially in the Osmar Lagoon. The contribution of Xanthophyceae to density and biomass was low throughout the studied period and

  20. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  1. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  2. Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.

    2005-02-01

    The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

  3. Case studies: Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Northern Saskatchewan comprises an area of about 350 000 km 2 . In 1951 the population was 11 000 people but by 2003 it was approaching 40 000, of whom about 87% are aboriginal, consisting of either First Nations or Metis people. The first uranium mining area developed in northern Saskatchewan was Uranium City, north of Lake Athabasca. These first mines started production in the early 1950s. Of the 10 producing mines, only Eldorado Nuclear remained in operation after 1965. The development of Uranium City, including better services such as a hospital, drew some aboriginals into the area. There was some aboriginal employment in the early mines but, with few exceptions, these employees only stayed a short time. The mining companies developed training programmes to prepare aboriginals for regular, wage earning jobs. This included lifestyle training such as how to manage personal finances. Further extensive training programmes were required on the job to help these employees become fully contributing members of the workforce, who could advance in their jobs, expand their job opportunities and earnings, and in order to reduce turnover. The question of accommodating mine staff is a complex one, including several options. The first option, a company town, can be developed adjacent to the mine site. It is owned by the company and accommodates everyone who works at the mine and in its service industries. This can result in lower cost accommodation for mine staff with the benefit of no personal capital investment that cannot be recouped after mine closure. The capital cost to the mining company is higher; there is an administrative cost to managing and maintaining many houses, apartments and bunkhouses, and the decommissioning problem at the end of mine life is bigger. Initial developments in northern Saskatchewan were based on the company town concept. At the time there were 25 or more advanced exploration projects in the Uranium City area, 10 of which developed into

  4. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    endangered in Brazil and at the international level. Lack of recent reports north of Rio de Janeiro state, including the northern portion of Espírito Santo state (where it had been found probably till 1991 suggested the species had vanished from this part of the range. The present paper reports the rediscovery of A. vinacea in Alto Rio Novo region, northwestern Espírito Santo. Two flocks were seen in two different places, the largest one with 28 parrots was found in December 2005. The flocks of A. vinacea were eating seeds of Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, a new resource for this parrot. Historical data list places up to 35 km from the two localities where the flocks were now found, stressing its regional importance for the Vinaceous Amazon. However, the continuous habitat degradation of the last forest remnants in the region and illegal capture of nestlings are considered the main constrain for this population's conservation. As recently as December 2002, the Pontões Capixabas National Park has been created. It is the first Conservation Unit in the mountains of northern Espírito Santo state. Luckily, it protects a historical place of the Vinaceous Amazon in the region and encompasses forested remnants suitable for the species. Its current limit is some 10 km apart from one of the places where the parrot was found in this study. Besides the conservation, data gathering on the Vinaceous Amazon populations in northwestern Espírito Santo state and the nearby region of Minas Gerais state are critical for the species future in the area. A management plan could be then established, aiming to conserve the current northernmost currently known population of this parrot.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  7. Northern star J.S. Plaskett

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, R Peter

    2018-01-01

    Northern Star explores Plaskett's unorthodox and fascinating life from his rural roots near Woodstock through his days as a technician at the University of Toronto to his initiation in astronomy at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

  8. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  9. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  10. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  11. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Stroecker, B.; Abraha, Z.; Yohannes, M.; Samuel, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Subjects: Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected

  12. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  13. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Nest distribution and nesting habits of Xylocopa ordinaria Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a restinga area in the northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Distribuição de ninhos e hábitos de nidificação de Xylocopa ordinaria Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae em área de restinga no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sarlo Bernardino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the distribution of natural nests of Xylocopa ordinaria and characterize its nesting habits in the restinga of Grussai/Iquipari (RJ, supporting future studies on the pollinators management in the northern Rio de Janeiro state. The data obtained from Aug/2003 to Dec/2004, in an area of 11.6ha, were related to the nest distribution, substrate identification and dimensions, emergence, sex ratio, nest structure (n= 23 nests and pollen content analysis of provisioning masses and feces. X. ordinaria nests were abundant and presented a clustered distribution. These bees do not present taxonomical affinity for nesting substrates, but preferences for wood availability and characteristics, being Pera glabrata the main substrate. X. ordinaria is a multivoltine species that tolerates co-specifics in their nests. These bees were generalist on their nectar and pollen consumption, but presented floral constancy while provisioning brood cells. These behaviors, activity along the year, flights throughout the day, and legitimate visits to flowers indicate the importance of X. ordinaria on the pollination of plants in the restinga.Este artigo objetiva estudar a distribuição de ninhos naturais de Xylocopa ordinaria e caracterizar seus hábitos de nidificação na restinga de Grussai/Iquipari, fornecendo bases para estudos de manejo de polinizadores no Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram obtidos entre Ago/2003 e Dez/2004, em uma área de 11,6ha, e correlacionados à distribuição dos ninhos, ao tipo de substrato e suas dimensões, à emergência, razão sexual, arquitetura do ninho (n=23 e ao conteúdo polínico presente em massas de aprovisionamento e fezes. Os ninhos de X. ordinaria foram abundantes e apresentaram distribuição agregada. Não foi verificada afinidade taxonômica por substratos de nidificação, mas quanto à disponibilidade e características da madeira, sendo Pera glabrata o substrato mais utilizado. X. ordinaria é uma

  15. Descriptive study of HTLV infection in a population of pregnant women from the state of Pará, Northern Brazil Estudo descritivo da infecção pelo HTLV em uma população de gestantes do Estado do Pará, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Guilhon Sequeira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, studies have shown that HTLV seroprevalence among pregnant women varies from 0 to 1.8%. However, this seroprevalence was unknown in the State of Pará, Brazil. The present study describes, for the first time, the HTLV seroprevalence among pregnant women from the State of Pará, Northern Brazil. METHODS: 13,382 pregnant women were submitted to HTLV screening during prenatal care, and those with non-seronegative results to anti-HTLV were submitted to Western blot (WB test to confirm and separate HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 carriers. RESULTS: HTLV seroprevalence in the population of pregnant women was 0.3%, and HTLV-1 was identified in 95.3% of patients. The demographic profile of HTLV carriers was as follows: women with age between 20 and 40 years old (78.4%; residing in the metropolitan region of Belém, Pará (67.6%; and with educational level of high school (56.8%. Other variables related to infection were as follows: beginning of sexual intercourse between the age of 12 and 18 years old (64.9% and have being breastfed for more than 6 months (51.4%. Most of the women studied had at least two previous pregnancies (35.1% and no abortion (70.3%. Coinfections (syphilis and HIV were found in 10.8% (4/37 of these pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence of HTLV infection in pregnant women assisted in basic health units from the State of Pará, Northern Brazil, was 0.3% similar to those described in other Brazilian studies. The variables related to infection were important indicators in identifying pregnant women with a higher tendency to HTLV seropositivity, being a strategy for disease control and prevention, avoiding vertical transmission.INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, estudos mostram que a soroprevalência do HTLV entre gestantes varia de 0 a 1,8%. Contudo, esta soroprevalência era desconhecida no Estado do Pará, Brasil. O presente estudo descreve, pela primeira vez, a soroprevalência do HTLV entre gestantes do Estado do Par

  16. Phytoplankton of the portion of the Paranapanema River to be dammed for construction of the Rosana Hydroelectric Plant, Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil; Fitoplancton do trecho a represar do Rio Paranapanema (Usina Hidreletrica de Rosana), Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo, Carlos E. de M.; Bicudo, Denise de C.; Castro, Ana Alice J. de; Picelli-Vicentim, M. Marcina [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    1992-12-31

    The phytoplankton community of the 120 Km long portion of the Paranapanema River located between the Salto Grande Hydroelectric Plant reservoir and the river mouth at the Parana River is surveyed. This part of the river will be dammed for construction of the Rosana hydroelectric System in the State of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. An inventory was completed for 4 collecting stations, and based on the study of 48 samples gathered bimonthly during the period from November 1985 to September 1986. Each collection is represented by a net concentrated and a raw total phytoplankton sample. Except for the Bacillariophyceae, study of which is still in progress, the other classes present were the following in order of their local representation: Chlorophyceae with 23 taxa, Zygnemaphyceae (= Cyanophyceae) with 9, Tribophyceace (= Xanthophyceae) with 2 each one, and Oedogoniophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae with a single taxon each, to a total of 55 taxa identified. (author) 27 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  18. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    sculptures, drawings, paintings, animations, sounds, film, video and video games and most predominantly in this modern era, the internet, to portray its sexual themes. Who are the Owan People? The Owan are people of Edo extraction currently scattered around the Owan River in the Northern fringe of Edo State. 19 . They ...

  19. New distributional records of amphibians and reptiles from northern Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    González, Cynthia; Brenis, Ángel; Arrazola, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    During 2011 we performed a microregional inventory of amphibians and reptiles from the south-central region of the Papaloapan basin in northern Oaxaca. We recorded one amphibian species previously unknown in the state, and recorded range extensions for two additional amphibian and four reptile species. This increases the known herpetofauna of Oaxaca to 378 species.

  20. Inequality, Segregation and Poor Performance: The Education System in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borooah, Vani K.; Knox, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Northern Ireland is now a post-conflict society but one of the legacies of the "troubles" is an education system which is defined by religious affiliation/identity. A parallel system of schools continues to exist where Catholics largely attend "maintained" schools and Protestants "controlled" or state schools. While…