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Sample records for northern marshall islands

  1. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-seven nuclear tests were conducted on two atolls in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. In contrast, we report on timely measurements on three different atolls...

  2. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  3. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137 Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240 Pu and 241 Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y -1 . The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y -1 to 4.5 mSv y -1 . The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  4. The Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: data and dose assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Conrado, C L; Eagle, R J; Brunk, J L; Jokela, T A; Mount, M E; Phillips, W A; Stoker, A C; Stuart, M L; Wong, K M

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs. 90Sr is the second most significant radionuclide via ingestion. External gamma exposure from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y(-1) to 2.1 mSv y(-1). The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y(-1). The combined dose from both background and bomb related radionuclides ranges from slightly

  5. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  6. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  7. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for 241 Am, 6569 for 137 Cs, 4535 for 239+240 Pu, 4431 for 90 Sr, 1146 for 238 Pu, 269 for 241 Pu, and 114 each for 239 Pu and 240 Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included

  8. Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-04-01

    The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described

  9. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: terrestrial food chain and total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Mount, M.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Conrado, C.A.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent manmade radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. The survey consisted mainly of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates over the islands of each atoll. The logistical support for the entire survey was designed to accommodate this operation. As a secondary phase of the survey, shore parties collected appropriate terrestrial and marine samples to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to those individuals residing on the atolls, who may in the future reside on some of the presently uninhabited atolls, or who collect food from these atolls. Over 5000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern water and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef and pelagic fish, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. The concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu, and 241 Am in terrestrial food crops, fowl, and animals collected at the atolls or islands are summarized. An assessment of the total dose from the major exposure pathways including external gamma, terrestrial food chain including food products and drinking water, marine food chain, and inhalation is provided. Radiological doses at each atoll or island are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in the terrestrial foods, marine foods, etc. assuming the average daily intake for each food item

  10. Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: a quality-control program for a radiochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, C.D.; Mount, M.E.

    1983-08-01

    More than 16,000 radiochemical analyses were performed on about 5400 samples of soils, vegetation, animals, fish, invertebrates, and water to establish amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 241 Am, and plutonium isotopes in the Northern Marshall Islands. Three laboratories were contracted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform the radiochemical analyses: Environmental Analysis Laboratory (EAL), Richmond, California; Eberline Instrument Corporation (EIC), Albuquerque, New Mexico; and Laboratory of Radiation Ecology (LRE), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by regularly including duplicate samples and natural matrix standards in each group of about 100 samples analyzed. Based on the duplicates and standards, over 83% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were acceptable - 97% of the analyses by EAL, 45% of the analyses by EIC, and 98% of the analyses by LRE

  11. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: A quality control program for radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Mount, M.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    From 1979 to 1989, approximately 25,000 Post Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (PNMIRS) samples were collected, and over 71,400 radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed to establish the concentration of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 241 Am, and plutonium isotopes in soil, vegetation, fish, and animals in the Northern Marshall Islands. While the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility (B379) in the Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division accounted for over 80% of all gamma spectroscopy analyses, approximately 4889 radiochemical and 5437 gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed on 4784 samples of soil, vegetation, terrestrial animal, and marine organisms by outside laboratories. Four laboratories were used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform the radiochemical analyses: Thermo Analytical Norcal, Richmond, California (TMA); Nuclear Energy Services, North Carolina State University (NCSU); Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, University of Washington (LRE); and Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division, LLNL, Livermore, California. Additionally, LRE and NCSU were used to perform gamma spectroscopy analyses. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by including blind duplicates and natural matrix standards in each group of samples analyzed. On the basis of reported analytical values for duplicates and standards, 88% of the gamma and 87% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were accepted. By laboratory, 93% of the radiochemical analyses by TMA; 88% of the gamma-ray spectrometry and 100% of the radiochemistry analyses by NCSU; 89% of the gamma spectroscopy and 87% of the radiochemistry analyses by LRE; and 90% of the radiochemistry analyses performed by HEA's radiochemistry department were accepted

  12. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout.

  13. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137 Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and 137 Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-12-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southeast of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral island, having a total land area of about 180 km 2 , distributed over more than 2.5 x 10 6 km 2 of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planing to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure γ-emitters, such as 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure α and β-emitting nuclides, such as 239 Pu and 90 Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods. 6 refs

  15. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-11-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km 2 , distributed over more than 2.5 x 10 6 of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United states conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure γ-emitters, such as 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure α and β-emitting nuclides such as 239 Pu and 90 Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods

  16. Radiological dose assessments in the Northern Marshall Islands (1989-1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Radiological Science Div., Dept. of Nuclear Energy, Upton, New York (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3,500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4,500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2} distributed over more then 2.5 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. (author)

  17. Radiological dose assessments in the Northern Marshall Islands (1989-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3,500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4,500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km 2 distributed over more then 2.5 x 10 6 km 2 of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. (author)

  18. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure γ-emitters, such as 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure α and β-emitting nuclides, such as 239 Pu and 90 Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods

  19. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  20. Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 μR/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 μR/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 μR/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 μR/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with 137 Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls

  1. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  2. RAINDROP DISTRIBUTIONS AT MAJURO ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAINDROPS, MARSHALL ISLANDS ), (*ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION, TROPICAL REGIONS), PARTICLE SIZE, SAMPLING, TABLES(DATA), WATER, ATTENUATION, DISTRIBUTION, VOLUME, RADAR REFLECTIONS, RAINFALL, PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, COMPUTERS

  3. Isotopic composition and distribution of plutonium in northern South China Sea sediments revealed continuous release and transport of Pu from the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junwen; Zheng, Jian; Dai, Minhan; Huh, Chih-An; Chen, Weifang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-03-18

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in sediments of the northern South China Sea and its adjacent Pearl River Estuary were determined to examine the spatial and temporal variations of Pu inputs. We clarified that Pu in the study area is sourced from a combination of global fallout and close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands where above-ground nuclear weapons testing was carried out during the period of 1952-1958. The latter source dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as evidenced by elevated (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) in a dated sediment core. Even after the 1950s, the Pacific Proving Grounds was still a dominant Pu source due to continuous transport of remobilized Pu from the Marshall Islands, about 4500 km away, along the North Equatorial Current followed by the transport of the Kuroshio current and its extension into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait. Using a simple two end-member mixing model, we have quantified the contributions of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds to the northern South China Sea shelf and the Pearl River Estuary are 68% ± 1% and 30% ± 5%, respectively. This study also confirmed that there were no clear signals of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident impacting the South China Sea.

  4. Distribution of cesium-137 in tree crop products collected from residence islands impacted by the U.S. nuclear test program in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.K.G.; Kehl, S.R.; Martinelli, R.E.; Tamblin, M.W.; Hamilton, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Islands Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has completed a series of radiological surveys at Bikini, Rongelap, Utroek, and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands designed to take a representative sample of food supplies with emphasis on determining 137 Cs activity concentrations in common food plants. Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are the most common and abundant food plant, and provided a common sample type to characterize the level and variability of activity concentrations of 137 Cs in plant foods collected from different islands and atolls. Other dominant food types included Pandanus (Pandanus spp.) and breadfruit (Actocarpus spp.). In general, the activity concentration of 137 Cs in food plants was found to decrease significantly between the main residence islands on Bikini, Rongelap, Utrōk, and Enewetak Atolls. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs measured in drinking coconut meat and juice was 0.72 (95 % CI 0.68-0.77) and 0.34 (95 % CI 0.30-0.38) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Bikini Island; 0.019 (95 % CI 0.017-0.021) and 0.027 (95 % CI 0.023-0.031) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Rongelap Island; 0.010 (95 % CI 0.007-0.013) and 0.007 (95 % CI 0.004-0.009) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Utroek Island; and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.0013-0.0024) and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.001-0.0025) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Enewetak Island. High levels of variability are reported across all islands. These results will be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of predictive dose assessments, help characterize levels of uncertainty and variability in activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides in plant foods, and allow atoll communities to make informed decisions about resettlement and possible options for cleanup and rehabilitation of islands and atolls. (author)

  5. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The 90 Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The 239+240 Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, 137 Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow

  6. Contemporary distributions of Cs-137 in Marshall Islands soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Rosenstock, L.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons ranging from tens of kT to 15 MT of TNT were conducted by the United States at two sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The test areas are now parts of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Resolutions of health related problems or property damage resulting from the weapons tests were assumed by a Nuclear Claims Tribunal which was funded for this purpose. This paper describes the results of a survey conducted in 1988 which was designed to determine whether a potential connection exists between local fallout and the incidence of radiogenic disease among Marshallese residents of islands in the greater vicinity of the two test areas. Soil samples were collected from two southern atolls as controls, and from five northern sites to look for higher cesium-137 levels which may have been contributed by tropospheric fallout from the weapons tests

  7. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Marshall Islands. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 20...

  8. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  9. Medication usage in Majuro, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Andrew

    2005-03-01

    To conduct a drug utilisation study to determine the top 50 drugs by prescription count, top 50 drugs by cost to government and the top 30 drugs by consumption for Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands for the year 2003. Data was collected from the Majuro Hospital computer dispensing system. All outpatient prescriptions dispensed in the year 2003 were included. The defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was employed. Drug consumption was presented as DDD/1000 population/day. The top 5 drugs by consumption in Majuro for 2003 were glibenclamide (glyburide), enalapril, ferrous sulphate, amoxycillin and ascorbic acid. Values for the DDD/1000 population/day were on average lower than many other countries. This is the first local study of medication usage in the Marshall Islands. It provided some useful baseline data.

  10. Infant mortality in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S J; Booth, H

    1988-12-01

    Levy and Booth present previously unpublished infant mortality rates for the Marshall Islands. They use an indirect method to estimate infant mortality from the 1973 and 1980 censuses, then apply indirect and direct methods of estimation to data from the Marshall Islands Women's Health Survey of 1985. Comparing the results with estimates of infant mortality obtained from vital registration data enables them to estimate the extent of underregistration of infant deaths. The authors conclude that 1973 census appears to be the most valid information source. Direct estimates from the Women's Health Survey data suggest that infant mortality has increased since 1970-1974, whereas the indirect estimates indicate a decreasing trend in infant mortality rates, converging with the direct estimates in more recent years. In view of increased efforts to improve maternal and child health in the mid-1970s, the decreasing trend is plausible. It is impossible to estimate accurately infant mortality in the Marshall Islands during 1980-1984 from the available data. Estimates based on registration data for 1975-1979 are at least 40% too low. The authors speculate that the estimate of 33 deaths per 1000 live births obtained from registration data for 1984 is 40-50% too low. In round figures, a value of 60 deaths per 1000 may be taken as the final estimate for 1980-1984.

  11. Findings of the Marshall Islands nationwide radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Marshall Islands were affected by nuclear weapon tests carried out over the period 1946-1958, and particularly from the Bravo detonation on 1 March 1954, which deposited heavy fallout on the islands of Rongelap atoll about 100 miles to the east of Bikini. Surveys of residual radioactivity of the northern atolls of the Marshalls group had been carried out by the US Department of Energy, but continuing concerns about health effects of exposure to fallout, particularly thyroid disease, led the Marshall Islands government in 1989 to set up a study of residual radioactivity across the entire country. A study of residual radioactivity on all significant atolls and islands was carried out by ground surveys during 1990-94. The study was supervised by an international panel of 5 non US scientists. The measurements included portable gamma spectrometer measurements at points on a grid pattern, with associated soil samples and periodic soil profile and vegetation samples. From these measurements external exposure rates from deposited fallout have been calculated, and estimates made of the ingestion doses which might be received by resident populations consuming diets made up of differing amounts of locally produced foodstuffs. On the basis of a survey of dietary intake by a Rongelap community a current diet (containing 18% of foods from local sources) and a more traditional diet (75% from local sources) were used for comparison purposes. Measurements were made on 432 islands of the 29 atolls and 5 islands that make up the Marshalls group. Atolls in the latitude range 9-12 degrees north have Cs-137 soil concentrations which are elevated above levels expected from global fallout. Over 90% of the radiation dose from residual fallout is attributable to Cs-137, and arises primarily from dietary intake. Doses to actual or hypothetical residents are about 4 times greater for traditional as compared with current diets. For four atolls there are some islands where

  12. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  13. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship

  14. Fertility and contraception in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S J; Taylor, R; Higgins, I L; Grafton-Wasserman, D A

    1988-01-01

    Data on fertility and contraception in Micronesian women in the Marshall Islands were collected during a women's health survey in 1985. High total fertility rates were found. The reproductive pattern of many Marshallese women is one that has been associated with adverse health consequences: pregnancies in teenagers and in women over 39 years, high parities of four or more births, and short birth intervals. The practice of breastfeeding is declining in younger women. The prevalence of contraceptive use is low, and the availability of reversible methods is limited. Most contraceptive nonusers would like to practice contraception, but are inhibited by the lack of information about family planning. It is suggested that more attention needs to be given to family planning services in the Marshall Islands, in particular to improving the availability of reversible methods of contraception and of information about family planning. Further research is also needed on how family planning services might best be organized to maximize participation by women and their partners who wish to use such services.

  15. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  16. Resuspension studies in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, J H; Homan, D N; Robison, W L

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of inhalation exposure to the total dose for residents of the Marshall Islands was monitored at occasions of opportunity on several islands in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. To determine the long-term potential for inhalation exposure, and to understand the mechanisms of redistribution and personal exposure, additional investigations were undertaken on Bikini Island under modified and controlled conditions. Experiments were conducted to provide key parameters for the assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: characterization of the contribution of plutonium in soil-borne aerosols as compared to sea spray and organic aerosols, determination of plutonium resuspension rates as measured by the meteorological flux-gradient method during extreme conditions of a bare-soil vs. a stabilized surface, determination of the approximate individual exposures to resuspended plutonium by traffic, and studies of exposures to individuals in different occupational environments simulated by personal air sampling of workers assigned to a variety of tasks. Enhancement factors (defined as ratios of the plutonium-activity of suspended aerosols relative to the plutonium-activity of the soil) were determined to be less than 1 (typically 0.4 to 0.7) in the undisturbed, vegetated areas, but greater than 1 (as high as 3) for the case studies of disturbed bare soil, roadside travel, and for occupational duties in fields and in and around houses.

  17. Telemedicine in Majuro Hospital, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardane, K J

    2000-09-01

    Since March 1998 up to June 2000, telemedicine activities in Marshall Islands have mainly been for Referrals to Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) in Hawaii. The activities are based on a computer which has the Internet connection and accessories including a digital camera, flatbed scanner with a transparency adapter, color printer, a video printer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope and a video Lens, all of which were donated by Project Akamai in Hawaii. Two sessions of training were conducted by representatives from Akamai Project and from PBMA at the very beginning of the establishment of the unit, to all levels of Health Care Providers in Ministry of Health in Majuro. The computer and Internet facility is available 24 hours. Since March 1998 to June 2000, there had been 144 telemedicine consultations to TAMC. Out of a total of 326 off-island referrals for the same period, approximately 80 patients have been sent to TAMC using the PIHCP/Telemedicine program. This accounts for approximately 25% of total off-island referrals. This represents a significant reduction in cost. In addition to cost reduction the telemedicine unit most important impact is on the health providers, especially the physicians working at Majuro Hospital. Availability of medical information through internet has helped them to feel less isolated from the constantly changing field of medical science.

  18. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project.

  19. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project

  20. Terrestrial radiation measurements in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    With the prospect of habitation in the near future, radiological surveys were undertaken of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls to provide a basis for determining whether or not the atolls can be safely reinhabited. The surveys included all of the forty islands within Enewetak Atoll, but only the two principal islands, Bikini and Eneu Islands, of Bikini Atoll. These atolls were former U.S. nuclear weapons test sites in the Pacific. Integral parts of the surveys were the measurements of the distributions of radioactivity in the soil and the resulting gamma ray exposure rates for external dose estimation. Numerous soil samples were collected from both atolls for analysis by Ge (Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry techniques. At Enewetak Atoll the gamma exposure rates were measured by TLDs and a helicopter-borne array of Nal detectors, while at Bikini Atoll portable Nal detectors, pressurized ion-chambers, and TLDs were utilized. The predominant species measured in the soil samples collected from both atolls were 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs and 60 Co with the latter two nuclides being the primary contributors to the gamma-ray exposure rates. The geographical distribution of the exposure rates measured on both atolls, was highly variable ranging from less than 1 μR/h on islands that had not been impacted radiologically by the testing program, to over 100 μR/h near weapon detonation sites. Thus, within Enewetak Atoll, the highest soil activities and gamma-ray exposure rates were measured on the northern islands, where the weapons testing had been most intense. Bikini Island exhibited contamination levels that were considerably higher than those on Eneu Island. Generally, the highest activity levels were observed within the island interiors or in proximity to ground zero sites, and could usually be related to the surrounding vegetation density. The island of Yvonne, within Enewetak Atoll, is the most severely contaminated land area. Particles containing as much as several

  1. Remediation and rehabilitation programmes in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Following cessation of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands in 1958 the northern atolls have been subject to extensive studies of their radiological status with a view to the return of displaced residents. In the case of Bikini an assessment was most recently carried out at the request of the Marshall Islands Government by the IAEA, based on data obtained through the DOE funded studies of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Nationwide Radiological Study undertaken for the Marshall Islands Government. For a diet of entirely local foodstuffs the mean adult annual dose to residents could be about 15 mSv, and greater than a generic reference level for intervention of 10 mSv/a. A more likely diet with some imported foods, however, would incur annual doses of about 4 mSv. Remediation in the form of potassium fertilizer application, which suppresses the uptake of Cs-137 in plants, has been recommended. In the case of Rongelap Atoll, conditions for resettlement were established in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between US Government agencies and the Rongelap community. This required that annual doses to the maximally exposed resident not exceed I mSv. A number of independent evaluations and reviews found that some residents could exceed this compliance level and again remediation measures have been recommended, primarily the application of potassium to soil. It is, however, doubtful whether any remediation is justifiable on solely radiological grounds. The Rongelap MOU also specified an activity concentration limit for transuranics in soil, but this additional constraint could be considered confusing and unnecessary, particularly when it appeared to have no derivable connection to the compliance dose value. (author)

  2. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  3. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  4. Dose assessment in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.

    1978-01-01

    Bikini Atoll and Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands were the sites of major U.S. weapons testing from 1948 through 1958. Both the Bikini and Knewetak people have expressed a desire to return to their native Atolls. In 1968 clean-up and resettlement of Bikini was begun. In 1972-73 the initial survey of Enewetak Atoll was conducted and clean-up began in 1977. Surveys have been conducted at both Atolls to establish the concentrations of radionuclides in the biota and to determine the external exposure rates. Subsequent to the surveys dose assessments have been made to determine the potential dose to returning (100) populations at both Atolls. This talk will include discussions of the relative importance of the critical exposure pathways (i.e., external exposure, inhalation, marine, terrestrial and drinking water), the predominant radionuclides contributing to the predicted doses for each pathway, the doses predicted for alternate living patterns, comparison to Federal Guidelines, the comparison between Atolls, some of the social problems created by adherence to Federal Guidelines and the follow-up research identified and initiated to help refine the dose assessments and better predict the long term use of the Atolls (86). (author)

  5. Follow-up radiological surveillance, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The political approvals have been given for the return of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls to their original inhabitants. These two regions, which comprised the Pacific Nuclear Testing Areas from 1946 to 1958, are now being repopulated by their original inhabitants and their families. Recent assessments of internal and external exposure pathways at Bikini and Enewetak have indicated that doses and dose commitments in excess of current radiation protection guidelines are possible or even likely for persons living in these areas. Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, which were downwind of the 1954 Bravo event, also received significant fallout; potential radiological problems exist in these areas as well. In view of this prospect, follow-up environmental monitoring and personnel monitoring programs are being established to maintain our cognizance of radiological conditions, and to make corrective action where necessary. The unexpected finding of detectable amounts (above background) of plutonium in the urine of individuals at Bikini and Rongelap Atolls also raises the possibility of radiological problems in the long term from environmentally-derived plutonium via pathways which are not completely understood. This finding adds further impetus to the surveillance programs for an area where real radiological concerns for the general public are already known to exist. The continuing environmental and personnel monitoring programs which this paper describes are a necessary part of the BNL radiological safety program in the Marshall Islands, which is designed to do the following: (1) elucidate the internal exposure pathways; (2) define the external radiation environment; (3) assess the doses and dose commitments from radioactivity in the environment; (4) provide the feedback necessary to improve existing predictive modelling of radiological trends; and (5) suggest actions which will minimize doses via the more significant pathways. (author)

  6. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...This action removes the reference to the Kwajalein Tactacial Air Navigation (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This action corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands.

  7. Republic of the Marshall Islands; Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper outlines economic developments in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) since independence in 1986, focusing on the challenges posed by dependence on foreign grants, and progress toward achieving budgetary self-reliance. Like most other Pacific islands, the RMI faces a variety of geographical constraints, including limited land area, poor soil, the dispersion of the islands, and the remoteness from major markets. The public sector plays a dominant role in the e...

  8. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  9. Findings of the first comprehensive radiological monitoring program of the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Graham, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Marshall Islands was the primary site of the United States atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific. From 1946 through 1958, 66 atomic weapons were detonated in the island country. For several decades, monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (or its predecessor agencies) on the test site atolls and neighboring atolls. However, 70% of the land area of the over 1,200 islands in the Marshall Islands was never systematically monitored prior to 1990. For the 5-y period from 1990 through 1994, the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands undertook an independent program to assess the radiological conditions throughout its 29 atolls. The scientific work was performed under the auspices of the Section 177 Agreement of the Compact of Free Association, U.S. public law 99-239, signed in 1986 by President Ronald Reagan. Although the total land area of the nations is a scant 180 km 2 , the islands are distributed over 6 X 10 5 km 2 of ocean. Consequently, logistics and instrumentation were main considerations, in addition to cultural and language issues. The objective of this paper is to report findings for all atolls of the Marshall Islands on the 137 Cs areal inventory (Bq m -2 ) and the external effective dose-rate (mSv y -1 ), the projected internal effective dose-rate (mSv y -1 ) from an assumed diet model, and surface soil concentrations of 239,240 Pu (Bq kg -1 ) for selected northern atolls. Interpretation is also provided on the degree of contamination above global fallout levels. This report provides the first comprehensive summary of the radiological conditions throughout the Marshall Islands. 37 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab

  10. Report on a few Octocorals from Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verseveldt, J.

    1972-01-01

    In 1969 Dr. Arthur G. Humes, Boston University, Massachusetts, U.S.A., collected a number of octocorals at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. He found that most of these corals were the hosts of copepods, just like the corals collected by him in the waters north-west of Madagascar (vide Verseveldt,

  11. Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Marsh, K.V.

    1981-07-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am as well as naturally occurring 40 K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls

  12. Radiological analyses of Marshall Islands environmental samples, 1974--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Cua, F.T.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported from the radiological analysis of environmental samples collected in the Marshall Islands during 1974 through 1976. Most of the samples were collected on or near the Bikini Atoll and included plants, soil, fish, catchment water, and sediments, with emphasis on local marine and terrestrial food items. Data are presented from γ spectral analysis and the content of 90 Sr and transuranic elements in the samples

  13. Compensation for the victims of the Marshall Islands nuclear testing programme: the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal was established in 1988 pursuant to legislation enacted by the Republic of the Marshall Islands as part of its obligations under the Compact of Free Association between it and the United States (ratified 1986) and an associated Compact implementation agreement. The Tribunal is generally considered to be the last hope for compensation for a large number of Marshallese who claim to have suffered injury or damage as a result of the United States Nuclear Testing Programme in the Marshall Islands, 1946 - 1958. Under the Compact, the United States admitted liability for injuries and damages suffered by Marshallese as a result of the Testing Programme and made provision for the payment of compensation. In return, the Republic agreed to espouse, on behalf of it and its citizens, all current and future claims for compensation against the United States. The Tribunal has been given a most challenging and unique assignment: - to identify and compensate the victims of the Testing Programme, with a potentially limited sum of money, an indefinite number of victims, and with cultural, environmental and political circumstances which are not altogether conducive to Western concepts associated with compensating people for damages and personal injuries suffered as a result of a wrongful act. The paper will describe the Tribunal's role in compensating the victims of the Testing Programme. It will highlight a number of legal, social and cultural difficulties in establishing and operating a scheme to compensate people for damages and injuries suffered or commenced up to forty years previously. (author)

  14. Dose assessment activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Graham, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Dose assessments, both retrospective and prospective, comprise one important function of a radiological study commissioned by the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government in late 1989. Estimating past or future exposure requires the synthesis of information from historical data, results from a recently completed field monitoring program, laboratory measurements, and some experimental studies. Most of the activities in the RMI to date have emphasized a pragmatic rather than theoretical approach. In particular, most of the recent effort has been expended on conducting an independent radiological monitoring program to determine the degree of deposition and the geographical extent of weapons test fallout over the nation. Contamination levels on 70% of the land mass of the Marshall Islands were unknown prior to 1994. The environmental radioactivity data play an integral role in both retrospective and prospective assessments. One recent use of dose assessment has been to interpret environmental measurements of radioactivity into annual doses that might be expected at every atoll. A second use for dose assessment has been to determine compliance with dose action level for the rehabitation of Rongelap Island. Careful examination of exposure pathways relevant to the island lifestyle has been necessary to accommodate these purposes. Finally, an examination is underway of gummed film, fixed-instrument, and aerial survey data accumulated during the 1950's by the Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. AEC. This article gives an overview of these many different activities and a summary of recent dose assessments

  15. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI. The Bucholz AAF geographic coordinates information was updated in the Kwajalein Island Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action ensures the safety of aircraft operating in the Kwajalein Island airspace area. This is an administrative action and does not affect the operating requirements of the airspace.

  16. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Y; Hamilton, T; Uchida, S; Tagami, K; Yoshida, S; Robison, W

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  17. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S. [Environmental and Toxicological Researches Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, 263-8555 Chiba (Japan); Hamilton, T.; Robison, W. [Health and Ecological Assessment Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-453, 94551-0808 Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  18. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes

  19. Cancer in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Eugène; Reddy, Ravi; Gunawardane, Kamal; Briand, Kennar; Riklon, Sheldon; Soe, Tin; Balaoing, Grace Anne Diaz

    2004-09-01

    This study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, assessed cancer awareness and service needs in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Findings suggest that cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the RMI and is, in part, a consequence of 12 years of nuclear testing in this region of the Pacific. However, cancer-related services are lacking. Assistance is needed to establish a national cancer registry, to increase public awareness about cancer and related risk factors, and to develop and implement a cancer prevention and screening program.

  20. The Marshall Islands radioassay quality assurance program. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Robison, W.L.; Kehl, S.; Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive quality assurance program to provide high quality data and assessments in support of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Program has been developed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Quality assurance objectives begin with the premise of providing integrated and cost-effective program support (to meet wide-ranging programmatic needs, scientific peer review, and build public confidence) and continue through from design and implementation of large-scale field programs, sampling and sample preparation, radiometric and chemical analyses, documentation of quality assurance/quality control practices, exposure assessments, and dose/risk assessments until publication. The basic structure of the radioassay quality assurance/quality control program can be divided into four essential elements: (1) sample and data integrity control, (2) instrument validation and calibration, (3) method performance testing, validation, development and documentation, and (4) periodic peer review and on-site assessments. While the quality assurance objectives are tailored towards a single research program and the evaluation of major exposure pathways/critical radionuclides pertinent to the Marshall Islands, quality assurance practices that are consistent with proposed criteria designed for laboratory accreditation were attempted to be developed. (author)

  1. Dose assessment activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L; Graham, J C

    1996-10-01

    Dose assessments, both retrospective and prospective, comprise one important function of a radiological study commissioned by the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government in late 1989. Estimating past or future exposure requires the synthesis of information from historical data, results from a recently completed field monitoring program, laboratory measurements, and some experimental studies. Most of the activities in the RMI to date have emphasized a pragmatic rather than theoretical approach. In particular, most of the recent effort has been expended on conducting an independent radiological monitoring program to determine the degree of deposition and the geographical extent of weapons test fallout over the nation. Contamination levels on 70% of the land mass of the Marshall Islands were unknown prior to 1994. The environmental radioactivity data play an integral role in both retrospective and prospective assessments. One recent use of dose assessment has been to interpret environmental measurements of radioactivity into annual doses that might be expected at every atoll. A second use for dose assessment has been to determine compliance with a dose action level for the rehabilitation of Rongelap Island. Careful examination of exposure pathways relevant to the island lifestyle has been necessary to accommodate these purposes. Examples of specific issues studied include defining traditional island diets as well as current day variations, sources of drinking water, uses of tropical plants including those consumed for food and for medicinal purposes, the nature and microvariability of plutonium particles in the soil and unusual pathways of exposure, e.g., that which might be associated with cooking and washing outdoors and inadvertent soil ingestion. A study on the prevalence of thyroid disease is also being conducted and the geographic pattern of disease may be useful as a bioindicator of the geographic pattern of exposure to radioiodine. Finally, an

  2. Measles outbreak in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Terri B; Dayan, Gustavo H; Langidrik, Justina R; Nandy, Robin; Edwards, Russell; Briand, Kennar; Konelios, Mailynn; Marin, Mona; Nguyen, Huong Q; Khalifah, Anthony P; O'leary, Michael J; Williams, Nobia J; Bellini, William J; Bi, Daoling; Brown, Cedric J; Seward, Jane F; Papania, Mark J

    2006-04-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection. Measles transmission can be prevented through high population immunity (>or=95%) achieved by measles vaccination. In the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), no measles cases were reported during 1989-2002; however, a large measles outbreak occurred in 2003. Reported 1-dose measles vaccine coverage among children aged 12-23 months varied widely (52-94%) between 1990 and 2000. RMI is a Pacific island nation (1999 population: 50,840). A measles case was defined as fever, rash, and cough, or coryza, or conjunctivitis, in an RMI resident between July 13 and November 7, 2003. A vaccination campaign was used for outbreak control. Of the 826 reported measles cases, 766 (92%) occurred in the capital (Majuro). There were 186 (23%) cases in infants aged or=15 years. The attack rate was highest among infants (Majuro atoll: 213 cases/1,000 infants). Among cases aged 1-14 years, 281 (59%) reported no measles vaccination before July 2003. There were 100 hospitalizations and 3 deaths. The measles H1 genotype was identified. The vaccination campaign resulted in 93% coverage among persons aged 6 months to 40 years. Interpretation Populations without endemic measles transmission can accumulate substantial susceptibility and be at risk for large outbreaks when measles virus is imported. 'Islands' of measles susceptibility may develop in infants, adults, and any groups with low vaccine coverage. To prevent outbreaks, high population immunity must be sustained by maintaining and documenting high vaccine coverage.

  3. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  4. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands an...

  5. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish 137 Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. 137 Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. 137 Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average 137 Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22±4 μSv. For Utirik, the dose was 33± 3 μSv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2±2 μSv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 μSv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab

  6. Improve services project -- Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langidrik, J

    1995-01-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands has 60 dispensary sites, each staffed by 1 health assistant, to cover 80-800 people/site on 34 atolls. Until the spring of 1994, only curative services were available on a regular basis, and preventive services were provided by traveling health teams from the urban centers. In 1994, the health assistants in selected outer islands were trained to administer immunizations from vaccines which are sent regularly by air. Additional project sites are being selected. In 1993, 2 dispensaries initiated a project to 1) increase the number of women with access to prenatal care during the first trimester, 2) increase immunization levels, 3) improve access to preventive services, and 4) improve reporting and record-keeping systems. This project includes an important training component for the health assistant, the wife of the health assistant, the traditional birth attendant, the youth peer educator, community leaders, and a member of the local council. By 1994, this project was expanded to 13 dispensaries on 2 atolls. In 1995, 18 more dispensaries on 4 more atolls will be able to offer these additional services.

  7. Geochemistry and petrology of basaltic rocks from the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alice S.; Schwab, William C.; Haggerty, Janet A.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of volcanic rock was recovered from the flanks of seamounts, guyots, atolls, and islands in the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands on the U.S. Geological Survey cruise L9-84-CP. The main objective of this cruise was to study the distribution and composition of ferromanganese oxide crusts. Preliminary results of managanese crust composition are reported by Schwab et al. (1985) and detailed studies are in preparation (Schwab et al., 1986). A total of seven seafloor edifices were studied using 12 khz, 3.5 khz and air gun seismic reflection, chain dredge and box corer. Bathymetry and ship track lines are presented by Schwab and Bailey (1985). Of the seven edifices surveyed two support atolls (Majuro and Taongi) and one is a tiny island (Jemo). Dredge locations and water depths are given in Table 1 and dredge locations are shown in Figure 1. Due to equipment failures depths of dredge hauls were limited to shallow depth for all except the first two sites occupied. Recovery consisted mostly of young, poorly-consolidated limestone of fore-reef slope deposit and minor volcanogenic breccia and loose talus. The breccia and pieces of talus are thickly encrusted with ferromanganese oxide, whereas the young limestone is only coated by a thin layer. Four of the seven sites surveyed yielded volcanic rock. The volcanic rock, volumetrically a minor part of each dredge haul, consists mostly of lapilli and cobble-size clasts in a calcareous matrix or as loose talus. Most clasts show evidence of reworking, being sub- to well rounded, sometimes with a thin ferromanganese crust of their own. This paper reports preliminary findings on the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rock recovered.

  8. Reconstruction and analysis of cesium-137 fallout deposition patterns in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Robert Cleckley, Jr.

    Estimates of 137Cs deposition due to fallout originating from nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands have been made for several locations in the Marshall Islands. These retrospective estimates were based primarily on historical exposure rate and gummed film measurements. The methods used to reconstruct these deposition estimates are specific for six of the Pacific tests. These methods are also similar to those used in the National Cancer Institute study for reconstructing 131I deposition from the Nevada Test Site. Reconstructed cumulative deposition estimates are validated against contemporary measurements of 137Cs concentration in soil. This validation work also includes an accounting for estimated global fallout contributions. These validations show that the overall geometric bias in predicted-to-observed (P/O) ratios is 1.0 (indicating excellent agreement). The 5th and 95th percentile range of this distribution is 0.35--2.95. The P/O ratios for estimates using historical gummed film measurements tend to slightly over-predict more than estimates using exposure rate measurements. The methods produce reasonable estimates of deposition confirming that radioactive fallout occurred at atolls further south of the four northern atolls recognized by the Department of Energy as being affected by fallout. The deposition estimate methods, supported by the very good agreement between estimates and measurements, suggest that these methods can be used for other weapons testing fallout radionuclides with confidence.

  9. Range Reference Atmosphere 0-70 Km Altitude. Kwajalein Missile Range, Kwajalein, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    DOCUMENT 360-82 KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE KWAJALEIN, MARSHALL ISLANDS RANGE REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE 0-70 KM ALTITUDE, C00 L’’I METEOROLOGY GROUP .RANGE...34Reference Atmosphere (Part 1), Kwajale 4n Missile Range, Kwajalein, Marshall Islands ," ADA002664. * 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revorsae d. If necoeewy...CLASSIFICATION OF TIlS PAGE (Whe~n Data EnterecD -v DOCUMENT 360-82 Vo- KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE KWAJALEIN, MARSHALL ISLANDS RANGE REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE 0-70 km

  10. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Greenhouse, N.A.; Knight, G.; Craighead, E.C.

    1980-07-01

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns

  11. Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, John C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed geologic analysis of two nuclear test craters at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency. A multidisciplinary task force mapped the morphology, surface character, and subsurface structure of two craters, OAK and KOA. The field mapping techniques include echo sounding, sidescan sonar imaging, single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiling, a seismic refraction survey, and scuba and submersible operations. All operations had to be navigated precisely and correlatable with subsequent drilling and sampling operations. Mapping with a high degree of precision at scales as large as 1:1500 required corrections that often are not considered in marine mapping. Corrections were applied to the bathymetric data for location of the echo- sounding transducer relative to the navigation transponder on the ship and for transducer depth, speed of sound, and tidal variations. Sidescan sonar, single-channel seismic reflection, and scuba and submersible data were correlated in depth and map position with the bathymetric data to provide a precise, internally consistent data set. The multichannel and refraction surveys were conducted independently but compared well with bathymetry. Examples drawn from processing the bathymetric, sidescan sonar, and single- channel reflection data help illustrate problems and procedures in precision mapping.

  12. Hyperuricemia in the inhabitants of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Jamner, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Annual medical examinations are conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a population of Marshallese who were accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954, for a comparison population, and for all inhabitants of the atolls of Rongelap and Utirik. Disease surveillance includes analysis of serum samples. Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels are common along Pacific populations, and modifying environmental factors have been investigated as a cause for this finding. The authors have studied SUA levels of people living in the Marshall Islands, and have found elevated values similar to those reported for other Micronesian populations. The nearly Gaussian distribution of individual serum uric acid values for men, and for women less than or equal to45 years of age, indicates that the elevation is due to a regularized increase in serum uric acid rather than to a subpopulation that has pathologic hyperuricemia. The higher serum uric acid levels appear, therefore, to be normal for the Marshallese, a conclusion supported by the infrequency of clinical gout in the population tested

  13. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  14. Spatial and temporal controls of atoll island inundation: implications for urbanized atolls in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.; Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are highly vulnerable to a range of inundation hazards. The impacts of such hazards are expected to be magnified as a result of continued sea-level rise. Both recent and historic inundation events provide unique insights into the requisite conditions necessary to initiate island inundation. A number of recent and historic inundation events are presented in order to examine the oceanographic and meteorological conditions driving inundation of a densely populated, urbanized atoll in the central Pacific. Analysis of inundation events suggests that a number of key drivers contribute to the spatial and temporal extent of island inundation, with unique degrees of predictability and resultant impact signatures apparent on island geomorphology and local anthropogenic activities. Results indicate three distinct drivers of inundation hazards exist. Firstly, tropical storms and typhoons elevate sea level through inverse barometric setup, wind setup and a range of wave driven processes and have caused considerable impact on atolls within the Marshall Islands. Secondly, super-elevated sea level conditions resulting from the combination of seasonal high tides and quasi-cyclical La Nina conditions drive inundation of low-lying lagoon facing coastal areas. Thirdly, long period swell conditions, typically generated by distant storms, can elevate reef-flat water levels through wave setup and infragravity wave oscillations. Such wave conditions can over wash the ocean-facing island ridge, often inundating large sections of the island. Reef-flat wave conditions are tidally modulated, with inundation events typically occurring around high tide. However, the two most recent destructive swell-driven inundation events have occurred while tide levels were significantly lower than spring tide levels, suggesting high water levels are not a necessary prerequisite for wave-driven inundation. The different modes of inundation are discussed and grounded within recent and historic

  15. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations.

  16. A study of {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles from the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.C.; Simon, S.L. [Republic of the Marshall Islands, Nationwide Radiological Study, Majuro, MH (Marshall Islands)

    1996-04-11

    In late 1989, the Republic of the Marshall Islands commissioned an independent radiological monitoring program to determine the degree of deposition and the geographical extent of atomic weapons test fallout over its islands. The sampling and measurement of {sup 137}Cs in vertical soil profiles has been an important part of that monitoring program. Over 200 profiles were collected in 5-cm increments to a depth of 30 cm, including locations at all 29 of the nation`s atolls and five separate reef islands. Annual rainfall and soil particle size distribution was studied to determine the inter-relationships with cesium permeation and areal inventory (Bq/m{sup 2}). Relaxation lengths of cesium in the soil column were calculated from measurements of {sup 137}Cs activity in profile increments. Using a common model for a depth-dependent concentration gradient (C(d) C{sub o} e{sup -{alpha}d}), the inverse of the rate of change of concentration (i.e. 1/{alpha}) has been defined as the relaxation length of the profile. In this study, the relaxation length was calculated from the concentration data of the first three sample increments (i.e. 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15 cm) and from all six increments to a total depth of 30 cm. Typical values for relaxation lengths in the drier northern atolls are 7 - 12 cm, though our observations included values between -800 and 3500 cm. Our findings showed that {sup 137}Cs permeation was highly variable with particle size, though relaxation length was significantly correlated with annual rainfall. Areal inventory was determined to be significantly correlated with the 0 - 5 cm {sup 137}Cs soil concentration. The 0 - 30 cm fitted relaxation length was also determined to give a good estimate of the areal inventory of {sup 137}Cs in the soil to a depth of 30 cm regardless of the rate of change in concentration with depth.

  17. A study of 137Cs in soil profiles from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.C.; Simon, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    In late 1989, the Republic of the Marshall Islands commissioned an independent radiological monitoring program to determine the degree of deposition and the geographical extent of atomic weapons test fallout over its islands. The sampling and measurement of 137 Cs in vertical soil profiles has been an important part of that monitoring program. Over 200 profiles were collected in 5-cm increments to a depth of 30 cm, including locations at all 29 of the nation's atolls and five separate reef islands. Annual rainfall and soil particle size distribution was studied to determine the inter-relationships with cesium permeation and areal inventory (Bq/m 2 ). Relaxation lengths of cesium in the soil column were calculated from measurements of 137 Cs activity in profile increments. Using a common model for a depth-dependent concentration gradient (C(d) C o e -αd ), the inverse of the rate of change of concentration (i.e. 1/α) has been defined as the relaxation length of the profile. In this study, the relaxation length was calculated from the concentration data of the first three sample increments (i.e. 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15 cm) and from all six increments to a total depth of 30 cm. Typical values for relaxation lengths in the drier northern atolls are 7 - 12 cm, though our observations included values between -800 and 3500 cm. Our findings showed that 137 Cs permeation was highly variable with particle size, though relaxation length was significantly correlated with annual rainfall. Areal inventory was determined to be significantly correlated with the 0 - 5 cm 137 Cs soil concentration. The 0 - 30 cm fitted relaxation length was also determined to give a good estimate of the areal inventory of 137 Cs in the soil to a depth of 30 cm regardless of the rate of change in concentration with depth

  18. Website application for calculating cesium-137 ingestion doses from consumption of locally grown foods in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Hamilton, T.F.; Simpson, A.E.; Freitas, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fallout deposition from the US nuclear weapons test program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) resulted in widespread nuclear fallout contamination of the northern Marshall Islands. About 85-90 % of the nuclear test-related dose delivered to resident populations is derived from ingestion of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) contained in locally grown tree-crop food products. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a series of interactive internet applications to provide the public with an open access platform to learn more about radiological conditions in the Marshall Islands. The ingestion dose calculator application described here is one such feature whereby users can calculate hypothetical ingestion doses from 137 Cs based on interactive user input matched to environmental data on the activity concentration of 137 Cs contained in food plants such as coconut, breadfruit, Pandanus, and arrowroot. Users are asked to enter a date, an island and atoll location, a plant food type, and a daily intake amount (highlighted by the number of portions eaten per day in estimated gram equivalents). The application computes the user daily dose and the user equivalent annualized dose, and then compares the results with default settings based on dietary models developed for the Marshall Islands from independent dietary surveys. The default diets are based on a local plus imported food diet (or IA diet model) and an imported foods unavailable diet (or IUA diet model). Environmental data are decay corrected to the date entered by the user using an effective half-life of 137 Cs of 8.5 years (http://marshallislands.llnl.gov). (author)

  19. The department of energy's environmental monitoring support for Rongelap resettlement in the Marshall Island: a partnership for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a dedicated program in 1974 to determine residual levels of contamination remaining in the Northern Marshall Islands from the 66 Pacific atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The United States atmospheric nuclear weapons test code-named 'Castle BRAVO', conducted at the Bikini atoll in 1954, inadvertently deposited radioactive fallout on 253 residents of the Rongelap and Utrik atolls. The Rongelap people were evacuated 3 days after Castle Bravo, but not before they received significant fallout doses. Although the Rongelap people resettled on Rongelap Island from June 1957 until May 1985, the Rongelap community self-exiled themselves at that time for fear of what they believed to be rising levels of 137 Cs in their local food supplies. Since that time, the U.S. government has worked with the Rongelap people in a partnership to address environmental concerns and provide environmental monitoring, dose assessment data and information and mitigation strategy alternatives. DOE has been an instrumental partner in agreements, town meetings, interactions at the level of the local atoll government councils as well as the government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands have been needed to do this successfully. (author)

  20. Republic of the Marshall Islands: Pursuing a Sustainable and Resilient Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the work that the Republic of the Marshall Islands are doing in a variety of renewable energy activities with support from the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and outlines additional opportunities for involvement by other international donors.

  1. "O Bottom, Thou Art Translated": Directing a Bilingual Dream in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A unique production of Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream" was staged in early 2004 by students of the Marshall Islands High School, Majuro, in the Central Pacific. The play's director, Andrew Garrod, describes the rehearsal process and performance of the play, in which the school students were supported by undergraduates from the…

  2. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  3. The Major in Cultural Context: Choosing Liberal Arts in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, C. A.; Krawczyk, Ewa B.

    2017-01-01

    Choosing a major is part of liberal arts (LA) education in American-accredited colleges across the world. In global second-language (L2) contexts, the choice of major is shaped by local cultural factors. This study of 192 undergraduates at an English-medium-of-instruction (EMI) college in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) used a survey,…

  4. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known

  5. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of sup(239+240)Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of sup(239+240)Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analysed. A progressive discrimination against sup(239+240)Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for sup(239+240)Pu among all fish, which include bottom-feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom-feeding carnivores and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of sup(239+240)Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known. (author)

  6. The decision-making process in returning relocated populations to the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted a nuclear weapons testing program in the northern Marshall Islands, detonating 66 nuclear weapons at Bikini and Enewetak. The indigenous populations at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls were evacuated prior to the initiation of testing at these respective atolls. Fallout in these cases were typically distributed within a few miles of the detonation. The 15-megaton thermonuclear Bravo device at Bikini resulted in the inadvertent deposition of radioactive fallout on the 253 inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik atolls. The Rongelap and Utirik populations had not been evacuated prior to this test designed to detonate at about 5 megatons. 65 Rongelap individuals received whole body fallout doses of about 1.8 sievert (180 rem), 18 Ailinginae individuals received whole body doses of about 0.7 sievert (70 rem), and 157 Marshallese individuals at Utirik received a whole body fallout doses of about 0.14 sievert (14 rem.) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have provided special medical surveillance and treatment of radiation-related injury and illness for the surviving members of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik exposed during the 'Bravo' test. In addition, DOE conducts environmental and radiological monitoring and performs agricultural research studies to characterize the radioactivity remaining at the four atolls of Bikini in the aftermath of the 1946-58 U.S. nuclear testing program. (R.P.)

  7. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  8. Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of 90 Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, 137 Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The 239+240 Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls

  9. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at Christmas Island and seven atolls in the Marshall Islands. Progress report for 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Division of Operational Safety or DOS (now Safety Standards and Compliance) portion of the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology (LRE) Pacific Radiocology Program (formerly Johnston Atoll Program) began on 1 July 1974 and is continuing. The purpose of this program is to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soil of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. Five field trips were conducted for this program between April 1974 and August 1975, and about 600 samples were collected. Results of the analyses indicate that 90 Sr and 137 Cs are dominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241 Am and /sup 239,240/Pu are also important in the soil from Bikini and Rongelap atolls. Cobalt-60 and 55 Fe are predominant in the marine environment together with naturally occurring 40 K. Amounts of radioactivity vary between atolls and between islands within an atoll in relation to the distance from the nuclear weapons test sites. Bikini atoll has the highest amounts of radioactivity, but the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll have only slightly lower amounts. Rongerik and Ailinginae atolls and the southern islands of Rongelap Atoll have similar amounts of radioactivity which are lower than Bikini by factors of 5 to 10 or more. Values at Utirik Atoll are lower still, but are higher than amounts at Wotho and Kwajalein atolls. Christmas Island in the Line Islands has the least amount of radioactivity of the areas surveyed for this report

  10. Formation and adjustment of typhoon-impacted reef islands interpreted from remote imagery: Nadikdik Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Murray R.; Kench, Paul S.

    2014-06-01

    In 1905, a devastating typhoon hit Nadikdik Atoll (5°54‧ N and 172°09‧ E) in the southern Marshall Islands. Evidence suggests that large sections of reef islands on Nadikdik were overwashed and destroyed. Comparison of aerial photographs taken in 1945 and modern satellite imagery provides a unique record of the geomorphic adjustment of islands after the typhoon. Between 1945 and 2010 the vegetated area of islands on Nadikdik grew from 0.74 to 0.90 km2. Observed changes to Nadikdik reef islands manifested through a range of styles and were largely accretionary. Of note, the formation of a new island was tracked from an embryonic deposit to a fully vegetated and stable island over a 61 year period. Similarly, a number of previously discrete islands have agglomerated and formed a single larger island. These changes were rapid and indicate that reef island formation can occur quickly. Evidence suggests that despite the typhoon occurring over a century ago the geomorphic adjustment of islands is still on-going.

  11. On the biopsychosocial model: the example of political economic causes of diabetes in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Palafox, N

    2001-10-01

    Biomedical reductionism, the unwritten theory underlying the practice of medicine, is being supplanted by the biopsychosocial model. The explanatory power of the biopsychosocial model, however, is hampered by an inadequate mechanism to account for the social production of disease. We examine diabetes in the Marshall Islands to explore a conceptual approach that incorporates ecology, history, and political economy into the biopsychosocial model. The use of the Marshall Islands by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear war has led to ecological destruction, population displacement, and economic dependency. The consequence at the biological level has been an epidemic of weight gain, altered metabolism, and diabetes. A political economic perspective reveals that such outcomes are the result of decisions made by those who do not live with these decisions. Such a perspective points the way for social engagement and political work toward justice and health.

  12. Carotenoid status among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Mary V; Palafox, Neal A; Dancheck, Barbara; Ricks, Michelle O; Briand, Kennar; Semba, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemiological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (alpha -carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.

  13. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  14. Republic of the Marshall Islands. Energy Project Development Options and Technical Assessment (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Misty Dawn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The advancement of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies continues to be fluid. There are many technical opportunities and strategies that can be utilized to guide communities to deploy cost-effective commercial alternative energy options; however, to achieve aggressive economic, environmental, and security goals, it requires a comprehensive, integrated approach. This document reports on the initial findings of an energy assessment that was conducted for the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

  15. Radiological assessments for resettlement of Rongelap in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Committee on Radiological Safety in the Marshall Islands was established by the National Research Council in response to a request from the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assist the department in evaluating radiological conditions on certain atolls in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, especially Rongelap Atoll. The need stems from the provisions of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) established between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the US in 1992. That agreement sets out criteria and stipulations pertaining to the resettlement of Rongelap Atoll. The issue of resettlement itself originated in the desire for the people of the Marshall Islands to return to the atolls from which they were evacuated as a consequence of nuclear-weapons testing by the US during the 1940s and 1950s. The National Research Council was asked to review the scientific studies undertaken by the US Department of Energy to determine if reliable and modern scientific methodology was being used to assess the potential hazard, if any, to persons who might return to live on Rongelap Atoll. A crucial provision of the MOU is that resettlement will occur only if no person returning to Rongelap and substituting on a native-foods-only diet will receive a calculated annual whole-body radiation dose equivalent of more than 100 mrem above background. The MOU also presents an action level of 17 pCi/g for the concentration of transuranic contamination, i.e., plutonium and americium, in soils below which mitigation will be considered unnecessary

  16. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study: an international cooperative scientific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Simon, S L; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Nakashima, N; Arisawa, K; Schoemaker, M J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer.

  17. Cobalt- and platinum-rich ferromanganese crusts and associated substrate rocks from the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Schwab, W.C.; Davis, A.

    1988-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts cover most hard substrates on seafloor edifices in the central Pacific basin. Crust samples and their associated substrates from seven volcanic edifices of Cretaceous age along the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands are discussed. The two most abundant substrate lithologies recovered were limestone, dominantly fore-reef slope deposits, and volcanic breccia composed primarily of differentiated alkalic basalt and hawaiite clasts in a phosphatized carbonate matrix. The degree of mass wasting on the slopes of these seamounts is inversely correlated with the thickness of crusts. Crusts are generally thin on limestone substrate. Away from areas of active mass-wasting processes, and large atolls, crusts may be as thick as 10 cm maximum. The dominant crystalline phase in the Marshall Islands crusts is ??-MnO2 (vernadite). High concentrations of cobalt, platinum and rhodium strongly suggest that the Marshall Islands crusts are a viable source for these important metals. Many metals and the rare earth elements vary significantly on a fine scale through most crusts, thus reflecting the abundances of different host mineral phases in the crusts and changes in seawater composition with time. High concentrations of cobalt, nickel, titanium, zinc, lead, cerium and platinum result from a combination of their substitution in the iron and manganese phases and their oxidation potential. ?? 1988.

  18. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  19. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  20. An Ecosocial Approach to the Epidemic of Cholera in the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Palmer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A cholera outbreak occurred in the Marshall Islands in December 2000 to January 2001 with over 400 cases and six deaths. Within Kwajalein Atoll, cholera occurred on Ebeye Island, while it did not occur on Kwajalein Island, three miles away. We apply Krieger’s ecosocial approach in order to explicate the reasons for this dichotomy. We first examine how Marshallese people came to embody cholera as a disease state. Secondly, we examine the (a arrangements of power, property, production, and consumption in the Ebeye-Kwajalein complex, as well as (b human biology as it has been shaped by the ecological context in order to elucidate the pathways to the embodiment of cholera. Thirdly, we examine the cumulative interplay between exposure to cholera, as well as susceptibility and resistance to the disease at the level of individuals and the island-wide level. Fourthly, we examine who is responsible for the cholera outbreak and who describes the phenomena. We conclude that the outbreak of cholera in the Marshall Islands can be considered the biologic embodiment of disparate political and economic conditions and ecological imbalance. We suggest courses of action for those interested in addressing the inequalities and working towards health.

  1. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  3. THE NCI STUDIES ON RADIATION DOSES AND CANCER RISKS IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI, National Institutes of Health) was requested by the U.S. Congress in 2004 to assess the number of radiation-related illnesses to be expected among the people of the Marshall Islands from nuclear tests conducted there during 1946-1958. A thorough analysis conducted by the NCI concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear devices tested in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall ...

  4. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at five atolls in the Marshall Islands; September--October 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Division of Operational Safety's portion of the Pacific Radioecology Program began in 1974 and it is a continuing program to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soils of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. As part of this program, Wotje, Ailuk, Utirik, Rongelap, and Bikini tolls were visited in 1976 and samples collected. Results of the radiometric analyses of the samples are presented. Results of these analyses indicate that 90 Sr and 137 Cs are predominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241 Am and 239 240 Pu are also important in the soil from Rongelap and Bikini Atols. Naturally occurring 40 K is the predominant radionuclide in marine organisms, while 60 Co is significant in the tridacnid clams. Amounts of radioactivity vary with distance from the Bikini test site and in relation to the fallout pattern from the March 1954 Bravo test. Thus, samples from Bikini Atol had the greatest amounts of radioactivity while the northern islands of Rongelap had slightly lower amounts. The southern islands of Rongelap Atoll and Utirik Atoll had intermediate amounts of radioactivity while Ailuk and Wotje atolls had the least radioactivity of the atolls visited

  5. Reimaanlok: A National Framework for Conservation Area Planning in the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Reimaanlok, a national framework for the planning and establishment of community-based conservation areas in the Marshall Islands, is outlined. A team composed of international experts and local resource management professionals selected and modified an ecoregional planning approach, defined key concepts, selected conservation features and targets, compiled biogeographical information from scientific and local knowledge and carried out a national-level ecological gap assessment. Past development of community-based fisheries and conservation plans was reviewed and the lessons learned informed the development of a robust community-based planning process for the design and establishment of conservation areas on individual atolls, integrating ecosystem based management (EBM theory, traditional knowledge and management, and the particular socio-economic needs of island communities. While specific geographic, historical, cultural and economic characteristics of the Marshall Islands have created a framework that is unique, several aspects of this process offer ideas for national strategic conservation planning in other Small Island Developing States where there is a paucity of scientific data, significant and increasing threats, and where decision-making about the use of natural resources occurs primarily at the local level.

  6. The Environmental Issues of the Republic of the Marshall Islands From a Global Technoscape Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    川村, 千鶴子

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands, an expansive group of islands located in the Water planet, has been burdened with severalfold of environmental problems. The aftereffects from the nuclear-testing still continuously plague the country. The inevitable relocation from the remote islands, where people led traditional subsistence lifestyles, to the main island Majuro, forced its people to adapt to the rapid cultural changes due to urbanization, bringing about various social distortions. The s...

  7. A brief history of people and events related to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L

    1997-07-01

    The events related to nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands began at the end of WWII when the U.S. began an initiative to determine the effect of nuclear weapons on naval vessels and on the performance of military personnel. The first tests took place in 1946 even though the area known as Micronesia was not entrusted to the U.S. by the United Nations until 1947. Beginning with the first relocation of the Bikini people to Rongerik Atoll in 1946, the saga of the Marshall Islands involvement in the atomic age began. Although the testing program was limited to the years 1946 through 1958, many of the consequences and events related to the testing program continued over the decades since. That story is still ongoing with programs currently underway to attempt to resettle previously displaced communities, remediate contaminated islands, and to settle claims of damages to individuals and communities. The history of the years subsequent to 1958 are a mixed chronicle of a few original scientific investigations aimed at understanding the coral atoll environment, continued surveillance of the acutely exposed Marshallese, some efforts at cleanup and remediation, numerous monitoring programs and many studies repeated either for credibility purposes, to satisfy international demands or because the changing state of knowledge of radiation protection has necessitated us to rethink earlier beliefs and conclusions about late health effects and social consequences. The objective of this paper is to briefly note many of the historical and political events, scientific studies, persons and publications from 1946 to the present that relate to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

  8. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  9. Concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in the diet at the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, Victor E.; Robison, William L.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb have been determined in many local foods consumed by societies residing on different atolls in the Marshall Islands. The average daily intake of these two naturally occurring radionuclides from local and imported food is estimated to be 2.18 and 0.36 Bq, respectively. Local foods contribute 87% of the 210 Po and 47% of the 210 Pb associated with the diet. The items contributing the majority of the activity to the diet are derived from the marine environment and include parts of fish, invertebrates, seabirds and eggs of seabirds. The committed effective dose from ingestion of 210 Po and 210 Pb is 2 mSv/year (200 mrem/year). This pathway now contributes 83% of the natural background irradiation received by residents in the Marshall Islands. Because the naturally occurring radionuclides are omnipresent in terrestrial and marine foods at all atolls, the annual intake and computed dose can be considered as typical values for individuals with comparable diets and inhabiting other islands in the Pacific

  10. Concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in the diet at the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L; Wong, K M

    1994-09-30

    The concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb have been determined in many local foods consumed by societies residing on different atolls in the Marshall Islands. The average daily intake of these two naturally occurring radionuclides from local and imported food is estimated to be 2.18 and 0.36 Bq, respectively. Local foods contribute 87% of the 210Po and 47% of the 210Pb associated with the diet. The items contributing the majority of the activity to the diet are derived from the marine environment and include parts of fish, invertebrates, seabirds and eggs of seabirds. The committed effective dose from ingestion of 210Po and 210Pb is approximately 2 mSv/year (200 mrem/year). This pathway now contributes 83% of the natural background irradiation received by residents in the Marshall Islands. Because the naturally occurring radionuclides are omnipresent in terrestrial and marine foods at all atolls, the annual intake and computed dose can be considered as typical values for individuals with comparable diets and inhabiting other islands in the Pacific.

  11. Estimating the Impact of Drought on Groundwater Resources of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L. Barkey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources of small coral islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in climate. A significant short-term threat is El Niño events, which typically induce a severe months-long drought for many atoll nations in the western and central Pacific regions that exhausts rainwater supply and necessitates the use of groundwater. This study quantifies fresh groundwater resources under both average rainfall and drought conditions for the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI, a nation composed solely of atolls and which is severely impacted by El Niño droughts. The atoll island algebraic model is used to estimate the thickness of the freshwater lens for 680 inhabited and uninhabited islands of the RMI, with a focus on the severe 1998 drought. The model accounts for precipitation, island width, hydraulic conductivity of the upper Holocene-age sand aquifer, the depth to the contact between the Holocene aquifer and the lower Pleistocene-age limestone aquifer, and the presence of a reef flat plate underlying the ocean side of the island. Model results are tested for islands that have fresh groundwater data. Results highlight the fragility of groundwater resources for the nation. Average lens thickness during typical seasonal rainfall is approximately 4 m, with only 30% of the islands maintaining a lens thicker than 4.5% and 55% of the islands with a lens less than 2.5 m thick. Thicker lenses typically occur for larger islands, islands located on the leeward side of an atoll due to lower hydraulic conductivity, and islands located in the southern region of the RMI due to higher rainfall rates. During drought, groundwater on small islands (<300 m in width is completely depleted. Over half (54% of the islands are classified as “Highly Vulnerable” to drought. Results provide valuable information for RMI water resources planners, particularly during the current 2016 El Niño drought, and similar methods can be used to quantify

  12. Screening adult tuberculosis patients for diabetes mellitus in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasa, J N; Brostrom, R; Ram, S; Kumar, A M V; Seremai, J; Hauma, M; Paul, I A; Langidrik, J R

    2014-06-21

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the screening of adult TB patients for diabetes (DM) using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of 62 patients registered between July 2010 and December 2012, 28 (45%) had DM. The only significant difference in baseline characteristics between those with and those without DM was higher age in those with DM. Two-month sputum smears and cultures were also not different between the two groups. Despite the limited sample size, this study shows that screening TB patients for DM in Ebeye is feasible and worthwhile and that it should be continued.

  13. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kehl, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martinelli, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tumey, S. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Langston, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamblin, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tibon, S. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Chee, L. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Aisek, Jr., A. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); DeDrum, Z. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Mettao, M. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Henson, J. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands)

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  14. Tuberculosis screening at a diabetes clinic in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Trinidad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Setting: Tuberculosis (TB and diabetes mellitus (DM are prominent public health problems in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a small island nation with high rates of tuberculosis and diabetes. Objective: Evaluate the rate of active and latent TB in a Pacific Island DM clinic. Design: In one DM clinic on the island of Ebeye, 213 adult patients aged 27–86 years completed tuberculin skin testing and TB work-up between April 2010 and March 2012. Results: Screening for TB led to the diagnosis of 77 patients with TB infection and 11 patients with TB disease. From these data, the prevalence of TB disease among DM patients in the clinic exceeded 5% (95% CI 2.2%–8.1%. All patients who completed TB screening were at high risk of TB disease, and those with DM aged ≤50 years had a higher risk of TB disease than those with DM over age 50 (RR 3.1, C.I. 1.0–9.7, p= 0.05. Conclusion: The experience at the Ebeye Diabetes Clinic demonstrates that screening DM patients for TB can identify significant rates of TB infection and TB disease, and should be considered for other settings with a high background TB incidence. Further assessment of TB risks should explore age, gender, and level of diabetes control. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Diabetes, Pacific Islands, Bi-directional screening

  15. Reconstruction and analysis of 137Cs fallout deposition patterns in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Robert C

    2002-03-01

    Estimates of 137Cs deposition caused by fallout originating from nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands have been estimated for several locations in the Marshall Islands. These retrospective estimates are based primarily on historical exposure rate and gummed film measurements. The methods used to reconstruct these deposition estimates are similar to those used in the National Cancer Institute study for reconstructing 131I deposition from the Nevada Test Site. Reconstructed cumulative deposition estimates are validated against contemporary measurements of 137Cs concentration in soil with account taken for estimated global fallout contributions. These validations show that the overall geometric bias in predicted-to-observed (P:O) ratios is 1.0 (indicating excellent agreement). The 5th to 95th percentile range of this distribution is 0.35-2.95. The P:O ratios for estimates using historical gummed film measurements tend to slightly overpredict more than estimates using exposure rate measurements. The deposition estimate methods, supported by the agreement between estimates and measurements, suggest that these methods can be used with confidence for other weapons testing fallout radionuclides.

  16. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami; Uchida; Hamilton; Robison

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 (99Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (MI) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g(-1) dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g(-1) dw under standard operating conditions.

  17. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g -1 dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g -1 dw under standard operating conditions

  18. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  19. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K. E-mail: k_tagami@nirs.go.jp; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W

    2000-07-15

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g{sup -1} dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g{sup -1} dw under standard operating conditions.

  20. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  1. The association between El Niño/Southern Oscillation events and typhoons in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennemann, D H; Marschner, I C

    1995-09-01

    An analysis of the historic record of typhoons in the Marshall Islands has identified a significant association between the occurrence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) and the occurrence of typhoons in the Marshall Islands. Whilst typhoons normally occur further to the east, the warming of the ocean waters around the Marshall Islands, as part of the ENSO phenomenon, generates typhoons further to the west. The results suggest that typhoons are 2.6 times more likely to occur during ENSO years, with a 71 per cent chance of a typhoon striking during an ENSO year, and only a 26 per cent chance of one happening during a non-ENSO year. This has implications for planning and public safety, which the relevant authorities may wish to take note of.

  2. Dental manpower development in the Pacific: case study in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Langidrik, Justina R; Milgrom, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    This case study reports the ongoing progress and results of a manpower development program to expand indigenous dental personnel at four levels in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The program was designed to: 1) increase the number of Marshallese students who successfully complete dentistry training; 2) recruit and train a group of Marshallese high school graduates in dental assisting for service in new preventive outreach programs within the community; 3) enhance the dental training of health assistants providing primary medical care to outer islands away from the main population centers of Majuro and Ebeye; and 4) provide in-service training on tooth decay prevention for Head Start teachers. The program resulted in the training of one Marshallese dentist and two Marshallese dental therapist, 16 primary care health aides who received oral health training for work in the outer island dispensaries, and 200 Head Start and kindergarten teachers who completed in-service training in oral health. Additional expertise was shared with other United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) to enhance the dental workforce throughout the Pacific.

  3. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragos, J.E.; Agegian, Catherine

    1986-01-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  4. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragos, J E [Environmental Resources Section, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division, HI (United States); Agegian, Catherine [University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1986-07-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  5. Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a tsunami which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the tsunami within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean tsunami signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the tsunami amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, tsunami oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep ocean. The tsunami energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the tsunami behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the tsunami across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the tsunami on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.

  6. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-01-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from 239 Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of 239 Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both

  7. Precipitation Frequency for Republic of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  8. Petrology and age of alkalic lava from the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A.S.; Pringle, M.S.; Pickthorn, L.-B.G.; Clague, D.A.; Schwab, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Volcanic rock dredged from the flanks of four volcanic edifices in the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands consist of alkalic lava that erupted above sea level or in shallow water. Compositions of recovered samples are predominantly differentiated alkalic basalt and hawaiite but include strongly alkalic melilitite. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar total fusion and incremental heating ages of 87.3 ?? 0.6 Ma and 82.2 ?? 1.6 Ma determined for samples from Erikub Seamount and Ratak Guyot, respectively, are within the range predicted by plate rotation models but show no age progression consistent with a simple hot spot model. Variations in isotopic and some incompatible element ratios suggest interisland heterogeneity. -from Authors

  9. Dietary intake in infants and young children in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammino, Victoria M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Langidrik, Justina R

    2007-09-01

    Changes in traditional foodways associated with increasing modernization have affected the feeding patterns of infants and young children. Declines in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been associated with poor nutritional status and increased morbidity from infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in children under six in four settings in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia. The mean duration of breastfeeding in the sample was 11 months, however only 16% of subjects were exclusively breastfed for the first six months, which is recommended by the WHO, UNICEF and other policymakers. Among non-exclusively breastfed infants, supplemental foods were introduced as early as 2 months. Mean intakes for total energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat and iron were calculated for subjects providing recalls. Intake levels for energy, protein, carbohydrates and iron varied by location. Recommendations for future research and program intervention are outlined.

  10. Observations and estimates of wave-driven water level extremes at the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Becker, J. M.; Ford, M.; Yao, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Wave-driven extreme water levels are examined for coastlines protected by fringing reefs using field observations obtained in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The 2% exceedence water level near the shoreline due to waves is estimated empirically for the study sites from breaking wave height at the outer reef and by combining separate contributions from setup, sea and swell, and infragravity waves, which are estimated based on breaking wave height and water level over the reef flat. Although each component exhibits a tidal dependence, they sum to yield a 2% exceedence level that does not. A hindcast based on the breaking wave height parameterization is used to assess factors leading to flooding at Roi-Namur caused by an energetic swell event during December 2008. Extreme water levels similar to December 2008 are projected to increase significantly with rising sea level as more wave and tide events combine to exceed inundation threshold levels.

  11. Marshallese and English: Evidence for an Immersion Model of Education in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Pamela; Savage, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the history of language issues and educational policies in the Marshall Islands. Discussion focuses on the administrative, financial, curricular, and staffing features of current language and educational programs, and an immersion model of bilingual Marshallese-English education is proposed to counteract some of the negative outcomes of…

  12. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  13. Bioremediation case study: Fuel-contaminated soil cleanup in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machanoff, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using microbes to degrade fuels in contaminated soils is becoming increasingly more attractive as an approach to environmental restoration. Removing contamination by traditional methods is costly, does not always eliminate the problem, and often just moves it somewhere else. Biodegradation of contaminants can often be accomplished in situ, resulting in the actual destruction of the contaminants by microbial conversion to harmless by-products. Bioremediation is not applicable to all forms of environmental contamination but has been demonstrated to be particularly effective on petroleum hydrocarbon based fuels. Bioremediation can offer a cost-effective means for site cleanup, particularly where challenging logistical considerations have to be factored into cleanup projects. Logistical considerations have made bioremediation the method of choice for the decontamination of fuel-containing soils on Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Kwajalein is located more than 2,100 miles west of Hawaii in the southernmost part of the North Pacific. The site of a major missile range of the Strategic Defense Command (SDC), Kwajalein has been the center of US defense activities for almost 50 years. The island is part of a typical coral atoll and is only 2.5 miles long and 0.5 miles wide. Mission-related activities over the past 5 decades have resulted in about 10% of the island being contaminated with diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels. SDC has executed an agreement with the Department of Energy for the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), a division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to assist the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) in the management of the Base restoration activities on Kwajalein Atoll. HAZWRAP initiated sampling and feasibility studies to determine whether bioremediation was a viable choice for site cleanup at USAKA

  14. Doses from external irradiation to Marshall Islanders from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, André; Beck, Harold L; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Annual doses from external irradiation resulting from exposure to fallout from the 65 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands at Bikini and Enewetak between 1946 and 1958 have been estimated for the first time for Marshallese living on all inhabited atolls. All tests that deposited fallout on any of the 23 inhabited atolls or separate reef islands have been considered. The methodology used to estimate the radiation doses at the inhabited atolls is based on test- and location-specific radiation survey data, deposition density estimates of 137Cs, and fallout times-of-arrival provided in a companion paper (Beck et al.), combined with information on the radionuclide composition of the fallout at various times after each test. These estimates of doses from external irradiation have been combined with corresponding estimates of doses from internal irradiation, given in a companion paper (Simon et al.), to assess the cancer risks among the Marshallese population (Land et al.) resulting from exposure to radiation from the nuclear weapons tests.

  15. Ages of subsurface stratigraphic intervals in the Quaternary of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, B. J.; Tracey, J.I.; Goter, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Drill cores of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, reveal six stratigraphic intervals, numbered in downward sequence, which represent vertical coral growth during Quaternary interglaciations. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Holocene sea transgressed the emergent reef platform by about 8000 yr B.P. The reef grew rapidly upward (about 5 to 10 mm/yr) until about 6500 yr B.P. Afterward vertical growth slowed to about 0.5 mm/yr, then lateral development became dominant during the last several thousand years. The second interval is dated at 131,000 ?? 3000 yr B.P. by uranium series. This unit correlates with oxygen-isotope substage 5e and with terrace VIIa of Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and of Main Reef-2 terrace at Atauro Island. The third interval is not dated because corals were recrystallized and it is tentatively correlated with either oxygen-isotope stages 7 or 9. The age of the fourth interval is estimated at 454,000 ?? 100,000 yr B.P. from measured 234U 238U activity ratios. This unit is correlated with either oxygen-isotope stage 9, 11, or 13. ?? 1985.

  16. The Citizen Life and the Environment in Republic of Kiribati and Republic of Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    山口, 由二

    2004-01-01

    2004年2月12日から同年2月29日の18日間、フィジー共和国のナンディ経由でキリバス共和国のタラワおよび、マーシャル諸島共和国のマジュロの2箇所を調査した。今回の調査旅行の目的は「南太平洋島嶼諸国の経済発展と環境問題」をメインテーマとする研究の一環である。しかし、筆者は南太平洋における社会・文化の全般に、さまざまな知見を得たのでここに記すこととする。Tarawa in Republic of Kiribati and Majuro in Republic of the Marshall Islands were investigated for 18 days on February 12 to February 29, 2004. The purpose of this investigation travel is a part of the research which makes a main theme "economic development and the environmental problem of the South Pacific island co...

  17. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  18. Neocolonialism and Health Care Access among Marshall Islanders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U.S.-based Marshall Islanders face in receiving medical treatment. Calling on an expansive and inclusive notion of neocolonialism, I argue that Marshallese structural vulnerability with regard to health and health care treatment derives from their status as neocolonial subjects and from their limited claims to health-related deservingness associated with this status. [Marshall Islanders, health care access, neocolonialism, radiation exposure, immigrant health] L̗ōmn̗ak ko rōttin̗o: Ilo M̗ajel̗, juon bwebwenato kōn kōmmālmel im nuclear baam̗ ko im ekkatak ko rōttin̗o̗ kōn wāwein an baijin ko jelōt armej, barāinwōt an to an ri tarinae ro an Amedka pād ilo aelōn̄ kein, em̗ōj an jelōt ājmour an armej ro ilo aelōn̄ kein. Men̄e alikkar bwe Amedka in ear jino nan̄inmej kein im ej un eo armej rein rej em̗m̗akūt jān āne kein āne er n̄an ioon Amedka, elōn̄ iaan ri M̗ajel̗ rein rej jelm̗ae elōn̄ apan̄ ko n̄an aer del̗o̗n̄e jikin ājmour ko. Jān ekkatak eo ej bōk jikin kiō, jerbal in ej etali kabōjrak rak kein rōlōn̄ im armej in M̗ajel̗ ro ioon Amedka in rej jelm̗ae ilo aer jibadōk lo̗k jikin taktō. Ilo an kar Amedka jibadōk juon jea eo eutiej imejān lal̗ in, ij kwal̗ok juon aō akweelel bwe apan̄ ko an armej in M̗ajel̗ ikijjeen ājmour im jikin taktō ej itok jān aer kar ri kōm̗akoko ilo an kar

  19. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  20. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  1. Origin and migration of trace elements in the surface sediments of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Lisa; Omori, Takayuki; Yoneda, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Toru; Kobayashi, Ryuta; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2018-07-01

    The sediments of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, consist of bioclastic materials, including foraminifera and coral debris. The sedimentary depth profiles of elements showed that various elements including zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were enriched in the upper layers of the islands of Majuro Atoll. Carbon-14 dating revealed that the sedimentation of the upper layer was completed before 1670 and 542 cal BP in Laura and Calalen, respectively. The enriched elements could be categorized by their origins: (a) terrestrial elements transported as dust (aluminum (Al) and rare earth elements (REEs)); (b) anthropogenic elements (Zn and Cu); and (c) elements supplied by seabirds (phosphorus (P)). From the results of the total amount of Al supplied to sediments for ca. 2000 years, Al in Majuro Atoll was suggested to be airborne origin. The enrichment factors of the elements normalized to Al concentration of continental crust showed that REEs were also transported as dust, while Zn and Cu were mainly of anthropogenic origin. The speciation analysis by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) showed the presence of Zn-Cu alloys originated from industrial products. It was also revealed that Zn was enriched in the surface due to anthropogenic emission after urbanization on Majuro Atoll and fixed by carbonate and phosphate at the upper layer, which inhibits migration of Zn into the deeper layer and its release to the groundwater and costal water. Hence, the fixation of heavy metals at the surface prevents their exposure to aquatic organisms and residents via fresh groundwater in the island. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  3. An investigation into the prevalence of thyroid disease on Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Ohtomo, H; Nakashima, N; Takaya, K; Kimura, N; Satomi, S; Schoemaker, M J

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer was studied in the indigenous population residing on Ebeye Island, Kwajalein Atoll, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This island, centrally located in the nation, is home to about 25% of the nation's population, many who have migrated there from other atolls. The objective of the study was to obtain thyroid disease rate statistics on as much of the population as possible that was alive during the years of nuclear testing and to test the hypothesis that described a linearly decreasing prevalence of palpable nodules with increasing distance from the Bikini test site. 1,322 Marshallese born before 1965 were given a thyroid examination using neck palpation, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and high resolution ultrasound imaging. Approximately 40% of the total population living on this island who are at risk from exposure to radioactive fallout during the years 1946-1958 were screened. Of that group, 815 were alive at the time of the BRAVO test on 1 March 1954. Two hundred sixty-six people with thyroid nodules were found (32.6%): 132 were palpable nodules (16.2%), and 134 were nodules that could be diagnosed with ultrasound only (15.7%). Prevalence of palpable nodules was particularly high in men and women older than 60 y, in men who were 6 to 15 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test, and in women 1 to 10 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test. In 22 people, the clinical diagnosis was most likely cancer though histopathological evidence was only available from 11 operated cases. Of the 11 operated cases, 10 were cancer. Cancer prevalence was particularly high in those women born between 1944 and 1953 (7/220 = 3.2%), i.e., who were children during the early years of nuclear testing. The Ebeye data showed a marginally significant correlation between palpable nodule prevalence among women and distance to Bikini (r = -0.44, p = 0.06). This report summarizes the clinical findings of the thyroid examinations, the age

  4. Cancer of the oral cavity- a growing concern in the Micronesia: a case report from the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Sangita; Bhandary, Prahlad

    2003-03-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is of growing concern worldwide. In the Micronesia, there has been a recent increase in use of betel nut and tobacco chewing in addition to already existing problem of smoking and alcohol drinking. These deleterious habits have further added the risk for development of oral cancers in the Marshall Islands. The oral cancers have good prognosis, which is directly related to the early diagnosis and treatment. Advanced staged cancers need mutilating surgery in addition to radiotherapy and carry high mortality rate. The epidemiology, etiology and recent approaches in the management of oral cavity cancer has been discussed along with a case report of advanced cancer of the floor of the mouth from the Marshall Islands.

  5. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid.

  6. A pilot food store intervention in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dyckman, William; Frick, Kevin D; Boggs, Malia K; Haberle, Heather; Alfred, Julia; Vastine, Amy; Palafox, Neal

    2007-09-01

    To improve diet and reduce risk for obesity and chronic disease, we developed, implemented and evaluated a pilot intervention trial with 23 large and small food stores in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (12 intervention, 11 control). The intervention included both mass media (radio announcements, newspaper ads, video) and in-store (cooking demonstrations, taste tests, shelf labeling) components. Consumer exposure to the mass media components was high (65% had heard half or more of the radio announcements, 74% had seen at least one of the newspaper ads). Consumer exposure to the in-store components of the intervention was moderate (61% attended at least one cooking demonstrations, 59% received at least one recipe card). After adjustment for age, sex and education level, increased exposure to the intervention was associated with higher diabetes knowledge (p<0.05) and label reading knowledge (p<0.05), but not with increased self-efficacy for performing promoted healthy behaviors. The intervention was associated with increased purchasing of certain promoted foods (p<0.005), including oatmeal, turkey chili, fish, canned fruit and local vegetables. It was also associated with improvements in healthiness of cooking methods (p<0.05). Food store centered interventions have great potential for changing cognitive and behavioral factors relating to food choice and preparation, and may contribute to lessening the burden of diet-related chronic disease worldwide.

  7. Culture, hydrology, and other situational controls on atoll freshwater availability (Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, W.

    2016-12-01

    The comparatively uncertain rainfall catch and rising seas in isolated North Pacific atoll communities has presented serious challenges to maintain human communities with freshwater volume. Moreover, the feudal hierarchy, which structures social and economic relationships among local governance and citizens contributes equally to problems and potential solutions. These relationships modulate the availability of critical ecosystem services generated by freshwater, with additional constraints contributed by climate change, rainfall variability (e.g., current El Niño climate pattern), and continuous threat of drought. The major freshwater resources for an atoll are the groundwater freshwater lens, residential and commercial rainwater harvesting, large-scale rainfall catchments (e.g., an airport runway), imported-virtual water, or desalinization subsidies. The significance of each of these resources scale across different atolls according to size, topography, soils, population, infrastructure, and land ownership. The potential integration and coordination of these water resources is largely unrealized due to land ownership, the lack of a contiguous catchment area, uneven and fractured governance. The situational aspects are further characterized by feuding among families and communities (some resource rich, some resource poor), and conflicting land use priorities where agriculture placement and practice can compromise the quality of already limited freshwater resources. This presentation uses the example of Majuro atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands), field data and other observations, to illustrate sociohydrologic-drivers of freshwater availability, and suggests approaches that may improve on current and ongoing threats to public health and well-being.

  8. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surry (United Kingdom); Trott, K.R. [Gray Cancer Inst., Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Simon, S.L. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Saito, Hiroshi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and {sup 137}Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  9. Laboratory confirmation of measles in elimination settings: experience from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Terri B; Nandy, Robin; Hickman, Carole J; Langidrik, Justina R; Strebel, Peter M; Papania, Mark J; Seward, Jane F; Bellini, William J

    2009-02-01

    To highlight the complications involved in interpreting laboratory tests of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) for confirmation of infection during a measles outbreak in a highly vaccinated population after conducting a mass immunization campaign as a control measure. This case study was undertaken in the Republic of the Marshall Islands during a measles outbreak in 2003, when response immunization was conducted. A measles case was defined as fever and rash and one or more of cough, coryza or conjunctivitis. Between 13 July and 7 November 2003, serum samples were obtained from suspected measles cases for serologic testing and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for viral isolation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specimens were collected from 201 suspected measles cases (19% of total): of the ones that satisfied the clinical case definition, 45% were IgM positive (IgM+) and, of these, 24% had received measles vaccination within the previous 45 days (up to 45 days after vaccination an IgM+ result could be due to either vaccination or wild-type measles infection). The proportion of IgM+ results varied with clinical presentation, the timing of specimen collection and vaccination status. Positive results on RT-PCR occurred in specimens from eight IgM-negative and four IgM+ individuals who had recently been vaccinated. During measles outbreaks, limiting IgM testing to individuals who meet the clinical case definition and have not been recently vaccinated allows for measles to be confirmed while conserving resources.

  10. Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Bechtner, G; Edwards, R; Trott, K R

    1999-08-01

    Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.

  11. Regional Conservation Status of Scleractinian Coral Biodiversity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Richards

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventing the loss of biodiversity is a major challenge in mega-diverse ecosystems such as coral reefs where there is a critical shortage of baseline demographic data. Threatened species assessments play a valuable role in guiding conservation action to manage and mitigate biodiversity loss, but they must be undertaken with precise information at an appropriate spatial scale to provide accurate classifications. Here we explore the regional conservation status of scleractinian corals on isolated Pacific Ocean atolls in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. We compile an integrated regional species list based upon new and historical records, and compare how well the regional threat classifications reflect species level priorities at a global scale. A similar proportion of the 240 species of hard coral recorded in the current survey are classified as Vulnerable at the regional scale as the global scale using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List criteria (23% and 20% respectively, however there are distinct differences in the composition of species. When local abundance data is taken into account, a far greater proportion of the regional diversity (up to 80% may face an elevated risk of local extinction. These results suggest coral communities on isolated Pacific coral reefs, which are often predicted to be at low risk, are still vulnerable due to the small and fragmented nature of their populations. This reinforces that to adequately protect biodiversity, ongoing threatened species monitoring and the documentation of species-level changes in abundance and distribution is imperative.

  12. Exploring Mosquito Fauna of Majuro Atoll (Republic of Marshall Islands) in the Context of Zika Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Jérôme; Perera, Devika; Garstang, Helentina; Bossin, Herve C; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2018-04-09

    First autochthonous Zika clinical case was reported in the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) on Majuro Atoll in February 2016. An entomological survey of mosquito larvae and adult populations was carried out in four areas of Majuro, the most populated atoll of RMI encompassing different habitats (forest, rural, or urban) including some with confirmed clinical Zika cases to evaluate which mosquito species could be involved in the Zika transmission. A total of 2,367 immature and adult mosquito specimens were collected and identified to the species level. In total, five mosquito species were detected, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes marshallensis (Stone and Bohart), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a first record for RMI. The most abundant species was Ae. aegypti presumed to be the main vector of Zika virus followed by Ae. albopictus. Improved management of breeding containers through better public awareness and community engagement, mosquito surveillance and innovative mosquito control strategies using the sterile insect technique (SIT) and/or the incompatible insect technique (IIT) could help prevent outbreaks of arboviruses in the RMI.

  13. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira; Trott, K.R.; Simon, S.L.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137 Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  14. 1998 Inventory of Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources at the US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (NODC Accession 0000631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the second United States Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (UES) inventory of...

  15. Inventory of endangered species and wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1988 (NODC Accession 0000631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An inventory of endangered species and the wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajelein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Island were conducted from 30 October 1998 to...

  16. 1996 Inventory of Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources on US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (NODC Accession 0000251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the first United States Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (UES) inventory of...

  17. Ground-Water Geochemistry of Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Gordon W.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water on Kwajalein Island is an important source of drinking water, particularly during periods of low rainfall. Fresh ground water is found as a thin lens underlain by saltwater. The concentration of dissolved ions increases with depth below the water table and proximity to the shoreline as high-salinity seawater mixes with fresh ground water. The maximum depth of the freshwater lens is 37 ft. Chloride is assumed to be non-reactive under the range of geochemical conditions on the atoll. The concentration of chloride thus is used as a conservative constituent to evaluate freshwater-saltwater mixing within the aquifer. Concentrations of sodium and for the most part, potassium and sulfate, also appear to be determined by conservative mixing between saltwater and rain. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and strontium are higher than expected from conservative mixing; these higher concentrations are a result of the dissolution of carbonate minerals. An excess in dissolved inorganic carbon results from carbonate-mineral dissolution and from the oxidation of organic matter in the aquifer; the stoichiometric difference between excess dissolved inorganic carbon and excess bivalent cations is used as a measure of the amount of organic-matter oxidation. Organic-matter oxidation also is indicated by the low concentration of dissolved oxygen, high concentrations of nutrients, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in many of the water samples. Low levels of dissolved oxygen indicate oxic respiration, and sulfate reduction is indicated by hydrogen sulfide. The amount of dissolved inorganic carbon released during organic-matter oxidation is nearly equivalent to the amount of carbonate-mineral dissolution. Organic-matter oxidation and carbonate-mineral dissolution seem to be most active either in the unsaturated zone or near the top of the water table. The most plausible explanation is that high amounts of oxic respiration in the unsaturated zone generate carbon dioxide

  18. University of Washington's radioecological studies in the Marshall Islands, 1946-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L R; Seymour, A H; Nevissi, A E

    1997-07-01

    Since 1946, personnel from the School of Fisheries, University of Washington (Applied Fisheries Laboratory, 1943-1958; Laboratory of Radiation Biology, 1958-1967; and Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, since 1967), have studied the effects of nuclear detonations and the ensuing radioactivity on the marine and terrestrial environments throughout the Central Pacific. A collection of reports and publications about these activities plus a collection of several thousand samples from these periods are kept at the School of Fisheries. General findings from the surveys show that (1) fission products were prevalent in organisms of the terrestrial environment whereas activation products were prevalent in marine organisms; (2) the best biological indicators of fallout radionuclides by environments were (a) terrestrial-coconuts, land crabs; (b) reef-algae, invertebrates; and (c) marine-plankton, fish. Studies of plutonium and americium in Bikini Atoll showed that during 1971-1977 the highest concentrations of 241Am, 2.85 Bq g(-1) (77 pCi g(-1)) and 239,240Pu, 4.44 Bq g(-1) (120 pCi g(-1)), in surface sediments were found in the northwest part of the lagoon. The concentrations in the bomb craters were substantially lower than these values. Concentrations of soluble and particulate plutonium and americium in surface and deep water samples showed distributions similar to the sediment samples. That is, the highest concentration of these radionuclides in the water column were at locations with highest sediment concentration. Continuous circulation of water in the lagoon and exchange of water with open ocean resulted in removal of 111 G Bq y(-1) (3 Ci y(-1)) 241Am and 222 G Bq y(-1) (6 Ci y(-1)) 239,240Pu into the North Equatorial Current. A summary of the surveys, findings, and the historical role of the Laboratory in radioecological studies of the Marshall Islands are presented.

  19. Underwater research methods for study of nuclear bomb craters, Enewetak, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Halley, R.B.; Kindinger, J.L.; Hudson, J.H.; Slate, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three craters, created by the explosion of nuclear fusion devices, were mapped, sampled, core drilled and excavated with airlifts at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands by using scuba and a research submersible. The craters studied were Mike, Oak, and Koa. Tests took place near sea level at the transition between lithified reef flat and unlithified lagoonal sediments, where water depth ranged from 1 to 4 m. Craters produced by the blasts ranged from 30 to 60 m in depth. The purpose of our study was to determine crater diameter and depth immediately after detonation. Observations of submerged roadways and testing structures and upturned crater rims similar to those characteristic of meteor impacts indicate that the initial, or transient, craters were smaller than their present size. At some later time, while the area was too radioactive for direct examination, the sides of the craters slumped owing to dewatering of under lying pulverized rock. Core drilling of crater margins with a diver-operated hydraulic coring device provided additional data. On the seaward margin of the atoll, opposite Mike, a large portion of the atoll rim approximately the size of a city block had slumped into the deep ocean, leaving a clean vertical rock section more than 400m high. An abundance of aggressive grey reef sharks displaying classic territorial behavior prevented use of scuba at the Mike slump site. The two-person submersible R.V. Delta provided protection and allowed observations down to 300 m. During the 6-week period of study, we made more than 300 scuba and 275 submersible dives. Mapping was with side scan sonar and continuous video sweeps supplemented by tape-recorded verbal descriptions made from within the submersible. A mini-ranger navigation system linked to the submersible allowed plotting of bottom features, depth and sediment type with spatial accuracy to within 2 m.

  20. Uptake of 40K and 137Cs in native plants of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L; Graham, J C; Terp, S D

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of 137Cs and 40K was studied in seven native plant species of the Marshall Islands. Plant and soil samples were obtained across a broad range of soil 137Cs concentrations (0.08-3900 Bq/kg) and a narrower range of 40K soil concentrations (2.3-55 Bq/kg), but with no systematic variation of 40K relative to 137Cs. Potassium-40 concentrations in plants varied little within the range of 40K soil concentrations observed. Unlike the case for 40K, 137Cs concentrations increased in plants with increasing 137Cs soil concentrations though not precisely in a proportionate manner. The best-fit relationship between soil and plant concentrations was P = aSb where a and b are regression coefficients and P and S are plant and soil concentrations, respectively. The exponent b for 40K was zero, implying plant concentrations were a single value, while b for 137Cs varied between 0.51 and 0.82, depending on the species. For both 40K and 137Cs, we observed a decreasing concentration ratio (where concentration ratio=plant concentration/soil concentration) with increasing soil concentrations. For the CR values, the best-fit relationship was of the form CR = aSb/S = aSb(-1). For the 40K CR functions, the exponent b - 1 was close to - 1 for all species. For the 137Cs CR functions, the exponent b - 1 varied from -0.19 to -0.48. The findings presented here, aswell as those by other investigators, collectively argue against the usefulness of simplistic ratio models to accurately predict uptake of either 40K or 137Cs in plants over wide ranges of soil concentration.

  1. Uptake of {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in native plants of the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, S.L.; Graham, J.C.; Terp, S.D

    2002-07-01

    Uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K was studied in seven native plant species of the Marshall Islands. Plant and soil samples were obtained across a broad range of soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations (0.08-3900 Bq/kg) and a narrower range of {sup 40}K soil concentrations (2.3-55 Bq/kg), but with no systematic variation of {sup 40}K relative to {sup 137}Cs. Potassium-40 concentrations in plants varied little within the range of {sup 40}K soil concentrations observed. Unlike the case for {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs concentrations increased in plants with increasing {sup 137}Cs soil concentrations though not precisely in a proportionate manner. The best-fit relationship between soil and plant concentrations was P=aS{sup b} where a and b are regression coefficients and P and S are plant and soil concentrations, respectively. The exponent b for {sup 40}K was zero, implying plant concentrations were a single value, while b for {sup 137}Cs varied between 0.51 and 0.82, depending on the species. For both {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs, we observed a decreasing concentration ratio (where concentration ratio=plant concentration/soil concentration) with increasing soil concentrations. For the CR values, the best-fit relationship was of the form CR=aS{sup b}/S=aS{sup b-1}. For the {sup 40}K CR functions, the exponent b-1 was close to -1 for all species. For the {sup 137}Cs CR functions, the exponent b-1 varied from -0.19 to -0.48. The findings presented here, as well as those by other investigators, collectively argue against the usefulness of simplistic ratio models to accurately predict uptake of either {sup 40}K or {sup 137}Cs in plants over wide ranges of soil concentration.

  2. Ground-water resources of the Laura area, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Anthony, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The water system that supplies the heavily populated Dalap-Uliga-Darrit (DUD) area of Majuro atoll, Marshall Island, relies almost entirely upon airstrip catchment of rain water. Droughts cause severe water supply problems and water rationing is required, even during periods of normal rainfall. The Laura area contains a substantial lens of fresh groundwater that could be developed for export to the DUD area 30 mi to the east. Study of the groundwater resource at Laura involved a survey of existing wells, installation of monitoring wells and test holes, compilation of continuous records of rainfall and water level fluctuations, and collection of water quality data. Test hole data permitted the definition of three geohydrologic units which correlate well with similar units in Bikini and Enewetak atolls. The units consist of two layers of unconsolidated reef and lagoon sediments resting on a dense, highly permeable limestone. The potable water zone, or freshwater nucleus, of the lens is contained mostly within the unconsolidated layers, which are much less permeable than the basal limestone. Recharge to the Laura freshwater lens is estimated to be 1.8 mil gal/day, based on an average annual rainfall of 140 in. Sustainable yield is estimated to be about 400,000 gal/day. Shallow skimming wells or infiltration galleries similar to those used on Kwajalein atoll would be appropriate to develop the freshwater lens. The impact of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the salinity in developed water and in a network of monitor wells. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Vitamin A deficiency and inflammatory markers among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricks Michelle O

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exclusion of individuals with elevated acute phase proteins has been advocated in order to improve prevalence estimates of vitamin A deficiency in surveys, but it is unclear whether this will lead to sampling bias. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the exclusion of individuals with elevated acute phase proteins is associated with sampling bias and to characterize inflammation in children with night blindness. Methods In a survey in the Republic of the Marshall Islands involving 281 children, aged 1–5 years, serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP, and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP were measured. Results Of 281 children, 24 (8.5% had night blindness and 165 (58.7% had serum retinol 5 mg/L and/or AGP >1000 mg/L. Among children with and without night blindness, the proportion with serum retinol P = 0.03 and with anemia was 58.3% and 35.7% (P = 0.029, respectively. The proportion of children with serum retinol P = 0.016, the proportion of boys was 43.1% vs. 54.3% (P = 0.075, with no hospitalizations in the last year was 11.0% vs 23.6% (P = 0.024, and with anemia was 43.8% vs 31.7% (P = 0.05, respectively. Conclusions Exclusion of children with inflammation in this survey of vitamin A deficiency does not improve prevalence estimates for vitamin A deficiency and instead leads to sampling bias for variables such as age, gender, anemia, and hospitalization history.

  4. Phosphatization Associated Features of Ferromanganese Crusts at Lemkein Seamount, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Lee, I.; Park, B. K.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Old layers of ferromanganese crusts, especially in the Pacific Ocean, have been affected by phosphatization. Ferromanganese crusts on Lemkein seamount in Marshall Islands also are phosphatized (3.3 to 4.2 wt % of P concentration). Furthermore, they have characteristic features that are different from other ferromanganese crusts. These features occur near the phosphorite, which were thought to fill the pore spaces of ferromanganese crusts. Inside the features, ferromanganese crusts are botryoidally precipitated from the round-boundary. The features of the phosphatized lower crusts of Lemkein seamount are observed using microscope and SEM. Elemental compositions of the selected samples were analyzed by SEM-EDS. Based on the observation and analysis of samples, three characteristic structures are identified: (1) phosphate-filled circles, (2) tongue-shaped framboidal crust, and (3) massive framboidal crust. The phosphate-filled circles are mostly composed of phosphorite, and they include trace fossils such as foraminifera. Phosphatized ferromanganese crusts exist at the boundary of this structure. The tongue-shaped crust is connected with the lips downward, and ferromanganese crusts inside the tongue show distinct growth rim. The massive framboidal crust is located below the tongue. Ferromanganese crusts in the massive framboidal crust are enveloped by phosphate, and some of the crusts are phosphatized. Around the structures, Mn oxide phase is concentrated as a shape of corona on BSE image. All of the structures are in the phosphatized crusts that show columnar growth of ferromanganese crusts and have sub-parallel lamination. These observation and chemical analysis of the ferromanganese crusts can provide a clue of diagenetic processes during the formation of ferromanganese crusts.

  5. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M; Mackay, Andrew J; Santiago, Gilberto A; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks.

  6. Distribution and sediment production of large benthic foraminifers on reef flats of the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K.; Osawa, Y.; Kayanne, H.; Ide, Y.; Yamano, H.

    2009-03-01

    The distributions and population densities of large benthic foraminifers (LBFs) were investigated on reef flats of the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands. Annual sediment production by foraminifers was estimated based on population density data. Predominant LBFs were Calcarina and Amphistegina, and the population densities of these foraminifers varied with location and substratum type on reef flats. Both foraminifers primarily attached to macrophytes, particularly turf-forming algae, and were most abundant on an ocean reef flat (ORF) and in an inter-island channel near windward, sparsely populated islands. Calcarina density was higher on windward compared to leeward sides of ORFs, whereas Amphistegina density was similar on both sides of ORFs. These foraminifers were more common on the ocean side relative to the lagoon side of reef flats around a windward reef island, and both were rare or absent in nearshore zones around reef islands and on an ORF near windward, densely populated islands. Foraminiferal production rates varied with the degree to which habitats were subject to water motion and human influences. Highly productive sites (>103 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1) included an ORF and an inter-island channel near windward, sparsely populated islands, and a seaward area of a reef flat with no reef islands. Low-productivity sites (<10 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1) included generally nearshore zones of lagoonal reef flats, leeward ORFs, and a windward ORF near densely populated islands. These results suggest that the distribution and production of LBFs were largely influenced by a combination of natural environmental factors, including water motion, water depth, elevation relative to the lowest tidal level at spring tide, and the distribution of suitable substratum. The presence of reef islands may limit the distribution and production of foraminifers by altering water circulation in nearshore environments. Furthermore, increased anthropogenic factors (population and activities) may

  7. Groundwater movement on a Low-lying Carbonate Atoll Island and its Response to Climatic and Sea-level Fluctuations: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, F. J.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands. These islands are unique and on the frontline of negative societal impacts due to their geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources on atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island settlements, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. Here we present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data from a 16 month study to determine the role of an atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange including submarine groundwater discharge on the island of Roi-Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on similar islands that are expected to experience climate change-driven perturbations.

  8. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley O.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 × 10"5 m"3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 × 10"4 m"3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a six-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land

  9. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  10. Training competent and effective Primary Health Care Workers to fill a void in the outer islands health service delivery of the Marshall Islands of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keni Bhalachandra H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for health are non-existent in many parts of the world and the outer islands of Marshall Islands in Micronesia are prime examples. While the more populated islands with hospital facilities are often successful in recruiting qualified health professionals from overseas, the outer islands generally have very limited health resources, and are thus less successful. In an attempt to provide reasonable health services to these islands, indigenous people were trained as Health Assistants (HA to service their local communities. In an effort to remedy the effectiveness of health care delivery to these islands, a program to train mid-level health care workers (Hospital Assistants was developed and implemented by the Ministry of Health in conjunction with the hospital in Majuro, the capital city of the Marshall Islands. Methods A physician instructor with experience and expertise in primary health care in these regions conducted the program. The curriculum included training in basic health science, essentials of endemic disorders and their clinical management appropriate to the outer islands. Emphasis was given to prevention and health promotion as well as to the curative aspects. For clinical observation, the candidates were assigned to clinical departments of the Majuro hospital for 1 year during their training, as assistants to the nursing staff. This paper discusses the details of the training, the modalities used to groom the candidates, and an assessment of the ultimate effectiveness of the program. Results Out of 16 boys who began training, 14 candidates were successful in completing the program. In 1998 a similar program was conducted exclusively for women under the auspices of Asian Development Bank funding, hence women were not part of this program. Conclusion For developing countries of the Pacific, appropriately trained human resources are an essential component of economic progress, and the health workforce

  11. PIALA '96. Jaketo Jaketak Kobban Alele Eo--Identifying, Using and Sharing Local Resources. Proceedings of the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (6th, Majuro, Marshall Islands, November 5-8, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    This 1996 PIALA conference explores ways to identify and make available local resources on the Marshall Islands. The traditional Marshallese word, "Alele," which means "the basket which holds the tools, treasures and resources needed for everyday life," is also the name of Majuro's public library, museum and Marshall Islands…

  12. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  13. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Sharp

    Full Text Available Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4. Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI. To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT, and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population were reported. Of 867 (54% laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24% had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7% had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future

  14. Characteristics of a Dengue Outbreak in a Remote Pacific Island Chain – Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Mackay, Andrew J.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S.; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10–29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks. PMID

  15. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.; Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Spennemann, D.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residences of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranic are 239,240 Pu and 241 Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children's graves. The rest of the remains were left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year. (author)

  16. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, B. [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States)]|[Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung e.V., Heidelberg (Germany); Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Lab. for Environmental Radioactivity; Spennemann, D.H.R. [Charles Sturt Univ., Albury (Australia). School of Environmental and Information Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residences of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranic are {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children`s graves. The rest of the remains were left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year. (author).

  17. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, B; Schupfner, R; Schüttelkopf, H; Spennemann, D H

    1995-11-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residents of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranics are 239,240Pu and 241Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children's graves. The rest of the remains was left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of 239,240Pu and 241Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year.

  18. Invisible Nuclear Catastrophe Consequences of the U.S. Atomic and Hydrogen Bomb Testings in the Marshall Islands: Focusing on the “Overlooked” Ailuk Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    Takemine, Seiichiro

    2018-01-01

    The United States conducted sixty-seven nuclear tests in total at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. T his article discusses the U.S. nuclear test issues in the Marshall Islands, focusing on the local people who have not been able t o apply for the U.S. compensation, especially those on Ailuk Atoll. Until today, little attention has been given to these areas.Interviews with survivors as well as declassified U.S. documents make it clear that the nuclear te...

  19. Radiological conditions at Naen, Yugui, Lomiulal, Kabelle and Mellu Islands in the northern half of Rongelap Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.

    1996-03-01

    The data presented in the following tables is the total available for each northern island; they include both the data from the 1978 Northern Marshall Island Radiological Survey (NMIRS) and trips to Rongelap Atoll from 1986 through 1989. In one table we present the number of vegetation samples collected in the 1978 NMIRS and from 1986 through 1989. Again the majority of the 137 Cs data is from the 1986-1989 trips. We have not made additional analyses of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr because the concentrations are very low and these radionuclides contribute less than 5% of an already very small dose. In another table we show the number of soil samples collected at each island in 1978 and the number collected since 1986. Most of the data are from 1986 through 1989. The major exception is 90 Sr where all of the data are from the 1978 NMIRS. We have done some additional Pu analyses of surface soils (0-5 cm depth) in the northern islands. A significant amount of new data for 137 Cs and 241 Am have been generated from the samples collected from 1986 through 1989. The data are presented in the form of summary tables, graphics, detailed appendices and aerial photographs of the islands with the sample locations marked. The identified sample locations from the 1978 NMIRS will be added later

  20. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  1. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernström, J.; Eriksson, M.; Simon, R.; Tamborini, G.; Bildstein, O.; Marquez, R. Carlos; Kehl, S. R.; Hamilton, T. F.; Ranebo, Y.; Betti, M.

    2006-08-01

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low 240Pu/ 239Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of 137Cs ( 239 + 240 Pu/ 137Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average 241Am/ 239Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 × 10 - 3 ± 0.2 × 10 - 3 (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  2. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstroem, J. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jussi.jernstrom@helsinki.fi; Eriksson, M. [IAEA-MEL, International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Simon, R. [Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tamborini, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bildstein, O. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquez, R. Carlos [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kehl, S.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Hamilton, T.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Ranebo, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Betti, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: maria.betti@ec.europa.eu

    2006-08-15

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of {sup 137}Cs ({sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average {sup 241}Am/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 x 10{sup -3} {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup -3} (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  3. A comparison of macro- and microscopic measurements of plutonium in contaminated soil from the republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Graham, J.C.; Borchert, A.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil from the Republic of the Marshall Islands has been studied to determine then spatial and volume characteristics of contamination on two scales: in macroscopic masses, i.e., gram sized samples, and in microscopic masses, i.e., 10's of μgrams to 1 mg. Three measures of volumetric homogeneity calculated from alpha track measurements on a plastic track detector (CR-39) are presented to quantitatively assess microspatial or micro volumetric variations. Data on the homogeneity of transuranic radioactivity is presented for four different particle size fractions of soil and in macro- and micro volumes. The nuclear track measurement technique is contrasted with radiochemistry/alpha spectrometry. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  5. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 07 (NS07): Majuro, Marshall Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  6. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  7. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  8. One-meter topobathymetric digital elevation model for Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1944 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Tyler, Dean J.; Gesch, Dean B.; Kottermair, Maria; Jalandoni, Andrea; Carlson, Edward; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barbee, Matthew M.

    2018-03-30

    Atoll and island coastal communities are highly exposed to sea-level rise, tsunamis, storm surges, rogue waves, king tides, and the occasional combination of multiple factors, such as high regional sea levels, extreme high local tides, and unusually strong wave set-up. The elevation of most of these atolls averages just under 3 meters (m), with many areas roughly at sea level. The lack of high-resolution topographic data has been identified as a critical data gap for hazard vulnerability and adaptation efforts and for high-resolution inundation modeling for atoll nations. Modern topographic survey equipment and airborne lidar surveys can be very difficult and costly to deploy. Therefore, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) were investigated for collecting overlapping imagery to generate topographic digital elevation models (DEMs). Medium- and high-resolution satellite imagery (Landsat 8 and WorldView-3) was investigated to derive nearshore bathymetry.The Republic of the Marshall Islands is associated with the United States through a Compact of Free Association, and Majuro Atoll is home to the capital city of Majuro and the largest population of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The only elevation datasets currently available for the entire Majuro Atoll are the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 elevation data, which have a 30-m grid-cell spacing and a 8-m vertical root mean square error (RMSE). Both these datasets have inadequate spatial resolution and vertical accuracy for inundation modeling.The final topobathymetric DEM (TBDEM) developed for Majuro Atoll is derived from various data sources including charts, soundings, acoustic sonar, and UAS and satellite imagery spanning over 70 years of data collection (1944 to 2016) on different sections of the atoll. The RMSE of the TBDEM over the land area is 0.197 m using over 70,000 Global Navigation Satellite

  9. Preliminary design of a landfill and revetment on Bikini Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. February 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Orson P; Yenhsi, Chu [Coastal Engineering Research Center, Department of the Army, Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Topsoil on Bikini Island, which is located 2500 miles southwest of Hawaii at 110351 N, 1650251 E, was contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The uptake of this radioactive fallout, primarily cesium-137 in plants, has prevented resettlement of the island by the native population. One alternative solution proposed by the congressionally appointed Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee involves removal of the contaminated topsoil and placement of the excavated material as a landfill on the 2,500-ft-wide reef flat adjacent to the eastern (windward) shore of the island. This paper explores that alternative by first developing an extremal wave climatology offshore of Bikini Island from 21 years 1959-1979) of typhoon data published by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on Guam. Deepwater wave conditions just offshore of the reef are estimated and transformed to the point of breaking at the edge of the reef. Storm surge Is estimated based on these same parameters. Wave setup on the reef flat is estimated based on the simulated breaking conditions. Given an estimate of the elevated water level across the reef caused by storm surge and wave setup, depth limitations and fractional decay are estimated to define wave conditions at the toe of the proposed revetment. A rubble-mound revetment design stable in these conditions, armored by coral limestone quarried from the reef flat, is then formulated and corresponding material quantities estimated. (author)

  10. Preliminary design of a landfill and revetment on Bikini Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. February 1987. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Orson P.; Chu Yenhsi

    1987-01-01

    Topsoil on Bikini Island, which is located 2500 miles southwest of Hawaii at 110351 N, 1650251 E, was contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The uptake of this radioactive fallout, primarily cesium-137 in plants, has prevented resettlement of the island by the native population. One alternative solution proposed by the congressionally appointed Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee involves removal of the contaminated topsoil and placement of the excavated material as a landfill on the 2,500-ft-wide reef flat adjacent to the eastern (windward) shore of the island. This paper explores that alternative by first developing an extremal wave climatology offshore of Bikini Island from 21 years 1959-1979) of typhoon data published by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on Guam. Deepwater wave conditions just offshore of the reef are estimated and transformed to the point of breaking at the edge of the reef. Storm surge Is estimated based on these same parameters. Wave setup on the reef flat is estimated based on the simulated breaking conditions. Given an estimate of the elevated water level across the reef caused by storm surge and wave setup, depth limitations and fractional decay are estimated to define wave conditions at the toe of the proposed revetment. A rubble-mound revetment design stable in these conditions, armored by coral limestone quarried from the reef flat, is then formulated and corresponding material quantities estimated. (author)

  11. Environmental surveillance in the Marshall Islands: an application of alternative energy sources in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Recent assessments of potential radiation exposure pathways at Bikini and Enewetak have indicated that doses in excess of current radiation protection guidelines are possible or even likely for persons living in these areas. Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, which were downwind of the 1954 BRAVO event, also received significant fallout; potential radiological problems exist in these areas as well. In view of this prospect, followup environmental monitoring and personnel monitoring programs are being established to maintain our cognizance of radiological conditions, and to take corrective action where necessary. Various aspects of this program require the operation of scientific equipment in remote areas which have no electrical power. In order to solve this problem, windpowered electrical generators were installed on three islands in a planned program through which they will be turned over to the local inhabitants for community use after about two years. This paper describes environmental surveillance efforts for the inhabitants of Pacific Islands who were the recipients of radioactive fallout from US nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific

  12. Macro- and microlevel processes affect food choice and nutritional status in the republic of the marshall islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Haberle, Heather; Vastine, Amy E; Dyckman, William; Palafox, Neal A

    2003-01-01

    Despite its relative isolation from the world stage and lack of resources, the Marshall Islands serve as an example of the interaction between global political power, macroeconomic forces and local cultural factors. At the national level, patterns of food importation and government programs encourage the consumption of high fat foods. These factors have fostered dependency on Western foods and a loss of traditional food practices. Beliefs come into play as microlevel factors that influence food choice and aspects of lifestyle. Nearly three quarters of women are overweight or obese in this setting. Obesity in women is associated with greater age, higher education and more imported food consumption. Over a third of children ages 1-5 y are stunted, with stunting associated with worse economic status, less active feeding, increased consumption of imported foods and urban residence. What can be done at the microlevel is constrained by macrolevel factors of disempowerment. In this way, issues of power and belief are played out in the bodies of individuals.

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The application of PIT tags to measure transport of detrital coral fragments on a fringing reef: Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Murray R.

    2014-06-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are a radio-frequency identification device widely used as a machine-readable identification tool in fisheries research. PIT tags have also been employed, to a lesser extent, to track the movement of gravel-sized clasts within fluvial and coastal systems. In this study, PIT tags were inserted into detrital coral fragments and used to establish source-sink transport pathways on a fringing reef on Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Results suggest the transport of gravel-sized material on the inter-tidal reef flat is exclusively across-reef towards the lagoon. Considerable variation in the distance travelled by fragments was observed. Fragments were largely intact and visually recognisable after almost 5 months on the reef flat. However, the branches of some recovered fragments had broken off and corallite abrasion was observed in recovered fragments. This study indicates that PIT tags are an inexpensive and powerful new addition to the suite of sediment transport and taphonomic tools for researchers working within coral reef systems.

  15. GIS Map of Mosaicked LandSat 7 ETM+ Satellite Imagery of the Marshall Islands, Micronesia Federated States, and the Republic of Palau from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2003 (NODC Accession 0067475)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These maps show for the first time an accurate georeferenced mosaic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau and their...

  16. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Kwajelein Atoll, Ebeye Island: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Seremai, Johannes; Trinidad, Richard; Paul, Irene; Langidrik, Justina; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been declared a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted on Ebeye Island of Kwajelein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) to describe the burdens due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); assess the system of service capacity and activities for service delivery, data collection, and reporting; and identify the key issues that need to be addressed. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that impact the morbidity and mortality of the population. Population survey of the RMI show that 62.5% of the total population is overweight or obese with a dramatic increase from the 15-24 year old (10.6%) and the 25-64 year old (41.9%) age groups. The leading causes of death were septicemia, renal failure, pneumonia, cancer, and myocardial infarction. Other findings show gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, and support services to address these NCD. All health care in Ebeye is provided in one setting and there is collaboration, coordination, and communication among medical and health care providers. The Book of Protocols for the Kwajalein Atoll Health Care Bureau provides the guidelines, standards, and policy and procedures for the screening, diagnosis, and management of diabetes and other NCDs. Based on these findings, priority issues and problems to be addressed for the administrative, clinical, and data systems were identified.

  17. Land-based whole-body counting on Enewetak Island in the Marshall Islands for 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barss, N.M.; Bell, R.T.; Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contracts Brookhaven National Laboratory- (BNL) scientists to perform a whole-body counting (WBC) program of the people living at Enewetak Island since 1980. Goals of the program are to monitor the intake of fission products and to assure the radiation safety of the residing population. Under the current direction of the DOE Office of International Health Programs, a WBC unit has been transported and installed at the Enewetak Field Station during a mission from 27 November to 11 December 1995. Previous WBC missions had been conducted aboard a vessel provided by DOE. The main objective of this land-based approach is to provide a self-monitoring capability for the Enewetakese in any season at any time. The purposes of this paper are to (1) describe the technical basis for this land-based WBC operation, (2) report current monitoring results, and (3) compare the average cesium dose rates from this mission with previous WBC results. The minimum detectable amount (MDA) of the WBC system is about 60 Bq in a 900 s interval. Due to local life style in a tropical environment, about 20 counting measurements can be made per day. The average cesium body content measured during this mission is 307±218 Bq for male adults, which is the lowest value since 1980. Assuming a continuous steady state intake of cesium, the corresponding effective dose rate from 137 Cs is about 11 μSv y -1

  18. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, Keith; Dunn, Michael; Lindström, Eva; Reesink, Ger; Terrill, Angela; Healy, Meghan E; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may

  19. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Hunley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain. There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast

  20. Ground-water resources and contamination at Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    Kwajalein Island is the largest of the many low, sandy islets that form Kwajalein Atoll in the western North Pacific Ocean. Salinity and water-level surveys at exploratory monitoring wells in 1990 and 1991 delineated a freshwater lens nearly 40 feet thick floating on saltwater within the carbonate sand and gravel aquifer. A transition zone of mixture between the freshwater and saltwater is as thick as 90 feet. Maximum water-table height is only 1.5 feet above sea level. The freshwater lens thinned and thickened by 5 feet during the year-long field study in response to seasonal rainfall and pumping. Freshwater is produced by airstrip rain catchments and shallow, horizontal wells up to 1,400 feet long. Catchment and ground-water yields are roughly equal on average, but catchment is the principal source during the wet season, whereas the dry season requires sustained pumping. The salinity of pumped water has remained below drinking-water standards since wells were installed in 1971, except during the drought of 1983-84, the most severe drought in the rainfall record dating back to 1945. Wet-season rains at the end of the drought reduced salinity to low levels in just a few months. The operating history of the combined catchment/well water supply indicates that it is capable of producing at least 300,000 gallons per day in all but the driest years, and more in wet years. Several sites are contaminated by fuels, solvents, or metals, but most are at the periphery of the freshwater flow system where contaminants are carried toward the shore. However, three interior sites have greater potential to contaminate nearby water-supply wells.

  1. Identification of factors influencing shark catch and mortality in the Marshall Islands tuna longline fishery and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhead, D; Clarke, S; Hoyle, S; Muller, B; Sharples, P; Harley, S

    2012-04-01

    Recent average annual catches of sharks by tuna longline vessels fishing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are estimated to be between 1583 and 2274 t. Although 22 shark species have been recorded by the observer programme for this fishery, 80% of the annual catch comprises only five species: blue shark Prionace glauca, silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis, bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus, pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus and oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus. Wire leaders (i.e. branch lines or traces) were also used by nearly all observed vessels. Generalized additive model (GAM)-based analyses of catch rates indicated that P. glauca and A. superciliosus are caught in higher numbers when vessels fish in relatively cooler waters, at night, close to the full moon, when the 27° C thermocline is close to the surface and during El Niño conditions. In contrast, C. falciformis, A. pelagicus and C. longimanus are caught in higher numbers when shark lines are used (all three species) or hooks are set at a shallow depth (A. pelagicus and C. longimanus and, also, P. glauca). These findings are generally consistent with current knowledge of these species' habitat preferences, movement and distribution. The results of these analyses were combined with information pertaining to shark condition and fate upon capture to compare the likely effectiveness of a range of potential measures for reducing shark mortality in the longline fishery. Of the options considered, the most effective would be to combine measures that reduce the catch rate (e.g. restrictions on the use of wire leaders, shark baits and shark lines) with measures that increase survival rates after post-capture release (e.g. finning bans). © 2012 Secrtariat of the Pacific Community. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands.

  3. Marshall Islands radiological followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; McCraw, T.F.

    In August, 1968, President Johnson announced that the people of Bikini Atoll would be able to return to their homeland. Thereafter, similar approval was given for the return of the peoples of Enewetak. These two regions, which comprised the Pacific Nuclear Testing Areas from 1946 to 1958, will probably be repopulated by the original inhabitants and their families within the next year. As part of its continuing responsibility to insure the public health and safety in connection with the nuclear programs under its sponsorship, ERDA (formerly AEC) has contracted Brookhaven National Laboratory to establish radiological safety and environmental monitoring programs for the returning Bikini and Enewetak peoples. These programs are described in the following paper. They are designed to define the external radiation environment, assess radiation doses from internal emitters in the human food chain, make long range predictions of total doses and dose commitments to individuals and to each population group, and to suggest actions which will minimize doses via the more significant pathways

  4. Marshall Islands radiological followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; McGraw, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    In August, 1968, President Johnson announced that the people of Bikini Atoll would be able to return to their homeland. Thereafter, similar approval was given for the return of the peoples of Enewetak. These two regions, which comprised the Pacific Nuclear Testing Areas from 1946 to 1958, will probably be repopulated by the original inhabitants and their families within the next year. As part of its continuing responsibility to insure the pulbic health and safety in connection with the nuclear program under its sponsorship, ERDA (formerly AEC) has contracted Brookhaven National Laboratory to establish radiological safety and environmental monitoring programs for the returning Bikini and Enewetak peoples. These programs are designed to define the external radiation environment, assess radiation doses from internal emitters in the human food chain, make long range predictions of total doses and dose commitments to individuals an to each population group, and to suggest actions which will minimize doses via the more significant pathways

  5. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Jung; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Lin, Huei-Shan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Liu, Yung-Ching; Langinlur, Mailynn K; Lu, Min-Yun; Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2014-05-15

    Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7-12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR = 5.52, 95% CI = 1.15-26.61, p = 0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.08-7.60, p = 0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides

  6. Evaluating the potential for near-shore bathymetry on the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, using Landsat 8 and WorldView-3 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Gesch, Dean B.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Tyler, Dean J.

    2018-04-16

    Satellite-derived near-shore bathymetry (SDB) is becoming an increasingly important method for assessing vulnerability to climate change and natural hazards in low-lying atolls of the northern tropical Pacific Ocean. Satellite imagery has become a cost-effective means for mapping near-shore bathymetry because ships cannot collect soundings safely while operating close to the shore. Also, green laser light detection and ranging (lidar) acquisitions are expensive in remote locations. Previous research has demonstrated that spectral band ratio-based techniques, commonly called the natural logarithm approach, may lead to more precise measurements and modeling of bathymetry because of the phenomenon that different substrates at the same depth have approximately equal ratio values. The goal of this research was to apply the band ratio technique to Landsat 8 at-sensor radiance imagery and WorldView-3 atmospherically corrected imagery in the coastal waters surrounding the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, to derive near-shore bathymetry that could be incorporated into a seamless topobathymetric digital elevation model of Majuro. Attenuation of light within the water column was characterized by measuring at-sensor radiance and reflectance at different depths and calculating an attenuation coefficient. Bathymetric lidar data, collected by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office in 2006, were used to calibrate the SDB results. The bathymetric lidar yielded a strong linear relation with water depths. The Landsat 8-derived SDB estimates derived from the blue/green band ratio exhibited a water attenuation extinction depth of 6 meters with a coefficient of determination R2=0.9324. Estimates derived from the coastal/red band ratio had an R2=0.9597. At the same extinction depth, SDB estimates derived from WorldView-3 imagery exhibited an R2=0.9574. Because highly dynamic coastal shorelines can be affected by erosion, wetland loss, hurricanes, sea-level rise, urban

  7. Seawater-overwash impacts on freshwater-lens water supplies of low-lying oceanic islands: example from Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, C. I.; Gingerich, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Low-lying oceanic islands host thin freshwater lenses subject to long-term aquifer salinization by seawater overwash. The lens is often the sole-source water supply for inhabitants. As maximum elevation for these islands is only a few meters above sea level, overwash can occur during high tides and storm surges. Sea level rise due to climate change will make overwash events even more common. The thin freshwater lenses, a few meters thick, are underlain by seawater, so pumping must be done carefully, often with horizontal skimming wells. Even a small amount of downward seawater infiltration from an overwash event can render the water supply non-potable. Where permeability is high, seawater infiltrates quickly, but seawater that infiltrates lower-permeability zones may remain for many months causing groundwater to remain non-potable, leaving residents without a reliable freshwater source. Initial post-overwash salinization is driven by the higher density of the invading saltwater, which sinks and mixes into the fresher water in potentially-complex patterns determined by: distribution of flooding and post-flood ponding, locations of permeable paths, and the inherently complex flow fields generated when fluid of higher density overlies lower-density fluid. The flow patterns cannot generally be measured or predicted in detail. This study develops basic understanding of overwash salinization processes impacting water supply on low-level islands, using a rare example of a monitored seawater overwash event that occurred in December 2008 at Roi-Namur Island in Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, in which the salinity evolution of well water was measured. Due to typical lack of field data on such islands, a set of plausible alternative simulation-model descriptions of the hydrogeology and overwash event are created for analysis of the monitored salinization and recovery. Despite inability to know the 'true and complete' description of the event and the

  8. Seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Luco, Nicholas; Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Mariana island arc has formed in response to northwestward subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate, and this process controls seismic activity in the region. Historical seismicity, the Mariana megathrust, and two crustal faults on Guam were modeled as seismic sources, and ground motions were estimated by using published relations for a firm-rock site condition. Maps of peak ground acceleration, 0.2-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping were computed for exceedance probabilities of 2 percent and 10 percent in 50 years. For 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.94 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.57 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 2.86 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 1.75 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.61 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.37 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. For 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.49 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.29 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 1.43 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.83 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.30 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.18 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. The dominant hazard source at the islands is upper Benioff-zone seismicity (depth 40–160 kilometers). The large probabilistic ground motions reflect the strong concentrations of this activity below the arc, especially near Guam.

  9. Agreement between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 3 May 2005 in New York. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 3 May 2005, upon signature by the representatives of the Marshall Islands and the Agency

  10. The relationship of thyroid cancer in the people of the Marshall Islands to potential exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Schoemaker, M.J.; Trott, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The US atomic weapons testing programme in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls in the Marshall Islands to various degrees. The largest weapon named BRAVO was tested in 1954 and resulted in high exposures to residents living on three atolls immediately downwind of the test site. Between 1993 and 1997, as part of the Nationwide Radiological Study of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, we examined 4767 Marshallese for all forms of thyroid disease, benign and malignant. Those examined had residences at the time of the test on all inhabited atolls of the nation and were born before the end of the nuclear testing period and thus potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. This group includes more than 60% of the alive population at risk. We diagnosed 38 thyroid cancers and found 23 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before. These findings indicate that 1 in 100 Marshallese had thyroid cancer or had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer before the investigation. Thyroid cancer rates varied little throughout the country, which suggests that thyroid cancer is endemic to the Marshallese population. However, the highest prevalence (1.8%) was found among women who were alive at the time of the BRAVO test. We derived crude estimates of thyroid dose for each study participant, using age-specific dose estimates on Utirik as estimated by Lessard et al. and adjusting those for location on the basis of contemporary measurements of Cs-137 at their island of residence in 1954. Prevalence of thyroid cancer generally increased with estimated dose to the thyroid, but the trend was not statistically significant. In view of these data, more precise individual thyroid dose reconstruction becomes an essential task for future work. (author)

  11. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe.

  12. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  13. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, classified according to the...

  14. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  15. Influence of northern limit range on genetic diversity and structure in a widespread North American tree, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graignic, Noémie; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves

    2018-03-01

    Due to climate change, the ranges of many North American tree species are expected to shift northward. Sugar maple ( Acer saccharum Marshall) reaches its northern continuous distributional limit in northeastern North America at the transition between boreal mixed-wood and temperate deciduous forests. We hypothesized that marginal fragmented northern populations from the boreal mixed wood would have a distinct pattern of genetic structure and diversity. We analyzed variation at 18 microsatellite loci from 23 populations distributed along three latitudinal transects (west, central, and east) that encompass the continuous-discontinuous species range. Each transect was divided into two zones, continuous (temperate deciduous) and discontinuous (boreal mixed wood), based on sugar maple stand abundance. Respective positive and negative relationships were found between the distance of each population to the northern limit (D_north), and allelic richness ( A R ) and population differentiation ( F ST ). These relations were tested for each transect separately; the pattern (discontinuous-continuous) remained significant only for the western transect. structure analysis revealed the presence of four clusters. The most northern populations of each transect were assigned to a distinct group. Asymmetrical gene flow occurred from the southern into the four northernmost populations. Southern populations in Québec may have originated from two different postglacial migration routes. No evidence was found to validate the hypothesis that northern populations were remnants of a larger population that had migrated further north of the species range after the retreat of the ice sheet. The northernmost sugar maple populations possibly originated from long-distance dispersal.

  16. Impact of routine hepatitis B immunization on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the marshall islands and the federated States of micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, Stephanie R; Helgenberger, Louisa; Fischer, Gayle E; Bower, William A; Konelios, Mailynn; Chaine, Jean-Paul; Armstrong, Gregory; Williams, Ian T; Bell, Beth P

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of routine hepatitis B (HB) vaccination on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children in Pacific Island countries where HBV infection was highly endemic, we conducted HB serosurveys during 2000 to 2007 among women of childbearing age born before implementation of HB vaccination and among children born after its implementation. Serum specimens were collected from children aged 2 to 6 years and their mothers in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia in 2000, children aged 2 to 9 years and their mothers in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia in 2005, and 5- to 9-year-old children and prenatal clinic patients in 2007 in Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Specimens were tested for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to HB core antigen (total anti-HBc). HB vaccination coverage was determined from health department vaccination registries. We defined chronic HBV infection as the presence of HBsAg. Birthdose and 3 dose HB vaccination coverage was 48% and 87%, respectively, in Chuuk, 87% and 90% in Pohnpei, and 49% and 93% in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among children was 2.5% (9/362) in Chuuk, 1.5% (7/478) in Pohnpei and 1.8% (6/331) in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among women was 9.2% (21/229) in Chuuk, 4.4% (10/229) in Pohnpei, and 9.5% (11/116) in RMI. Hepatitis B vaccination has resulted in a substantial decline in chronic infection in children in the Pacific Islands. HB vaccine effectiveness is high in this region, despite challenges in providing HB vaccine at birth and completing vaccination series on schedule.

  17. Effects of Land-Use Change and Managed Aquifer Recharge on Geochemical Reactions with Implications for Groundwater Quantity and Quality in Atoll Island Aquifers, Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Gurdak, J. J.; Odigie, K. O.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study compares the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll groundwater systems in Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur houses a U.S. Department of Defense military installation and presents an ideal study location where a human impacted aquifer is co-located next to a natural aquifer as part of two artificially conjoined atoll islands. The hydrogeology and geochemistry of carbonate atoll aquifers has been well studied, particularly because of its small, well-defined hydrologic system that allows for relatively precise modeling. However, it is unknown how changes in land-use/land cover and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) alters natural geochemical processes in atoll aquifers. A better understanding of this has implications on groundwater quantity and quality, carbonate dissolution, and best aquifer management practices in the context of rising sea level and saltwater intrusion. Roi has been heavily modified to house military and civilian operations; here, lack of vegetation and managed recharge has increased the volume of potable groundwater and affected the geochemical processes in the freshwater lens and saltwater transition zone. Namur is heavily vegetated and the hydrogeology is indicative of a natural atoll island. A suite of monitoring wells were sampled across both island settings for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, DOC/DIC, δ13C and δ18O/2H isotopes. By modeling geochemical reactions using a conservative mixing approach, we measure deviations from expected reactions and compare the two contrasting settings using derived geochemical profiles through a wide salinity spectrum. Results indicate that groundwater on Namur is more heavily depleted in δ13C and has greater dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting higher microbial oxidation and greater dissolution within the carbonate aquifer. This suggests MAR and reduction of vegetation makes the groundwater supply on atoll islands more resilient to sea level rise.

  18. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  19. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of the freshwater lens on Roi Namur atoll, the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    More than 90% of the world's ~400 larger atoll islands are located in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and are inhabited by ~ 3/4 million people. As ground elevations of these atolls rarely exceed a few meters above mean sea level, atoll communities must rely precariously on finite resources, including fresh water and land. When demand for water exceeds precipitation rates, fresh groundwater may provide an additional, albeit also limited resource. The shape and size of this freshwater lens is controlled by precipitation, infiltration, discharge, and groundwater pumping, as well as hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifer, and climate. Small atoll islands like Roi Namur on Kwajalein perhaps best illustrate the strong interdependence of the islet's depositional history and geochemical transformations that occur within the shallow aquifer and its host rock. This study utilized electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to define the position of the freshwater lens above underlying seawater and to examine scales of freshwater /saltwater mixing. Time series Rn-222 measurements were used to evaluate groundwater discharge rates to the coastal waters, and a suite of groundwater geochemical tracers, including select nutrients, trace elements, and water isotopes, were used to develop a better understanding of how the fresh water lens will likely to respond to external perturbations, such as managed recharge, and the inevitability of future marine over wash events that will be become more frequent and severe under expected sea level rise.

  20. Spatial distribution of organochlorine contaminants in soil, sediment, and fish in Bikini and Enewetak Atolls of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Caccamise, Sarah A L; Wu, Liejun; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X

    2011-08-01

    Several nuclear tests were performed at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. The events at Bikini Atoll involved several ships that were tested for durability during nuclear explosions, and 24 vessels now rest on the bottom of the Bikini lagoon. Nine soil samples were collected from different areas on the two islands of the atoll, and eighteen sediment, nine fish, and one lobster were collected in the vicinity of the sunken ships. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in these samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS). The average recoveries ranged from 78% to 104% for the different PCB congeners. The limits of detection (LOD) for PCBs, PCTs, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin ranged 10-50 pg g(-1). Some fish from Enewetak contained PCBs at a concentration range of 37-137 ng g(-1), dry weight (dw), and most of the soils from Enewetak showed evidence of PCBs (22-392 ng g(-1)dw). Most of the Bikini lagoon sediment samples contained PCBs, and the highest was the one collected from around the Saratoga, an aircraft carrier (1555 ng g(-1)dw). Some of the fish samples, most of the soil samples, and only one of the sediment samples contained 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs. In addition to PCBs, the soils from Enewetak Atoll contained PCTs. PCTs were not detected in the sediment samples from Bikini Atoll. The results suggest local pollution sources of PCBs, PCTs, and OCPs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Majuro Atoll: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; deBrum, Ione; Kedi, Shra; Langidrik, Justina; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Majuro Atoll and describes the burdens due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and risky lifestyle behaviors are associated with overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are significant factors in the morbidity and mortality of the population. The leading causes of death include sepsis, cancer, diabetes-related deaths, pneumonia, and hypertension. Population-based survey for the RMI show that 62.5% of the adults are overweight or obese and the prevalence of diabetes stands at 19.6%. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is no policy and procedure manual for the hospital or public health diabetes clinics and there is little communication, coordination, or collaboration between the medical and public health staff. There is no functional data system that allows for the identification, registry, or tracking of patients with diabetes or other NCDs. Based on these findings, priority issues and problems to be addressed for the administrative, clinical, and data systems were identified.

  2. Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore.

  3. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

    2007-06-11

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary school children in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Jung; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Lin, Huei-Shan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Liu, Yung-Ching; Langinlur, Mailynn K; Lu, Min-Yun; Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2014-01-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection is commonly prevalent in the tropical/subtropical regions, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unclear. A seroepidemiological survey was undertaken for investigating T. gondii infection in primary school children (PSC) using the latex agglutination (LA) test in the capital area of RMI. Information on demographic characteristics and environmental risk factors was collected via a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression model was applied for multivariate analysis. The overall infection rate of T. gondii was found to be 54.8%. Significant gender differences were found at different urbanization levels. PSC with LA titers of ≥ 1:1,024, indicating high responders, were found to be younger age group than others (8.7 years vs. 10.3 years, P = 0.003); moreover, infection rates among both age groups as well as high responders showed a decreasing trend with age. Multivariate analysis revealed that residing in urban rather than suburban settings was associated with increased risk of infection (P = 0.04). No associations were found between raw meat consumption, drinking unboiled water, and cleaning of cat hutch using gloves. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii infection among PSC in RMI and could help in the development of strategies in the future for disease prevention and control of T. gondii transmission.

  5. Frequency distribution, isotopic composition and physical characterization of plutonium-bearing particles from the Fig-Quince zone on Runit Island, Enewetak Atoll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Terry F.; Jernström, Jussi; Martinelli, Roger E.

    2009-01-01

    Runit Island on Enewetak Atoll was very heavily impacted by the U.S. nuclear testing campaign in the northern Marshall Islands (1946–58). The primary source of contamination on Runit Island was the 1958 Quince safety test where a large quantity of device plutonium (Pu) was scattered over the area...

  6. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Sea Temperature Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site specific monitoring of sea temperature is conducted using submersible temperature dataloggers at selected sites and depths around the islands of Saipan and Rota.

  7. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  8. Chirp subbottom profile data collected in 2015 from the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-30

    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted a nearshore geophysical survey around the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in September 2015. The objective of the project is to improve the understanding of barrier island geomorphic evolution, particularly storm-related depositional and erosional processes that shape the islands over annual to interannual time scales (1–5 years). Collecting geophysical data can help researchers identify relations between the geologic history of the islands and their present day morphology and sediment distribution. High-resolution geophysical data collected along this rapidly changing barrier island system can provide a unique time-series dataset to further the analyses and geomorphological interpretations of this and other coastal systems, improving our understanding of coastal response and evolution over medium-term time scales (months to years). Subbottom profile data were collected in September 2015 offshore of the northern Chandeleur Islands, during USGS Field Activity Number 2015-331-FA. Data products, including raw digital chirp subbottom data, processed subbottom profile images, survey trackline map, navigation files, geographic information system data files and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, and Field Activity Collection System and operation logs are available for download.

  9. Recruitment and Retention Problems in Paradise? Lessons from the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Harvey; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that examined teacher recruitment and retention practices in the Northern Mariana Islands public school system. The study was conducted due to shortages of special education teachers and related services personnel. Based on a review of school district documents on recruitment and retention practices and interviews…

  10. 76 FR 55501 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... necessary professional licenses or educational degrees, for other employment-based status under the INA. DHS... businesses and expanding tourism and economic development in the CNMI. They also argued that the CNRA does... Office, GAO-08-791, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Managing Potential Impact of Applying U...

  11. Time-resolved record of 236U and 239,240Pu isotopes from a coral growing during the nuclear testing program at Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Chan, W Y; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Fifield, L K

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. 14 C, 236 U, 239,240 Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, 14 C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ 14 C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted. Here we report measurements of 236 U and 239,240 Pu on the same coral using accelerator mass spectrometry, and again find prominent peaks in the concentrations of these isotopes that closely follow those in 14 C. Consistent with the 14 C data, the magnitudes of these peaks do not, however, correlate well with the explosive yields of the corresponding tests, indicating that smaller tests probably contributed disproportionately to the debris that fell in the lagoon. Additional information about the different tests can also be obtained from the 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios, which are found to vary dramatically over the testing period. In particular, the first thermonuclear test, Ivy-Mike, has characteristic 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu signatures which are diagnostic of the first arrival of nuclear test material in various archives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Dosing of Levofloxacin in Children Treated for Active or Latent Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Sundari R; Jereb, John A; Gonzalez, Daniel; Martin, Fatma; Daley, Charles L; Fred, Dorina; Loeffler, Ann M; Menon, Lakshmy R; Bamrah Morris, Sapna; Brostrom, Richard; Chorba, Terence; Peloquin, Charles A

    2016-04-01

    In the Federated States of Micronesia and then the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), levofloxacin pharmacokinetics were studied in children receiving directly observed once-daily regimens (10 mg/kg, age >5 years; 15-20 mg/kg, age ≤5 years) for either multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease or latent infection after multidrug-resistant tuberculosis exposure, to inform future dosing strategies. Blood samples were collected at 0 (RMI only), 1, 2 and 6 hours (50 children, aged 6 months to 15 years) after oral levofloxacin at >6 weeks of treatment. Clinical characteristics and maximal drug concentration (Cmax) of levofloxacin, elimination half-life and area under the curve from 0 to 24 hours (AUC0-24 hours × μg/mL) were correlated to determine the optimal dosage and to examine associations. Population pharmacokinetics and target attainment were modeled. With results from the Federated States of Micronesia, dosages were increased in RMI toward the target Cmax for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 8-12 µg/mL. Cmax correlated linearly with per-weight dosage. Neither Cmax nor half-life was associated with gender, age, body mass index, concurrent medications or predose meals. At levofloxacin dosage of 15-20 mg/kg, Cmax ≥8 µg/mL was observed, and modeling corroborated a high target attainment across the ratio of the area under the free concentration versus time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUCss,0-24/MIC) values. Levofloxacin dosage should be 15-20 mg/kg for Cmax ≥8 µg/mL and a high target attainment across fAUCss,0-24/MIC values in children ≥2 years of age.

  13. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Rota Island, CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and -1905 meters. The netCDF and Arc...

  14. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A

    2014-07-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta ) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea.

  15. 5 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rota Island, CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and -1905 meters; this 5-m grid has data only to -400 m. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include...

  16. 2007 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Northern Gulf of Mexico Barrier Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  17. Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise SE1002 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected in February 11 - March 14, 2010 aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and...

  18. C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1946-era and 2005-era classifications of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change. This data...

  19. Tidal and residual currents across the northern Ryukyu Island chain observed by ferryboat ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Jun; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Nishina, Ayako; Dong, Menghong

    2017-09-01

    Ferryboat Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from 2003 to 2012 are used to estimate the tidal and residual currents across the northern Ryukyu Island chain (RIC) between the islands of Okinawa and Amamioshima. In this region, the M2 tide current is the strongest tidal component, and the K1 tide current is the strongest diurnal tidal component. The corresponding maximum amplitudes are 40 and 34 cm s-1, respectively. After removal of the tidal currents, the mean volume transport, 1.5 ± 2.7 Sv, flows into the East China Sea (ECS) from the western North Pacific through four channels in this area. In an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis performed to clarify the temporal and spatial variability of currents through the four channels, the first two EOF modes account for 71% and 18% of the total variance, respectively. The EOF1 mode shows a clear bottom-intensified mode through the deep channel, which is likely to be formed by the propagation of bottom-trapped long topographic Rossby wave caused by the impingement of westward-propagating mesoscale eddies upon the eastern slope of the northern RIC. The EOF2 mode has significant seasonal variability and may be driven by the wind stress prevailing over the Kuroshio flow region around the northern RIC in October-November. This study provides observational evidence of the water exchanges across the northern RIC, which is essential for constructing a circulation scheme in the North Pacific subtropical western boundary region.

  20. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  1. Studies on radionuclide concentration along the Northern Coast of Krusadai Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inigo Valan, I.; Stephen, A.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Murthy, S.M.S.; Vijayalakshmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Krusadai Island - The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GaM) near Rameswaram of Tamilnadu, India. It has been recognized as Ecological sensitive area under Coastal regulation zone notification 1991 because these area act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Above all Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared Gulf of Mannar as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Apart from this 2004 Tsunami had many devastating effects along the coastal Tamil Nadu. GOM (Especially Rameswaram coast) didn't suffer a lot due to the barricade-like protection given by the island nation Sri Lanka. But reports suggest that northeastern part of the Krusadai Island had noticeable effects due to Tsunami, which interests to study this area. Current study is a preliminary radioactive report on the northern part of the Krusadai Island

  2. SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA: ARANEI OF SEASIDE AND ISLAND TERRITORIES OF NORTHERN DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponomarev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Annotated list of spiders species from the seaside and island territories of Northern Dagestan, based on the original material. At the present time 132 species from 20 families are recordet in this region. There are illustrated descriptions of new species Gnaphosa deserta Ponomarev et Dvadnenko, sp. n., similar with G. rufula (L. Koch, 1866 and Ozyptila dagestana Ponomarev et Dvadnenko, sp. n., similar with O. simplex (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1862 and males Berlandina apscheronica Dunin, 1984, Pardosa jaikensis Ponomarev, 2007 and Tibellus utotchkini Ponomarev, 2008.

  3. FOREIGN RELATIONS: Migration From Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... to live and work in the United States. One of these Compacts was enacted in 1986 with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands, while the second Compact was implemented in 1994 with the Republic of Palau...

  4. Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.

    2010-08-01

    New land and marine gravity data reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua'i, the other between the islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. These gravitational highs are similar in size and magnitude to those of other Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating local zones of high-density crust, attributed to olivine cumulates in solidified magma reservoirs. The residual gravity high over Kaua'i is located in the Līhu'e Basin, offset 8-12 km east of Kaua'i's geologically mapped caldera. This offset suggests that the mapped caldera is a collapsed feature later filled in with lava and not the long-term center of Kaua'i shield volcanism. A second residual gravity high, in the submarine channel between Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, marks the volcanic center of the Ni'ihau shield volcano. This second residual gravity anomaly implies that Ni'ihau's eastern boundary extended ˜20 km east of its present location. Through inversion, the residual gravity anomalies were modeled as being produced by two solidified magma reservoirs with average densities of 3100 kg/m3 and volumes between 2470 and 2540 km3. Considering the locations and sizes of the residual gravity anomalies/magma reservoirs, the extent of the two islands' paleoshorelines and potassium-argon dating of shield-stage lavas, we conclude that the two islands were not connected subaerially during their respective shield stages and that Ni'ihau's topographic summit was removed by an eastern flank collapse between 4.3 and 5.6 Ma. Continued constructional volcanism on western Kaua'i likely covered much of the submerged remains of eastern Ni'ihau.

  5. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  6. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at

  7. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  8. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... and DPR-60] Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... assessment, and behavioral observation) of the unescorted access authorization program when making the... under consideration to determine whether it met the criteria established in NRC Management Directive (MD...

  9. THE NEOPROTEROZOIC ISLAND-ARC ASSOCIATION OF THE MUKODEK GOLD-ORE FIELD, NORTHERN BAIKAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vanin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite were studied in the Mukodek gold-ore field located in the Baikal-Muya belt in the Northern Baikal area, Russia. The Ushmukan suite shows interleaving of ortoschists which compositions are widely variable. Basalt-andesite-dacite series of normal alkalinity are the substrate of the studied metavolcanic rocks. Based on the set of geochemical characteristics, it is concluded that the rocks were formed in suprasubduction geodynamic conditions corresponding to a mature island arc. The proximity of the geological locations and the similarity of the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite and rocks of the Kelyan suite (Neoproterozoic, 823 Ma, which have similar compositions, give grounds to consider these two rock suites as age peers. Specific features of gold distribution through the Mukodek gold-ore field are analyzed. Industrial gold contents are recorded only in berezite-listvenite metasomatic rocks of the gold-quartz-sulfide formation which were formed on metavolcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite. It is concluded that the volcanic rocks, which are specific of the island-arc setting, could be a source of gold for deposits in the Mukodek gold-ore field. 

  10. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-07-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas ( n = 119) and serum ( n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  11. Palynology, sedimentology and environmental significance of Holocene swamps at northern Kaitoke, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from coastal freshwater swamps at northern Kaitoke (Kaitoke Swamp and Police Station Swamp), Great Barrier Island, show that c. 7300 calibrated yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was an estuary with tidal flats. Avicennia, now absent from the swamp area, was present in the estuary. By c. 4500 yr BP fresh water conditions had developed at the Kaitoke Swamp site as marine influences decreased. Around the same time, fresh water swamp conditions commenced at the Police Station Swamp site on the surface of a low lying area of a Late Pleistocene dune. A sandy layer at Kaitoke may represent rapid infilling followed by a dry soil surface until c. 1000 yr BP. Conifer-hardwood forest on the hills surrounding the sites c. 7300-c. 1800 yr BP was dominated by Dacrydium and Metrosideros. During this period, environmental conditions were relatively stable, with little change in forest composition. Between 1800 yr and 800 yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was reflooded, and the Police Station Swamp extended as a shallow lake over the nearby dune flat. These new shallow swamps were invaded by swamp forest (mainly Dacrycaprus with some Laurelia). The presence of charcoal and Pteridium spores above the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at northern Kaitoke began c. 600 calibrated yr BP. (author). 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Loss-of-Use Damages From U.S. Nuclear Testing in the Marshall Islands: Technical Analysis of the Nuclear Claims Tribunal’s Methodology and Alternative Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-12

    productivity of the islands in producing copra or fish, was not considered. The assumption is also inconsistent with the capitalization model that the value of...David Barker and Jay Wa-Aadu, “Is Real Estate Becoming Important Again? A Neo Ricardian Model of Land Rent.” Real Estate Economics, Spring, 2004, pp...the model explicit, it avoids shortcomings of the NCT methodology, by using available data from RMI’s national income and product accounts that is

  13. A history of the people of Bikini following nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: with recollections and views of elders of Bikini Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenthal, J

    1997-07-01

    The people of Bikini Atoll were moved from their homeland in 1946 to make way for the testing of 23 nuclear weapons by the United States government, beginning with the world's fourth atomic detonation. The subsequent half-century exodus of the Bikini people included a 2-y stay on Rongerik Atoll, where near starvation resulted, and a 6-mo sojourn on Kwajalein Atoll, where they lived in tents beside a runway used by the U.S. military. In 1948, they were finally relocated to Kili, a small, isolated, 200-acre island owned by the U.S. Trust Territory government. Numerous hardships have been faced there, not the least of which was the loss of skills required for self-sustenance. Located 425 miles south of Bikini, Kili Island is without a sheltered lagoon. Thus for six months of the year, fishing and sailing become futile endeavors. Because of the residual radioactive contamination from the nuclear testing, the majority of the Bikinian population still resides on Kili today. One attempt was made to resettle Bikini in the late 1960's when President Lyndon B. Johnson, on recommendations from the Atomic Energy Commission, declared Bikini Atoll safe for habitation. In 1978, however, it was discovered by the U.S. Department of Energy that in the span of only one year, some of the returned islanders were showing a 75% increase in their body burdens of 137Cs. In 1978, the people residing on Bikini were moved again, this time to a small island in Majuro Atoll. In the early 1980's, the Bikinians filed a class action lawsuit against the U.S. government for damages arising out of the nuclear testing program. Although the claim was dismissed, eventually a $90 million trust fund was established for their local government. Since then the leaders of the people of Bikini residing on Kili Island and Majuro Atoll have been confronted with the immense responsibility of determining how to clean their atoll while at the same time maintaining the health and welfare of their displaced

  14. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to tuberculosis: the value of telemedicine in the remote diagnosis of Addison's disease in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lisabeth A; Ruess, Lynne; Jack, Tom; Person, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    A young Marshallese woman presented with the insidious development of fever, cough, fatigue, profound weakness, massive weight loss, cachexia, alopecia, amenorrhea, and periumbilical hyperpigmentation. Limited laboratory studies revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and hyponatremia. Imaging studies, as well as digital photographs, transmitted over the Internet, using the secure Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP), store-and-forward telemedicine system, suggested the diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis, and antimycobacterial antibiotics were begun. Sputum cultures eventually grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on the constellation of clinical signs and symptoms, the transmitted images, and limited laboratory data, adrenal tuberculosis (Addison's disease) with adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed and corticosteroids were initiated. The patient responded dramatically This case underscores the utility of telemedicine in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with unusual conditions, rarely seen today in the United States, from remote sites in the Developing World.

  15. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Guo

    Full Text Available Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40-60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed.

  16. PCDFs, PCDDs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in northern fulmars from the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, I.M.; Hagberg, J.; Bavel van, B.; Lindstrom, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden). MTM Research Centre; Dam, M. [Food and Environment Agency, Torshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark); Jensen, J.K.; Danielsen, J. [Faroese Museum of Natural History, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Eggs and tissues of Northern Fulmars have been used to monitor the contamination of the Canadian Arctic marine environment since 1975. Dioxin levels for northern fulmars in the Arctic are among the highest reported for birds. This study reported the results of analyses of dioxins (PCDDs) and non- and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver tissue from juvenile northern fulmars from the Faeroe Islands in 2003. The samples were collected during a traditional hunt and ground with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Sample extraction was performed using supercritical fluid extraction coupled to a solid phase liquid chromatography trap (SFE-LC). Target compounds were collected on a solid phase trap containing AX-21 carbon on ODS silica and eluted with 6 ml n-hexane/dichloromethane for non-planar compounds and xylene for planar compounds. PCDD and planar PCB analysis was performed on an a high resolution gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometer (MS) operating at 10,000 resolution using EI ionization at 35 eV. Concentrations of PCDFs, PCDDs, non, and mono-ortho PCBs were detected in all samples. High levels of mono-ortho PCBs were detected, as well as non-ortho PCBs, PCDFs, and PCDDs. It was concluded that levels and congener patterns in fulmars from the Faroe Islands and the Canadian Arctic were comparable. However, slightly higher levels were detected in the Faeroe Islands samples. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on islands at its northern range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozos Michaelides

    Full Text Available Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction.

  18. Active faults, paleoseismology, and historical fault rupture in northern Wairarapa, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, E.R.; Van Dissen, R.; Berryman, K.R.; Kelsey, H.M.; Cashman, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Active faulting in the upper plate of the Hikurangi subduction zone, North Island, New Zealand, represents a significant seismic hazard that is not yet well understood. In northern Wairarapa, the geometry and kinematics of active faults, and the Quaternary and historical surface-rupture record, have not previously been studied in detail. We present the results of mapping and paleoseismicity studies on faults in the northern Wairarapa region to document the characteristics of active faults and the timing of earthquakes. We focus on evidence for surface rupture in the 1855 Wairarapa (M w 8.2) and 1934 Pahiatua (M w 7.4) earthquakes, two of New Zealand's largest historical earthquakes. The Dreyers Rock, Alfredton, Saunders Road, Waitawhiti, and Waipukaka faults form a northeast-trending, east-stepping array of faults. Detailed mapping of offset geomorphic features shows the rupture lengths vary from c. 7 to 20 km and single-event displacements range from 3 to 7 m, suggesting the faults are capable of generating M >7 earthquakes. Trenching results show that two earthquakes have occurred on the Alfredton Fault since c. 2900 cal. BP. The most recent event probably occurred during the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake as slip propagated northward from the Wairarapa Fault and across a 6 km wide step. Waipukaka Fault trenches show that at least three surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred since 8290-7880 cal. BP. Analysis of stratigraphic and historical evidence suggests the most recent rupture occurred during the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake. Estimates of slip rates provided by these data suggest that a larger component of strike slip than previously suspected is occurring within the upper plate and that the faults accommodate a significant proportion of the dextral component of oblique subduction. Assessment of seismic hazard is difficult because the known fault scarp lengths appear too short to have accommodated the estimated single-event displacements. Faults in the region are

  19. Microbial Ecology of Four Coral Atolls in the Northern Line Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smriga, Steven; Edwards, Robert A.; Angly, Florent; Wegley, Linda; Hatay, Mark; Hall, Dana; Brown, Elysa; Haynes, Matthew; Krause, Lutz; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Willis, Bette L.; Azam, Farooq; Knowlton, Nancy; Rohwer, Forest

    2008-01-01

    Microbes are key players in both healthy and degraded coral reefs. A combination of metagenomics, microscopy, culturing, and water chemistry were used to characterize microbial communities on four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Kingman, a small uninhabited atoll which lies most northerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of an open ocean ecosystem. On this atoll the microbial community was equally divided between autotrophs (mostly Prochlorococcus spp.) and heterotrophs. In contrast, Kiritimati, a large and populated (∼5500 people) atoll, which is most southerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of a near-shore environment. On Kiritimati, there were 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column and these microbes were dominated by heterotrophs, including a large percentage of potential pathogens. Culturable Vibrios were common only on Kiritimati. The benthic community on Kiritimati had the highest prevalence of coral disease and lowest coral cover. The middle atolls, Palmyra and Tabuaeran, had intermediate densities of microbes and viruses and higher percentages of autotrophic microbes than either Kingman or Kiritimati. The differences in microbial communities across atolls could reflect variation in 1) oceaonographic and/or hydrographic conditions or 2) human impacts associated with land-use and fishing. The fact that historically Kingman and Kiritimati did not differ strongly in their fish or benthic communities (both had large numbers of sharks and high coral cover) suggest an anthropogenic component in the differences in the microbial communities. Kingman is one of the world's most pristine coral reefs, and this dataset should serve as a baseline for future studies of coral reef microbes. Obtaining the microbial data set, from atolls is particularly important given the association of microbes in the ongoing degradation of coral reef ecosystems

  20. Microbial ecology of four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Dinsdale

    Full Text Available Microbes are key players in both healthy and degraded coral reefs. A combination of metagenomics, microscopy, culturing, and water chemistry were used to characterize microbial communities on four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Kingman, a small uninhabited atoll which lies most northerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of an open ocean ecosystem. On this atoll the microbial community was equally divided between autotrophs (mostly Prochlorococcus spp. and heterotrophs. In contrast, Kiritimati, a large and populated ( approximately 5500 people atoll, which is most southerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of a near-shore environment. On Kiritimati, there were 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column and these microbes were dominated by heterotrophs, including a large percentage of potential pathogens. Culturable Vibrios were common only on Kiritimati. The benthic community on Kiritimati had the highest prevalence of coral disease and lowest coral cover. The middle atolls, Palmyra and Tabuaeran, had intermediate densities of microbes and viruses and higher percentages of autotrophic microbes than either Kingman or Kiritimati. The differences in microbial communities across atolls could reflect variation in 1 oceaonographic and/or hydrographic conditions or 2 human impacts associated with land-use and fishing. The fact that historically Kingman and Kiritimati did not differ strongly in their fish or benthic communities (both had large numbers of sharks and high coral cover suggest an anthropogenic component in the differences in the microbial communities. Kingman is one of the world's most pristine coral reefs, and this dataset should serve as a baseline for future studies of coral reef microbes. Obtaining the microbial data set, from atolls is particularly important given the association of microbes in the ongoing degradation

  1. Seasonal and Spatial Characteristics of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs in Northern West Siberian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Miles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic heat and modified landscapes raise air and surface temperatures in urbanized areas around the globe. This phenomenon is widely known as an urban heat island (UHI. Previous UHI studies, and specifically those based on remote sensing data, have not included cities north of 60°N. A few in situ studies have indicated that even relatively small cities in high latitudes may exhibit significantly amplified UHIs. The UHI characteristics and factors controlling its intensity in high latitudes remain largely unknown. This study attempts to close this knowledge gap for 28 cities in northern West Siberia (NWS. NWS cities are convenient for urban intercomparison studies as they have relatively similar cold continental climates, and flat, rather homogeneous landscapes. We investigated the UHI in NWS cities using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD 11A2 land surface temperature (LST product in 8-day composites. The analysis reveals that all 28 NWS cities exhibit a persistent UHI in summer and winter. The LST analysis found differences in summer and winter regarding the UHI effect, and supports the hypothesis of seasonal differences in the causes of UHI formation. Correlation analysis found the strongest relationships between the UHI and population (log P. Regression models using log P alone could explain 65–67% of the variability of UHIs in the region. Additional explanatory power—at least in summer—is provided by the surrounding background temperatures, which themselves are strongly correlated with latitude. The performed regression analysis thus confirms the important role of the surrounding temperature in explaining spatial–temporal variation of UHI intensity. These findings suggest a climatological basis for these phenomena and, given the importance of climatic warming, an aspect that deserves future study.

  2. Comparative concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, /sup 239,240/Pu, and 241Am in tissues of fish from the Marshall Islands and calculated dose commitments from their consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Body burdens of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and the transuranics in bottom-feeding fish from Marshall Island atolls are derived, in part, from the quantities of the radionuclides irreversibly fixed to ingested carbonate material. Radionuclide concentration factors for different species of fish are characterized by relating tissue concentrations to those in filtered seawater. For bottom-feeding fish, the values are lower at the lesser contaminated atolls than those values determined for the same species at the more contaminated atolls. These fish have the ability to lower their gut pH during feeding. When this occurs, there is a dissolution of a fraction of the ingested calcium carbonate containing radionuclides that were fixed or fused internally to the material during nuclear testing. Fractions of the radionuclides released during solution in carbonate matrix are available for passage across the gut wall. Amounts released to solution in the gut are proportional to the levels of contamination at the different atolls. Concentration factors for higher trophic level species, which do not rely on sediments or coral for their source of food, show no such trends between differentially contaminated atolls. A two-source model used to compute the internal concentrations is described. Americium-241 seems to be more biologically available than /sup 239,240/Pu to higher trophic level species from the lagoons, whereas at lower trophic levels the opposite seems to be the case. Cesium-137 is now the largest contributor of the small radiological dose to man from the marine fish pathway, with the transuranics contributing from 2 to 30% of the total dose. 22 references, 1 figure, 19 tables

  3. Prevalence of Hookworms, Uncinaria Lucasi (Ancylostomatidae, In Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus Ursinus On St. Paul Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons E.T.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Hookworms, Uncinaria lucasi (Ancylostomatidae, in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Lyons, E. T., Kuzmina, T. A., Carie, J. L., Tolliver, S. C., Spraker, T. R. — Review of main studies on biology and ecology of the hookworm Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 performed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, is presented. Current data on prevalence of adult hookworms parasitizing northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758, were obtained based on the examination of the intestines of dead NFS pups and subadult 3-4 year-old males in July and August of 2011-2013. In addition, blubber samples collected from subadult NFS males were examined for parasitic third stage hookworm larvae (L3. All current data were compared with previously published studies performed in 1950s-1960s. Current prevalence of U. lucasi in dead pups collected from Reef Rookery was 4.9 % in 2011, 0 % in 2012 and 10.5 % in 2013. This rookery has a rocky substrate. On sandy rookeries prevalence was up to 75 % on Morjovi Rookery and 50 % on Vostochni Rookery. Parasitic L3 were recovered in 2.5 % of subadult males examined in 2013. Decreasing prevalence of hookworm infection of dead pups and subadult males during the last several years follows the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals in the herd on St. Paul Island during last several decades.

  4. Methods and approaches to support Indigenous water planning: An example from the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoverman, Suzanne; Ayre, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous land owners of the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory Australia have begun the first formal freshwater allocation planning process in Australia entirely within Indigenous lands and waterways. The process is managed by the Northern Territory government agency responsible for water planning, the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, in partnership with the Tiwi Land Council, the principal representative body for Tiwi Islanders on matters of land and water management and governance. Participatory planning methods ('tools') were developed to facilitate community participation in Tiwi water planning. The tools, selected for their potential to generate involvement in the planning process needed both to incorporate Indigenous knowledge of water use and management and raise awareness in the Indigenous community of Western science and water resources management. In consultation with the water planner and Tiwi Land Council officers, the researchers selected four main tools to develop, trial and evaluate. Results demonstrate that the tools provided mechanisms which acknowledge traditional management systems, improve community engagement, and build confidence in the water planning process. The researchers found that participatory planning approaches supported Tiwi natural resource management institutions both in determining appropriate institutional arrangements and clarifying roles and responsibilities in the Islands' Water Management Strategy.

  5. Temporal geochemical trends in northern Luzon arc lavas (Philippines): implications on metasomatic processes in the island arc mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, R.C.; Bellon, H.; Jacques, D.; Defant, J.; Joron, J.L.; Mcdermott, F.; Vidal, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    Neogene and Quaternary lavas from Batan, Babuyan de Claro, Camiguin and Calayan islands (northern Luzon arc) display temporal increases in incompatible elements including Cs, Rb, Ba, K, La, Ce, Th, U, Ta, Hf and Zr from volcanoes older than 3 Ma to younger ones. These enrichments occur either within a single island (Batan) or within an island group (from Calayan to Camiguin and Babuyan). We show that these enrichments result from incompatible element input into the mantle wedge rather than from partial melting or fractionation effects. The fact that highly incompatible elements display temporal enrichment patterns in Batan lavas whatever their chemical properties indicates that hydrous fluids are not the only metasomatic agents operating in the mantle wedge and that slab-derived melts (adakitic magmas) may also be involved. The coupled temporal variation patterns of large ion lithophile elements and Sr-Nd isotopes suggest that the metasomatic budgets beneath the southern group of islands are mainly controlled by hydrous fluids inputs. In contrast, young Batan lavas likely derive from a mantle source mostly metasomatized by adakitic magmas. (authors)

  6. Sediment lithology and radiochemistry from the back-barrier environments along the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana—March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Adams, C. Scott; Richwine, Kathryn A.

    2017-04-11

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected a set of 8 sediment cores from the back-barrier environments along the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in March 2012. The sampling efforts were part of a larger USGS study to evaluate effects on the geomorphology of the Chandeleur Islands following the construction of an artificial sand berm to reduce oil transport onto federally managed lands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the back-barrier tidal and wetland environments to the berm. This report serves as an archive for sedimentological and radiochemical data derived from the sediment cores. The data described in this report are available for download on the data downloads page.

  7. Endangered Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas of the Northern Mariana Islands: Nesting Ecology, Poaching, and Climate Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Summers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles in the western Pacific remain threatened by anthropogenic impacts, but the region lacks long-term biological data for assessing conservation status and trends. The Central West Pacific (CWP population of green turtles (Chelonia mydas was listed as Endangered by the U.S. in 2016, highlighting a need to fill existing data gaps. This study focuses on the subset of this population nesting in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using 11 years of nesting data, we (i estimate reproductive demographic parameters, (ii quantify abundance and trends, and (iii estimate the impacts of anthropogenic threats, such as poaching of nesting females and increasing sand temperatures. In 2006–2016, nesting beach surveys, identification tagging, and nest excavations were conducted on Saipan, and rapid assessments of nesting activity were conducted on Tinian and Rota. On Saipan, temperature data-loggers were deployed inside nests and evidence of poaching (adults and eggs was recorded. This study documents year-round nesting with a peak in March–July. Nester abundance for the three islands combined was 11.9 ± 5.7 (mean ± standard deviation females annually, with at least 62.8 ± 35.1 nests observed per year. For 39 tagged individuals, straight carapace length was 95.6 ± 4.5 cm, remigration interval was 4.6 ± 1.3 years, and somatic growth was 0.3 ± 0.2 cm/yr. Reproductive parameter estimates included clutch frequency of 7.0 ± 1.3 nests per female, inter-nesting interval of 11.4 ± 1.0 days, clutch size of 93.5 ± 21.4 eggs, incubation period of 56.7 ± 6.4 days, hatching success of 77.9 ± 27.0%, and emergence success of 69.6 ± 30.3%. Mean nest temperature of 30.9 ± 1.5°C was above the pivotal threshold of 29.0°C for temperature dependent sex determination, suggesting a female bias may already exist. Model results suggest (i hatching success decreases and embryonic death increases when nests experience maximum temperatures

  8. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  9. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Along the southern margin, frontal accretion and pronounced forearc uplift occur inboard of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. In the north, subduction erosion and segmented uplift occur inboard of subducting seamounts along the plateau flank. Prior workers have established a robust foundation for coastal terrace studies along the northern Hikurangi margin (e.g., Berryman et al., 1989; Ota et al., 1992; Berryman, 1993; Wilson et al., 2006, 2007; Clark et al., 2010; Litchfield et al, 2007, 2010). New field observations presented here provide additional constraints on terrace uplift along this erosional subduction margin. Along Raukumara Peninsula (north of Poverty Bay), multiple Holocene to late Pleistocene marine and fluvial terraces occur at varying elevations, recording differential uplift across six coastal segments from Gisborne to East Cape (Ota et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 2007). In this study, two to three late Pleistocene terraces were observed on rocky headlands within the first segment (Gisborne to Whangara) at elevations of 80-185 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands (80-125 ka) indicates net uplift at 1.2-1.5 m/ky. Uplifted Holocene wavecut platforms occur in steps along the seaward edge of these terraces, consistent with coseismic uplift. At Makorori Point, an uplifted bench occurs along the modern seacliff at 2.3 m above the cliff base. A fossil gastropod shell from paleo-beach gravels on the platform inner edge yielded a calibrated radiocarbon age of 1680 ×110 ybp. At Turihaua Point, a ≥1 m thick deposit of Holocene beach sands overlies an uplifted wavecut platform at ≥1.5 m above mean sea level. Carbonate-cemented beachrock at the base of the sand deposit yields a calibrated radiocarbon age of 2990 ×70 ybp. At Mahia Peninsula (between Poverty

  10. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The Pribilof Island Community of St. Paul Island, Aleut Community of St. Paul... comment on from the resulting list and click on the ``Submit a Comment'' icon on the right of that line... Adobe PDF file formats only. Information related to the request for rulemaking is available on the...

  11. Vectorized Shoreline of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  12. Vectorized Shoreline of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  13. Vectorized Shoreline of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  14. Vectorized Shoreline of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  15. Vectorized Shoreline of Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 2001, Derived from IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  16. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  17. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  18. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  20. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains geographical boundary information for National Park Service properties, wildlife refuges, and other management areas in Guam and the Northern...

  1. Constraints on the diversity and distribution of coral-reef assemblages in the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, P.; Starmer, J.

    2010-03-01

    A central problem for jurisdictional scientists and managers is to reconcile how multiple environmental regimes, encompassing continuous, intermittent and human disturbances, influence pertinent ecological management targets. The presence of heterogeneous environments throughout the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), coupled with the availability of descriptive physical data, form the basis examining environmental-ecological relationships. Since 2003, coral abundances and macrobiota (all visibly recognizable taxa greater than 2 cm) occurrences have been estimated at 42 reef slopes along the volcanic archipelago. Analyses showed that reef types acted as surrogates of coral growth capacity and the modern assemblages residing upon them, being highest and most favorable, respectively, where relatively high salinity levels, low-to-moderate wave exposure, and an absence of volcanic activity for ~90 years existed. However, island size was the greatest constraint on species richness overall, but relations with corals were dampened by volcanic activity and increased for sponges and algae where greater connection with the island aquifer existed (i.e., relatively low salinity levels). The number of years since volcanic activity has occurred was positively related to the residuals of species-area relationships and coral cover, with a ~90-year time frame predicted for recovery. Notably, no relationships with watershed characteristics or distance from CNMI’s main fishing port and coral-reef assemblages or species richness were found. Further examination of specific management concerns, such as fisheries and feral animal populations, should be designed to account for the inherent differences in driving environmental regimes. Management strategies focused upon conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function should be centered at the island level, matching the operational scale of dominant environmental-ecological relationships. Marine reserves represent a strategy pertinent

  2. Pre- and syn-Ross orogenic granitoids at Drake Head and Kartografov Island, Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Roland, N.W.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Hydrate studies of northern Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island : a reference source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Spence, G.D. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-07-01

    Extensive geophysical studies have been conducted to determine the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of gas hydrate in the Cascadia subduction zone off western Canada. In this paper, the authors compiled a comprehensive reference list of studies involving marine natural gas hydrate surveys and studies on the northern Cascadia margin. The reference categories included general reviews; regional tectonic framework for northern Cascadia hydrate; prism sediment thickening, fluid expulsion and hydrate formation; and, seismic surveys. This paper first addressed the local tectonics and the sedimentary accretionary prism in which the hydrate forms, followed by a description of the geophysical and geological surveys that have been conducted. The surveys included a wide range of seismic surveys such as multichannel, ocean-bottom, high-resolution single channel and very high resolution deep towed surveys. Heat flow, electrical sounding, seafloor compliance, sediment coring, and mapping gas plumes from the seafloor were among the other geophysical studies listed in this paper. The conclusions that have resulted from this work in terms of distribution, concentrations and amounts of hydrate were presented along with a discussion on the process of hydrate formation and dissociation. 96 refs., 3 figs.

  4. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  5. Localised human impacts on the Harataonga coastal landscape, Great Barrier Island, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S.; Cockrem, J.; Shane, P.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present results of analyses of sediment profiles and cores, and coprolites, from Harataonga Bay, Great Barrier Island. Using a range of analyses (sedimentological, plant microfossils, parasitological, microbial, and steroids and myoglobin) we concentrate on human impact and reconstruction of the geomorphology and vegetation of the near-shore environments. Two different sub--environments are represented: dunes and alluvial plain. Dune instability coincides with a major increase in disturbance-related plants (especially ground ferns) as a result of forest clearance. The present form of much of the Harataonga dunes and the swamp at the eastern end of the bay is directly a result of human impact, no earlier than 737 ± 178 14 C yr BP. In the record from the alluvial plain of the main Harataonga watercourse, at the western end of the bay, it is difficult to clearly resolve sedimentary inputs that directly relate to human presence in this former tidal inlet that was open to storm surge and stream floods. The only exception is the slopewash materials forming the terrace surface, sediments of which bear pollen consistent with vegetation disturbance. The landforms are natural but the rate at which the tidal inlet was infilled to form a terrace was accelerated by human activity. The nature and timing of the localised human impacts at Harataonga are consistent with those observed elsewhere on Great Barrier Island and mainland New Zealand. Some of our techniques (e.g. bacteria, steroids) are newly applied to coprolites in New Zealand but none provided any useful information because of poor preservation. (author). 34 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Malaria early warning tool: linking inter-annual climate and malaria variability in northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Tahani, Lloyd; Bobogare, Albino; Bugoro, Hugo; Otto, Francis; Fafale, George; Hiriasa, David; Kazazic, Adna; Beard, Grant; Amjadali, Amanda; Jeanne, Isabelle

    2017-11-21

    Malaria control remains a significant challenge in the Solomon Islands. Despite progress made by local malaria control agencies over the past decade, case rates remain high in some areas of the country. Studies from around the world have confirmed important links between climate and malaria transmission. This study focuses on understanding the links between malaria and climate in Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, with a view towards developing a climate-based monitoring and early warning for periods of enhanced malaria transmission. Climate records were sourced from the Solomon Islands meteorological service (SIMS) and historical malaria case records were sourced from the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). A declining trend in malaria cases over the last decade associated with improved malaria control was adjusted for. A stepwise regression was performed between climate variables and climate-associated malaria transmission (CMT) at different lag intervals to determine where significant relationships existed. The suitability of these results for use in a three-tiered categorical warning system was then assessed using a Mann-Whitney U test. Of the climate variables considered, only rainfall had a consistently significant relationship with malaria in North Guadalcanal. Optimal lag intervals were determined for prediction using R 2 skill scores. A highly significant negative correlation (R = - 0.86, R 2  = 0.74, p malaria transmission periods in January-June. Cross-validation emphasized the suitability of this relationship for forecasting purposes [Formula: see text]  as did Mann-Whitney U test results showing that rainfall below or above specific thresholds was significantly associated with above or below normal malaria transmission, respectively. This study demonstrated that rainfall provides the best predictor of malaria transmission in North Guadalcanal. This relationship is thought to be underpinned by the unique hydrological conditions

  7. Construction, Geologic, and Hydrologic Data from Five Exploratory Wells on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Rota is the southernmost of the 14 small islands that make up the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Reduced springflow at Matan Hanom and As Onan springs occurred during a drought associated with the 1997-98 El Nino. Water from the two developed springs constituted the only municipal water source for the island at that time. In April 1998, reduced water supplies forced the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation to restrict water service in the principal villages of Songsong and Sinapalu for the duration of the dry season. In 1999, Five exploratory wells, EX-1 through EX-5 (CUC wells SP-MW1, SP-1, -2, -3, and SP-MW2), were drilled in the Sinapalu region of Rota to (1) assess the availability of fresh ground-water resources in an area where no other well information were available, and (2) to provide a new water source to help mitigate the impacts of drought associated with recurring El Nino weather events. The wells penetrated mainly light colored (dirty white to brownish), fragmental limestones containing abundant coral remains. Sustained-rate, recovery, and step-drawdown aquifer tests were attempted at each of the five exploratory wells to estimate aquifer properties in the vicinity of the wells and to assess the potential for new water sources. At wells EX-1 (CUC well SPMW1) and EX-5 (CUC well SP-MW2), attempts to conduct sustained-rate aquifer tests resulted in excessive drawdown to the pump intakes in the vicinity of the wells. At well EX-2 (CUC well SP-1), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.93 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 187 gal/min. At well EX-3 (CUC well SP-2), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 2.31 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 108 gal/min, and at well EX-4 (CUC well SP-3), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.27 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 139 gal/min. Specific conductance at the end of 8 days of

  8. Dreams deferred: Contextualizing the health and psychosocial needs of undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander young adults in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ling, Irving; To, Tu My; Melo, Jason; Quach, Thu

    2017-07-01

    There are currently 1.5 million undocumented Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the US. Undocumented API young adults, in particular, come of age in a challenging political and social climate, but little is known about their health outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the psychosocial needs and health status of API undocumented young adults. Guided by social capital theory, this qualitative study describes the social context of API undocumented young adults (ages 18-31), including community and government perceptions, and how social relationships influence health. This study was conducted in Northern California and included four focus group discussions (FGDs) and 24 in-depth interviews (IDIs), with 32 unique participants total. FGDs used purposeful sampling by gender (two male and two female discussions) and education status (in school and out-of-school). Findings suggest low bonding and bridging social capital. Results indicate that community distrust is high, even within the API community, due to high levels of exploitation, discrimination, and threats of deportation. Participants described how documentation status is a barrier in accessing health services, particularly mental health and sexual and reproductive health services. This study identifies trusted community groups and discusses recommendations for future research, programs, and policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Paleozoic subduction complex and Paleozoic-Mesozoic island-arc volcano-plutonic assemblages in the northern Sierra terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Harwood, David S.; Schweickert, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    This field trip provides an overview of the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the northern Sierra terrane, which forms a significant part of the wall rocks on the western side of the later Mesozoic Sierra Nevada batholith in California. The terrane consists of a pre-Late Devonian subduction complex (Shoo Fly Complex) overlain by submarine arc-related deposits that record the evolution of three separate island-arc systems in the Late Sevonian-Early Mississippian, Permian, and Late Triassic-Jurassic. The two Paleozoic are packages and the underlying Shoo Fly Complex have an important bearing on plate-tectonic processes affecting the convergent margin outboard of the Paleozoic Cordilleran miogeocline, although their original paleogeographic relations to North America are controversial. The third arc package represents an overlap assemblage that ties the terrane to North America by the Late Triassic and helps constrain the nature and timing of Mesozoic orogenesis. Several of the field-trip stops examine the record of pre-Late Devonian subduction contained in the Shoo Fly Complex, as well as the paleovolcanology of the overlying Devonian to Jurassic arc rocks. Excellent glaciated exposures provide the opportunity to study a cross section through a tilted Devonian volcano-plutonic association. Additional stops focus on plutonic rocks emplaced during the Middle Jurassic arc magmatism in the terrane, and during the main pulse of Cretaceous magmatism in the Sierra Nevada batholith to the east.

  10. Fluviokarst and classical karst: Examples from the Dinarics (Krk Island, Northern Adriatic, Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benac, Čedomir; Juračić, Mladen; Matičec, Dubravko; Ružić, Igor; Pikelj, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    In order to contribute to the debate on the role of fluvial erosion in the shaping of karst, two nearby areas with different karstic landscapes were compared. Areas A and B are located relatively close to each other on the southern side of the Krk Island (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Both areas are composed of similar limestone with a very high CaCO3 content. Area A is a typical doline or polygonal type ("classical") of karst with numerous dolines (up to 57/km2) covered with terra rossa (red soil) and Mediterranean maquis shrubland. Dolines are located in zones which correspond to the strike of the main geological structures. Dry karstic valleys are visible only on gently inclined coastal slopes bordering the karstic plateau. In contrast, area B is typical of a bare karst landscape with a strong (palaeo)fluvial imprint. The dolines are absent, and the bedrock is only sporadically covered with terra rossa. Palaeogene marls have been observed in a few elongated depressions and in the coastal zone of area B. Along steep coastal slopes, valleys (up to 460 m/km2) are cut into the carbonates. The traces of episodic surface flows are visible in some of these valleys, in contrast to the valleys in area A. Remnants of a disrupted ancient fluvial network are clearly visible on the elevated karstic plateau in area B. Differences in the recent morphology are attributed mainly to varying thicknesses of the Palaeogene impermeable marly cover, and the intensity of tectonics in the two areas.

  11. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0703 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 23 May - 9 June 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Maug Islands, Pagan Island,...

  12. KERENTANAN PENYUSUPAN AIR LAUT DI PESISIR UTARA PULAU TERNATE (Vulnerability of Sea Water Intrusion in Northern Coastal of Ternate Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Achmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di wilayah pesisir bagian utara Pulau Ternate, dengan tujuan mengetahui kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dan menganalisis akuifer serta cara pengambilan airtanah sehingga tidak terjadi penyusupan air laut ke dalam tubuh airtanah. Sampel air sumur diukur untuk mengetahui kadar salinitas dan daya hantar listrik (DHL. Kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dukur dengan menggunakan metode geolistrik. Hasil pengukuran DHL dan salinitas airtanah di wilayah pesisir utara menunjukkan, terdapat penyusupan air laut di Desa Tobolo dan Sulamadaha, dengan rentang nilai masing-masing antara 0,5-3,3 mS/cm dan 0,2-1,7 ppt. Hasil pengukuran geolistrik menunjukkan batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut rata-rata antara 12-15 m dari permukaan. Nilai resistivitas air laut berkisar antara 0,01-20 Ωm. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan peringatan untuk tidak melakukan pengeboran sumur di wilayah pesisir. Sebagai contoh kasus, pengeboran sumur hingga 80 m dengan jarak sekitar 250 m dari garis pantai di Desa Takome, di mana batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut pada kedalaman 15 m. Pengukuran nilai DHL dan salinatas air dari sumur ini menunjukkan masing-masing 6,1 mS/cm dan 3,3 ppt. Nilai ini menunjukkan kedalaman sumur bor telah melewati zona pencampuran antara airtanah dengan air laut (interface.   ABSTRACT This research was conducted in the coastal areas of northern part of Ternate island, in order to know the depth of interface and to analyze the aquifers and to avoid seawater intrusion caused of groundwater extraction. Well water samples were measured to determine levels of salinity and DHL. The depth of interface was measured using geoelectric method. The results of electrical conductivity (EC and salinity of groundwater measurement in the northern coastal area showed that, there is infiltration of sea water in Tobolo and Sulamadaha. The EC and salinity values ranging between 0.5-3.3 mS/cm and 0.2-1.7 ppt

  13. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  14. Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.

    2008-12-01

    The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

  15. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  16. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0702 - Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 9 May - 19 May 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Santa Rosa Reef, Guam Island,...

  17. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  18. Failure of two consecutive annual treatments with ivermectin to eradicate the reindeer parasites (Hypoderma tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe and Linguatula arctica from an island in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient endectocide ivermectin is used to reduce the burden of parasites in many semidomestic reindeer herds in northern Fennoscandia. In the autumn of 1995 and 1996 all reindeer on the island of Silda (42 km2 were treated with ivermectin in an attempt to eradicate the warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi (L., the nose bot fly (Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer (Diptera: Oestridae and the sinus worm (Linguatula arctica Riley, Haugerud and Nilssen (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae. Silda is situated 2-3 km off the mainland of Finnmark, northern Norway, and supports about 475 reindeer in summer. A year after the first treatment, the mean abundance of H. tarandi was reduced from 3.5 to 0.6, but a year after the second treatment the mean abundance unexpectedly had increased to 4.5. After one year without treatment, the mean abundance and prevalence of the three target parasites were at the same level, or higher, than pre-treatment levels. The main hypothesis for the failure to eliminate the parasites is that gravid H. tarandi and C. trompe females originating from untreated reindeer in adjacent mainland areas dispersed to the island during the warm summer of 1997 (possibly also in 1998. As these oestrids are strong flyers, it may not be too difficult for them to cross >2-3 km of oceanic waters. There are no good explanations for the failure to eradicate L. arctica, but the results indicate that there may be elements in its life cycle that are unknown. The conclusion of the study is that it may be difficult or impossible to eradicate these parasites permanently, even locally such as on islands unless adjacent areas on the mainland are also cleared.

  19. Human dietary exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus Gmelin 1791) from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Adele L.H.; Raumati Hook, G.; Greening, Gail E.; Gibbs-Smith, Emma; Gardner, Jonathan P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) concentrations were determined using ICP-MS in soft tissues (wet wt.) from whole greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) collected from Urapukapuka-Rawhiti Island, Opua Marina, Waitangi Bridge and Opua Wharf from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand (NZ). All samples had metal concentrations well below the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) maximum limits and were comparable to, or less than, concentrations observed in previous NZ studies. Based on the average values detected in the current study, the concentrations of heavy metals ingested in a 'typical diet' containing greenshell mussels are below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). However, Maori (indigenous people of New Zealand), Pacific Islanders and Asians consume a far greater quantity of seafood (and therefore heavy metals) than the general public of New Zealand and could potentially consume enough shellfish to exceed the PTWI for Cd (but not for Hg, As, Pb or Sn). Although our results, based on the current PTWIs, indicate no significant health risk to greenshell mussel consumers in this region, PTWIs change over time; concentrations which were thought to be safe are later found to be harmful. Additionally, differences in individual human susceptibilities to various toxins could increase the risk of harm for consumers with low tolerance to heavy metals. We suggest that a survey of the frequency, amount and species consumed by groups whose diet may be largely shellfish-based is required to enable a more comprehensive risk assessment to be made.

  20. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  1. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  2. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  3. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  4. Multivariate Marshall and Olkin Exponential Minification Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stationary bivariate minification process with bivariate Marshall-Olkin exponential distribution that was earlier studied by Miroslav et al [15]is in this paper extended to multivariate minification process with multivariate Marshall and Olkin exponential distribution as its stationary marginal distribution. The innovation and the ...

  5. Magnitude-frequency characteristics and preparatory factors for spatial debris-slide distribution in the northern Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter Jakob; Jensen, Niels H.; Veihe, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are highly susceptible to debris-avalanches and debris-flows originating from debris-slide activity in shallow colluvial soils. To provide data for hazard and risk assessment of debris-avalanches and debris-flows, this study aims at quantifying the ma...

  6. Building tobacco cessation capacity in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Cruz, Peter J; Mercado, Susan P; Li, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands-Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a posttraining knowledge assessment exam, pre- and posttraining confidence assessments, and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the posttraining knowledge assessment exam at the first attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their second attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre- and posttraining confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials, and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations such as Pacific Islanders.

  7. 75 FR 79264 - E-2 Nonimmigrant Status for Aliens in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands With Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    .... USCIS-2008-0035] RIN 1615-AB75 E-2 Nonimmigrant Status for Aliens in the Commonwealth of the Northern... period is a provision authorizing the Secretary of Homeland Security to classify an alien foreign... alien, notwithstanding the treaty requirements otherwise applicable. Id. Eligible investors are those...

  8. Distribution of 137Cs activities in clams, Tivela mactroidea collected along the northern coast of Venezuela and the island of Margarita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Clam meats were obtained directly from the fishermen on the beaches in front of where the clams were collected at eight sites; seven along the northern coast of Venezuela and one on the northern coast of the island of Margarita (Venezuela). Marine sediments were also collected in the same corresponding areas as the clams. 137 Cs was determined both in clam meats and the marine sediments by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry employing a hyperpure germanium detector. About 5 kg portions of clam meats were washed and dried in the laboratory, before 500 cm 3 volumes were transferred and weighed in the measuring containers. Similarly, 500 cm 3 volumes of marine sediments that were dried and ground to pass a 85 μm sieve were transferred to the measuring containers. The samples were counted for 150,000 seconds of real time. The 137 Cs activity of the clam meats ranged from -1 (our detection limit) to 0.36 Bq x kg -1 (dried weigh). These values are all within the range of values considered for environmental fallout from the nuclear weapons tests. Finally, all the values for the corresponding marine sediments were below our detection limit of 0.1 Bq x kg -1 of 137 Cs (dried weigh). (author)

  9. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer System from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2013-11-14

    The seaward-dipping sedimentary wedge that underlies the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain forms a complex groundwater system. This major source of water provides for public and domestic supply and serves as a vital source of freshwater for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the region. Population increases and land-use and climate changes, however, have led to competing demands for water. The regional response of the aquifer system to these stresses poses regional challenges for water-resources management at the State level because hydrologic effects often extend beyond State boundaries. In response to these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the groundwater availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in 2010.

  10. Upper Triassic limestones from the northern part of Japan: new insights on the Panthalassa Ocean and Hokkaido Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrotty, Giovan; Peybernes, Camille; Ueda, Hayato; Martini, Rossana

    2017-04-01

    In comparison with the well-known Tethyan domain, Upper Triassic limestones from the Panthalassa Ocean are still poorly known. However, these carbonates represent a unique opportunity to have a more accurate view of the Panthalassa Ocean during the Triassic. Their study will allow comparison and correlation of biotic assemblages, biostratigraphy, diagenesis, and depositional settings of different Triassic localities from Tethyan and Panthalassic domains. Moreover, investigation of these carbonates will provide data for taxonomic revisions and helps to better constrain palaeobiogeographic models. One of the best targets for the study of these carbonates is Hokkaido Island (north of Japan). Indeed, this island is a part of the South-North continuity of Jurassic to Paleogene accretionary complexes, going from the Philippines to Sakhalin Island (Far East Russia). Jurassic and Cretaceous accretionary complexes of Japan and Philippines contain Triassic mid-oceanic seamount carbonates from the western Panthalassa Ocean (Onoue & Sano, 2007; Kiessling & Flügel, 2000). They have been accreted either as isolated limestone slabs or as clasts and boulders, and are associated with mudstones, cherts, breccias and basaltic rocks. Two major tectonic units forming Hokkaido Island and containing Triassic limestones have been accurately explored and extensively sampled: the Oshima Belt (west Hokkaido) a Jurassic accretionary complex, and the Cretaceous Sorachi-Yezo Belt (central Hokkaido). The Sorachi-Yezo Belt is composed of Cretaceous accretionary complexes in the east and of Cretaceous clastic basin sediments deposited on a Jurassic basement in the west (Ueda, 2016), both containing Triassic limestones. The origin of this belt is still matter of debate especially because of its western part which is not in continuity with any other accretionary complex known in the other islands of Japan and also due to the lack of data in this region. One of the main goals of this study is to

  11. Marshall funds the Camaldolese monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kracik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikołaj Wolski (1553-1630, founder of the Camaldolese hermitage at Bielany near Cracow, was an exceptionally colourful and interesting personage. He travelled widely in his youth touring the most important European countries and getting familiar with the Renaissance culture. In spite of the fact that he supported a candidate of the House of Hapsburg to the Polish throne, he managed to get appreciation of king Sigismund III, who entrusted him with a position of the Royal Marshal to the Crown and made him his close advisor. Many a time he was sent as an envoy to the pope and monarchs, playing, at the same time, the role of a patron of artists, whom he won not only for the royal palace, but to beautify his own residence in Krzepica. The last 27 years of his life he devoted to the idea of bringing the Camaldolese Order to Cracow and building a hermitage for them on the Bielany Hill. The founder persoally supervised construction works and resided in one of the first monastery houses. As an expression of humbleness he wished to be buried after his death under the threshold of he church in a monk’s robe.

  12. 2007 EM300 and EM3002D Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise Hi'ialakai HI0703 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM300 and EM3002D multibeam Data were collected from May 25-June 9, 2007, aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai at Saipan Island, Tinian Island, Sarigan Island, Zealandia...

  13. Long-Term Ground-Water Levels and Transmissivity in the Blackstone River Basin, Northern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Church, Peter E.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water provides about 7.7 million gallons per day, or 28 percent of total water use in the Rhode Island part of the Blackstone River Basin. Primary aquifers in the basin are stratified glacial deposits, composed mostly of sand and gravel along valley bottoms. The ground-water and surface-water system in the Blackstone River Basin is under stress due to population growth, out-of-basin water transfers, industrialization, and changing land-use patterns. Streamflow periodically drops below the Aquatic Base Flow standard, and ground-water withdrawals add to stress on aquatic habitat during low-flow periods. Existing hydrogeologic data were reviewed to examine historical water-level trends and to generate contour maps of water-table altitudes and transmissivity of the sand and gravel aquifer in the Blackstone River Basin in Rhode Island. On the basis of data from four long-term observation wells, water levels appear to have risen slightly in the study area during the past 55 years. Analysis of available data indicates that increased rainfall during the same period is a likely contributor to the water-level rise. Spatial patterns of transmissivity are shown over larger areas and have been refined on the basis of more detailed data coverage as compared to previous mapping studies.

  14. Prevalence and risk behaviour for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection in Marajó Island, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Aguiar, Samantha; Sá, Keyla G; Freitas, Felipe Bonfim; Ferreira, Glenda; Lima, Sandra Souza; Hermes, Renata Bezerra; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura; Ishak, Marluísa; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global public health problem, but, so far, there is no published information regarding the epidemiology of HIV-1 in Marajó Archipelago (Pará, Brazil). The present study reports the occurrence of infection by HIV-1 in four municipalities of the Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil. A total of 1877 samples were collected from volunteer blood donors (1296 women and 551 men) living in the municipalities of Anajás, Chaves, Portel and São Sebastião da Boa Vista. Information about risk behaviour assessment was obtained from a questionnaire. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies using serological tests. The infection was confirmed by nucleic acid amplification assays. Twelve samples were seropositive for HIV by ELISA. Western blot analysis showed four positive samples, eight indeterminate patterns and one found to be negative. Molecular analysis revealed three positive samples. Risk factors for HIV-1 infection included absence of condoms during sexual intercourse (41.3%, São Sebastião da Boa Vista), use of illicit drugs (5.8%, Anajás) and early initiation of sexual activities, from 10-15 years (30.7%). Although the study indicates a low HIV-1 prevalence in Marajó Island, some factors may increase the risk for HIV-1 and these include early sexual initiation, unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of illicit drugs.

  15. Marshall-smith syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Shi Kyung; Cho, In Chul; Han, Chun Hwan

    2002-01-01

    Marshall-smith syndrome is a rare disease, with about 29 cases reported to date. It is characterized by accelerated bony growth and maturation, phalangeal abnormalities (wide middle and narrow distal phalanges), unusual facial features (prominent eyes, bluish sclerae, coarse eyebrows, an upturned nose, hypoplastic facial bones, and shallow orbits), failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, and psychomotor retardation. This report of the radiologic findings of Marshall-smith syndrome is as, for as we know, the first to be published in Korea

  16. Marshall-Smith syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Shi Kyung; Cho, In Chul; Han, Chun Hwan

    2002-01-01

    Marshall-Smith syndrome is a rare disease, with about 29 cases reported to date. It is characterized by accelerated bony growth and maturation, phalangeal abnormalities (wide middle and narrow distal phalanges), unusual facial features (prominent eyes, bluish sclerae, coarse eyebrows, an upturned nose, hypoplastic facial bones, and shallow orbits), failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, and psychomotor retardation. This report of the radiologic findings of Marshall-Smith syndrome is, as for as we know, the first to be published in Korea

  17. Republic of the Marshall Islands Changed Circumstances Petition to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lum, Thomas; Thomas, Kenneth; Redhead, C. S; Bearden, David; Holt, Mark; Lazzari, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    .... The Petition requests additional compensation for personal injuries and property damages and restoration costs, medical care programs, health services infrastructure and training, and radiological monitoring. According to U.S...

  18. Humanitarian Approach to Nuclear Disarmament and the Marshall Islands Cases

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 寿則

    2016-01-01

    2015年は広島・長崎への原爆投下から70年の節目であった。今日でもなお核兵器は存在し続けており、国際社会における脅威となっている。同年核不拡散条約の第9 回再検討会議が開催されたが、具体的成果を得ることなく閉幕した。その背景には2010年の第8 回再検討会議のころから主張され始めた核軍縮への人道的アプローチをめぐる核兵器国と非核兵器国との厳しい対立がある。この対立は2015年後半の国連総会第1 委員会における核軍縮関連諸決議の採択をめぐって顕在化した。2016年には国連総会の下に設置された核軍縮に関するオープンエンド作業部会(OEWG)において、核兵器禁止条約を追求する議論が提起されており、これをめぐり非核兵器国と核兵器依存国との主張の対立がみられる。 本稿は、この人道的アプローチに基づく核兵器禁止条約の追求の在り方につき現行の国際法の観点から考察を行っている。第1 部では生物兵器禁止条約や化学兵器禁止条約の教訓から核兵器禁止条約形成においても人道の主張に基づく条約形成が有効であることを論じるとともに、現行法を再確認する規定が必要であることを主張している。第2 部では国際司法裁...

  19. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium by the Marshall Islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption constant (f 1 ) is a critical parameter in assessing systemic uptake following the ingestion of a radioactive material and in monitoring such intakes. This study addresses the latter, particularly, for plutonium. and from environmental measurements derives an f 1 value of 4 x 10 -4 for the Marshallese population. The uncertainty associated with the methodology and measurements used in this f 1 value assessment is evaluated. This evaluation takes into account the results from 24-h urine samples and the particular lifestyle of the Marshallese. Plutonium intake resulting from soil consumption is a primary parameter in this evaluation; for this study, it was assumed to be 500 mg d -1 . The f 1 , value determined here is consistent with the values in ICRP Publication 67 of 5 x 10 -4 for ages 1 to adult, and is the same as that suggested by the NRPB. 80 refs., 5 tabs

  20. [Guillain-Barré syndrome in the northern area of Gran Canaria and the island of Lanzarote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladro-Benito, Y; Conde-Sendin, M A; Muñoz-Fernández, C; Pérez-Correa, S; Alemany-Rodríguez, M J; Fiuza-Pérez, M D; Alamo-Santana, F

    The objective of this study is to analyse the incidence and clinical characteristics of Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS) in the Canary Islands. We conducted a retrospective study of GBS patients (according to diagnostic criteria from the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke) treated in the Ntra. Sra. del Pino Hospital in Gran Canaria between 1983 and 1998. Annual incidence, seasonal distribution, preceding infection, clinical and electrophysiological data, and evolution were all evaluated. Prognostic factors were studied by means of a univariate analysis. A total of 81 patients were selected for the study. The raw incidence was 1.04/100,000 inhab./year (CI 95%: 0.83 1.29; adjusted for age to the European population: 1.5). The rates of incidence were higher in men and increased lineally with age in both sexes. We observed an upward tendency during the winter months. 48% of the patients displayed serious motor deficits in the nadir of the disease, and 17.8% required assisted ventilation. After one year s evolution 74% were seen to experience an excellent recovery. The mortality rate was 8.2% and 37% received immunomodulatory treatment. The main variables associated with a bad prognosis at 3 and 12 months were: serious deficits in muscular balance, the need for assisted ventilation and very reduced amplitude of evoked motor potential. GBS incidence in the Canary Islands is similar to that found in other countries. An increase with age and an upward tendency during the winter months was observed. No differences were found in the clinical data as compared with other series.

  1. Habitat selection by two species of burrowing mayfly nymphs in the Les Cheneaux Islands region of northern Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Marc A.; Hudson, Patrick; Chriscinske, Margret

    2004-01-01

    This study focused primarily on the habitat preferences of Hexagenia limbata andEphemera simulans, two species prevalent in northern Lake Huron, to gain a better understanding of the key components that determined their distribution and abundance. Both species preferred habitats based upon depth and sediment type. In addition, the burrowing activity of H. limbata was examined using in-situ, underwater sampling techniques specifically designed for the study. SCUBA divers made resin casts and took clear sediment cores in order to study how the burrow densities of H. limbata related to the sediment: water volume ratios. H. limbata contributed to the bioturbation and sediment porosity in specific, fine-sediment habitats. Younger age classes of this species utilized the burrows of their larger cohorts, an adaptation that could allow for energy savings and optimized growth.

  2. Assessing the health care system of services for non-communicable diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: a Pacific regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs.

  3. Largest global shark biomass found in the northern Galápagos Islands of Darwin and Wolf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Salinas de León

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has dramatically depleted sharks and other large predatory fishes worldwide except for a few remote and/or well-protected areas. The islands of Darwin and Wolf in the far north of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR are known for their large shark abundance, making them a global scuba diving and conservation hotspot. Here we report quantitative estimates of fish abundance at Darwin and Wolf over two consecutive years using stereo-video surveys, which reveal the largest reef fish biomass ever reported (17.5 t ${\\mathrm{ha}}^{-1}$ ha − 1 on average, consisting largely of sharks. Despite this, the abundance of reef fishes around the GMR, such as groupers, has been severely reduced because of unsustainable fishing practices. Although Darwin and Wolf are within the GMR, they were not fully protected from fishing until March 2016. Given the ecological value and the economic importance of Darwin and Wolf for the dive tourism industry, the current protection should ensure the long-term conservation of this hotspot of unique global value.

  4. Remote Sensing and Geodetic Measurements for Volcanic Slope Monitoring: Surface Variations Measured at Northern Flank of La Fossa Cone (Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of recent monitoring activities on potentially unstable areas of the NW volcano flank of La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy are shown here. They are obtained by integration of data by aerial photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and GPS taken in the 1996–2011 time span. A comparison between multi-temporal models built from remote sensing data (photogrammetry and TLS highlights areas characterized by ~7–10 cm/y positive differences (i.e., elevation increase in the upper crown of the slope. The GPS measurements confirm these results. Areas characterized by negative differences, related to both mass collapses or small surface lowering, also exist. The higher differences, positive and negative, are always observed in zones affected by higher fumarolic activity. In the 2010–2012 time span, ground motions in the northern part of the crater rim, immediately above the upper part of observed area, are also observed. The results show different trends for both vertical and horizontal displacements of points distributed along the rim, with a magnitude of some centimeters, thus revealing a complex kinematics. A slope stability analysis shows that the safety factors estimated from these data do not indicate evidence of possible imminent failures. Nevertheless, new time series are needed to detect possible changes with the time of the stability conditions, and the monitoring has to go on.

  5. Polonium (²¹⁰Po), uranium (²³⁴U, ²³⁸U) isotopes and trace metals in mosses from Sobieszewo Island, northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryło, Alicja; Nowicki, Waldemar; Olszewski, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The activity of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides, as well as trace metals in mosses, collected from Sobieszewo Island area (northern Poland), were determined using the alpha spectrometry, AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) and OES-ICP (atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma). The concentrations of mercury (directly from the solid sample) were determined by the cold vapor technique of CV AAS. The obtained results revealed that the concentrations of (210)Po, (234)U, and (238)U in the two analyzed kinds of mosses: schrebers big red stem moss (Pleurozium schreberi) and broom moss (Dicranum scoparium) were similar. The higher polonium concentrations were found in broom moss (Dicranum scoparium), but uranium concentrations were relatively low for both species of analyzed mosses. Among the analyzed trace metals the highest concentration in mosses was recorded for iron, while the lowest for nickel, cadmium and mercury. The obtained studies showed that the sources of polonium and uranium isotopes, as well as trace metals in analyzed mosses are air city contaminations transported from Gdańsk and from existing in the vicinity the phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (near Gdańsk).

  6. Brigadier General Marsena Patrick, Provost Marshal General for the Army of the Potomac

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    professionals. Just as the populations of the states reflected, attendance by cadets from northern states was approximately double that of cadets from southern...the department of the Provost Marshals within his own division, and extending his jurisdiction over the surrounding country beyond the range of...a curse to it; and refugees from taxation and conscription at home are fattening upon the plunder obtained here.”298 He moved to establish firmer

  7. Evidence for coral island formation during rising sea level in the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Paul S.; Owen, Susan D.; Ford, Murray R.

    2014-02-01

    The timing and evolution of Jabat Island, Marshall Islands, was investigated using morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating. Results show the first evidence of island building in the Pacific during latter stages of Holocene sea level rise. A three-phase model of development of Jabat is presented. Initially, rapid accumulation of coarse sediments on Jabat occurred 4800-4000 years B.P. across a reef flat higher than present level, as sea level continued to rise. During the highstand, island margins and particularly the western margin accreted vertically to 2.5-3.0 m above contemporary ridge elevations. This accumulation phase was dominated by sand-size sediments. Phase three involved deposition of gravel ridges on the northern reef, as sea level fell to present position. Jabat has remained geomorphically stable for the past 2000 years. Findings suggest reef platforms may accommodate the oldest reef islands in atoll systems, which may have profound implications for questions of prehistoric migration through Pacific archipelagos.

  8. 2007 EM300 and EM3002D Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise Hi'ialakai HI0702 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM300 and EM3002D multibeam Data were collected from May 12-22, 2007, aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai at Santa Rosa Reef, Guam Island, Rota Island, Aguijan Island,...

  9. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  10. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F.; Damiani, R. (Compiler)

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Marshall Faculty Fellowship Program involved 21 faculty in the laboratories and departments at Marshall Space Flight Center. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2017 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (Appendix A) and the Program Description (Appendix B). The research affected the following six areas: (1) Materials (2) Propulsion (3) Instrumentation (4) Spacecraft systems (5) Vehicle systems (6) Space science The materials investigations included composite structures, printing electronic circuits, degradation of materials by energetic particles, friction stir welding, Martian and Lunar regolith for in-situ construction, and polymers for additive manufacturing. Propulsion studies were completed on electric sails and low-power arcjets for use with green propellants. Instrumentation research involved heat pipes, neutrino detectors, and remote sensing. Spacecraft systems research was conducted on wireless technologies, layered pressure vessels, and two-phase flow. Vehicle systems studies were performed on life support-biofilm buildup and landing systems. In the space science area, the excitation of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission provided insight regarding the propagation of these waves. Our goal is to continue the Marshall Faculty Fellowship Program funded by Center internal project offices. Faculty Fellows in this 2017 program represented the following minority-serving institutions: Alabama A&M University and Oglala Lakota College.

  11. Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. PMID:22393958

  12. Secondhand smoke concentrations in hospitality venues in the Pacific Basin: findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke- free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/ m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments.

  13. Spatial variation in pollen and charcoal records in relation to the 665 yr BP Kaharoa tephra at Harataonga Bay, Great Barrier Island, northern New Zealand : preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S.L.; Jones, M.D.; Shane, P.A.; Sutton, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a pollen study examining spatial variability using the 665 14 C yr BP Kaharoa tephra as the key stratigraphic marker. Our aim is to highlight potential differences in pollen and charcoal profiles from adjacent sites, and to point out the implications of these differences for the interpretation of pollen records. Three sediment cores were taken from swampy ground behind foredunes at Harataonga Bay, a small catchment on Great Barrier Island. Core 1 provides a c. 5000 14 C yr record of the swamp and is typical of northern New Zealand pollen profiles in that the deforestation signal appears immediately after Kaharoa tephra. Cores 2 and 3, however, show this signal at least 1 m below the tephra layer. Also, artefact pollen of gourd Lagenaria, an introduced Polynesian cultigen, was found 80 cm below the tephra layer in Core 2. This apparent difference in the timing of the human signal may be explained by the occurrence of small-scale, highly localised fires that are not recorded at adjacent sites. This has implications for inferring date of human presence in extensive areas, such as regions or large catchments, from a small number of pollen cores taken from within those areas. An alternative explanation is that sediments in cores 2 and 3 have been reworked to a much greater extent than those in Core 1. This has implications for the use of tephra as critical data for events, particularly when using recent tephra such as Kaharoa for dating human presence when the necessary resolution is to decades or centuries rather than millenia. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.

  15. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  16. Marshall Rosenbluth and the Metropolis algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The 1953 publication, 'Equation of State Calculations by Very Fast Computing Machines' by N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth and M. N. Rosenbluth, and M. Teller and E. Teller [J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087 (1953)] marked the beginning of the use of the Monte Carlo method for solving problems in the physical sciences. The method described in this publication subsequently became known as the Metropolis algorithm, undoubtedly the most famous and most widely used Monte Carlo algorithm ever published. As none of the authors made subsequent use of the algorithm, they became unknown to the large simulation physics community that grew from this publication and their roles in its development became the subject of mystery and legend. At a conference marking the 50th anniversary of the 1953 publication, Marshall Rosenbluth gave his recollections of the algorithm's development. The present paper describes the algorithm, reconstructs the historical context in which it was developed, and summarizes Marshall's recollections

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Faculty Fellowship program was revived in the summer of 2015 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, following a period of diminished faculty research activity here since 2006 when budget cuts in the Headquarters' Education Office required realignment. Several senior Marshall managers recognized the need to involve the Nation's academic research talent in NASA's missions and projects to the benefit of both entities. These managers invested their funds required to establish the renewed Faculty Fellowship program in 2015, a 10-week residential research involvement of 16 faculty in the laboratories and offices at Marshall. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2015 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (appendix A) and the Program Description (appendix B). The research touched on seven areas-propulsion, materials, instrumentation, fluid dynamics, human factors, control systems, and astrophysics. The propulsion studies included green propellants, gas bubble dynamics, and simulations of fluid and thermal transients. The materials investigations involved sandwich structures in composites, plug and friction stir welding, and additive manufacturing, including both strength characterization and thermosets curing in space. The instrumentation projects involved spectral interfero- metry, emissivity, and strain sensing in structures. The fluid dynamics project studied the water hammer effect. The human factors project investigated the requirements for close proximity operations in confined spaces. Another team proposed a controls system for small launch vehicles, while in astrophysics, one faculty researcher estimated the practicality of weather modification by blocking the Sun's insolation, and another found evidence in satellite data of the detection of a warm

  18. Comparative Studies on Community Ecology of Two Types of Subtropical Forests Grown in Silicate and Limestone Habitats in the Northern Part of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Feroz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare woody species diversity, spatial distribution of trees and stand structure on the basis of the architectural stratification between two types of subtropical forests in the northern part of Okinawa Island, Japan, tree censuses in a 750 m2 plot in silicate habitat and a 1000 m2 plot in limestone habitat were performed. It was found that both subtropical forests growing in silicate and limestone habitats consisted of four architectural layers. A total of 26 families, 43 genera, 60 species and 4684 individuals larger than 0.1 m high in the silicate habitat, and 31 families, 51 genera, 62 species and 4798 individuals larger than 0.0 m high in the limestone habitat, were recorded. As a result, the floristic composition in the silicate habitat was quite different from that in the limestone habitat in terms of similarity index ( Π C = 0.07; approximately only one-sixth of the species were in common. The floristic composition among layers was more similar in the silicate habitat than in the limestone habitat. Castanopsis sieboldii (Mak. Hatusima was the most dominant species in the silicate habitat, but was completely absent in the limestone habitat where Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb. ex Nees was the most dominant species. The potential number of species in the silicate forest (62 was lower than that in the limestone forest (71. However, the woody species diversity was higher in the silicate forest than in the limestone forest. The values of H′ and J′ tended to increase from the top layer downward except for the bottom layer in the silicate forest, while this increasing trend was reversed in the limestone forest. It follows that high woody species diversity in the silicate forest depended on small-sized trees, whereas in the limestone forest it depended on big-sized trees. The spatial distribution of trees in the forests was random in each layer, except the top layer, where there existed a double-clump structure. High degree of

  19. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  20. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.The three-dimensional, groundwater flow model developed for this investigation used the numerical code MODFLOW–NWT to represent changes in groundwater pumping and aquifer recharge from predevelopment (before 1900) to future conditions, from 1900 to 2058. The model was constructed using existing hydrogeologic and geospatial information to represent the aquifer system geometry, boundaries, and hydraulic properties of the 19 separate regional aquifers and confining units within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system and was calibrated using an inverse modeling parameter-estimation (PEST) technique.The parameter estimation process was achieved through history matching, using observations of heads and flows for both steady-state and transient conditions. A total of 8,868 annual water-level observations from 644 wells from 1986 to 2008 were combined into 29 water-level observation groups that were chosen to focus the history matching on specific hydrogeologic units in geographic areas in which distinct geologic and hydrologic conditions were observed. In addition to absolute water-level elevations, the water-level differences between individual measurements were also included in the parameter estimation process to remove the systematic bias caused by missing hydrologic stresses prior to 1986. The total average residual of –1.7 feet was normally distributed for all head groups, indicating minimal bias. The average absolute residual value

  1. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    -crystallized and the original structure is oblitered. D_3M_4: is linked to the intrusion of the Monte Capanne pluton (6.9 Ma). Because of the flattening of the country rocks a penetrative foliation, sub-parallel to the surface of the plutonic body, developed during its intrusion and the uplift. Fluidal structures and discharge folding also developed. This structures affected both the country rocks and the laccoliths intruded in. At the meso-scale are also evident fractures, filled by calcite, cutting the garnet/wollastonite aggregate and later flattened and-or partially transposed. Late felsic products associated with the Monte Capanne pluton partly are deformed by the flattening and partly cut the flattening structures. The contact between the pluton and the country rocks itself is locally deformed by flattening structures. At the microscope the growth of HT/LP minerals, mimetic on the previous associations, or syn-kinematic or static, is evident. M_5: finally, during the last intrusive event (Orano porphyries, 6.8 Ma) a static thermo-metamorphic blastesis locally occurs post-dating the structures previously described. Only gentle folding, veins and fractures formation, and faulting processes followed the tectono-metamorphic and thermo-metamorphic deformation events. Conclusions The Punta Nera Unit represents another important element to understand the relationships between Alps and Apennines. In fact, the evidences of a pre-granitoid polyphased tectono-metamorphic framework in this metamorphic oceanic unit allow to correlate it to the Schistes Lustrés of the Alpine Corsica (e.g. Inzecca Massif, Duran Delga, 1984) and of the Northern Tyrrhenian area (e.g. the outcrops of oceanic metamorphic units in the Gorgona Island, Giglio Island and eastern Elba Island: Bortolotti et al., 2001; Pandeli et alii, 2001; Rossetti et al., 2001; Orti et al., 2002). References Barberi et al. (1969). F.126. Isola d'Elba. Note Ill. Carta Geol. It., 1:100.000. Ser. Geol. d'It. Bortolotti V. et al

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  4. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Tinian Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymety derivatives at Tinian Islands and...

  5. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymety derivatives at Saipan Island,...

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F.; Karr, G.

    2017-01-01

    The research projects conducted by the 2016 Faculty Fellows at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center included propulsion studies on propellant issues, and materials investigations involving plasma effects and friction stir welding. Spacecraft Systems research was conducted on wireless systems and 3D printing of avionics. Vehicle Systems studies were performed on controllers and spacecraft instruments. The Science and Technology group investigated additive construction applied to Mars and Lunar regolith, medical uses of 3D printing, and unique instrumentation, while the Test Laboratory measured pressure vessel leakage and crack growth rates.

  7. Vitreous veils and radial lattice in Marshall syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Jacob W; Mohney, Brian G; Pulido, Jose S; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica

    2008-12-01

    To report the findings of membranous vitreous veils and radial lattice in a child with Marshall syndrome. Observational case report. Retrospective review of medical records and fundus photograph of a 6-year-old boy with Marshall syndrome. Vitreoretinal findings were significant for bilateral membranous vitreous veils and radial lattice degeneration. This case demonstrates the occurrence of vitreous veils and radial lattice degeneration in patients with Marshall syndrome.

  8. Multiscale Terrain Analysis of Multibeam Bathymetry Data for Lake Trout Spawning Habitat Mapping in the Drummond Island Refuge, northern Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Binder, T.

    2012-12-01

    Until the 1950s, lake trout supported a valuable commercial fishery in the Great Lakes. The introduction of sea lamprey into the Great Lakes and overfishing resulted in the loss of most populations. Despite consistent stocking efforts since the 1960s, restoration of these populations has been slow. The reasons are numerous, but may be related to differences in the spawning behavior between hatchery and wild trout. A four-year study initiated in 2010, utilizes acoustic telemetry to characterize and compare the spawning behaviors of hatchery and wild lake trout in the Drummond Island Refuge in northern Lake Huron. In this project, the movement of tagged fish are monitored by an array of over 125 lake floor hydrophones during the fall spawning period. Fish behavior is overlaid over detailed bathymetric and substrate data and compared with environmental variables (e.g. water temperature, wind speed and direction, and wave height and direction) to develop a conceptual behavioral model. Sites suspected of being spawning sites based upon telemetry data are verified through the use of divers and trapping eggs and fry. Prior to this study, the factors that influenced how the spawning fish utilize the lake floor shoals have been poorly understood. Among the factors thought to impact spawning success were: bathymetry and substrate composition. Diver and telemetry data suggest that the fish(both hatchery raised and wild) are particularly attracted to rocky substrates and that fragment size is important. High resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 have been used to characterize the shape and composition of the lake floor in the study area. Classification of the substrate is a labor intensive process requiring divers, drop cameras and sediment sampling. To improve this, the traditional approach has been to use supervised and unsupervised classification techniques that are based upon measured acoustic backscatter from an echosounder or sidescan sonar

  9. Northern fur seal demography studies at San Miguel Island, California conducted from 1975-10-07 to 2014-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0141240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  10. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  11. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  12. General of the Army George C. Marshall on Operational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    145 and he actively pursued it as an end itself, even personally getting involved in the distribution of chocolate and cigarettes.146 When a...Marshall to Mrs. Thomas B. Coles, 26 October 1927, Ibid., 316. Marshall was happy to move and looking forward to the new duty. 51 Lecture, Fort

  13. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  14. Multi-laboratory precision of Marshall design related tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Marshall method is still the method of choice for the design of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) in South Africa. During the validation of a HMA mix design, considerable variability was encountered in Marshall test results for the same mix supplied...

  15. Late Quaternary drainage dynamics in northern Brazil based on the study of a large paleochannel from southwestern Marajó Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F; Góes, Ana M

    2008-09-01

    Marajó Island shows an abundance of paleochannels easily mapped in its eastern portion, where vegetation consists mostly of savannas. SRTM data make possible to recognize paleochannels also in western Marajó, even considering the dense forest cover. A well preserved paleodrainage network from the adjacency of the town of Breves (southwestern Marajó Island) was investigated in this work combining remote sensing and sedimentological studies. The palimpsest drainage system consists of a large meander connected to narrower tributaries. Sedimentological studies revealed mostly sharp-based, fining upward sands for the channelized features, and interbedded muds and sands for floodplain areas. The sedimentary structures and facies successions are in perfect agreement with deposition in channelized and floodplain environments, as suggested by remote sensing mapping. The present study shows that this paleodrainage was abandoned during Late Pleistocene, slightly earlier than the Holocene paleochannel systems from the east part of the island. Integration of previous studies with the data available herein supports a tectonic origin, related to the opening of the Pará River along fault lineaments. This would explain the disappearance of large, north to northeastward migrating channel systems in southwestern Marajó Island, which were replaced by the much narrower, south to southeastward flowing modern channels.

  16. Shifting migration patterns without genetic erosion: evidence from the Zamia pumila complex (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) at the northern of the Caribbean island biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bahamas archipelago is the northernmost land area of the Caribbean island biodiversity hotspot (CIBH). It is defined by several banks composed of quaternary carbonates that are tectonically stable. Such stability has provided direct geological evidence of global ice-volume changes that is valuab...

  17. Marshall Application Realignment System (MARS) Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshe, Andrea; Sutton, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    The Marshall Application Realignment System (MARS) Architecture project was established to meet the certification requirements of the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) V2.0 Federal Enterprise Architecture Certification (FEAC) Institute program and to provide added value to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Application Portfolio Management process. The MARS Architecture aims to: (1) address the NASA MSFC Chief Information Officer (CIO) strategic initiative to improve Application Portfolio Management (APM) by optimizing investments and improving portfolio performance, and (2) develop a decision-aiding capability by which applications registered within the MSFC application portfolio can be analyzed and considered for retirement or decommission. The MARS Architecture describes a to-be target capability that supports application portfolio analysis against scoring measures (based on value) and overall portfolio performance objectives (based on enterprise needs and policies). This scoring and decision-aiding capability supports the process by which MSFC application investments are realigned or retired from the application portfolio. The MARS Architecture is a multi-phase effort to: (1) conduct strategic architecture planning and knowledge development based on the DoDAF V2.0 six-step methodology, (2) describe one architecture through multiple viewpoints, (3) conduct portfolio analyses based on a defined operational concept, and (4) enable a new capability to support the MSFC enterprise IT management mission, vision, and goals. This report documents Phase 1 (Strategy and Design), which includes discovery, planning, and development of initial architecture viewpoints. Phase 2 will move forward the process of building the architecture, widening the scope to include application realignment (in addition to application retirement), and validating the underlying architecture logic before moving into Phase 3. The MARS Architecture key stakeholders are most

  18. Recognition of the Kaweka Terrane in northern South Island, New Zealand : preliminary evidence from Rb-Sr metamorphic and U-Pb detrital zircon ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Mortimer, N.; Campbell, H.J.; Griffin, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Rb-Sr metamorphic ages from low-grade Torlesse Supergroup metasedimentary rocks from North Canterbury and Marlborough provide preliminary evidence for a continuation of the Kaweka Terrane of the central North Island into the Torlesse Composite Terrane of the South Island. This would extend from the south side of the Wairau Fault in the upper Wairau River valley southwards to the Lake Tennyson and Lake Sumner areas, and as far as Hawarden. Rb-Sr ages indicate Jurassic metamorphism, 170±24 Ma, with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at that time 0.7073 ± 0.0007 i.e. similar to their North Island counterparts. These Kaweka Terrane rocks have detrital zircon ages that follow the distinctive pattern of the Torlesse rocks in general, i.e. substantial (>30%) Permian-Triassic and Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic groupings, but they also have minor youngest age components c. 175-165 Ma which constrain a maximum Early-Middle Jurassic depositional age. In detail, significant, older zircon components are Late Permian-Early Triassic (260-240 Ma) and Late Triassic (220-210 Ma), but the Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic detrital zircon ages are more scattered. The Kaweka Terrane thus forms a linear belt (c. 500 km) along the length of the Torlesse Composite Terrane in both North and South Islands. In the South Island it coincides with the Esk Head Belt, i.e. east of the Rakaia Terrane (Triassic-Late Permian) and west of the Pahau Terrane (Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic). (author). 61 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Eocene to Miocene back-arc basin basalts and associated island arc tholeiites from northern Sulawesi (Indonesia): Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Celebes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangin, C.; Maury, R.C.; Bellon, H.; Cotten, J.; Polve, M.; Priadi, B.; Soeria-Atmadja, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Eocene BABB basalts intruded by tholeiitic and calk-alkalic island arc magmatic rocks are reported from the north arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Age and geochemical similarities between these basalts and those drilled in the Celebes Sea indicate this North Sulawesi volcanic arc was built on the same oceanic crust. The 25 deg late Neogene clockwise rotation of the north arm of Sulawesi following its collision with fragments of Australia (Sula, Buton) is not sufficient to explain the asymmetrical magnetic anomalies in the Celebes basin. The North Sulawesi island arc could be interpreted as having progressively retreated northward on its own Celebes sea back arc basin, during an episode of Palaeogene-early Neogene tectonic erosion along the trench. (authors)

  20. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  1. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  2. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  3. Day of two suns. US nuclear testing and the Pacific Islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblin, Jane.

    1988-01-01

    The book focuses on two Pacific communities affected by nuclear testing, the people of Rongelap atoll irradiated by fallout, and the people of Kwajalein atoll forced to leave their islands so it could be used as a target area for missiles launched from the western USA. Both atolls are part of the Marshall Islands which are on the eastern side of the groups of islands known as Micronesia. The USA conducted 66 nuclear tests in the period 1946-1958, one on Bikini Island, codenamed Bravo, causing the contamination of Rongelap. Following the halting of atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1958 the area became a missile testing target area. The reasons why the Marshall Islands were used, the effects of the fallout and destruction of the islanders way of life when they were moved from their homes is described. It draws widely on experience of the Marshall Islanders themselves. One of the appendices lists the tests and displacement in the Marshall Islands in chronological order. (U.K.)

  4. Marshall-Olkin multivariate semi-logistic distribution and minification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olkin multivariate logistic distribution (MO-ML) are introduced and studied. Various characterizations properties of Marshall-Olkin multivariate semi-logistic distribution are investigated and studied. First order autoregressive minification processes ...

  5. Frequency distribution, isotopic composition and physical characterization of plutonium-bearing particles from the Fig-Quince zone on Runit Island, Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Martinelli, R.E.; Kehl, S.R.; Rivers, A.N.; Brown, T.A.; Tumey, S.J.; Jernstroeem, J.; Williams, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Runit Island on Enewetak Atoll was very heavily impacted by the U.S. nuclear testing campaign in the northern Marshall Islands (1946-58). The primary source of contamination on Runit Island was the 1958 Quince safety test where a large quantity of device plutonium (Pu) was scattered over the area near the GZ. A second low-yield device was detonated on the same site 10 days later, further disturbing the soil and leaving behind a very heterogeneous pattern of contamination including milligram-size particles of plutonium. A limited cleanup of the Fig-Quince zone was carried out in 1979. During this period, the effectiveness of the cleanup operations was primarily evaluated on the basis of bulk soil concentration data with little consideration given to the heterogeneity and long-term material-, biological-, and environmental-specific impacts of residual high activity (hot) particle contamination. The aim of the present study was twofold; (i) to characterize the levels and distribution of residual contamination in the Fig-Quince zone, and (ii) to develop pertinent data on the frequency distribution, elemental and isotopic composition, and physico-chemical properties of hot particles isolated from surface soils from Fig-Quince with a view towards providing recommendations on the future management and possible cleanup of the site. Today, Runit Island remains under an administrative quarantine. (author)

  6. Late Quaternary drainage dynamics in northern Brazil based on the study of a large paleochannel from southwestern Marajó Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marajó Island shows an abundance of paleochannels easily mapped in its eastern portion, where vegetation consists mostly of savannas. SRTM data make possible to recognize paleochannels also in western Marajó, even considering the dense forest cover. A well preserved paleodrainage network from the adjacency of the town of Breves (southwestern Marajó Island was investigated in this work combining remote sensing and sedimentological studies. The palimpsest drainage system consists of a large meander connected to narrower tributaries. Sedimentological studies revealed mostly sharp-based, fining upward sands for the channelized features, and interbedded muds and sands for floodplain areas. The sedimentary structures and facies successions are in perfect agreement with deposition in channelized and floodplain environments, as suggested by remote sensing mapping. The present study shows that this paleodrainage was abandoned during Late Pleistocene, slightly earlier than the Holocene paleochannel systems from the east part of the island. Integration of previous studies with the data available herein supports a tectonic origin, related to the opening of the Pará River along fault lineaments. This would explain the disappearance of large, north to northeastward migrating channel systems in southwestern Marajó Island, which were replaced by the much narrower, south to southeastward flowing modern channels.A Ilha do Marajó mostra uma abundância de paleocanais que são facilmente mapeáveis em sua porção leste, onde a vegetação consiste principalmente em savanas. Dados SRTM possibilitam reconhecer paleocanais também na porção oeste do Marajó, mesmo considerando a cobertura vegetal de floresta densa. Uma rede de paleodrenagem bem preservada nas adjacências da cidade de Breves (sudoeste da Ilha do Marajó foi investigada neste trabalho combinando-se sensoriamento remoto e estudos sedimentológicos. O sistema de drenagem palimpséstico consiste

  7. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  8. Organização empresarial em Alfred Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Kerstenetzky

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Encontra-se na obra de Marshall uma abordagem ao ambiente empresarial que difere de sua tradicionalmente considerada contribuição à economia. Embora Marshall seja o fundador da vertente do equilíbrio parcial da microeconomia, seu trabalho no tema da organização empresarial é muito mais rico do que esta contribuição específica. O artigo explora a análise de cunho histórico e institucional desenvolvida por Marshall no tema da firma, dos mercados e dos ambientes empresariais. Como resultado, sugere que Marshall pode ser apontado como precursor de abordagens contemporâneas ao tema, como a abordagem das capacitações organizacionais, e da grande corporação americana, de autores como Berle e Means e Chandler.We can find in Marshall’s works an approach to business environments that is different from his traditionally accepted contribution to mainstream economics. Though Marshall is indeed the founder of the partial equilibrium analysis branch of traditional microeconomics, his work on the theme of business is much richer than his specific contribution to microeconomics. The article explores Marshall's institutional and historical analysis of firms, markets and of business environments. As an outcome, it suggests that Marshall can be pointed out as a forerunner of modern approaches to the theme, like Berle and Means’s and Chandler’s works on corporations, and the capabilities approach to the theory of the firm.

  9. Flow characteristics and salinity patterns of tidal rivers within the northern Ten Thousand Islands, southwest Florida, water years 2007–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amanda C.; Soderqvist, Lars E.

    2016-12-12

    Freshwater flow to the Ten Thousand Islands estuary has been altered by the construction of the Tamiami Trail and the Southern Golden Gate Estates. The Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is associated with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, has been implemented to improve freshwater delivery to the Ten Thousand Islands estuary by removing hundreds of miles of roads, emplacing hundreds of canal plugs, removing exotic vegetation, and constructing three pump stations. Quantifying the tributary flows and salinity patterns prior to, during, and after the restoration is essential to assessing the effectiveness of upstream restoration efforts.Tributary flow and salinity patterns during preliminary restoration efforts and prior to the installation of pump stations were analyzed to provide baseline data and preliminary analysis of changes due to restoration efforts. The study assessed streamflow and salinity data for water years1 2007–2014 for the Faka Union River (canal flow included), East River, Little Wood River, Pumpkin River, and Blackwater River. Salinity data from the Palm River and Faka Union Boundary water-quality stations were also assessed.Faka Union River was the dominant contributor of freshwater during water years 2007–14 to the Ten Thousand Islands estuary, followed by Little Wood and East Rivers. Pumpkin River and Blackwater River were the least substantial contributors of freshwater flow. The lowest annual flow volumes, the highest annual mean salinities, and the highest percentage of salinity values greater than 35 parts per thousand (ppt) occurred in water year 2011 at all sites with available data, corresponding with the lowest annual rainfall during the study. The highest annual flow volumes and the lowest percentage of salinities greater than 35 ppt occurred in water year 2013 for all sites with available data, corresponding with the highest rainfall during the study.In water year 2014, the percentage of monitored annual flow

  10. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Borehole seismic studies of a volcanic succession from the Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands, northern North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowper, David

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded basalt flows overlying sedimentary sequences present a challenge to hydrocarbon exploration using reflection seismic techniques. The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well on the Faroese island of Suðuroy allowed us to study the seismic characteristics of a thick sequence of basalt flows from well logs and borehole seismic recordings. Data acquired during the deepening operation in 1996 are presented here.The re-entry well found that the seismic event at 2340 m, prognosed from the pre-drill Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP as a decrease in impedance, was not base basalt and the deepened well remainedwithin the lower series basalts. Nonetheless, compressional and shear sonic logs and a density log were recorded over the full open hole interval. These allowed a firm tie to be made with the reflectedwavefield from a new VSP. The sonic logs show a compressional to shear wavespeed ratio of 1.84 which is almost constant with depth. Sonic compressional wavespeeds are 3% higher than seismicvelocities, suggesting dispersion in the basalt flows. Azimuthal anisotropy was weakly indicated by the shear sonic log but its orientation is consistent with the directions of mapped master joints in the vicinity of the well.The VSP downgoing compressional wavelet shows good persistence, retaining a dominant period of 28 ms at 3510 m depth. Average vertical velocity is 5248 m/s, higher than previously reported.Attenuation can largely be modelled by geometrical spreading and scattering loss, consistent with other studies. Within the piled flows, the effective Q from scattering is about 35. Elastic layeredmedium modelling shows some hope that a mode-converted shear wave may be observed at moderate offsets. Like its predecessor, the 1996 VSP indicates a decrease in impedance below the final depth ofthe well. However, it is unlikely to be basement or sediment and is probably an event within the volcanic sequence.

  11. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  12. Paule Marshall and the search for the African diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gikandi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Fiction of Paule Marshall: Reconstructions of History, Culture, and Gender. DOROTHY HAMER DENNISTON. Knoxville: University of Tennesee Press, 1995. xxii + 187 pp. (Paper US$ 15.00 Toward Wholeness in Paule Marshall's Fiction. JOYCE PETTIS. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1995. xi + 173 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.50 Black and Female: Essays on Writings by Black Women in the Diaspora. BRITA LINDBERG-SEYERSTED. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1994. 164 pp. (Paper n.p. Literary history has not been very kind to Paule Marshall. Even in the early 1980s when literature produced by African-American women was gaining prominence among general readers and drawing the attention of critics, Marshall was still considered to be an enigmatic literary figure, somehow important in the canon but not one of its trend setters. As Mary Helen Washington observed in an influential afterword to Brown Girl, Brownstones, although Marshall had been publishing novels and short stories since the early 1950s, and was indeed the key link between African-American writers of the 1940s and those of the 1960s, she was just being "discovered" in the 1980s. While there has always been a small group of scholars, most notably Kamau Brathwaite, who have called attention to the indispensable role Marshall has played in the shaping of the literary canon of the African Diaspora, and of her profound understanding of the issues that have affected the complex formation and survival of African-derived cultures in the New World, many critics have found it difficult to locate her within the American, African-American, and Caribbean traditions that are the sources of her imagination and the subject of her major works. Marshall has embraced all these cultures in more profound ways than her more famous contemporaries have, but she has not gotten the accolades that have gone to lesser writers like Alice Walker. It is indeed one of the greatest injustices of

  13. Redwood River at Marshall, Minnesota; Feasibility Report for Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    fertility is quite high, re- flected in high annual agricultural yields during non-drought periods. The climate of the study area is... livestock and dairy operations. Median family income for Marshall residents in 1970 was $9,856 with a per capita income of $2,840. The Marshall area is...plain Sa.6. at anoter site. Substantial ban ntt tralit>𔃻s jutS ni . p acosw alea . Likely comversian 4 -hlnor iont-tel preseTs Siited t.-i ’attt

  14. The Southern Kurile Islands: Shrouded in Eternal Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Kurile Islands?”44 during a meeting of the Japanese Diet on October 19, 1951. His initial answer was that the Northern and the Southern Kuriles were...Islands: Vietnam, China, and Taiwan, and 2) the Spratly Islands: Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia , Philippines, and Brunei. 7 John J. Stephan, The

  15. Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Stein; Mary A. Carr; Greg C. Liknes; Sara J. Comas

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing...

  16. Walt Disney visited Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Walt Disney toured the West Test Area during his visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center on April 13, 1965. The three in center foreground are Karl Heimburg, Director, Test Division; Dr. von Braun, Director, MSFC; and Walt Disney. The Dynamic Test Stand with the S-1C stage being installed is in the background.

  17. Revolution i detailhandlen? Om Marshall-plan, studierejser og selvbetjeningsbutikker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Bjerrum Fossat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen undersøger, hvordan udbredelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker i Danmark var en del af Marshall-planens målsætning. Ved at fokusere på en af de rejser om selvbetjening, der blev arrangeret i Marshall-regi, kan det vises, hvordan oprettelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker både var i overensstemmelse med amerikanske og danske ønsker. I den danske detailhandel var især kooperationen interesseret i de nye principper, men der fandtes også skeptiske stemmer, der advarede mod de amerikanske ideer.AbstractThe article explores how the dissemination of self-service shops in Denmark was an integral part of the Marshall Plan. Focusing on one of those journeys under the auspices of the Marshall Plan to study such self-service shops in the USA, the article shows how the creation of self-service shops was in accordance with American as well as Danish aspirations. In the Danish retailing business, particularly the cooperative movement was interested in the new principles, even if sceptical voices cautioned against these American ideas. Outside these circles, the Danish unions and employers’ organizations supported the intentions to modernize what they considered an expensive link in the retail trade. The gain in productivity pursued by the industry was considered to depend not only on increasing consumption, but also on standardized goods and mass consumption.

  18. 46 CFR 199.203 - Marshalling of liferafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.203 Marshalling of liferafts. (a) Each passenger vessel must have a lifeboat or rescue boat for each six liferafts when— (1) Each lifeboat and rescue boat is loaded with its full complement of persons; and (2) The...

  19. Testing for Marshall-Lerner hypothesis: A panel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nur Najwa; Sek, Siok Kun

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between real exchange rate and trade balances are documented in many theories. One of the theories is the so-called Marshall-Lerner condition. In this study, we seek to test for the validity of Marshall-Lerner hypothesis, i.e. to reveal if the depreciation of real exchange rate leads to the improvement in trade balances. We focus our study in ASEAN-5 countries and their main trade partners of U.S., Japan and China. The dynamic panel data of pooled mean group (PMG) approach is used to detect the Marshall-Lerner hypothesis among ASEAN-5, between ASEAN-5 and U.S., between ASEAN-5 and Japan and between ASEAN-5 and China respectively. The estimation is based on the autoregressive Distributed Lag or ARDL model for the period of 1970-2012. The paper concludes that Marshal Lerner theory does not hold in bilateral trades in four groups of countries. The trade balances of ASEAN5 are mainly determined by the domestic income level and foreign production cost.

  20. Revolution i detailhandlen? Om Marshall-plan, studierejser og selvbetjeningsbutikker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Bjerrum Fossat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen undersøger, hvordan udbredelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker i Danmark var en del af Marshall-planens målsætning. Ved at fokusere på en af de rejser om selvbetjening, der blev arrangeret i Marshall-regi, kan det vises, hvordan oprettelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker både var i overensstemmelse med amerikanske og danske ønsker. I den danske detailhandel var især kooperationen interesseret i de nye principper, men der fandtes også skeptiske stemmer, der advarede mod de amerikanske ideer. Abstract The article explores how the dissemination of self-service shops in Denmark was an integral part of the Marshall Plan. Focusing on one of those journeys under the auspices of the Marshall Plan to study such self-service shops in the USA, the article shows how the creation of self-service shops was in accordance with American as well as Danish aspirations. In the Danish retailing business, particularly the cooperative movement was interested in the new principles, even if sceptical voices cautioned against these American ideas. Outside these circles, the Danish unions and employers’ organizations supported the intentions to modernize what they considered an expensive link in the retail trade. The gain in productivity pursued by the industry was considered to depend not only on increasing consumption, but also on standardized goods and mass consumption.

  1. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    records of Marshall Broiler chickens to be more alike is low. Repeatability and variance ... the feed efficiency as well as performance ... Body weight is regarded as a function of frame work or size of the ... an animal‟s life time. ... Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke. Akintola ... measured with a weighing balance calibrated ...

  2. T.H. Marshall og det moderne medborgerskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    The major theme of this article is the theory of citizenship put forward by British Sociologist T. H. Marshall in his famous 1949 essay Citizenship and Social Class. The academic interpretations and political uses (and abuses) of Marshall’s seminal, yet both immensely illuminating and evidently...

  3. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  4. Imaging the structure of the Northern Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe - Virgin Island) to assess the tectonic and thermo-mechanical behavior of an arcuate subduction zone that undergoes increasing convergence obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Graindorge, D.; Bouquerel, H.; Conin, M.; Crozon, J.; De Min, L.; De Voogd, B.; Evain, M.; Heuret, A.; Laigle, M.; Lallemand, S.; Lucazeau, F.; Pichot, T.; Prunier, C.; Rolandone, F.; Rousset, D.; Vitard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Paradoxically, the Northern Lesser Antilles is the less-investigated and the most tectonically and seismically complex segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone: - The convergence obliquity between the North American and Caribbean plates increases northward from Guadeloupe to Virgin Islands raising questions about the fore-arc tectonic partitioning. - The margin has undergone the subduction of the rough sediment-starved Atlantic Ocean floor spiked with ridges as well as banks docking, but the resulting tectonic deformation remains hypothetical in the absence of a complete bathymetry and of any seismic line. - Recent geodetic data and low historical seismic activity suggest a low interplate coupling between Saint-Martin and Anegada, but the sparse onshore seismometers located far from source zone cast doubt on this seismic gap. To shed new light on these questions, the ANTITHESIS project, 5 Marine Geophysical legs totaling 72 days, aims at recording a complete bathymetric map, deep and shallow seismic reflexion lines, wide-angle seismic data, heat-flow measurements and the seismic activity with a web of sea-bottom seismometers. Our preliminary results suggest that: - A frontal sliver of accretionary prism is stretched and expulsed northward by 50km along the left-lateral Bunce fault that limits the prism from the margin basement as far southward as 18.5°N. So far, this structure is the only interpreted sign of tectonic partitioning in the fore-arc. - The Anegada Passage extends eastward to the accretionary prism through strike-slip faults and pull-apart basins that possibly form a lef-lateral poorly-active system inherited from a past tectonic phase, consistently with geodetic and seismologic data. - The anomalously cold interplate contact, consistent with a low interseismic coupling, is possibly due to fluid circulation within the shallow crustal aquifer or a depressed thermal structure of the oceanic crust related to the slow-spreading at the medio

  5. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  6. How the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) Has Collaboratively Increased Regional Collective Impacts on Climate Literacy Via Networks of Diverse Stakeholders Engaging in Multiple Reinforcing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai`i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. PCEP partners include universities, education nonprofits, state or country offices/ministries of education, local ecological nonprofits, and a variety of community organizations. Partners contribute and share expertise in climate science, local ecological knowledge, K-12 education in the Pacific island region, science and environmental education, community college education, learning science, indigenous navigation, and oceanography. Over the past six years, PCEP has engaged with regional school systems and communities in a wide variety of ways that complement and reinforce each other. Highlighted activities include improving country and state climate science education standards; focusing on place-based local ecological knowledge and skills in working with schools and communities; developing and disseminating formal education resources such as books and web resources that focus on local contexts and skills rather than contextually inappropriate mainland the textbooks; developing and implementing professional development for teachers; and supporting local ways of knowing by gathering and sharing local stories of climate change; and promoting an emphasis on climate adaptation strategies that increase resilience of natural environments and community systems.

  7. Marshall ̶ Olkin Distributions : Advances in Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Fabrizio; Mulinacci, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in the theory and practice of Marshall-Olkin distributions. These distributions have been increasingly applied in statistical practice in recent years, as they make it possible to describe interesting features of stochastic models like non-exchangeability, tail dependencies and the presence of a singular component. The book presents cutting-edge contributions in this research area, with a particular emphasis on financial and economic applications. It is recommended for researchers working in applied probability and statistics, as well as for practitioners interested in the use of stochastic models in economics. This volume collects selected contributions from the conference “Marshall-Olkin Distributions: Advances in Theory and Applications,” held in Bologna on October 2-3, 2013.

  8. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  9. General results for the Marshall and Olkin's family of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAGNER BARRETO-SOUZA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marshall and Olkin (1997 introduced an interesting method of adding a parameter to a well-established distribution. However, they did not investigate general mathematical properties of their family of distributions. We provide for this family of distributions general expansions for the density function, explicit expressions for the moments and moments of the order statistics. Several especial models are investigated. We discuss estimation of the model parameters. An application to a real data set is presented for illustrative purposes.

  10. Marshall syndrome in a young child, a reality

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Chiriac, Madalina Ionela; Diaconescu, Smaranda; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith; Rusu, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recurrent fever syndrome, known as the Marshall syndrome (MS), is a clinical entity that includes several clinical features, such as: fever (39?40?C) that occurs repeatedly at variable intervals (3?8 weeks) and in episodes of 3 to 6 days, cervical adenopathy, pharyngitis, and aphthous stomatitis. The diagnosis of MS is one of exclusions; laboratory data is nonspecific and no abnormalities correlated with MS have been detected thus far. Methods: The authors report the case...

  11. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  12. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  13. La Argentina y el Plan Marshall: promesas y realidades Argentina and the Marshall Plan: promises and realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rapoport

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los intereses y prioridades de la política económica externa de los Estados Unidos y las complejas relaciones entre Washington y el gobierno de Buenos Aires en relación a la puesta en marcha del Plan Marshall de reconstrucción de Europa Occidental. La no participación de la Argentina en él dificultó su proceso de industrialización al restringir su comercio con el viejo continente e impedirle obtener las divisas necesarias para comprar en los EEUU, proveedor fundamental de los bienes que necesitaba.The article analyze both the interests and priorities of the foreign economic policy of the United States and the complex relationship between Washington and the peronist government when President Truman impose the Marshall Plan in Europe making more difficult the industrialisation of Argentina.

  14. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  15. Fall-out of military nuclear explosions: Marshall Islands, Utah and Nevada states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author presents 1954 Bikini atoll accident and early and delayed effects on population: non thyroid and thyroid effects (hypothyroidism, nodules) in according to age, radiation doses. In conclusion, the most of late complications are induced by iodine radioisotopes. (5 tabs)

  16. Kwajalein, Marshall Island, Bucholz. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-08

    Ja46 Same Sae Same 13 24 4 Same Si ms rob46 mar 46 N o8 43 Same Same Same 24 5 Same .nS e Apr 46 oat4 6 08 4 Same Same 10 24 6 Knjalein Is Atoll AN...5 4 b l d ,g . 6 o 54 tc Located on mast atop control tower AN/GMQ-5 ED-1O6B 67 ft 9 Feb 60 tc Located on top of control tower. Same Sae 62 ft J. w...84,o2i KIP 4 200 4), 9 , 9 ) Q. 9 , o t 901 f. 4140 ..3 o 9 iol 90 9, 2_ 4000,* I , 9al 441 d4 6 ,3 9s 943 %4k 6 9’ 3’ 93 . t, i - 200 9i,1 p7,2 9

  17. Late radiation effects in Marshall Islanders exposed to fallout 28 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1954, following detonation of a megaton nuclear device at Bikini, an unfortunate accident occurred owing to an unpredicted shift in winds resulting in exposure to radioactive fallout of 250 Marshallese people, 28 American servicemen on atolls to the east, and 23 Japanese fishermen on their fishing vessel. In this presentation, medical findings in the exposed Marshallese noted over the past 28 years is briefly reviewed with particular emphasis on late effects on the thyroid gland. The Marshallese were too far distant from the detonation for any direct effects, and their exposure was due entirely to fallout radiation during the 2 days prior to evacuation. This consisted of penetrating whole-body gamma radiation, irradiation of the skin (principally beta radiation) from fallout deposited on the skin, and internal absorption of radionuclides from ingestion of contaminated food and water. The most serious internal exposure was that to the thyroid from radioiodines, which were relatively abundant in the fallout. 63 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  18. Toxoplasma antibodies and retinochoroiditis in the Marshall Islands and their association with exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.; Kindermann, W.R.; Walls, K.W.; Heotis, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nearly universal serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was found to have occurred by adulthood in 517 Marshallese tested in 1981-1982. The prevalence and incidence of retinal lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis were 3.9% and 273 cases/year/100,000 seropositive persons, respectively, thus indicating a significant public health problem. Seronegativity was significantly more common in a subgroup of Marshallese that had received 110-190 rads of total-body gamma radiation as a consequence of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. Despite this finding there was no evidence of an increase in clinically significant lesions in exposed persons

  19. Marshall Mathers, Eminem og Slim Shady : Vanhellig treenighet

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelen, Olav Inge Kamsvåg

    2008-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er en undersøkelse i Eminems imagekonstruksjoner. Ved hjelp av performansteori ønsker jeg å belyse hvordan Eminem bruker, og spiller på, forskjellige identiteter i musikken sin, og hvordan dette påvirker folks oppfatning av ham. Som oppgavens tittel foreslår, ser jeg primært på identitetene eller personaene Marshall Mathers, Eminem og Slim Shady. Jeg argumenterer for at disse bør leses som forskjellige personer, i motsetning til tre navn på samme person. Jeg foretar en lesni...

  20. WATER TEMPERATURE and DEPTH collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and others from 2015-05-08 to 2015-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0155929)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID SE 15-02). XBT casts...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Long: 145.81873, Lat: 17.58746 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.01m; Data Date Range: 20090504-20110423.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Long: 145.76970, Lat: 15.15611 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.63m; Data Date Range: 20090420-20110408.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  4. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel: the head injury that may have prolonged the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Heather A; Mullin, Jeffrey P; Sloffer, Chris A

    2016-07-01

    War-related head injury, indeed neurological injury in general, has been a part of the history of humankind for as long as there has been warfare. Such injuries can result in the removal of the individual from combat, thus eliminating any subsequent contribution that he or she might have made to the battle. However, at times, the injuries can have more wide-reaching effects. In the case of commanders or leaders, the impact of their injuries may include the loss of their influence, planning, and leadership, and thus have a disproportionate effect on the battle, or indeed the war. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was a talented military strategist and leader who was respected by friends and foes alike. He held an honored reputation by the German people and the military leadership. His head injury on July 17, 1944, resulted in his being removed from the field of battle in northern France, but also meant that he was not able to lend his stature to the assassination attempt of Adolph Hitler on July 20. It is possible that, had he been able to lend his stature to the events, Hitler's hold on the nation's government might have been loosened, and the war might have been brought to an end a year earlier. The authors review Rommel's career, his injury, the subsequent medical treatment, and his subsequent death.

  5. Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 2 Years - U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, April-October, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippins, Ashley; Murthy, Neil; Meghani, Mehreen; Solsman, Amy; Apaisam, Carter; Basilius, Merlyn; Eckert, Maribeth; Judicpa, Peter; Masunu, Yolanda; Pistotnik, Kelsey; Pedro, Daisy; Sasamoto, Jeremy; Underwood, J Michael

    2018-05-25

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).* CDC collaborates with USAPI immunization programs to monitor vaccination coverage. In 2016, † USAPI immunization programs and CDC piloted a method for estimating up-to-date status among children aged 2 years using medical record abstraction to ascertain regional vaccination coverage. This was the first concurrent assessment of childhood vaccination coverage across five USAPI jurisdictions (American Samoa; Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia [FSM]; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands [CNMI]; Republic of the Marshall Islands [RMI]; and Republic of Palau). § Differences in vaccination coverage between main and outer islands ¶ were assessed for two jurisdictions where data were adequate.** Series coverage in this report includes the following doses of vaccines: ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); ≥3 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); ≥3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine; ≥3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine; and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); i.e., 4:3:1:3:3:4. Coverage with ≥3 doses of rotavirus vaccine was also assessed. Completion of the recommended series of each of these vaccines †† was <90% in all jurisdictions except Palau. Coverage with the full recommended six-vaccine series (4:3:1:3:3:4) ranged from 19.5% (Chuuk) to 69.1% (Palau). In RMI and Chuuk, coverage was lower in the outer islands than in the main islands for most vaccines, with differences ranging from 0.9 to 66.8 percentage points. Medical record abstraction enabled rapid vaccination coverage assessment and timely dissemination of results to guide programmatic decision-making. Effectively monitoring vaccination coverage, coupled with implementation of data-driven interventions

  6. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  7. Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand

  8. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  9. Modeling Reef Island Morphodynamics in Profile and Plan View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, A. D.; Ortiz, A. C.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2016-12-01

    Reef islands are carbonate detrital landforms perched atop shallow reef flats of atolls and barrier reef systems. Often comprising the only subaerial, inhabitable land of many island chains and island nations, these low-lying, geomorphically active landforms face considerable hazards from climate change. While there hazards include wave overtopping and groundwater salinization, sea-level rise and wave climate change will affect sediment transport and shoreline dynamics, including the possibility for wholesale reorganization of the islands themselves. Here we present a simplified morphodynamic model that can spatially quantify the potential impacts of climate change on reef islands. Using parameterizations of sediment transport pathways and feedbacks from previously presented XBeach modeling results, we investigate how sea-level rise, change in storminess, and different carbonate production rates can affect the profile evolution of reef islands, including feedbacks with the shallow reef flat that bounds the islands offshore (and lagoonward). Model results demonstrate that during rising sea levels, the reef flat can serve as a sediment trap, starving reef islands of detrital sediment that could otherwise fortify the shore against sea-level-rise-driven erosion. On the other hand, if reef flats are currently shallow (likely due to geologic inheritance or biologic cementation processes) such that sea-level rise does not result in sediment accumulation on the flat, reef island shorelines may be more resilient to rising seas. We extend the model in plan view to examine how long-term (decadal) changes in wave approach direction could affect reef island shoreline orientation. We compare model results to historical and geologic change for different case studies on the Marshall Islands. This simplified modeling approach, focusing on boundary dynamics and mass fluxes, provides a quantitative tool to predict the response of reef island environments to climate change.

  10. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  11. 78 FR 21862 - Revision to United States Marshals Service Fees for Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ....). List of Subjects in 28 CFR Part 0 Authority delegations (Government agencies), Government employees... Marshals Service employee, agent, or contractor. This proposed fee increase reflects the current costs to.... Marshals Service employee, agent, or contractor, plus travel costs and any other out-of- pocket expenses...

  12. Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Yalof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory (CGT was used to identify a main concern of online students in higher education. One of the main impediments to studying online is a sense of isolation and lack of access to support systems as students navigate through complex requirements of their online programs. Hypothetical probability statements illustrate the imbalance between heightened needs of virtual learners and perceived inadequate support provided by educational institutions. The core variable, marshaling resources, explains how peer supports sustain motivation toward successful program completion. Understanding the critical contribution virtual interpersonal networks make towards maximizing resources by group problem solving is a significant aspect of this theory. Keywords: Online learning, e-learning, personal learning networks, peer networks

  13. Nanotechnology Concepts at Marshall Space Flight Center: Engineering Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B.; Kaul, R.; Shah, S.; Smithers, G.; Watson, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has need for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight, and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Engineering Directorate is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science, and space optics manufacturing. MSFC has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high-payoff nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors, and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

  14. Crowd-Sourced Radio Science at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; McTernan, J. K.; Suggs, R. M.; Rawlins, L.; Krause, L. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adams, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    August 21, 2017 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the total solar eclipse on high frequency (HF) radio propagation and ionospheric variability. In Marshall Space Flight Center's partnership with the US Space and Rocket Center (USSRC) and Austin Peay State University (APSU), we engaged citizen scientists and students in an investigation of the effects of an eclipse on the mid-latitude ionosphere. Activities included fieldwork and station-based data collection of HF Amateur Radio frequency bands and VLF radio waves before, during, and after the eclipse to build a continuous record of changing propagation conditions as the moon's shadow marched across the United States. Post-eclipse radio propagation analysis provided insights into ionospheric variability due to the eclipse.

  15. Gregory Merkel Tours Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Gregory A. Merkel (left), high school student from Springfield, Massachusetts, is pictured here with Harry Coons of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a visit to the center. Merkel was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  16. Thermal Stir Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Solid state welding processes have become the focus of welding process development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike fusion weld processes such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA), electron beam (EB), etc., solid state welding processes do not melt the material during welding. The resultant microstructure can be characterized as a dynamically recrystallized morphology much different than the casted, dentritic structure typical of fusion weld processes. The primary benefits of solid state processes over fusion weld processes include superior mechanic properties and the elimination of thermal distortion and residual stresses. These solid state processes attributes have profoundly influenced the direction of advanced welding research and development within the NASA agency. Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) is a new solid state welding process being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the weld process can be decoupled for independent control. An induction coil induces energy into a workpiece to attain a desired plastic temperature. An independently controlled stir rod, captured within non-rotating containment plates, then stirs the plasticized material followed by forging plates/rollers that work the stirred weld joint. The independent control (decoupling) of heating, stirring and forging allows, theoretically, for the precision control of microstructure morphology. The TSW process is being used to evaluate the solid state joining of Haynes 230 for ARES J-2X applications. It is also being developed for 500-in (12.5 mm) thick commercially pure grade 2 titanium for navy applications. Other interests include Inconel 718 and stainless steel. This presentation will provide metallurgical and mechanical property data for these high melting temperature alloys.

  17. Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Hydrocast Data from NOAA Ship HI'IALAKAI and NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE around the Hawaiian Islands, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands from 2007-05-08 to 2008-11-14 (NODC Accession 0052123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted...

  18. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... (APA). The Pribilof Island Community of St. George Island, Traditional Council (Council) petitioned... St. George Island to take male fur seal young of the year during the fall. NMFS solicits public...

  19. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Meyers, Michelle; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark; Ford, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  20. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Meyers, Michelle B.; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark R.; Ford, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  1. 78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps... Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In 1997, the Lower Colorado River... regulations to reflect changes in ownership and responsibilities of flood control management of Marshall Ford...

  2. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  3. Observations of infragravity motions for reef fringed islands and atolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    The frequency of flooding events that affect low lying islands and atolls in the Pacific is expected to increase under current sea level rise projections. Infragravity (IG) motions, with periods ranging from approximately 25 to 400 seconds, are an important component of wave driven flooding events for reef fringed islands and atolls. The IG variability during wave events is analyzed and interpreted dynamically from pressure and current observations at four cross-reef transects in the North Pacific Ocean that include sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Guam. The IG motions are shown to depend upon the spectral properties of the incident wave forcing and reef flat characteristics that include reef flat length (ranging from 100m to 450m at the four sites) and total water level due to setup and tides. A small inundation event at one of the sites is shown to occur due to large shoreline infragravity energy.

  4. Solving the pre-marshalling problem to optimality with A* and IDA*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Voß, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel solution approach to the container pre-marshalling problem using the A* and IDA* algorithms combined with several novel branching and symmetry breaking rules that significantly increases the number of pre-marshalling instances that can be solved to optimality. A* and IDA......* are graph search algorithms that use heuristics combined with a complete graph search to find optimal solutions to problems. The container pre-marshalling problem is a key problem for container terminals seeking to reduce delays of inter-modal container transports. The goal of the container pre...

  5. The relationship of thyroid cancer in the people of the Marshall Ishands to potential exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J.; Trott, K.R. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The US atomic weapons testing programme in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls in the Marshall Islands to various degrees. The largest weapon named BRAVO was tested in 1954 and resulted in high exposures to residents living on three atolls immediately downwind of the test site. Between 1993 and 1997, as part of the Nationwide Radiological Study of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, we examined 4767 Marshallese for all forms of thyroid disease, benign and malignant. Those examined had residences at the time of the test on all inhabited atolls of the nation and were born before the end of the nuclear testing period and thus potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. This group includes more than 60% of the alive population at risk. We diagnosed 38 thyroid cancers and found 23 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before. These findings indicate that 1 in 100 Marshallese had thyroid cancer or had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer before the investigation. Thyroid cancer rates varied little throughout the country, which suggests that thyroid cancer is endemic to the Marshallese population. However, the highest prevalence (1.8%) was found among women who were alive at the time of the BRAVO test. We derived crude estimates of thyroid dose for each study participant, using age-specific dose estimates on Utirik as estimated by Lessard et al. and adjusting those for location on the basis of contemporary measurements of Cs-137 at their island of residence in 1954. Prevalence of thyroid cancer generally increased with estimated dose to the thyroid, but the trend was not statistically significant. In view of these data, more precise individual thyroid dose reconstruction becomes an essential task for future work. (author)

  6. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  7. Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This photo (a frontal view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

  8. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  9. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  10. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  11. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  12. Field Marshal Erich Von Manstein and the Operational Art at the Battle of Kharkov

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Field Marshal Erich von Manstein was one of Hitler's most competent generals. He was a master of maneuver warfare who orchestrated the counterattacks of Germany's Army Group South during the Winter Campaign of 1942-43...

  13. Field Marshal Sir William J. Slim - Paragon of Moral and Ethical Courage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baylor, Richard

    1998-01-01

    ... during the most desperate and brutal times. This paper looks closely at Field Marshal Slim's ethical development and leadership during his younger years, his senior leader years, and his later years...

  14. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  15. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Marshallagia marshalli and phylogenetic implications for the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao-Miao; Han, Liang; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Shu-Qing; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Marshallagia marshalli (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) infection can lead to serious parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep, goat, and wild ruminant, causing significant socioeconomic losses worldwide. Up to now, the study concerning the molecular biology of M. marshalli is limited. Herein, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. marshalli and examined its phylogenetic relationship with selected members of the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea using Bayesian inference (BI) based on concatenated mt amino acid sequence datasets. The complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli is 13,891 bp, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes supported the monophylies of the families Haemonchidae, Molineidae, and Dictyocaulidae with strong statistical support, but rejected the monophyly of the family Trichostrongylidae. The determination of the complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli provides novel genetic markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of M. marshalli and its congeners.

  16. Prediction of Marshall Parameters of Modified Bituminous Mixtures Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Khuntia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the application of artificial neural networks (ANN and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM for prediction of Marshall parameters obtained from Marshall tests for waste polyethylene (PE modified bituminous mixtures. Waste polyethylene in the form of fibres processed from utilized milk packets has been used to modify the bituminous mixes in order to improve their engineering properties. Marshall tests were carried out on mix specimens with variations in polyethylene and bitumen contents. It has been observed that the addition of waste polyethylene results in the improvement of Marshall characteristics such as stability, flow value and air voids, used to evaluate a bituminous mix. The proposed neural network (NN model uses the quantities of ingredients used for preparation of Marshall specimens such as polyethylene, bitumen and aggregate in order to predict the Marshall stability, flow value and air voids obtained from the tests. Out of two techniques used, the NN based model is found to be compact, reliable and predictable when compared with LS-SVM model. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to identify the importance of the parameters considered.

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center's Virtual Reality Applications Program 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1993-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. Other NASA Centers, most notably Ames Research Center (ARC), have contributed to the development of the VR enabling technologies and VR systems. This VR technology development has now reached a level of maturity where specific applications of VR as a tool can be considered. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, validate, and utilize VR as a Human Factors design and operations analysis tool and to assess and evaluate VR as a tool in other applications (e.g., training, operations development, mission support, teleoperations planning, etc.). The long-term goals of this technology program is to enable specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process and develop more effective training and mission support systems. The capability to perform specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process is required to better refine and validate requirements during the requirements definition phase. This leads to a more efficient design process where perturbations caused by late-occurring requirements changes are minimized. A validated set of VR analytical tools must be developed to enable a more efficient process for the design and development of space systems and operations. Similarly, training and mission support systems must exploit state-of-the-art computer-based technologies to maximize training effectiveness and enhance mission support. The approach of the VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical

  18. Marshall Space Flight Center's Impact Testing Facility Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finchum, Andy; Hubbs, Whitney; Evans, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Impact Testing Facility (ITF) serves as an important installation for space and missile related materials science research. The ITF was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960s, then played a major role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As NASA became more interested in launch debris and in-flight impact concerns, the ITF grew to include research in a variety of impact genres. Collaborative partnerships with the DoD led to a wider range of impact capabilities being relocated to MSFC as a result of the closure of Particle Impact Facilities in Santa Barbara, California. The Particle Impact Facility had a 30 year history in providing evaluations of aerospace materials and components during flights through rain, ice, and solid particle environments at subsonic through hypersonic velocities. The facility s unique capabilities were deemed a "National Asset" by the DoD. The ITF now has capabilities including environmental, ballistic, and hypervelocity impact testing utilizing an array of air, powder, and two-stage light gas guns to accommodate a variety of projectile and target types and sizes. Numerous upgrades including new instrumentation, triggering circuitry, high speed photography, and optimized sabot designs have been implemented. Other recent research has included rain drop demise characterization tests to obtain data for inclusion in on-going model development. The current and proposed ITF capabilities range from rain to micrometeoroids allowing the widest test parameter range possible for materials investigations in support of space, atmospheric, and ground environments. These test capabilities including hydrometeor, single/multi-particle, ballistic gas guns, exploding wire gun, and light gas guns combined with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Code (SPHC) simulations represent the widest range of impact test capabilities in the country.

  19. Science Outreach at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, George

    2002-07-01

    At the end of World War II Duane Deming, an internationally known economist enunciated what later came to be called "Total Quality Management" (TQM). The basic thrust of this economic theory called for companies and governments to identify their customers and to do whatever was necessary to meet their demands and to keep them satisfied. It also called for companies to compete internally. That is, they were to build products that competed with their own so that they were always improving. Unfortunately most U.S. corporations failed to heed this advice. Consequently, the Japanese who actively sought Deming's advice and instituted it in their corporate planning, built an economy that outstripped that of the U.S. for the next three to four decades. Only after U.S. corporations reorganized and fashioned joint ventures which incorporated the tenets of TQM with their Japanese competitors did they start to catch up. Other institutions such as the U.S. government and its agencies and schools face the same problem. While the power of the U.S. government is in no danger of being usurped, its agencies and schools face real problems which can be traced back to not heeding Deming's advice. For example, the public schools are facing real pressure from private schools and home school families because they are not meeting the needs of the general public, Likewise, NASA and other government agencies find themselves shortchanged in funding because they have failed to convince the general public that their missions are important. In an attempt to convince the general public that its science mission is both interesting and important, in 1998 the Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) instituted a new outreach effort using the interact to reach the general public as well as the students. They have called it 'Science@NASA'.

  20. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  1. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for northern river otter, mink, muskrat, and beaver for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data...

  2. Fish, Actinopterygii, Perciformes, Gobiidae, Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002: range gap filled in northern Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Ditch

    2010-01-01

    The present work reports the shrimp goby Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002 in coral sand habitats off three different islands within the Tunku Abdul Rahman marine Park (TARP) off western Sabah in northern Borneo.

  3. A 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Bowen, Kathryn; Hanna, Elizabeth; Iddings, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Small Pacific Island countries (PICs) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the anticipated detrimental health effects of climate change. The assessment of health vulnerabilities and planning adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change on health tests traditional health governance structures and depends on strong linkages and partnerships between actors involved in these vital processes. This article reviews the actors, processes and contexts of the climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project carried out by the World Health Organization and health sector partners in three island countries in the Micronesian region of the Pacific throughout 2010 and 2011: Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Despite their shared history and cultural characteristics, the findings and implications of this article are considered to have substantial relevance and potential application to other PICs. The modified 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change and health adaptation presented in this article draws upon real-world experience and governance theory from both the health and climate change literature and, for the first time, places health systems adaptation within the vision for 'Healthy Islands' in the Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Rickettsial pathogens and arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary significance on Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durden, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern surveys of ectoparasites and potential vector-borne pathogens in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Wake Island are poorly documented. We report on field surveys of ectoparasites from 2010 with collections from dogs, cats, and rats. Five ectoparasites were identified: the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, a sucking louse Hoplopleura pacifica, the mites Laelaps nuttalli and Radfordia ensifera, and the brown dog tickRhipicephalus sanguineus. Ectoparasites were screened for rickettsial pathogens. DNA from Anaplasma platys, a Coxiella symbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, anda Rickettsia sp. were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing from ticks and fleas on Kwajalein Atoll. An unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in a pool of Laelaps nuttalli and Hoplopleura pacifica from Wake Island. The records of Hoplopleura pacifica, Laelaps nuttalli, and Radfordia ensifera and the pathogens are new for Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island.

  5. A large foodborne outbreak on a small Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, C C; Trinidad, R M; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    On March 25, 2009, the Ebeye Leroj Kitlang Memorial Health Center on the island of Ebeye in the Republic of the Marshall Islands was overwhelmed with over 100 patients presenting for vomiting and diarrhea. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that there were 174 cases among 187 attendees at a local funeral earlier in the day. Most cases had eaten served sandwiches containing egg products that had undergone severe time-temperature abuse. While no causal agents were identified, the epidemiology and clinical presentation is compatible with foodborne toxins, most likely enterotoxins of either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Mitigation measures undertaken by public health centered on education of food preparers and the general public regarding safe food preparation practices. This large outbreak serves to remind us that, while there are simple and highly effective measures to prevent such foodborne disease outbreaks, we in the public health sector have a duty to improve the community's knowledge and understanding of these measures.

  6. Green Monopropellant Status at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pierce, Charles W.; Pedersen, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is continuing investigations into the use of green monopropellants as a replacement for hydrazine in spacecraft propulsion systems. Work to date has been to push technology development through multiple activities designed to understand the capabilities of these technologies. Future work will begin to transition to mission pull as these technologies are mature while still keeping a solid goal of pushing technology development as opportunities become available. The AF-M315E activities began with hot-fire demonstration testing of a 1N monopropellant thruster in FY 14 and FY15. Following successful completion of the preliminary campaign, changes to the test stand to accommodate propellant conditioning capability and better control of propellant operations was incorporated to make testing more streamlined. The goal is to conduct hot-fire testing with warm and cold propellants using the existing feed system and original thruster design. Following the 1N testing, a NASA owned 100 mN thruster will be hot-fire tested in the same facility to show feasibility of scaling to smaller thrusters for cubesat applications. The end goal is to conduct a hot-fire test of an integrated cubesat propulsion system using an SLM printed propellant tank, an MSFC designed propulsion system electronic controller and the 100 mN thruster. In addition to the AF-M315E testing, MSFC is pursuing hot-fire testing with LMP-103S. Following our successful hot-fire testing of the 22N thruster in April 2015, a test campaign was proposed for a 440N LMP-103S thruster with Orbital ATK and Plasma Processes. This activity was funded through the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) ACO funding call in the last quarter of CY15. Under the same funding source a test activity with Busek and Glenn Research Center for testing of 5N AF-M315E thrusters was proposed and awarded. Both activities are in-work with expected completion of hot-fire testing by the end of FY17. MSFC is

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  8. The role of marshall and rotterdam score in predicting 30-day outcome of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, A. M. P.; Akbar, T. Y. M.; Nasution, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, especially in the young population. To predict the outcome of TBI, Marshall, and Rotterdam–CT Scan based scoring was mostly used. As many studies showed conflicting results regarding of the usage of both scoring, this study aims to determine the correlation between Rotterdam and Marshall scoring system with outcome in 30 days and found correlation among them. In 120 subjects with TBI that admitted to Adam Malik General Hospital, we found a significant association of both scorings with the 30-day Glasgow Outcome Score. Therefore, we recommend the use of Marshall and Rotterdam CT Score in initial assessment as a good predictor for patients with TBI.

  9. Responding to climate change impacts in the Sky Island Region: From planning to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise W. Misztal; Gregg Garfin; Lara Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the increasing effects of climate change on natural resources requires multiple organizations, agencies, and institutions working cooperatively to incorporate climate change into resource management. In the Sky Island region of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, Sky Island Alliance, a non-governmental organization, has convened a series of...

  10. Tule Reeds and Stone - Localized, Non-Specialized Technology in Laguna Canyon, Santa Cruz Island

    OpenAIRE

    Sunell, Scott David

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to understand the ways in which the Island Chumash who were not participating in specialized bead-making activities invested their labor. Considerable research on the Northern Channel Islands focuses on the nature and distribution of specialist labor spent on beads, drills, and sewn-plank canoes. The history of small-scale production based on the resources in individual canyons on the islands has received less attention. I categorize two new types of heavy igneous tools that...

  11. Abu Dhabi’s New Urban Islands and Shorefront Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Amrousi Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abu Dhabi is in the process of urbanizing a group of Islands that surround its northern and eastern coastlines. Al-Lulu, Al-Saadiyat, Al- Maryah, Al-Reem and Yas Islands are all new urban enclaves that were desert islands and marshlands yet, have been developed over the past decade to urban islands that include epic and entertainment centres such as the Abu Dhabi Louvre, Guggenheim Museum, Ferrari World, NYU Abu Dhabi, the Paris Sorbonne Abu Dhabi in addition to iconic and exclusive waterfront residential units. These new islands re-brand the image of the main archipelago of Abu Dhabi that for decades retained a grid street pattern and pragmatic concrete blocks created in the late 1970s. The new urban islands transform Abu Dhabi’s image into a multinational modern Arab city seeking to become part of the global city network. Abu Dhabi’s new urban islands also act as breakwaters that protect the main archipelago’s coastline from erosion resulting from tidal change, because they are designed to include concrete and stone breakwater barriers. This paper represents a cross-disciplinary research between Civil Engineering and Architecture Departments in an attempt to explore the emerging infrastructure and urban expansion of Abu Dhabi from a multi-disciplinary perspective. We also highlight through simulating the effect of breakwaters on wave heights two scenarios for Al-Lulu Island the importance of these new barrier Islands on the urban expansion of Abu Dhabi.

  12. Multibeam collection for RNDB11WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1988-12-17 to 1988-12-30, Majuro, Marshall Islands to Majuro, Marshall Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Ridge interaction features of the Line Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Storm, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    The sections of Pacific absolute plate motion history that precede the Hawaii-Emperor and Louisville chains are based on three chains: the Line Islands-Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Hess Rise-Shatsky Rise, and the Marshall Islands-Wake Islands (Rurutu hotspot). Although it has been clear that the Line Islands do not define a simple age progression (e.g. Schlanger et al., 1984), the apparent similarity to the Emperor Seamount geographic trend has been used to extend the overall Hawaii-Emperor track further into the past. However, we show here that plate tectonic reconstructions suggest that the Mid-Pacific Mountains (MPMs) and Line Islands (LIs) were erupted near a mid-ocean ridge, and thus these structures do not reflect absolute plate motion. Moverover, the morphology and geochemistry of the volcanoes show similarities with Pukapuka Ridge (e.g. Davis et al., 2002) and the Rano Rahi seamounts, presumed to have a shallow origin. Modern 40Ar/39Ar ages show that the LIs erupted at various times along the entire volcanic chain. The oldest structures formed within 10 Ma of plate formation. Given the short distance to the ridge system, large aseismic volcanic ridges, such as Necker Ridge and Horizon Guyot may simply reflect a connection between MPMs and the ridge, similar to the Pukapuka Ridge. The Line Islands to the south (including Karin Ridge) define short subchains of elongated seamounts that are widespread, resembling the Rano Rahi seamount field. During this time, the plate moved nearly parallel to the ridge system. The change from few large ridges to many subchains may reflect a change in absolute plate motion, similar to the Rano Rahi field. Here, significant MPMs volcanism is no longer connected to the ridge along plate motion. Similar to Pukapuka vs. Rano Rahi, the difference in direction between plate motion and the closest ridge determines whether larger ridges or smaller seamount subchains are formed. The difference between the largest structures (MPMs and LIs

  14. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  16. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  17. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  18. The Promises of “Young Europe”: Cultural Diplomacy, Cosmopolitanism, and Youth Culture in the Films of the Marshall Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marshall Plan films played a crucial role in US cultural diplomacy. This paper will analyze how European film makers of the Marshall Plan used docudramas to envisage a multi-ethnic and cosmopolitan “young Europe” free from the political baggage of the past.

  19. 75 FR 62516 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments...: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Dresden Island Project. f. Location: U.S. Army Corps... Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue, Joliet, IL 60435, (312) 320-1610. i. FERC...

  20. Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white chicken (Gallus domestica) raised in northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria. D Zahraddeen, ISR Butswat, KM Bello, AA Washik. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 378-383. Full Text:.

  1. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Syrkiewicz-S´witała

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion.Methodology14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed.FindingsThe number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93% performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%. More than half of the surveyed offices (56% did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25% or YouTube (6%. Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting. Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns.ValueThe use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  2. Impact of Aggregate Gradation and Filler Type on Marshall Properties of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC is the top layer in the pavement structure, the material should be able to sustain stresses caused by direct traffic loading. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of aggregate gradation and mineral filler type on Marshall Properties. A detailed laboratory study is carried out by preparing asphalt mixtures specimens using locally available materials including asphalt binder (40-50 penetration grade, two types of aggregate gradation representing SCRB and ROAD NOTE 31 specifications and two types of mineral filler including limestone dust and coal fly ash. Four types of mixtures were prepared and tested. The first type included SCRB specification and limestone dust, the second type included SCRB specification and coal fly ash, the third types included ROAD NOTE 31 specification and limestone dust and the fourth type included ROAD NOTE 31 specification and coal fly ash. The optimum asphalt content of each type of mixtures was determined using Marshall Method of mix design. 60 specimen were prepared and tested with dimension of 10.16 cm in diameter and 6.35 cm in height. Results of this study indicated that aggregate gradation and filler type have a significant effect on optimum asphalt content and Marshall Properties. From the experimental data, it was observed that the value of Marshall Stability is comparatively higher when using fly ash as filler as compared to limestone dust.

  3. STS-47 MS Davis trains at Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, wearing the Autogenic Feedback Training System 2 suit and lightweight headset, reviews a Payload Systems Handbook in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mockup during training at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. View provided with alternate number 92P-137.

  4. 78 FR 23563 - LWD, Inc. Superfund Site; Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9805-2; CERCLA-04-2013-3751] LWD, Inc. Superfund Site... costs concerning the LWD, Inc., Superfund Site located in Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky. The... V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name LWD, Inc., Superfund Site by one of the following...

  5. Conservation Controversy: Sparrow, Marshall, and the Mi’kmaq of Esgenoôpetitj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. King

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the interplay between the Sparrow and Marshall decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, and the sovereigntist and traditionalist convictions of the Mi’kmaq of the Esgenoôpetitj/BurntChurch First Nation, as expressed in the conservationist language of the Draft for the Esgenoopotitj First Nations (EFN Fishery Act (Fisheries Policy. With the Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Sparrow, conservation became an important justification available to the Canadian government to support its regulatory infringement on aboriginal and treaty rights. Ten years later, in Marshall, the Court recognized the treaty rights of the Mi’kmaq to a limited commercial fishery. The EFN Fishery Act, written to govern thecontroversial post-Marshall fishery in Esgenoôpetitj (also known as the Burnt Church First Nation demonstrates that for the Mi’kmaq, scientific management, traditional knowledge, sovereignty and spirituality are understood in a holistic philosophy. The focus placed on conservation by the courts, and the managementfocusedapproach taken by the government at Esgenoôpetitj have led to government policy which treats conservation simply as a resource access and management problem. Conservation, which the Court deems“uncontroversial” in Sparrow, is a politically loaded ideal in post-Marshall Burnt Church.

  6. Violence Prevention at Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School. Summary Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    This summary brief is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Researchers from the Justice Policy Center conducted an assessment of the school's violence prevention…

  7. D-day Message from General Eisenhower to General Marshall. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamel, Wynell B.; Blondo, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the D-Day assault on Normandy's beaches in 1944 was critically important to the Allied war effort and ultimately to the security of all nations. Presents a lesson plan based on a message drafted in the early hours of D-Day by General Dwight D. Eisenhower and sent to his superior, General George C. Marshall. (CFR)

  8. In-Space Manufacturing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: Enabling Technologies for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Quincy; Johnston, Mallory; Ordonez, Erick; Ryan, Rick; Prater, Tracie; Werkeiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing(ISM)activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long duration spaceflight safely and sustainably.

  9. A PROGRAM OF ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE MARSHALL COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL SERVICE AREA, LEWISBURG, TENNESSEE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNES, JOHN O., JR.

    THE NEED FOR AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE MARSHALL COUNTY (TENNESSEE) HIGH SCHOOL SERVICE AREA WAS STUDIED THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES COMPLETED BY 207 ADULTS, EXAMINATION OF SCHOOL AND GOVERNMENT RECORDS, AND PERSONAL INTERVIEWS. IT WAS FOUND THAT OVER HALF OF THE AREA RESIDENTS WERE NOT HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES, AND THAT MANY ADULTS DESIRED MORE…

  10. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Magdalena; Romaniuk, Piotr; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Lar, Katarzyna; Holecki, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93%) performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%). More than half of the surveyed offices (56%) did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25%) or YouTube (6%). Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting). Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns. The use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  11. Nähtamatu näitleja / Yoshi Oida, Lorna Marshall ; tõlk. Peeter Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oida, Yoshi

    2004-01-01

    Jaapani näitlejaYoshi Oida näitlemisest erinevates traditsioonilistes jaapani teatristiilides, aga ka lääne stiili näidendites. Katkendid tema raamatust "Nähtamatu näitleja", mille kaasautor on Lorna Marshall. "The Invisible Actor", Methuen, 1997). Järgneb

  12. Nähtamatu näitleja / Yoshi Oida, Lorna Marshall ; tõlk. Peeter Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oida, Yoshi

    2005-01-01

    Jaapani näitlejaYoshi Oida näitlemisest erinevates traditsioonilistes jaapani teatristiilides, aga ka lääne stiili näidendites. Katkendid tema raamatust "Nähtamatu näitleja", mille kaasautor on Lorna Marshall. "The Invisible Actor", Methuen, 1997). Algus: TMK 2004, nr.12. Järg nr. 2, lk. 27-32

  13. Maailma tippkonsultant: ka miljardär alustab praegu nullist / Marshall Goldsmith ; intervjueerinud Kristjan Otsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldsmith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Maailma juhtivate ärinõustajate hulka kuuluv Marshall Goldsmith vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad majanduskriisi põhjuseid, muutusi nende juhtide käitumises, kes on harjunud olema võitjad, juhtide käitumist muutunud maailmas ning majanduslanguse kestvust

  14. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  15. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  16. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  17. Fish, Actinopterygii, Perciformes, Gobiidae, Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002: Range gap filled in northern Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present work reports the shrimp goby Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002 in coralsand habitats off three different islands within the Tunku Abdul Rahman marine Park (TARP) off western Sabah in northernBorneo.

  18. Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum (Malpighiaceae), a new species from Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae) is described: Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum Butaud. It is restricted to the coral islands of Ouvéa, Lifou and Maré in the Loyalty Islands Province (New Caledonia) and is most similar to Stigmaphyllondiscolor (Gand.) C.E.Anderson, known from New Caledonia and Solomon Islands. Previously, plants now known as Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum were included in Stigmaphyllontaomense (Baker f.) C.E.Anderson, endemic to the northern part of Grande-Terre and Belep Islands (New Caledonia). A new circumscription of Stigmaphyllontaomense is proposed. The regional key for New Caledonian species of Stigmaphyllon is updated.

  19. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  20. Development of a NEW Vector Magnetograph at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Hagyard, Mona; Gary, Allen; Smith, James; Adams, Mitzi; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the Experimental Vector Magnetograph that has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This instrument was designed to improve linear polarization measurements by replacing electro-optic and rotating waveplate modulators with a rotating linear analyzer. Our paper will describe the motivation for developing this magnetograph, compare this instrument with traditional magnetograph designs, and present a comparison of the data acquired by this instrument and original MSFC vector magnetograph.

  1. Pemanfaatan Limbah Batu Marmer Sebagai Pengganti Agregat Kasar Pada Campuran Aspal Beton Terhadap Karakteristik Marshall

    OpenAIRE

    Syaiful Amal, Andi; Saleh, Chairil

    2015-01-01

    PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH BATU MARMER SEBAGAI PENGGANTI AGREGAT KASAR PADA CAMPURAN ASPAL BETON TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK MARSHALLThe Implementation Of Stone Marble Waste For Changer The Aggregate Rough To Mix Aplhalt Concrete Characteristics Of MarshalAndi Syaiful Amal1 & Chairil Saleh21,2Jurusan Teknik Sipil – Fakultas Teknik Univ. Muhammadiyah MalangAlamat Korespondensi : Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246 Malang 65144Email : The waste of marble stone is waste produced when manu...

  2. General of the Army George C. Marshall’s Strategic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Depression to perform conservation tasks in rural areas.31 In 1938, Marshall moved to the War Plans Division of the General Staff. Unbeknownst to...125 US Army Center of Military History, “Omar Nelson Bradley: The Centennial ,” US Army, 2006...Omar Nelson Bradley: The Centennial .” US Army, 2006. Accessed April 2, 2017. http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/bradley/bradley.htm. Watson

  3. Casting Net Assessment: Andrew W. Marshall and the Epistemic Community of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    lasting impression on Marshall. Ford Madox Ford’s The March of Literature, which traced the progression of the literary genre from Confucius’s day on...Decision Makers. New York: Free Press, 1986. BIBLIOGRAPHY 94 “New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957” [name: Kitty Last, year: 1915, micro- film serial...family history library film : 2340794]. http:// search.ancestry.com. Nixon, Richard. To secretary of state et al. Memorandum, subject: Organi- zation and

  4. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall)

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Pandey; Ajit Kumar Chaturvedi; Rudal Prasad Chaudhary; Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedli...

  5. Carribean migration and the construction of a black diaspora identity in Paul Marshall's Brown Girl, Brownstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Chin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses the novel 'Brown girl, brownstones' (1959 by Paule Marshall. Author argues that this novel offers a complex and nuanced understanding of how Caribbean migration impacts upon cultural identity, and how this cultural identity is dynamically produced, rather than static. He describes how the novel deals with Barbadian migrants to the US in the 1930s and 1940s, and further elaborates on how through this novel Marshall problematizes common dichotomies, such as between the public and the private, and between racial (black and ethnic (Caribbean identity. Furthermore, he indicates that Marshall through her representation of the Barbadian community, foregrounds the central role of women in the production of Caribbean identity in the US. In this, he shows, Bajan women's talk from the private sphere is very important. Further, the author discusses how the Barbadian identity is broadened to encompass Caribbean and African Americans in the novel, thus creating transnational black diaspora connections, such as by invoking James Baldwin and Marcus Garvey.

  6. Moeda, crédito e ciclos econômicos em Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fornazier Meyrelles Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo tem por objetivo examinar os elementos centrais da análise de Alfred Marshall sobre as flutuações cíclicas, contemplando o papel da especulação e do crédito nesse contexto. A primeira seção contém breve introdução ao assunto. A seguir, tratam-se das contribuições de Marshall sobre os determinantes das taxas de juros normal e de mercado, bem como a sua reformulação da Teoria Quantitativa da Moeda. Após, apresenta-se a sua explicação dos ciclos econômicos, na qual se articulam em uma mesma estrutura os elementos teóricos expostos nas seções anteriores. Ao final, uma comparação da teoria monetária de Marshall com as contribuições de Irving Fisher e Knut Wicksell é realizada, destacando-se os pontos de contato, bem como de distanciamento, entre esses proeminentes teóricos neoclássicos dos fenômenos monetários. Elabora-se ainda uma versão dinâmica formal do modelo marshalliano dos ciclos, incluída em apêndice.

  7. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  8. Technology for the Stars: Extending Our Reach. [Research and Technology: 1995 Annual Report of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Studies, Research, Technology, and Technology Transfer projects are summarized in this report. The focus of the report is on the three spotlights at MSFC in 1995: space transportation technology, microgravity research, and technology transfer.

  9. Naine ei tohi, mida mees võib : Angela Marshall ei suutnud provotseerida ulatuslikku kunstiväitlust / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    1998-01-01

    Los Angelese kunstniku Angela Marshalli näitus- müük Londonis Decima Gallerys. Kunstisündmus seisnes ostja portreteerimises, millele lisandus seksuaalakt. Piltide tegemisel kasutas kunstnik huulepulka.

  10. Social Ecology and Diabetes Self-Management among Pacific Islanders in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Moore, Ramey; Woodring, David; Purvis, Rachel S; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Hudson, Jonell; Kohler, Peter O; Goulden, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases disproportionately affect ethnic and racial minorities. Pacific Islanders, including the Marshallese, experience some of the highest documented rates of type 2 diabetes. Northwest Arkansas is home to the largest population of Marshallese outside of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and many migrants are employed by the local poultry industry. This migrant population continues to increase because of climate change, limited health care and educational infrastructure in the Marshall Islands, and the ongoing health effects of US nuclear testing. The US nuclear weapons testing program had extensive social, economic, and ecological consequences for the Marshallese and many of the health disparities they face are related to the nuclear fallout. Beginning in 2013, researchers using a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach began working with the local Marshallese community to address diabetes through the development and implementation of culturally appropriate diabetes self-management education in a family setting. Preliminary research captured numerous and significant environmental barriers that constrain self-management behaviors. At the request of our CBPR stakeholders, researchers have documented the ecological barriers faced by the Marshallese living in Arkansas through a series of qualitative research projects. Using the Social Ecological Model as a framework, this research provides an analysis of Marshallese health that expands the traditional diabetes self-management perspective. Participants identified barriers at the organizational, community, and policy levels that constrain their efforts to achieve diabetes self-management. We offer practice and policy recommendations to address barriers at the community, organizational, and policy level.

  11. Archive of Sidescan Sonar and Swath Bathymetry Data Collected During USGS Cruise 13CCT04 Offshore of Petit Bois Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, August 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Wiese, Dana S.; Finlayson, David P.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2015-01-01

    In August of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a geophysical survey offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi. This effort was part of the U.S. Geological Survey Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program and the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project, by mapping the shallow geologic stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex.

  12. Phylogeography and genetic structure of endemic Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus (Fabaceae) across the California Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lisa E; Wheeler, Gregory L; McGlaughlin, Mitchell E; Bresowar, Gerald; Helenurm, Kaius

    2017-05-01

    Taxa inhabiting the California Channel Islands exhibit variation in their degree of isolation, but few studies have considered patterns across the entire archipelago. We studied phylogeography of insular Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus to determine whether infraspecific taxa are genetically divergent and to elucidate patterns of diversification across these islands. DNA sequences were collected from nuclear (ADH) and plastid genomes ( rpL16 , ndhA , psbD-trnT ) from >450 samples on the Channel Islands and California. We estimated population genetic diversity and structure, phylogenetic patterns among populations, and migration rates, and tested for population growth. Populations of northern island A. argophyllus var. niveus are genetically distinct from conspecific populations on southern islands. On the southern islands, A. argophyllus var. argenteus populations on Santa Catalina are phylogenetically distinct from populations of var. argenteus and var. adsurgens on the other southern islands. For A. dendroideus , we found the varieties to be monophyletic. Populations of A. dendroideus var. traskiae on San Clemente are genetically differentiated from other conspecific populations, whereas populations on the northern islands and Santa Catalina show varying degrees of gene flow. Evidence of population growth was found in both species. Oceanic barriers between islands have had a strong influence on population genetic structure in both Acmispon species, although the species have differing phylogeographic patterns. This study provides a contrasting pattern of dispersal on a near island system that does not follow a strict stepping-stone model, commonly found on isolated island systems. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. 1969 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  14. 1947 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  15. 1946 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  16. 1949 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  17. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to CNMI to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption. The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the CNMI Governor's Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including renewable electricity production and buildings energy efficiency and conservation.

  18. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes the three near-term energy strategies selected by the CNMI Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. The three energy strategies selected by the task force are (1) designing a demand-side management program focusing on utility, residential and commercial sectors, (2) developing an outreach and education plan focused on energy conservation in government agencies and businesses, including workplace rules, and (3) exploring waste-to-energy options. The task force also discussed several other medium- and long-term energy strategies that could be explored at a future date.

  19. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BENTPT (Benthic Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Coral Areas of Special Significance (CASS) and Seagrass Areas of Special Significance (SASS) in Guam...

  20. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...