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Sample records for northern limpopo province

  1. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  2. Colophospermum mopane wood utilisation in the Northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makhado, RA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Colophospermum mopane wood was quantified from six villages in the northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. One hundred and eighty individuals were interviewed from the selected villages. Three villages were located...

  3. Rationalisation of Nursing Education in Limpopo province: Nurse educators’ perspectives

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    T.R. Makhuvha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP, White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE, and the National Qualification Framework (NQF (South Africa, 1995:6. In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RS A according to Act 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell 1994:154-155. The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process.

  4. Rationalisation of nursing education in Limpopo province : nurse educators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhuvha, T R; Davhana-Maselesele, M; Netshandama, V O

    2007-12-01

    Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE), and the National Qualification Framework (NQF) (South Africa, 1995:6). In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) according toAct 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch's method (Creswell 1994:154-155). The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process.

  5. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  6. A Profile of the Limpopo Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality, and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Limpopo. Most of the data presented are drawn from ...

  7. Epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thema, Lawrence K; Singh, Shenuka

    2017-07-12

    Despite the impact of oral diseases on the quality of life, there is limited updated evidence on oral health status in Limpopo province. To determine the epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province. This was a descriptive retrospective clinical chart review conducted in five purposively selected district hospitals in Limpopo province. The collected data included the patient's sociodemographic information, reasons for dental consultation, information on the dental or oral diseases and the treatment received. Five hundred clinical files were systematically selected (100 from each district hospital) for the period 01 January 1995 to 31 December 2013. Data were collected using the World Health Organization's indicator age groups, namely 6-year-olds, 12-year-olds, 18-year-olds and 35-44-year-old groups. A data capturing sheet was used to record the collected information. Data were analysed using the statistical software package for social sciences SPSS version 23.0. The majority of patients were in the age group of 6 to 20 years (n = 375, 75%). The majority were male patients (n = 309; 62%). Dental caries was the most common complaint (n = 298, 60%). The second most common main complaint in this age group was retained primary or deciduous teeth (n = 60, 12%) affecting children mainly in the age group of 6 to 12 years. The most common clinical procedure across all five districts was dental extractions (n = 324, 64%). Other clinical interventions included scaling and polishing (n = 33, 12%) and dental restorative care (n = 20, 3%). There is an urgent need to reorient oral health service delivery in Limpopo province to focus more on preventive oral health programmes.

  8. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

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    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa. Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%. Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  9. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-11-10

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  10. Experiences of HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province

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    N.S. Mashau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of HIV and AIDS home-based caregivers in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province. A qualitative research design which was exploratory, descriptive and contextual was executed with a sample of purposively selected participants who provided home-based care to people living with HIV and AIDS in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province. Data saturation occurred after in-depth interviews with fifteen participants. In-depth individual interviews and field notes were also used during data collection. The findings reveal that HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers express pain and despair when caring for HIV/AIDS patients. The theme was supported by the following categories and subcategories: problems related to stigma when caring for patients at their homes; stress, burnout, frustration and feelings of helplessness when caring for patients. Recommendations that are described focus on building a working relationship between the home-based caregivers, community and the family.

  11. Demographic profile and perceived INSET needs of secondary mathematics teachers in Limpopo province

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    Angeline Rakumako

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The findings of a study on the demographic profile and perceived INSET needs of secondary Mathematics teachers in Limpopo province are described. The survey instrument employed was the Science Teacher Inventory of Needs for Limpopo province (STIN-LP. Most teachers who responded to this survey teach at a rural or township school, are between 20 and 40 years old, and have between four and ten years experience in teaching Mathematics. Standard 10 is the highest academic qualification of half of the teachers, with 67% of teachers having an M+3 as their highest professional qualification. Teachers indicated interest in all the 38 INSET need items included in the STIN-LP with motivating learners to learn Mathematics, using audio-visual equipment and applying mathematics to daily life of learners among the most important need. The least support was indicated, among others, for needs related to the history of mathematics, improving content knowledge, how mathematics is used in society, and teaching large classes. Poor communication of INSET activities was reported to be the greatest barrier to INSET participation. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Connecting communities and business: Public-private partnerships as the panacea for land reform in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, M.J.; Cousins, B.; Bos, A.; Ntsholo, M.; Bruijn, M. de; Dijk, R. van

    2012-01-01

    Scattered among large-scale citrus orchards and game farms in Limpopo Province lie the densely populated former homelands of Venda, Gazankulu, and Lebowa. With few possibilities for development in these barren areas, many communities have lodged claims for the restitution of land from which they

  13. Radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants from Limpopo province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, A M; Shai, L J; Mphahlele, P M; Mogale, M A

    2012-01-01

    Plants collected from Limpopo province of South Africa were investigated for their antioxidative potential using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Acetone extracts of Flueggea virosa had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC₅₀ value of 30 µg/ml, closely matching the ascorbic acid with an IC₅₀ value of 25 µg/ml. The lowest antioxidant readings were observed with extracts of Rhynchosia venulosa (root extract) and Ficus ingens (leaf extract). Acetone extract of Bridelia virosa leaves had the highest phenolic content (156 mg GAE/g extract), while the lowest content was recorded for R. venulosa root extract and leaf extract of F. ingens (8.3 and 17.7 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). There was a linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Extracts with high phenolic content had low IC₅₀ values, while extracts with low phenolic concentrations had high IC₅₀ values.

  14. PROFITABILITY AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER BROILER PRODUCTION IN MOPANI DISTRICT OF LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

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    Isaac Busayo Oluwatayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the Mopani District of Limpopo province to determine the factors aff ecting productivity of broiler production in the area. Data were collected from 86 sampled smallholder broiler farmers in three municipalities in Mopani District namely; Greater Tzaneen municipality, Greater Letaba municipality and Maruleng municipality using a well-structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that feed is signifi cant at 10% level having a positive relationship with the broiler output. However, stock size and vaccines are signifi cant at 1% level, also with a positive relationship with broiler output. The study recommended that government should fi nd ways of linking the smallholder farmers in the study area with other stakeholders, governmental and private, to allow smallholder farmers have the opportunities to network and get to know how the commercial successful farms operate and see where they can improve on their production systems and marketing of products.

  15. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

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    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province.A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured.Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents.Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  16. The Challenges Faced by Informal Traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Kole Legodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal trade has grown at an alarming rate in South Africa because of lack of employment opportunities in both the private and public sectors. This has resulted in many unemployed members of the population joining the informal business sector. The majority of people in this sector do not have skills that are needed in the formal employment sector, others are semi-literate and a small percentage has some level of qualification. Nevertheless, this sector is plagued by a number of challenges which this article presents.  The article reports on the study that was conducted at Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province. The aim of the study was to investigate the challenges that were faced by informal traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province in South Africa. The area was chosen because of its accessibility to the researchers and its potential to provide relevant and accurate information for the research project. Thus, a qualitative research method was used to collect data through face to face interviews. The research discovered that some of the challenges experienced by the informal traders in the area ranged from lack of support from the local municipality to structural challenges like lack of ablution facilities and limited access to electricity. Furthermore, other challenges concerned safety and health issues that were also gender based. Most of the traders in the area were women; an element which attest to the fact that it is difficult to find employment in the country when one is less educated and is also a woman.

  17. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  18. The current water quality situation at clinics in the Limpopo Province and subsequent management suggestions / Jan Hendrik Stander

    OpenAIRE

    Stander, Jan Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's water resources are, in global terms, scarce and extremely limited (DWAF, 2004). Groundwater is a valuable source of potable water in South Africa. It was found that most of the health facilities in the Limpopo Province depend on groundwater as sole source of potable water. Groundwater quality is to a great extent influenced by the dominant land use in the vicinity of an aquifer. It is therefore important to carefully manage possible pollution sources of anthropogen...

  19. Assessment of learners' exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Oni H; Tshitangano, Takalani G

    2016-06-30

    School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school.Keyword: Health education and promotion, adolescents, school, learners.

  20. Crisis of decolonising education: Curriculum implementation in Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    Mavhungu E. Musitha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus amongst social scientists and public administration practitioners about the importance of decolonising the education system in Africa and South Africa. Decolonising the education system is viewed as a catalyst to create human capital that will promote economic development to end the scourge of poverty. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS as a tool of decolonising from 2014 to 2016. This is a qualitative and descriptive study based on literature, and key informant interviews (KIIs were used to gather data. This study has, however, found that implementation of CAPS in Limpopo Province is in a state of crisis. While there are many factors that contribute to this crisis, non-delivery of textbooks to schools remains a crucial factor. Civil society and media have been found to be key in playing oversight role in forcing the state to be accountable by taking it to court to deliver textbooks. However, this study recommends that Vhembe district should be used as a model for the province for effective implementation of CAPS.

  1. Joint venture schemes in Limpopo Province and their outcomes on smallholder farmers livelihoods

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    Mapedza, Everisto; van Koppen, Barbara; Sithole, Pinimidzai; Bourblanc, Magalie

    2016-04-01

    Joint Venture schemes based on the floppy irrigation technology are being promoted in the post-Apartheid South Africa's Limpopo Province. Access to land and water resources in South Africa are largely viewed as a mechanism for re-dressing the Apartheid injustices. This research was part of a broader applied research to help inform irrigation practise in the Limpopo Province. The research used literature review, key informant interviews and a questionnaire survey. The overall research question sought to understand how the Joint Venture Schemes had benefited the smallholder farmers. This paper argues that the joint venture partnership created a new injustice. Firstly, the Joint Venture Scheme design is fundamentally a bad idea which disempower farmers not only to water access but also land as well. The choice of the 'efficient' floppy irrigation technology was made by the state and entailed that land had to be managed as a single unit. In order to make more effective use of this highly sophisticated new technology, the smallholder farmers also needed to go into a joint venture partnership with a white commercial farmer. By virtue of signing the Joint Venture agreement the farmers were also forfeiting their land and water rights to be used for crop production. The smallholder farmers lost access to their water and land resources and were largely relegated to sharing profits - when they exist - with hardly any skills development despite what was initially envisaged in the Joint Venture partnership. Secondly, the implementation of the JVS has been skewed from the start which explains the bad results. This paper further shows how the negative outcomes affected women in particular. As the smallholder farmers argue the technological options chosen by the state have excluded both male and female farmers from accessing and utilising their land and water resources in order to improve their livelihoods; it has entrenched the role of the state and the private interests at the

  2. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

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    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  3. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

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    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-07-01

    A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured. Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents. Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  4. Working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among nurses in a provincial hospital in the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, M; Jooste, K

    2008-03-01

    Absenteeism results in an increased workload for nurses who stand in for colleagues and can lead to situations in which a lack of motivation among nurses and a lowering of the quality of patient care may occur. The researcher observed that certain conditions, such as inflexible working schedules, were given as reasons for the absenteeism in units in a provincial hospital. A non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose of the article was to describe the working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among the professional and sub-professional nurses at a provincial hospital in the Limpopo province of South Africa. The sample included 107 professional nurses and 163 sub-professional nurses who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicated that personal and managerial characteristics, and organisational and working conditions may lead to absenteeism in the workplace. This article focuses on the working conditions that are constraints, namely inadequate group cohesion, inadequate delegation of autonomy, role ambiguity, ineffective routinisation and the effect of the workload in the workplace. Recommendations are made for improving working conditions to combat absenteeism among nurses. The limitations of this study are highlighted.

  5. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day

  6. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Sogo F Matlala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study on the experiences of secondary school teachers on teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten purposively selected secondary school teachers. Data analysis yielded six themes, which are: (1 identification of pregnant learners; (2 continuation of pregnant learners' school career; (3 dilemmas related to school-attending pregnant learners; (4 support of school-attending pregnant learners; (5 gender in pregnancy caretaking; and (6 communication and cooperation between teachers and parents. Teachers experienced challenges in identifying pregnant learners, and to meet their health needs as they lacked health related skills. Parents were not always cooperative towards teachers. It can be concluded that teachers face many dilemmas related to pregnant learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome.

  7. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    S.M. Maputle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized.Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  8. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramathuba, Dorah U

    2015-11-26

    Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12). The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels. Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  9. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    Sonto M. Maputle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized. Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  10. Turning mirrors into windows: Knowledge transfer among indigenous healers in Limpopo province of South Africa

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    Jan R. Maluleka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge transfer is an unavoidable process when it comes to indigenous knowledge especially in Africa, the continent known for its oral tradition. Such knowledge is in danger of being obliterated as a result of a number of factors, including lack of interest from younger generations and low life expectancy whereby knowledgeable people die before transferring it to the next generation as it is mostly not documented.   Objectives: This qualitative study utilised hermeneutic phenomenology guided by the organisational knowledge conversion theory to investigate the transfer of indigenous knowledge by traditional healers in the Limpopo province of South Africa.   Method: The study utilised a snowball sampling technique to determine the population. Data collected through interviews with traditional healers were augmented with observations done on two healers who were in the middle of their training when this study was conducted, as well as an analysis of records held by some healers.   Results: The findings suggestthat knowledge of traditional healing is believed to be transferred to the chosen ones through dreams and visions. However, this knowledge seems to be transferred through mentorship and apprenticeship, as well as interactions with other healers.   Conclusion: It is concluded that transferring knowledge of traditional healing goes beyond just transference; it is embedded as a belief system in many African communities. An in-depth study on the development of a framework to integrate indigenous knowledge of traditional healers into mainstream health system is recommended.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of secondary school girls towards contraception in Limpopo Province

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    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.

  12. A conceptual framework for cost management training in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

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    Jooste, Karien; Mothiba, Tebogo Maria

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the perceptions of nurse managers about their dual role in nursing units as cost centres. The tertiary hospital in the Limpopo province is the first institution to appoint nurse managers with a dual role in cost centres. The development of a conceptual framework for a context-specific programme for Cost Centre Managers is the first of its nature in South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was followed. The target population included nurse managers (n = 35) formally appointed as cost centre managers with a dual role of delivering quality care and cost management. A focus group and individual interviews were conducted until data saturation occurred. Personal and professional distress, an empowering potential of being a cost centre manager, and the need for decentralized cost centre management were indicated as barriers for nurse managers that led to a framework for a context-specific training programme. There is a need for a context-specific training programme for cost centre managers in a hospital with cost centres. The training of cost centre managers for their dual role in cost centres could enhance cost effectiveness, quality care and staff satisfaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Children’s Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Thompson, Adeboyejo Aina; Matamale, Lirvhuwani; Kharidza, Shonisani Danisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on children’s health, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Twenty one years climatic data were collected to analyse climatic conditions in the province. The study also employs 12 years hospital records of clinically diagnosed climate-related ailments among children under 13 years to examine the incidence, spatio-temporal, age and sex variations of the diseases. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships between climatic parameters and incidence of diseases and also to predict distribution of disease by 2050. The results show that the most prevalent diseases were diarrhea (42.4%), followed by respiratory infection (31.3%), asthma (6.6%) and malaria (6.5%). The incidence varied within city, with the high density areas recording the highest proportion (76.7%), followed by the medium (9.4%) and low (2.5%) density residential areas. The most tropical location, Mussina, had the highest incidence of the most prevalent disease, diarrhea, with 59.4%. Mortality rate was higher for males (54.2%). Analysis of 21 years of climatic data show that maximum temperature is positively correlated with years in four cities with r coefficients of 0.50; 0.56, 0.48 and 0.02, thereby indicating local warming. Similarly rainfall decreased over time in all the cities, with r ranging from −0.02 for Bela Bela to r = 0.18 for Makhado. Results of the regression analysis show that 37.9% of disease incidence is accounted for by the combined influence of temperature and rainfall. PMID:22690167

  14. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province

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    N.S. Ramara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: “Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?” Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301 -318, to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192 and De Vos (1998:343. Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers

  15. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo province.

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    Ramara, N S; Maputle, M S; Lekhuleni, M E

    2010-03-01

    HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: "Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?" Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301-318), to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4). Data were analysed according to Tesch's method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192) and De Vos (1998:343). Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies. The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers.

  16. Agritourism activities in the Mopani District Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa: perceptions and opportunities

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    S L Myer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farms in South Africa have to compete in a very hostile agricultural economic environment and it has become imperative for farmers to find new ways of generating additional income. Research undertaken in the Mopani District Municipality (MDM in the Limpopo Province of South Africa identified agritourism as a potential means to this end. The main aim of this primarily qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and opportunities for agritourism in the study area. Data were mainly collected through interviews and questionnaires. Participants consisted of farmers and tourists, as well as owners of existing agritourism farms within the MDM. Five current active agritourism establishments were identified. Key fidnings revealed that agritourism is not being utilised to its full potential. Although perceptions of respondents towards agritourism are positive, marketing around it is insufficient and not all farmers are willing to host agritourism activities on their farms for various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through the area en route to the Kruger National Park. Therefore, the potential already exists to host agritourism activities that will benefit farmers in various ways. By developing farm trails, scheduling daily farm activities, using information brochures, forming networks with existing tourist establishments, encouraging the use of local and fresh produce and providing good roadside signage, farmers can gain increased exposure and recognition for what they do and opportunities for growth and development may be realised.  Keywords: Agritourism, farm tourism, alternative tourism, farm activities, tourism

  17. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities.Purpose: This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Findings: The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80% that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%. 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitarytowels. Conclusion: Interventions are needed to increase girls’ opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  18. An evaluation for harnessing low-enthalpy geothermal energy in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Taufeeq Dhansay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa generates most of its energy requirements from coal, and is now the leading carbon emitter in Africa, and has one of the highest rates of emissions of all nations in the world. In an attempt to decrease its CO2 emissions, South Africa continues to research and develop alternative forms of energy, expand on the development of nuclear and has began to explore potentially vast shale gas reserves. In this mix, geothermal has not been considered to date as an alternative energy source. This omission appears to stem largely from the popular belief that South Africa is tectonically too stable. In this study, we investigated low-enthalpy geothermal energy from one of a number of anomalously elevated heat flow regions in South Africa. Here, we consider a 75-MW enhanced geothermal systems plant in the Limpopo Province, sustainable over a 30-year period. All parameters were inculcated within a levelised cost of electricity model that calculates the single unit cost of electricity and tests its viability and potential impact toward South Africa's future energy security and CO2 reduction. The cost of electricity produced is estimated at 14 USc/KWh, almost double that of coal-generated energy. However, a USD25/MWh renewable energy tax incentive has the potential of making enhanced geothermal systems comparable with other renewable energy sources. It also has the potential of CO2 mitigation by up to 1.5 gCO2/KWh. Considering the aggressive nature of the global climate change combat and South Africa's need for a larger renewable energy base, low-enthalpy geothermal energy could potentially form another energy option in South Africa's alternative energy basket.

  19. Views of professional nurses regarding low tuberculosis cure rate in Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province

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    Nandzumuni V. Maswanganyi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of patients suffering from tuberculosis (TB after discharge from hospital plays a critical role in the cure rate of TB. Despite interventions developed by the World Health Organization (WHO to improve the cure rate, TB remains a worldwide health problem. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the views of professional nurses regarding the low TB cure rate in primary healthcare facilities of Greater Giyani Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa, with the aim of determining strategies that can be used to improve this low rate. Method: This study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of professional nurses working in primary healthcare facilities within Greater Giyani Municipality, which has a TB cure rate below the national target of 85 %. Data gathering was through individual face-to-face interviews using an interview guide. Open-coding was used to analyse the data in this study. Results: The theme that emerged from data was ‘factors contributing to low TB cure rate’. This theme was supported by the following sub-themes: poor referral system, lack of knowledge about TB and its treatment, stigma attached to TB, and cultural and religious beliefs. The professional nurses suggested counselling of TB patients upon diagnosis, advice about patients’ responsibilities and the involvement of family members. Conclusion: The involvement of community stakeholders in TB prevention, health promotion and education activities devoted to disease spread and cure is vital so that the stigma attached to TB can be eliminated. TB education and awareness programmes should be included in the curriculum of primary schools.

  20. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

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    R.N. Malema

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  1. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

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    R. N. Malema

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  2. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

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    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J; Lebese, Tsakani R; Maputle, Sonto M; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-05-31

    Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.

  3. Experiences of primary health care nurses in implementing integrated management of childhood illnesses strategy at selected clinics of Limpopo Province.

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    Vhuromu, E N; Davhana-Maselesele, M

    2009-09-01

    Treatment of the under five years is a national priority as an attempt in curbing deaths and deformities affecting children. Primary health care was implemented in the clinics in order to help in the treatment of illnesses affecting the community, including children. As a result of childhood illnesses; the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) came up with Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy to enhance treatment of such illnesses in developing countries. Primary health care nurses (PHCNS) in Limpopo Province were also trained to implement the strategy. This study is intended to explore and describe the experiences of PHCNS in implementing the IMCI strategy at selected clinics in Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with PHCNS who are IMCI trained and have implemented the strategy for a period of not less than two years. Data analysis was done through using Tesch 's method of open coding for qualitative analysis. Findings revealed that PHCNS had difficulty in rendering IMCI services due to lack of resources and poor working conditions. Recommendations address the difficulties experienced by PHCNS when implementing the IMCI strategy.

  4. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

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    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  5. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

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    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples

  6. Xenophobic attacks on foreign shop owners and street vendors in Louis Trichardt Central Business District, Limpopo Province

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    Kholofelo Mothibi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobic attacks in South Africa in 2008 and 2015 sent shockwaves through the country and the world. In these events, around 70 people were killed while thousands were displaced; and, property and products of street vendors and shop owners were destroyed. This phenomenological research project is confined to Louis Trichardt in Limpopo Province wherefrom a cohort of foreign street vendors and shop owners were interviewed. The lived experiences of being verbally and physically abused as well as of some acquaintances being killed, has clearly left them traumatised and living in fear. The article finds that contributory factors to xenophobic attacks experienced by foreign shop owners and street vendors range from competition over scarce resources, stereotypes and inter-group anxiety. Finally, it offers some recommendations about education for South Africans and measured police action.

  7. Refractive status of primary school children in Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    R.G. Mabaso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports part of the findings of a study carried out to determine the causes, prevalence,  and  distribution  of  ocular  dis-orders  among  rural  primary  school  children in  Mopani  district  of  Limpopo  Province, South Africa. Three hundred and eighty eight children  aged  8  to  15  years  were  randomly selected from five randomly selected schools. Non-cycloplegic retinoscopy and auto-refrac-tion were performed on each child. The preva-lence of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism was  73.1%,  2.5%  and  31.3%  respective-ly.  Hyperopia  (Nearest  spherical  equivalent power (FNSE ranged from +0.75 to +3.50 D for the right and left eyes with means of +1.05 ±  0.35  D  and  +1.08  ±  0.34  D  respectively. Myopia (FNSE ranged from –0.50 to –1.75 D for the right eye and –0.50 to –2.25 D for the left eye with means of –0.75 ± 0.55 D and –0.93 ± 0.55 D respectively. Regression model for myopia, shows that age had an odds ratio of  1.94  (1.15  to  3.26,  indicating  a  signifi-cant increased risk of myopia with increasing age.  Correcting  cylinders  for  the  right  eyes ranged from –0.25 to –4.50 D (mean = −0.67 ± 0.47 D and for the left eyes from –0.25 to –2.50 D (mean = −0.60 ± 0.30 D. With-the-rule  (WTR  astigmatism  (66.5%  was  more common, followed by against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism (28.1% and oblique (OBL astig-matism  (5.4%.  With-the-rule  astigmatism was  more  common  in  females  than  males; ATR astigmatism and OBL astigmatism were common in males. Regular vision screening programmes,  appropriate  referral  and  vision correction  in  primary  schools  in  Mopani district  are  recommended  in  order  to  elimi-nate  refractive  errors  among  the  children.

  8. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

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    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  9. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2. Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  10. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province, South Africa (Part 2

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    Maria S. Maputle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitation of mutual participation, respectful and egalitarian relationship between the mother and the midwife during childbirth is a critical aspect. This article delineated the criteria that would facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of the Limpopo Province in South Africa, following a concept analysis described in Part 1. Empirical referents or indicators were used to measure the concept woman-centred care and to validate its existence in reality. These empirical referents were referred to as measurable properties that further verified the concept. Objective: The objective of this article was to formulate criteria that would facilitate implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province in South Africa. Method: Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care were formulated by the gathering of information about the topic under review and the use of resources to define the key elements of the criteria which were integrated into the Batho Pele principles. The criteria were then validated by selecting with a vested interest in the successful development and implementation of the criteria. Results: Criteria were formulated to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care that was integrated within the framework of Batho Pele principles. Conclusion: These formulated criteria for woman-centred care will be used as an institutional self-evaluation tool to enhance implementation of the Batho Pele principles in childbirth units. These criteria will give direction and provide guidelines for the performance of midwifery staff and will also help supervisors to guide staff to improve performance.

  11. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province, South Africa (Part 2

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    Maria S. Maputle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitation of mutual participation, respectful and egalitarian relationship between the mother and the midwife during childbirth is a critical aspect. This article delineated the criteria that would facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of the Limpopo Province in South Africa, following a concept analysis described in Part 1. Empirical referents or indicators were used to measure the concept woman-centred care and to validate its existence in reality. These empirical referents were referred to as measurable properties that further verified the concept. Objective: The objective of this article was to formulate criteria that would facilitate implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province in South Africa.Method: Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care were formulated by the gathering of information about the topic under review and the use of resources to define the key elements of the criteria which were integrated into the Batho Pele principles. The criteria were then validated by selecting with a vested interest in the successful development and implementation of the criteria. Results: Criteria were formulated to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care that was integrated within the framework of Batho Pele principles. Conclusion: These formulated criteria for woman-centred care will be used as an institutional self-evaluation tool to enhance implementation of the Batho Pele principles in childbirth units. These criteria will give direction and provide guidelines for the performance of midwifery staff and will also help supervisors to guide staff to improve performance.

  12. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Samuel T. Ntuli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas. Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa. Setting: Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ≥ 140 or ≥ 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 2 0.9 years (range 15–98 years, 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province.

  13. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth. Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  14. Sitting on the fence? policies and practices in managing human-wildlife conflict in Limpopo province, South Africa

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    Anthony Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are the product of socio-economic and political landscapes and are contentious because the resources concerned have economic value and species are often high profile and legally protected. Within a governance framework, we detail institutional roles and the effectiveness of policies and practices of controlling damage-causing animals (DCAs at Kruger National Park (KNP and Limpopo Province along KNP′s western border. Most DCAs originate from the park, significantly affecting its long-term legitimacy among local communities. Between 2002 and 2004, over 12% of households within 15 km of the park experienced DCA damage, with incidents significantly correlated with being located closer to KNP and having higher numbers of mammalian livestock. These incidents are affecting opinions concerning KNP, as those who experienced damage were less likely to believe that the park would ever help their household economically. According to 482 DCA incident records from 1998 to 2004, the most problematic species are buffalo, lion, elephant, hippo and crocodile. Limpopo Province utilised professional hunters in DCA control, however, widespread abuses including the direct luring of lion led to a national moratorium on specific hunting practices. DCA procedures are highly flawed due to ambiguity concerning species and movement of DCAs, poor reporting, inadequate response times, overlapping responsibilities, and corruption. These are exacerbated by weak and, in some cases, competing institutions. Further, the controversial issue of undelivered compensation is determining negative attitudes by communities towards institutions who have historically promised it. Drawing on good governance principles, we offer recommendations on alleviating DCA conflicts in such contexts.

  15. Refugees’ perceptions regarding HIV and AIDS in Ba-Phalaborwa Municipality in Limpopo Province

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    Elizabeth Nkwinika

    2014-10-01

    Doelwitte: Die navorsing het ten doel gehad om vlugtelinge te Humulani dorpie in Ba-Phalaborwa munisipaliteit, Limpopo provinsie, se persepsies oor MIV en vigs te ondersoek en beskryf. Die doelwitte het die bepaling van geslagspersepsies oor MIV en vigs ingesluit, asook om aanbevelings te bied vir maniere om die vlugtelinge ’n beter begrip van MIV en vigs te gee. Metode: ’n Kwantitatiewe benadering tot hierdie navorsing is gevolg. Die teikenpopulasie van die studie was al die vlugtelinge te Humulani dorpie. Die steekproef het uit beide manlike (n = 78 en vroulike (n = 122 deelnemers bestaan wat vraelyste voltooi het. Die steekproef vlugtelinge was van verskillende etniese groepe afkomstig: Mosambiek, Nigerië, Ghana en Zimbabwe. Die vraelys het twee afdelings gehad: Afdeling A het die biografiese data bevat en Afdeling B het die vlugtelinge se kennis van MIV ondersoek. Resultate: Die bevindinge van die studie het onthul dat die deelnemers oor lae kennisvlakke rakende MIV beskik – dit kan toegeskryf word aan hul geloof in die mites aangaande MIV en vigs. Gevolgtrekking: Die populasie van MIV-besmette vlugtelinge in Limpopo mag steeds groei indien daar nie aandag geskenk word aan die unieke behoeftes van die vlugtelinge nie, soos die versterking van voortplantingsgesondheidsdienste, gesinsbeplanning, en moeder- en kindersorg, asook die verbetering van hul opvoedkundige en sosio-ekonomiese welstand.

  16. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    Rudzani E. Luruli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim: The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting: The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method: A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results: The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83% and assurance (80% domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion: The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. Keywords: client satisfaction, disability, community-based rehabilitation, community rehabilitation worker

  17. Experiences of nurses working in a rural primary health-care setting in Mopani district, Limpopo Province

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    MP Mohale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Professional nurses working in rural, primary health-care settings are experiencing burnout due to serious shortages of personnel. This is exacerbated by the brain drain of nurses leaving the country. Rural settings are resource constrained in terms of personnel and equipment. This results in dissatisfaction among nurses due to the unbearable working conditions which result in stress and frustration. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive study was conducted to explore and describe the experiences of nurses working in a rural primary health-care setting in the greater Letaba sub district in Limpopo Province. Purposive sampling was used to identify the participants. Data was collected in the form of in-depth interviews. The study revealed that nurses working in primary health-care settings were experiencing emotional and physical strain as a result of the shortage of human resources. It was recommended that policies that meet the health-care needs of rural communities be developed, and that strategies to retain professional nurses in primary health-care settings be formulated.

  18. Occultism in an African context: a case for the Vhavenda-speaking people of the Limpopo Province

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    T. D. Mashau

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Occultism in Africa is as old as the primal religion itself, or what came to be known as African Traditional Religion (ATR in mo- dern times. It dates back to time immemorial. Occultism in Africa has taken various forms and has manifested in different ways over the ages, i.e. spiritism, divination, witchcraft and ma- gic. The underlying premise of African occultism is the belief in a spiritual world with spiritual forces that have power to inflict harm on the living. In the traditional African worldview suffering of every sort – illness, barrenness, drought and death – is nor- mally explained in personal terms: “there is always somebody”. This “somebody” often belongs to the world of the occult: a “spirit” has brought pain to human beings and must therefore be repelled or accommodated. This is very common among the Vhavenda-speaking people of the Limpopo Province. This ar- ticle seeks to investigate how occultism is practised among these people and to provide a reformed perspective as to how people who are suffering under demonic attacks can be helped. Contrary to other Christian traditions that see exorcism as the only way out, reformed theology suggests a missio-pastoral approach in dealing with the problem.

  19. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    F Malongane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%, 11 (35.4% and 12 (35.4%. Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5% and girls (7.8% were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6% and girls (4.2%were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.

  20. Perceptions of nurse educators regarding the implementation of the occupational specific dispensation at a selected nursing college in Limpopo Province

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    M.D. Netshiswinzhe Mcur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nurses regarding the implementation of the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD in a selected nursing college in Limpopo province. A qualitative approach was used with a purposive sampling method for the selection of 12 voluntary participants who had worked for more than five years and been subjected to the implementation of OSD. In-depth interviews were conducted and data analysed according to Tesch's method. The perceptions of nurse educators were shared through participants' responses to a central research question. Participants expressed different responses, both positive and negative. The findings of this study demonstrated: high expectations, unfair treatment in relation to the implementation, and reactions to introduction of OSD. Participants also identified envisaged ways of improving the situation through the identification of ways to correct the problems. This study recommended that management ensure that nurse educators' remuneration packages are competitive with those of similar professions in the clinical setting. Recognition of nurse educators' additional qualifications, long-service experiences and rural allowance reviews in nursing education should be taken into consideration urgently.

  1. Knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school learners in the rural area of MoletjiMashashane Limpopo Province South Africa

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    P Mamabolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Teenagers at the reproductive age face the dilemma of choosing the best birth control method. Knowledge of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs associated with an intention to use other contraceptive methods has rarely been investigated. This study investigated the knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school learners in the rural area of Moletji-Mashashane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Objective. To assess the knowledge of and barriers against emergency contraception among secondary school learners. Methods. An anonymous questionnaire was used in the study. It included single and multiple-choice questions. Results. A total of 469 learners aged 14 - 18 years completed the anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that secondary school learners did not have good knowledge of emergency contraceptives; 47.5% reported that they had heard of emergency contraceptives, while 52.5% reported that they had never heard of emergency contraceptives. The majority of learners had misperceptions about the details and safety of ECPs. However, 48.4% reported that emergency contraceptives are effective in preventing pregnancy. Conclusion. The awareness of ECPs was not high in this group. An improved multisectoral approach to education about emergency contraceptives, with greater participation by schools and the Department of Health, is advised. A systematic and long-term intervention among secondary school learners must be conducted to educate learners about emergency contraceptives.

  2. Modeling the complexities of water, hygiene, and health in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Learmonth, Gerard P; Netshandama, Vhonani O; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2012-12-18

    Researchers have long studied the causes and prevention strategies of poor household water quality and early childhood diarrhea using intervention-control trials. Although the results of such trails can lead to useful information, they do not capture the complexity of this natural/engineered/social system. We report on the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to study such a system in Limpopo, South Africa. The study is based on four years of field data collection to accurately capture essential elements of the communities and their water contamination chain. An extensive analysis of those elements explored behaviors including water collection and treatment frequency as well as biofilm buildup in water storage containers, source water quality, and water container types. Results indicate that interventions must be optimally implemented in order to see significant reductions in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Household boiling frequency, source water quality, water container type, and the biofilm layer contribution were deemed to have significant impacts on ECD. Furthermore, concurrently implemented highly effective interventions were shown to reduce diarrhea rates to very low levels even when other, less important practices were suboptimal. This technique can be used by a variety of stakeholders when designing interventions to reduce ECD incidences in similar settings.

  3. Challenges faced by caregivers of children on antiretroviral therapy at Mutale Municipality selected healthcare facilities, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafune, Rhudzani V; Lebese, Rachel T; Nemathaga, Livhuwani H

    2017-08-28

    Children depend solely on caregivers who can be either parents or guardians for drug administration to enhance adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), which might pose any number of challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges faced by caregivers of children on ART at Mutale Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of 16 caregivers who were 18 years of age and above, and mentally capable, irrespective of educational qualifications, caring for children aged between 0 and 15 years who were on ART between April 2013 and October 2014. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select the 16 caregivers. Required permission, approval and ethical clearance were obtained from the University of Venda Higher Degree Committee, Limpopo Provincial Health Department and relevant institutions. An in-depth, individual, unstructured interview method was used to collect data. One central question was asked: 'What are the challenges you experience when caring for a child on antiretroviral treatment?' Subsequent questions were based on the participants' responses to the central question. Qualitative data were analysed by means of Tesch's open-coding method. The findings of this study revealed that participants, that is, caregivers of children on ART, experienced financial burdens because of transport costs needed to comply with follow-up dates and insufficient of money for food, clothing the child in need of care, pocket money for lunch boxes during school hours and time lost while waiting for consultations. Participants reported some level of stigmatisation against children on ART by family members, especially the husbands or in-laws of the secondary caregivers. Many primary and secondary caregivers seemed to have given up seeking support from government and community structures. The conclusions drawn from this research

  4. Jamesbrittenia bergae (Scrophulariaceae, a distinctive new species from Limpopo, South Africa

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    P. Lemmer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Jamesbrittenia bergae P.Lemmer is a new species from the Farm Brakvallei near Thabazimbi in Limpopo [Northern Province]. Large, medium-textured. bright scarlet flowers w ith yellow throats are borne singly in upper leaf axils; the flowering branches, although terminal, do not form elongated racemes: leaves are greyish green, coarsely serrated. It grows in full sun on ferricrete outcrops.

  5. Long-run relative importance of temperature as the main driver to malaria transmission in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a simple econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komen, Kibii; Olwoch, Jane; Rautenbach, Hannes; Botai, Joel; Adebayo, Adetunji

    2015-03-01

    Malaria in Limpopo Province of South Africa is shifting and now observed in originally non-malaria districts, and it is unclear whether climate change drives this shift. This study examines the distribution of malaria at district level in the province, determines direction and strength of the linear relationship and causality between malaria with the meteorological variables (rainfall and temperature) and ascertains their short- and long-run variations. Spatio-temporal method, Correlation analysis and econometric methods are applied. Time series monthly meteorological data (1998-2007) were obtained from South Africa Weather Services, while clinical malaria data came from Malaria Control Centre in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and South African Department of Health. We find that malaria changes and pressures vary in different districts with a strong positive correlation between temperature with malaria, r = 0.5212, and a weak positive relationship for rainfall, r = 0.2810. Strong unidirectional causality runs from rainfall and temperature to malaria cases (and not vice versa): F (1, 117) = 3.89, ρ = 0.0232 and F (1, 117) = 20.08, P < 0.001 and between rainfall and temperature, a bi-directional causality exists: F (1, 117) = 19.80; F (1,117) = 17.14, P < 0.001, respectively, meaning that rainfall affects temperature and vice versa. Results show evidence of strong existence of a long-run relationship between climate variables and malaria, with temperature maintaining very high level of significance than rainfall. Temperature, therefore, is more important in influencing malaria transmission in Limpopo Province.

  6. Using participatory risk analysis to develop a song about malaria for young children in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chad M; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Kruger, Taneshka; McNeill, Fraser

    2018-04-27

    In 2015, malaria infected over 212 million people and killed over 429,000 individuals, mostly children under 5 years of age, with 90% of malaria cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim was to develop an age and culturally appropriate song for Tshivenda-speaking children under 5 years of age to decrease the risk of malaria in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Document review was used to identify appropriate disease determinants to decrease risk in children develop lyrics and music for a song about malaria in line with the principles of participatory risk analysis. The age and cultural appropriateness of the song as well as disease determinants chosen were reviewed using a modified Delphi technique, by 10 purposively selected experts in malaria (4), Vhavenda music (3) and early childhood education (3). Thereafter, the song was translated into Tshivenda and reviewed by two focus groups living in the study area, one including female caregivers and pre-school teachers (n = 7) and a second comprising of male community based malaria control personnel (n = 5). The experts surveyed and both focus groups strongly supported the inclusion of knowledge about the link between mosquitoes and malaria and that children should know the signs of malaria to facilitate early diagnosis. Although the expert group felt that bed nets should not be mentioned, both focus groups suggested the inclusion of bed nets and it was observed that community members were purchasing their own nets. Focus group members also felt that young children should not be involved in internal residual spraying initiatives. It was concluded that although risk communication on malaria prevention and treatment in young children should be aimed at caregivers, an age and culture appropriate song about malaria could be developed to help young children protect themselves. This song focused on understanding the link between mosquitoes and malaria, preventing exposure and recognising signs of disease.

  7. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  8. The impact of caring for persons living with HIV and AIDS on the mental health of nurses in the Limpopo Province

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    M Davhana-Maselesele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the impact of caring for AIDS sufferers on the mental health of nurses. This assessment was measured against the level of burnout, stress and depression among 174 nurses caring for people living with HIV and AIDS in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire incorporated the AIDS Impact Scale (AIS, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the participants’ demographic and professional profiles. Participants were conveniently selected from five selected hospitals in Limpopo Province. The study participants’ valuation using the AIS showed that nurses tended to develop strong bonds and relationships with the patients; felt frustrated by their inability to help the terminally ill AIDS sufferers and were subsequently affected by the death of their patients. Personal accomplishments of the nurses remained high and the levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization levels were low. The BDI showed that over 3 out of 4 nurses were experiencing between mild mood disturbance and extreme depression. Higher average scores were noted for items of the depression scale like sadness, dissatisfaction, fatigue and low level of energy. The findings highlight the need to develop psychological support programmes for nurses caring for AIDS patients and promote the provision of social incentives and recognition of the role of nurses in AIDS care.

  9. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV guidelines: Nurses’ views at four primary healthcare facilities in the Limpopo Province

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    Barbara A. Hanrahan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: When new guidelines for existing programmes are introduced, it is often the clinicians tasked with the execution of the guidelines who bear the brunt of the changes. Frequently their opinions are not sought. In this study, the researcher interviewed registered nurses working in the field of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV to gain an understanding of their perspectives on the changes introduced to the guidelines. The guideline changes in 2014 were to move from the World Health Organization (WHO Option B to Option B + which prescribes lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART for all HIV-positive pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count. Objective: To determine what the registered nurses’ perspectives are on the PMTCT programme as implemented at four PHC facilities in the Limpopo Province. Method: For this qualitative investigation, a descriptive research design was implemented. The data were collected during semi-structured interviews with nurses from four primary healthcare facilities in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Challenges preventing effective implementation (e.g. increased workloads, viz. staff shortages; poor planning of training; equipment and medication shortages and long lead times; poor patient education were identified. Conclusion: In spite of the successes of the PMTCT programme, considerable challenges still prevail; lack of patient education, poor facilities management and staff shortages could potentially influence the implementation of the PMTCT guidelines negatively.

  10. Challenges to Sustainable Safe Drinking Water: A Case Study of Water Quality and Use across Seasons in Rural Communities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of microbial-contaminated water can result in diarrheal illnesses and enteropathy with the heaviest impact upon children below the age of five. We aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of water quality in a low-resource setting in Limpopo province, South Africa. Surveys were conducted in 405 households in rural communities of Limpopo province to determine their water-use practices, perceptions of water quality, and household water-treatment methods. Drinking water samples were tested from households for microbiological contamination. Water from potential natural sources were tested for physicochemical and microbiological quality in the dry and wet seasons. Most households had their primary water source piped into their yard or used an intermittent public tap. Approximately one third of caregivers perceived that they could get sick from drinking water. All natural water sources tested positive for fecal contamination at some point during each season. The treated municipal supply never tested positive for fecal contamination; however, the treated system does not reach all residents in the valley; furthermore, frequent shutdowns of the treatment systems and intermittent distribution make the treated water unreliable. The increased water quantity in the wet season correlates with increased treated water from municipal taps and a decrease in the average contaminant levels in household water. This research suggests that wet season increases in water quantity result in more treated water in the region and that is reflected in residents’ water-use practices.

  11. Community perception of quality of (primary health care services in a rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: a qualitative study

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    T-AB Mashego

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to survey perceptions of quality of (primary health care services provided in rural communities in the Limpopo province. Ten focus groups discussions were held with community members chosen by convenience from public places from four villages in the central region of the Limpopo Province. The sample included 42 women and 34 men (76 participants. Results indicated perceived quality discussed within the following categories: (1 conduct of staff (reception, communication, discrimination, care and compassion, respect for privacy, (2 technical care (examination, explanation of treatment, responsiveness, treatment outcomes, (3 health care facility, (4 health care organisation, (5 drugs (availability, explanation, effectiveness, payment, and (6 waiting time. The findings suggest some satisfaction with free basic and preventive health care and social services provided but there is a need to look closely into the interpersonal dimension of the services provided, provision of medication with adequate explanation to patients on the medication given, and on structural aspects, there is need for the government to give support to the clinics to provide adequate services. Improving drug availability, interpersonal skills (including attitudes towards patients and technical care have been identified as the three main priorities for enhancing perceived quality of primary health care and health policy action.

  12. Interventions for improving management of chronic non-communicable diseases in Dikgale, a rural area in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

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    Maimela, Eric; Alberts, Marianne; Bastiaens, Hilde; Fraeyman, Jesicca; Meulemans, Herman; Wens, Johan; Van Geertruyden, Jeane Pierre

    2018-05-04

    Chronic disease management (CDM) is an approach to health care that keeps people as healthy as possible through the prevention, early detection and management of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to develop interventions to improve management of chronic diseases in the form of an integrated, evidence-based chronic disease management model in Dikgale, a rural area of Limpopo Province in South Africa. A multifaceted intervention, called 'quality circles' (QCs) was developed to improve the quality and the management of chronic diseases in the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). These QCs used the findings from previous studies which formed part of the larger project in the study area, namely, the quantitative study using STEPwise survey and qualitative studies using focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. The findings from previous studies in Dikgale HDSS revealed that an epidemiological transition is occurring. Again, the most widely reported barriers from previous studies in this rural area were: lack of knowledge of NCDs; shortages of medication and shortages of nurses in the clinics, which results in patients having long waiting-time at clinics. Lack of training of health care providers on the management of chronic diseases and the lack of supervision by the district and provincial health managers, together with poor dissemination of guidelines, were contributing factors to the lack of knowledge of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management among nurses and community health care workers (CHWs). Consideration of all of these findings led to the development of model which focuses on integrating nursing services, CHWs and traditional health practitioners (THPs), including a well-established clinical information system for health care providers. A novel aspect of the model is the inclusion of community ambassadors who are on treatment for NCDs and are, thus, repositories of knowledge who can serve as a bridge between

  13. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Geere Jo-Anne L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048. For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069 and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051 were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011 and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018 Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size

  14. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

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    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  15. Rapid detection of new and expanding human settlements in the Limpopo province of South Africa using a spatio-temporal change detection method

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    Kleynhans, W.; Salmon, B. P.; Wessels, K. J.; Olivier, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    Recent development has identified the benefits of using hyper-temporal satellite time series data for land cover change detection and classification in South Africa. In particular, the monitoring of human settlement expansion in the Limpopo province is of relevance as it is the one of the most pervasive forms of land-cover change in this province which covers an area of roughly 125 000 km2. In this paper, a spatio-temporal autocorrelation change detection (STACD) method is developed to improve the performance of a pixel based temporal Autocorrelation change detection (TACD) method previously proposed. The objective is to apply the algorithm to large areas to detect the conversion of natural vegetation to settlement which is then validated by an operator using additional data (such as high resolution imagery). Importantly, as the objective of the method is to indicate areas of potential change to operators for further analysis, a low false alarm rate is required while achieving an acceptable probability of detection. Results indicate that detection accuracies of 70% of new settlement instances are achievable at a false alarm rate of less than 1% with the STACD method, an improvement of up to 17% compared to the original TACD formulation.

  16. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

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    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (goats formed their own cluster separated from commercial meat type breeds and the Venda and Zulu ecotypes. The discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90.41% of the Zulu goats and 82.93% of the Xhosa village populations. None of the Savanna goats were correctly classified. The study demonstrated diversity in village goat

  17. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.

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    Mabaso, Raymond G; Oduntan, Olalekan A

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40-90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  18. Factors influencing teen mothers' enrollment and participation in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

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    Varga, Christine; Brookes, Heather

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we examine barriers to HIV testing uptake and participation in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services among adolescent mothers aged 15 to 19 years in rural and urban Limpopo Province, South Africa. We used the narrative research method involving key informants constructing typical case studies of adolescent experiences with HIV testing and entry into PMTCT. Case studies formed the basis of a community-based questionnaire and focus group discussions with adolescent mothers. Client-counselor dynamics during pretest counseling were pivotal in determining uptake and participation, and counselor profile strongly influenced the nature of the interaction. Other factors found to influence adherence to PMTCT recommendations included HIV and early premarital pregnancy stigma, fear of a positive test result, and concerns over confidentiality and poor treatment by health care providers. Adolescents described elaborate strategies to avoid HIV disclosure to labor and delivery staff, despite knowing this would mean no antiretroviral therapy for their newborn infants. Theoretical, methodological, and programmatic implications of study findings are also discussed.

  19. Association of body weight and physical activity with blood pressure in a rural population in the Dikgale village of Limpopo Province in South Africa

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    Mkhonto Seth S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa is faced with an increasing burden of hypertension attributed mainly to physical inactivity and obesity. Paucity of population based evidence in the African continent hinders the implementation effective preventive and control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the association of body weight and physical activity with blood pressure in a rural black population in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Methods A convenient sample of 532 subjects (396 women and 136 men between the ages 20-95 years participated in the study. Standard anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and physical activity were recorded by trained field workers. Results Anthropometric measurements showed that a high percentage of women were significantly (p p ≤ 0.05 with systolic and diastolic BP in women, and only WHR was statistically significant in men. The odds of being hypertensive also increased with BMI, WC and WHR in both women and men, including HC in women. No relationship was found between physical activity and high blood pressure. In the multivariate analysis only increase in HC and WHR was consistently associated with increase in SBP in women and WHR with hypertension in men. Conclusions The study findings indicate that women in this black South African rural population are overweight and obese than men and are at higher risk of hypertension as determined by selected anthropometric parameters.

  20. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives.

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    Malwela, Thivhulawi; Maputle, Sonto M; Lebese, Rachel T

    2016-05-24

    Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives. The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini. A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Nonprobability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method. One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards. Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical.

  1. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  2. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from the Balobedu culture, Limpopo province, South Africa.

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    Pila-Nemutandani, Refilwe Gloria; Meyer, Anneke

    2016-07-01

    To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task. The results were analysed as a function of gender and ADHD subtype. The Finger Tapping test (testing fine motor skills) was used as a control test to verify that the expected differences were not due to poor motor skills. The children with ADHD symptoms scored significantly lower than the non-ADHD comparison group which indicated deficiency in frontal lobe functioning (p = 0.00). The difference in performance was not due to poor motor control (p = 0.70). Children with ADHD symptoms show deficits in behavioural planning which indicates impairment of functions of the frontal areas supplied by the mesocortical dopamine branch. More so than others, the ADHD Inattentive and Combined subtypes showed poor performance in the Tower of London task, indicating poor organisational and planning skills in these groups. The results also did show that the difference was not due to problems with motor control and that the ToL task is a culture-fair instrument for testing planning behaviour.

  3. Towards the elimination of malaria in South Africa: a review of surveillance data in Mutale Municipality, Limpopo Province, 2005 to 2010

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    Khosa Ester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has targeted to eliminate malaria by the year 2018. Constant monitoring of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in affected subpopulations is therefore crucial in guiding and refining control interventions. Mutale Municipality in Limpopo Province is one of the areas with the highest risk of malaria in the country. This paper describes trends in malaria incidence, case fatality and household indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage in Mutale Municipality, during the period 2005 to 2010. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis was conducted on malaria data routinely collected through the Limpopo provincial malaria information system between July 2005 and June 2010. Five malaria seasons were defined. Annualized malaria incidence rates, case fatality rates (CFR and IRS coverage rates were calculated. Results Cumulatively, 4,663 malaria cases and 21 malaria deaths were reported in Mutale between July 2005 and June 2010. Investigation of likely origin of the malaria in 3,517 patients revealed that 6.6% were imported cases, mostly from neighbouring Zimbabwe (222/231. Malaria incidence rates fell from 13.6 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2005–2006 season to 2.7 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2009–2010 season. The mean malaria CFR was stable between 0.3 and 0.6% during the first four seasons, and increased sharply to 2.1% in the 2009–2010 season. The median age of the 21 malaria deaths was 34 years (range: 16 to 60 years. CFRs were 0% in children below 15 years and above 0.5% in patients more than 24 years old. Regular IRS achieved coverage above 80% in all five seasons. Conclusion Malaria control interventions implemented in Mutale significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. In order to accurately monitor progress towards the elimination goal, the malaria control programme should strengthen the reporting and capturing of the data in the provincial malaria information system; all

  4. Effects of increased nurses’ workload on quality documentation of patient information at selected Primary Health Care facilities in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province

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    Rhulani C. Shihundla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recording of information on multiple documents increases professional nurses’ responsibilities and workload during working hours. There are multiple registers and books at Primary Health Care (PHC facilities in which a patient’s information is to be recorded for different services during a visit to a health professional. Antenatal patients coming for the first visit must be recorded in the following documents: tick register; Prevention of Mother-ToChild Transmission (PMTCT register; consent form for HIV and AIDS testing; HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT register (if tested positive for HIV and AIDS then this must be recorded in the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART wellness register; ART file with an accompanying single file, completion of which is time-consuming; tuberculosis (TB suspects register; blood specimen register; maternity case record book and Basic Antenatal Care (BANC checklist. Nurses forget to record information in some documents which leads to the omission of important data. Omitting information might lead to mismanagement of patients. Some of the documents have incomplete and inaccurate information. As PHC facilities in Vhembe District render twenty four hour services through a call system, the same nurses are expected to resume duty at 07:00 the following morning. They are expected to work effectively and when tired a nurse may record illegible information which may cause problems when the document is retrieved by the next person for continuity of care. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate and describe the effects of increased nurses’ workload on quality documentation of patient information at PHC facilities in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. Methods: The study was conducted in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, where the effects of increased nurses’ workload on quality documentation of information is currently experienced. The research design was explorative, descriptive and contextual in

  5. Effects of increased nurses' workload on quality documentation of patient information at selected Primary Health Care facilities in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihundla, Rhulani C; Lebese, Rachel T; Maputle, Maria S

    2016-05-13

    Recording of information on multiple documents increases professional nurses' responsibilities and workload during working hours. There are multiple registers and books at Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in which a patient's information is to be recorded for different services during a visit to a health professional. Antenatal patients coming for the first visit must be recorded in the following documents: tick register; Prevention of Mother-ToChild Transmission (PMTCT) register; consent form for HIV and AIDS testing; HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) register (if tested positive for HIV and AIDS then this must be recorded in the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) wellness register); ART file with an accompanying single file, completion of which is time-consuming; tuberculosis (TB) suspects register; blood specimen register; maternity case record book and Basic Antenatal Care (BANC) checklist. Nurses forget to record information in some documents which leads to the omission of important data. Omitting information might lead to mismanagement of patients. Some of the documents have incomplete and inaccurate information. As PHC facilities in Vhembe District render twenty four hour services through a call system, the same nurses are expected to resume duty at 07:00 the following morning. They are expected to work effectively and when tired a nurse may record illegible information which may cause problems when the document is retrieved by the next person for continuity of care. The objective of this study was to investigate and describe the effects of increased nurses' workload on quality documentation of patient information at PHC facilities in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. The study was conducted in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, where the effects of increased nurses' workload on quality documentation of information is currently experienced. The research design was explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of all nurses who

  6. The long-term effects of DDT exposure on semen, fertility, and sexual function of malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Thompson, M.L.; Robins, T.G.; Dyer, Silke; Riebow, John; Molekwa, Josef; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Millar, Robert; Kruger, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Hormonally active chemicals in the environment such as DDT have been associated with declining male reproductive health, especially semen quality. A cross-sectional study of 60 workers was performed near the Malaria Control Center (MCC) in Tzaneen, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Tests included a questionnaire (sexual function, fertility, and job history), a physical examination of the reproductive system, and semen analysis (produced via coitus interruptus or masturbation). Sperm count, density, and motility using the World Health Organization criteria and morphology using the strict Tygerberg criteria were determined. Serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD were measured. Forty-eight (81.0%) participants produced a semen sample, while all completed the questionnaires and physical examination. The mean sperm count was 93.8±130.3 million, and sperm density was 74.6±85.1 million/mL. The mean normal morphology score was 2.5±1.8% of subjects. Eighty-four percent of morphology scores were below either the WHO or the Tygerberg criteria, with the highest individual score being 6%. Self-perceived current problems with sexual function ranged between 10% and 20%. The most prevalent genital abnormality was abnormal testis disposition at 71%. There were few significant associations between DDT exposure measures (measured as years worked at MCC and serum DDT) and reproductive outcomes. p'p'-DDT was negatively associated with semen count (β-circumflex=-3.7±1.7; P=0.04; R 2 =0.05 adjusted for age, abstinence, physical abnormality, and fever in last 2 months). While the semen quality in the study was less than normal, no strong evidence for a DDT effect was found

  7. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

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    size, the Northern Cape (NC) Province has the smallest population of the ... whether skin cancer incidence in SA has followed the global trend.[12] ... high risk of mortality.[16] As ... 2012 was conducted using public and private health sector databases. .... majority of KSs occurred in the younger age group 30 - 39 years.

  8. Performance and Acceptance of Novel Silver-Impregnated Ceramic Cubes for Drinking Water Treatment in Two Field Sites: Limpopo Province, South Africa and Dodoma Region, Tanzania

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    David M. Kahler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease and environmental enteropathy are serious public health concerns in low-income countries. In an effort to reduce enteric infection, researchers at the University of Virginia developed a new point-of-use (POU water treatment technology composed of silver-impregnated porous ceramic media. The ceramic is placed in a 15 L plastic container of water in the evening and the water is ready to drink in the morning. The purpose of this study was to assess field performance and local acceptance of technology in two communities in Limpopo Province, South Africa, and one community in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. Performance was determined by coliform testing of treated water. Acceptance was determined using data from 150 household surveys and a nine-day structured observational study at a local primary school. At the primary school, 100% of treated water samples had no detectable levels of total coliform bacteria (TCB in buckets filled by researchers. For all treated school buckets, 74% of samples achieved less than or equal to 1 CFU/100 mL and 3.2 average log reduction of TCB. Laboratory experiments with highly contaminated water diluted to lower turbidity achieved 4.2 average log reduction of TCB. Turbid water (approximately 10 NTU only achieved 1.1 average log reduction of TCB; turbidity and organic material may have interfered with disinfection. The Tanzania primary school (deep groundwater source had less turbid water and achieved 1.4 average log reduction of TCB; however, it did have high chloride levels that may have interfered with silver disinfection. The surveys revealed that the majority of people retrieve, store, and dispense water in ways that are compatible with the new technology. The willingness-to-pay study revealed potential customers would be willing to pay for the technology without subsidies. The results of this study indicate that this novel silver-impregnated ceramic POU water treatment technology is both effective and

  9. Evaluation of a Silver-Embedded Ceramic Tablet as a Primary and Secondary Point-of-Use Water Purification Technology in Limpopo Province, S. Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Ehdaie

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO recognizes point-of-use water treatment (PoUWT technologies as effective means to improve water quality. This paper investigates long-term performance and social acceptance of a novel PoUWT technology, a silver-infused ceramic tablet, in Limpopo Province, South Africa. When placed in a water storage container, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet releases silver ions into water, thereby disinfecting microbial pathogens and leaving the water safe for human consumption. As a result of its simplicity and efficiency, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet can serve as a stand-alone PoUWT method and as a secondary PoUWT to improve exisitng PoUWT methods, such as ceramic water filters. In this paper, three PoUWT interventions were conducted to evaluate the silver-embedded ceramic tablet: (1 the silver-embedded ceramic tablet as a stand-alone PoUWT method, (2 ceramic water filters stand-alone, and (3 a filter-tablet combination. The filter-tablet combination evaluates the silver-embedded ceramic tablet as a secondary PoUWT method when placed in the lower reservoir of the ceramic water filter system to provide residual disinfection post-filtration. Samples were collected from 79 households over one year and analyzed for turbidity, total silver levels and coliform bacteria. Results show that the silver-embedded ceramic tablet effectively reduced total coliform bacteria (TC and E. coli when used as a stand-alone PoUWT method and when used in combination with ceramic water filters. The silver-embedded ceramic tablet's performance as a stand-alone PoUWT method was comparable to current inexpensive, single-use PoUWT methods, demonstrating 100% and 75% median reduction in E. coli and TC, respectively, after two months of use. Overall, the the filter-tablet combination performed the best of the three interventions, providing a 100% average percent reduction in E. coli over one year. User surveys were also conducted and indicated

  10. Verification of the existence of food security projects in Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency tables and charts were computed on a computer spreadsheet. The findings of this Study revealed that there are 347 food security projects in Limpopo Province with 338 declared functional. This Study will provide policy makers with policy directives on how a database of food security projects can be kept so that ...

  11. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing

  12. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Limpopo Valley, hydro-meteorology, surface water deficit. * To whom all ... millenia and there is a history of drought impacts on vegetation. (Ekblom et ... water budget of the upper Limpopo River valley using direct.

  13. A PLIOSAURID TOOTH FROM THE ARGILLE VARICOLORI FORMATION NEAR CASTELVECCHIO DI PRIGNANO (MODENA PROVINCE, NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESARE A. PAPAZZONI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The first discovery of a Cretaceous pliosaurid tooth in Italy is reported. It comes from the Cenomanian-lower Campanian Argille Varicolori Formation near Castelvecchio di Prignano (Modena Province, northern Italy. Excepting this new specimen, Italy's only reported pliosaurid is a humerus from the Upper Cretaceous of Zavattarello near Pavia. The tooth morphology allows it to be ascribed to Polyptychodon interruptus Owen, 1841, a species only reported thus far from northern-central Europe (England, Germany, and the Czech Republic. This suggests the presence of marine reptile remains in the northern Apennines may have been underestimated. 

  14. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  15. Characteristics of uranium geological anomaly in Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwu; Cheng Danping

    2001-01-01

    The geological anomaly characteristics of uranium deposit region in northern Guangdong are discussed on the aspects of uranium source, structure and thermal activity. Uranium deposits usually occur in the uranium-rich background field. Structure activity provides favourable places for the transportation and precipitation of uranium. Uranium deposits are formed in the central and edge of frequent thermal activity. The assembled entropy anomaly field is the synthetical display for above three anomaly. The biggest assembled entropy anomaly is the most favourable space field for forming uranium deposit

  16. A Profile of the Northern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Northern Cape. Most of the data presented are d...

  17. A comparison of some methods used to estimate the grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Schmidt

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province was estimated in a number of different ways using rainfall and herbaceous composition and phytomass data. The results indicate that the grazing capacity under the present environmental conditions should be approximately 50 of the recommended agricultural grazer stocking rate. This is in agreement with recent literature, indicating that the methods used should be suitable for determining a first approximation of grazing capacity in the mixed bushveld of Northern Province.

  18. Predicting the risk of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Shanxi Province, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Johnson, C. Annette; Xue, Hanbin; Shi Jianbo; Zheng Quanmei; Sun Guifan

    2012-01-01

    Shanxi Province is one of the regions in northern China where endemic arsenicosis occurs. In this study, stepwise logistic regression was applied to analyze the statistical relationships of a dataset of arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwaters with some environmental explanatory parameters. Finally, a 2D spatial model showing the potential As-affected areas in this province was created. We identified topography, gravity, hydrologic parameters and remote sensing information as explanatory variables with high potential to predict high As risk areas. The model identifies correctly the already known endemic areas of arsenism. We estimate that the area at risk exceeding 10 μg L −1 As occupies approximately 8100 km 2 in 30 counties in the province. - Highlights: ► We develop a statistical model to predict arsenic affected areas of Shanxi Province. ► Holocene sediments, TWI, Rivdist, Gravity, remote sensing images are key predictors. ► Area of 8112 km 2 and more than 30 counties are estimated at risk of arsenic hazard. ► Logistic regression model could be widely used to predict other emerging regions. - Explanatory variables from topography, hydrology, gravity, and remote sensing information are benefit to model As risk in groundwater of Shanxi Province.

  19. Geochronologic evidence of a large magmatic province in northern Patagonia encompassing the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppo, Tomás; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; Fanning, Christopher M.

    2018-03-01

    The Los Menucos Complex (northern Patagonia) consists of ∼6 km thick succession of acidic and intermediate volcanic and pyroclastic products, which has been traditionally assigned to the Middle/Late Triassic. New U/Pb (SHRIMP) zircon crystallization ages of 257 ± 2 Ma at the base, 252 ± 2 Ma at an intermediate level and 248 ± 2 Ma near the top of the sequence, indicate that this volcanic event took place in about 10 Ma around the Permian-Triassic boundary. This volcanism can now be considered as the effusive terms of the neighboring and coeval La Esperanza Plutono-Volcanic Complex. This indicates that the climax of activity of a large magmatic province in northern Patagonia was coetaneous with the end-Permian mass extinctions. Likely correlation of La Esperanza- Los Menucos magmatic province with similar volcanic and plutonic rocks across other areas of northern Patagonia suggest a much larger extension than previously envisaged for this event. Its age, large volume and explosive nature suggest that the previously ignored potential role that this volcanism might have played in climatic deterioration around the Permian-Triassic boundary should be investigated.

  20. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  1. Research experiment on infiltration and runoff in Jujube land of northern Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To provide guidance for the efficient use of rainwater in Jujube forests of the northern Shaanxi Province, research on the processes of infiltration and runoff under field simulated rainfall were conducted. The process of infiltration and runoff-yield on sloping land was simulated with Richards equation and the water balance equation under different rainfall intensities and soil water content, in the north of Shaanxi province. It reached results via comparing with observation results: the mean relative error of the period cumulative infiltration was less than 3%, with a root mean squared error (RSME less than 0.3. The mean relative error of the period cumulative runoff was less than 12.5%, RSME < 0.4. The simulation results were reasonable; however, the simulation ponding time generally lagged behind measured ponding time probably because of spatial variation of saturated hydraulic conductivity and uneven rainfall.

  2. Ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in WZD area of northern Guizhou province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao

    2017-12-01

    The ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in Wuchuan-Zheng,an-Daozhen (short for WZD) Area of northern Guizhou Province was studied from the perspective of deposit formation mechanism. It was discovered that ore-forming fluids were mainly effective for transporting and leaching during the formation of bauxite. The means of transport mainly included colloidal transport, suspended transport and gravity flow transport. In the course of their leaching, fluids had a range of chemical reactions, as a result of which elements such as silicon and iron migrated downwards. In this process, properties of fluids changed as well.

  3. Sponge assemblage of some Upper Permian reef limestones from Phrae province (Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Senowbari-Daryan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna of uppermost Permian reef or reefal limestones of the Phrae province in northern Thailand include representatives of hexactinellida, sclerospongea,"sphinctozoans", and "inozoans". The "sphinctozoans" and "inozoans"are described in detail. Following taxa are new:"Sphinctozoans": Phraethalamia tubulara n. gen., n. sp., Ambithalamia pérmican. gen., n. sp."Inozoans": Bisiphonella tubulara n. sp., Solutossaspongia crassimuralis n.gen., n. sp.The genus name Belyaevaspongia nom. nov. is proposed for PolysiphonellaBelyaeva, 1991 (in Boiko et al., 1991, non Polysiphonella Russo, 1981.

  4. Arthropod-borne viral infections associated with a fever outbreak in the northern province of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D M; el-Tigani, A; Botros, B A; Salib, A W; Olson, J G; McCarthy, M; Ksiazek, T G

    1994-08-01

    An outbreak of acute febrile illness occurred during August and September 1989 in the Northern Province of Sudan coinciding with a high population density of phlebotomine sandflies. An investigation was conducted to determine whether arboviruses were associated with human illness during this outbreak. Sera were obtained from 185 febrile individuals and tested for IgG and IgM antibody to selected arboviruses by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The prevalence of IgG antibody was 59% for West Nile (WN), 53% for Sandfly Fever Sicilian (SFS), 32% for Sandfly Fever Naples (SFN), 39% for Yellow Fever (YF), 24% for dengue-2 (DEN-2), 23% for Rift Valley Fever (RVF), 12% for Chikungunya (CHIK) and 5% for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses. Antibody rates were about the same for males and females for most of the viruses tested. The prevalence of IgM antibody to SFN was 24% and reciprocal IgM titre exceeded 12,800 for some individuals suggesting that this virus was the cause of recent infection. The prevalence of IgM antibody for the other viruses did not exceed 5%. The study indicated that several arboviruses were endemic and some of them may have caused human disease in the Northern Province of Sudan.

  5. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  6. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129

  7. XML Geohelminthic: human ascariasis and trichuriasis in Mazandaran province, northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascariasis and trichuriasis are the most common intestinal geohelminthic diseases, and as such they are significant in terms of clinical and public health. This study was done to determine prevalence, status and geographic distribution patterns for Ascariasis and Trichuriasis. The study was done in the period 1991-2014 in northern Iran using Aregis 9.2 software. Methods: This was a review study, using description and analysis, of geographical distribution of Ascaris and Trichuris relating to townships in Mazandran province, northern Iran, covering a 23-year period. Data were collected from a review of the relevant literature, summarized and classified using Arc GIS, 9.2 to design maps and tables. Results: Based on results presented in tables and maps, means for prevalence of Ascaris and Trichuris were divided into five groups. The maximum prevalence rate of Ascaris was 16.3% reported in rural areas of Tonkabon in 1981-1982. Prevalence means for Ascaris in the central and western areas of Mazandaran province were 2%-4% and 4%, respectively. The maximum prevalence of Trichuris in the rural area of Tonkabon was 22.5% and the lowest 0.06% was among the cattle breeder’s in rural areas of the province at in 2002-2003. Conclusion: Data presented in this study provides information useful to health care workers researchers and health administrators, especially for physicians, clinicians and for future research. Also, it is necessary to control and prevent geohelminthic parasitic infections, particularly in rural areas by public education for families, health authorities and health care systems.

  8. Epidemiological distribution of rodents as potent reservoirs for infectious diseases in the provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Esfandiari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain. The aim of this study is to assess the geographical distribution of rodents in three provinces of northern part of Iran as reservoir of potential endemic infectious diseases. Rodents in 10 major parts of each of the three provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran were collected and a total of 404 rodents were trapped alive. They were determined by the key characteristics such as gender, genus, species, different locations and topological situation. Statistical analysis was performed to characterize the study sample and to correlate all variables and parameters. The distribution frequencies of three, five and six genera of rodents were identified in Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan provinces respectively. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents in the three provinces were identified as Rattus (R. norvegicus (67.3%, R. rattus (13.6%, Apodemus sylvaticus (13.9%, Arvicola (1%, Mus musculus (0.3%, Nesokia indica (2.5%, Cricetulus migrates (0.7% and Rhombomys opimus (0.7%. The results of this study determined the geographic distribution of the rodents in the three northern provinces of Iran. It is indicated the association of various distribution and diversity of rodents with provincial location. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents was recognized in the above three provinces geographical locations. This study confirms epidemiological distribution of

  9. Ethnoastronomy in the Multicultural Context of the Agricultural Colonies in Northern Santa Fe Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Armando

    In this paper, we present a study about cultural astronomy among European colonists and their Argentinean descendants, in the context of a complex interaction between criollos, aboriginals and European colonists from different origins and religions, who settled in the northern area of the Argentinean province of Santa Fe, which is part of the southern Gran Chaco. These colonists arrived among waves of immigration occurring in Argentina in the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. Through ethnographic field research among these immigrants and their descendants, we carried out a survey of their astronomical representations and practices, and the connections of these with their social life and farming tasks. Through this we gained an insight as to how the astronomical ideas of immigrants, criollos and aboriginal groups influenced each other, generating a variety of new relations with the celestial realm.

  10. Parasitic Contamination in Commonly- Consumed Vegetables in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raw (fresh vegetables are an important ingredient of healthy diet. Many enteric bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens could be transmitted by vegetables. Mazandaran province is located in northern Iran with a coastal area and extensive fields for vegetable cultivation. The current study is designed to evaluate the parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables. Methods: A total of 150 samples of fresh vegetables obtained from markets were examined for parasitic infections using standard methods. Results: Out of 104 samples (60.3% were contaminated with parasites. Parsley and radish with prevalence rates of 90% (18/20 and 39.1% (9/23 were the most and least contaminated vegetables. Free living larva and Trichostrongylus were the most and least common parasites in our results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that parasitological contamination of raw vegetables may be a health threat to consumers of such products.

  11. Morphometric variations of three species of harvested cephalopods found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAINAL ABIDIN MUCHLISIN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muchlisin ZA, Zulkarnaini B, Purnawan S, Muhadjier A, Fadli N, Cheng SH. 2014. Morphometric variations of three species of harvested cephalopods found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 15: 142-146. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometrics of three harvested cephalopods, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Sepia officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia. Sampling was conducted for six months from July to December 2012 in one week interval. A total of 318 cephalopods; 139 Sepioteuthis lessoniana, 139 Uroteuthis sp. and 40 Sepia officinalis were analyzed for morphometric study and 13 anatomical characters were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm using a digital calipers. Morphometric measurements were significantly different between the different species of cephalopods (ANOVA, p<0.05. S. officinalis differed in six morphological characters (head length, head width, tentacles length, gladius width, rancis width and length from the squid species. Fin width and length were significantly greater in S. lessoniana than in S. officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. On the other hand, Uroteuthis sp. had significantly greater mantle lengths, standard lengths and gladius lengths than the other two cephalopod species (Duncan Test, p<0.05. However, fin width was similar between S. lessoniana and Uroteuthis sp., while eye diameter was similar between S. officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. A Discriminant Function Analysis scatter plot successfully discriminated the three species indicating significant differences in morphological variation. This analysis also indicates that morphometrically, S. lessoniana and S. officinalis are more similar to each other despite being in different orders.

  12. Concepts and treatment for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the northern province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Khoza, L B; Lekhuleni, M E; Madu, S N; Cherian, V I; Cherian, L

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province in South Africa. The sample consisted of 50 traditional healers (13 females and 37 males) and 50 faith healers (12 females and 38 males). They were interviewed on local terminology, clinical manifestations, causes, curability, and treatment for diabetes, help-seeking behaviour of diabetes patients, and the healers' sources of information about diabetes. Results indicate that all healers were familiar with "diabetes", however, not all of them had seen patients suffering from diabetes. The perceived causes of diabetes by both traditional and faith healers could be divided into (1) diet (especially too much of sugar), (2) heredity, (3) supernatural, and (4) psychological causes. Most traditional healers (92%) and faith healers (90%) indicated that diabetes is curable. Treatments used by the healers in this study included the use of prayer, diet, and herbs. The authors conclude that the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers should be taken note of by health workers while developing health education programmes in the Province.

  13. Fauna, Ecological Characteristics, and Checklist of the Mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali; Hemingway, Janet

    2018-05-04

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of human and animal diseases. This study updates current knowledge on fauna, dominance, and distribution of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran, to inform disease control effort. Larval collections, using standard dippers or droppers, and adult collections, using total catches, shelter pits, CDC light traps, and human landing catches, were performed monthly in 30 villages across 16 counties, from May to December 2014. Ovitraps, baited with hay infusion as oviposition attractants or stimulants for Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, were installed in each village and inspected weekly for eggs. Lactophenol and Berlese media were used for preserving and mounting specimens. Overall, 36,024 mosquito specimens (19,840 larvae and 16,184 adults) belonging to 4 genera and 20 species were morphologically identified. The dominance and distribution indices showed that Culex pipiens s.s. was the eudominant species with a constant distribution of larvae (D = 69.07%, C = 100%) and adults (D = 31.86%, C = 100%), followed by Cx tritaeniorhynchus (D = 38.14%, C = 100%) and Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (D = 11.05%, C = 100%) as adults. Aedes vexans was the dominant (7.85%) species, but it had a sporadic (20%) distribution. Culex torrentium and Culiseta morsitans were added as the new species to the checklist of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province. Due to the potential role, Cx. pipiens s.s. as a vector of various pathogens, further ecological studies are recommended.

  14. Hydatidosis in human and slaughtered herbivores in Mazandaran province, northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Rahimi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the rate of hydatid cyst in hospitalized patients and slaughtered animals in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, files of 34 hospitalized patients who underwent surgery for hydatid cysts during 2003-2008 in Mazandaran province were analyzed. Also, 1 678 343 sheep, 815 635 goats, 451 743 cattle and 1 130 buffaloes were examined carefully for the presence of hydatid cysts in slaughterhouse of Mazandaran province, during 2003-2008. Results: In human, the highest rate of hydatidosis was related to 30-39 age group. Infection rate in females was higher than that in males (61.8% vs 31.2%. Cyst involvement of different organs was as follows: liver 76.5%, lung 13.5%, spleen 5.4%, gall bladder 2.7% and abdomen septum 2.9%. In slaughtered animals, overall, 6.38% had liver cyst and 12.70% had lung cyst. Involvement of liver and lung in sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo were 7.09% and 14.70%; 5.12% and 10.20%; 5.97% and 9.60%; and 14.90% and 13.18%, respectively. In sheep, goat and cattle the most infected organ was lung but in buffalo it was liver. Conclusions: The results show that in human, all age groups and both sexes are exposed to hydatidosis. In livestock it causes economic loss to veterinary industries. Therefore, appropriate control method is needed to prevent this zoonotic disease.

  15. Investigation of remote sensing geology in the northern Anxi area of Gansu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wenhan

    1993-07-01

    The study of 1 : 50,000 remote sensing geology survey and prognosis of gold (uranium) mineralization in the area of northern Anxi of Gansu province has been completed. The synthetical remote sensing and multi-source information compounding technologies, such as land-satellites TM and MSS images, airborne color infrared photography and infrared ray scanning digital images, are used in the study. On the basis of information enhancement and extraction of remote-sensing images, using the theory of remote sensing to explore mineral deposits and the field investigations, many achievements have been reached, such as applications of synthetical remote sensing technology, fundamental study of geology, prognosis of gold (uranium) minerals and 1 : 50,000 remote-geologic mapping. 21 mineral resource maps and geologic maps are obtained. Nearly one thousand of altered rock zones are interpreted and found. 71 new gold anomaly hydrothermal alteration zones and 23 gold mineralized places are discovered (maximum Au 71 x 10 -6 ). 17 minerogeneration prospective areas, 67 gold-ore searching targets and favorable areas of uranium mineralization are identified. It gives important materials for searching new mines

  16. Strongyloides Stercoralis: The Most Prevalent Parasitic Cause of Eosinophilia in Gilan Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rahmati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eosinophilia occurs in a wide variety of situations such as parasitic infections, aller­gic disorders, and malignancies. Most cases of eosinophilia of parasitic origin, especially those with a tissue migration life cycles consists of human infections by helminth parasites. The aim of present study was to determine the parasitic causes of eosinophilia in patients in a major endemic area of human fascioliasis in Gilan Province, northern part of Iran.Methods: One hundred and fifty patients presenting with an elevated eosinophilia attending infec­tious disease clinics with or without clinical symptoms, were examined. After clinical his­tory evaluation and physical examination, coprological examinations were performed using the formalin-ether and the Kato-Katz techniques for detection of Fasciola sp. and intestinal parasites.Results: Forty two percent of patients were infected with S. stercoralis, nine (6% were found to be infected with Fasciola sp. while only a single patient (0.7% were infected by Ttrichostrongy­lus sp.Conclusion: Local clinicians in Gilan may consider eosinophilia as a suggestive indication for diagnosis of human fascioliasis, especially when microscopic stool and/or serological tests are negative. Based on the results, local physicians should consider S. stercoralis as the potential causes of eosinophilia in patients with elevated eosinophilia.

  17. Improvement of environmental health and hygiene practices--case study in the Northern Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathekgana, M A; Chauke, L K; Otieno, F A

    2001-01-01

    The primary purpose of an improved water supply and sanitation is the achievement of acceptable health and hygiene standards as well as the sustainable improvement of the environment. Many governments recognize this and so they budget for large sums of money to improve these services to the communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different gaps in environmental health and hygiene practices with the aim of suggesting a strategy of improving this in the Northern Province of South Africa. To do this, 231 households and 30 schools were surveyed. Workshops and visits to different government departments were also used. This paper reports the results from this study which indicate that the situation in schools was not any better than that in households, with more than 90% of the villages still dependent on the unimproved pit latrines and 56,6% relying on standpipes which were (70% of the time) non-operational. The main problems identified seem to those associated with implementation and maintenance. The study concludes that with proper training of the water committees and their active involvement with the government and NGOs, environmental health and hygiene problems can be minimized or eliminated.

  18. Knowledge and practice of condom use in an urban adult community sample of the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data concerning condom use, especially regarding knowledge about the correct use of condoms in South Africa. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among an urban adult community in the Northern Province. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  19. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Daniele; Vezzani, Silvia; Granata, Antonio RM; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica; Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso; Setti, Monica; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM 2.5 was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM 10 was

  20. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Daniele, E-mail: santi.daniele@gmail.com [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Vezzani, Silvia [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Granata, Antonio RM [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Setti, Monica [Service of Clinical Engineering, Azienda USL of Modena (Italy); Simoni, Manuela [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM{sub 2.5} was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM

  1. Some Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Fruit Trees in Northern Khorasan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Heidarzadeh

    2017-08-01

    investigation was the identification of plant-parasitic nematodes of fruit trees based on morphological and morphometrical characters in Northern Khorasan province. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of fruit cultivation in Northern Khorasan Province, 70 soil samples were collected during 2011-2012. Nematodes were extracted by centrifugal flotation technique and transferred to glycerin according to the modified De Grisse method (1969. The permanent slides were prepared from the extracted nematodes. The nematodes were identified by light microscopy, based on morphological and morphometrical characters. Measurements and drawings were performed using a drawing tube attached to an Olympus BH2 light microscope. The ratios and the morphometric symbols used in morphometric tables of each specimen. Nematodes were identified based on morphological and morphometrical characters using identification keys. Results and Discussion: In this study, 17 species from 13 genera belonged to sub order Tylenchina were identified as follows: Aphelenchoides richardsoni, Aphelenchus avenae, Basiria graminophila, Boleodorus thylactus, Ditylenchus filimus, D. medicaginis, Filenchus cylindricaudatus, F. thornei, Geocenamus tenuidens, Helicotylenchus digonicus, H. pseudorobustus, Heterodera schachtii, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus neglectus, P. thornei, Tylenchorhynchus latus, Zygotylenchus guevarai. Among these species, Pratylenchus neglectus, Merlinius brevidens and Boleodorus thylactus were more frequent, respectively. Ditylenchus filimus is reported for the first time from Iran. D. filimus is characterized by low and striated head, stylet 7-9 µm, median bulb muscular, glandular bulb offset, posterior vulva( V=81-85, PUS=0.5-1.1, tail conical with very sharp and pointed terminus. Conclusion: In this study, 17 species from 13 genera belong to suborder Tylenchina were identified. Among these species, Pratylenchus neglectus, Merlinius brevidens

  2. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-12-15

    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Geologic implications of topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data in the northern Yukon-Koyukuk province and its borderlands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Yukon-Koyukuk province is characterized by low elevation and high Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies in contrast to the adjacent Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. Using newly compiled digital topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic maps, the province is divided into three geophysical domains. The Koyukuk domain, which is nearly equivalent to the Koyukuk lithotectonic terrane, is a horseshoe-shaped area, open to the south, of low topography, high gravity, and high-amplitude magnetic anomalies caused by an intraoceanic magmatic arc. The Angayucham and Kanuti domains are geophysical subdivisions of the Angayucham lithotectonic terrane that occur along the northern and southeastern margins of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, where oceanic rocks have been thrust over continental rocks of the Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. The modeling supports, but does not prove, the hypothesis that the crust of the Kobuk-Koyukuk basin is 32-35 km thick, consisting of a tectonically thickened section of Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks and older oceanic crust. -from Author

  4. From the "Kraal" to the Classroom: Shifting Musical Arts Practices from the Community to the School with Special Reference to Learning "Tshigombela" in Limpopo, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberly, Andrea; Davidson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa the arts and culture educational curriculum has undergone immense change and continues to impact and influence the role of musical arts practices in children's lives throughout the country. In specific districts of the Limpopo province in particular, musical practices of the Venda culture are being integrated into the school…

  5. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunya, Kirati; Panmongkol, Aumporn; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri; Meewasana, Jiraporn; Bunkhwamdi, Woraphot; Dangsri, Siriwat

    2014-06-03

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus doisuthep sp. nov. is characterized by a maximal known SVL of 90.5 mm; 19 or 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 or 35 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including six or seven pitted scales on each femur (male and females) separated by a diastema from six pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and six or seven irregular thin beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. 

  6. Rare earth elements in the banded iron formation of the Griqualand West sequence, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, U.E.; Haelbich, I.W.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic banded iron-formations (BIF) of the Griqualand West sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup in the northern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated for their rare earth elements (REE) contents. Twenty three REE analyses were completed using an ICP-AES method. Despite diagenetic and metamorphic processes, it can be concluded from the so far available REE data that the conspicuous differences in REE patterns to those reported from elsewhere indicate the BIF of the Transvaal Supergroup to have originated in relative restricted parts or basins of the Precambrian ocean. 7 refs., 1 fig

  7. Serotype- and virulence-associated gene profile of Streptococcus suis isolates from pig carcasses in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawan, Kanruethai; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf - /sly - genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand.

  8. Challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa. Aim: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Setting: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Methods: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District. Results: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines’ potency. Conclusions: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives. Keywords: Professional nurse, knowledge, EPI-SA, immunisation

  9. Meta-evaporite in the Carajás mineral province, northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Walter; Cabral, Alexandre Raphael

    2018-05-01

    Evidence for connecting evaporite-sourced high-salinity fluids with iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits in the Carajás mineral province has solely been based on boron-isotope compositions of tourmaline. Presence of meta-evaporitic rocks remains unrecognised. Here, we report laminated albitite, tourmalinite and banded albite-phlogopite rock, intercepted by exploratory drilling in a clastic metasedimentary sequence. These rocks represent evaporite precursors. Their location in the copper-gold prospects Açaí and Angélica, in the westernmost part of the Carajás mineral province, indicates that (i) evaporite-sourced fluids were regional and (ii) evaporite-bearing metasedimentary sequences may have been an important source of high-salinity fluids and/or sulfur for the IOCG deposits of the Carajás mineral province.

  10. Clinical characteristics of the autumn-winter type scrub typhus cases in south of Shandong province, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jing-Si

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1986, scrub typhus was only found endemic in southern China. Because human infections typically occur in the summer, it is called "summer type". During the autumn-winter period of 1986, a new type of scrub typhus was identified in Shandong and northern Jiangsu province of northern China. This newly recognized scrub typhus was subsequently reported in many areas of northern China and was then called "autumn-winter type". However, clinical characteristics of associated cases have not been reported. Methods From 1995 to 2006, all suspected scrub typhus cases in five township hospitals of Feixian county, Shandong province were enrolled. Indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA was used as confirmatory serodiagnosis test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR connected with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and sequence analyses were used for genotyping of O. tsutsugamushi DNAs. Clinical symptoms and demography of confirmed cases were analyzed. Results A total of 480 scrub typhus cases were confirmed. The cases occurred every year exclusively between September and December with a peak occurrence in October. The case numbers were relatively higher in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2000 than in other years. 57.9% of cases were in the group aged 21–50. More cases occurred in male (56% than in female (44%. The predominant occupational group of the cases was farmers (85.0%. Farm work was reported the primary exposure to infection in 67.7% of cases. Fever, rash, and eschar were observed in 100.0%, 90.4%, and 88.5% of cases, respectively. Eschars formed frequently on or around umbilicus, abdomen areas, and front and back of waist (34.1% in both genders. Normal results were observed in 88.7% (WBC counts, 84.5% (PLT counts, and 89.7% (RBC counts of cases, respectively. Observations from the five hospitals were compared and no significant differences were found. Conclusion The autumn-winter type scrub typhus in northern China occurred

  11. Comparative Analysis of Drought Indices for Drought Zone Scheme of Northern Khorasan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan EYSHI REZAEI; Azade MOHAMMADIAN; Mansoreh KOOHI; Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-01-01

    Drought is one of the natural disasters which deeply influenced agricultural production. Drought monitoring programs could help to forecast and mitigate the impacts of drought. In this study occurrence, severity, and duration of drought were evaluated by monthly rainfall data (1986-2005) that were recorded at all meteorological stations in north Khorasan province of Iran. Drought indices include Standard Rainfall Index (SPI), Decades Index (DI) and Percent of Normal (PNI) calculated and compa...

  12. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  13. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  14. Malnutrition and Associated Factors Influencing Nutrition of Children in Post War Resettlement Areas in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Angela; Senarath, Upul; Mbuya, Nkosinathi; Navaratne, Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Over 250000 persons were displaced within the Northern Province, Sri Lanka at the end of the war (2009/10). With the ensuing resettlement process, the Japan Social Development Fund emergency project (JSDF) on Local Nutrition interventions for the Northern Province was implemented to combat undernutrition in children. A baseline survey was undertaken to describe prevalence of acute malnutrition among children < 5 years in the Northern Province and associated factors that would inform project activities of supplementary feeding, community mobilization and behavior change communication. Methodology: A cross sectional survey using a multistage cluster sampling design evaluated nutrition status in a representative sample of 2600 children aged 0-5 years from the Northern Province. Height and weight were measured using standard survey equipment, and anthropometric indices (height-for-age Z, weight-for-age Z, weight-for-height) were calculated using WHO growth standards and Anthro software. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited data on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and nutrition knowledge and practices of caregivers. Significant factors associated with nutrition indicators were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis [presented as Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)]. Results: Prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (WHZ<-2) among children aged 0-5 years was 20.1%; Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM; WHZ<-2 and ≥-3) was 15.7% and 5.6 % had Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM; WHZ<-3). Multivariate analysis of younger children (0-23 months) showed that SAM and MAM were associated with increasing age [12-17 month olds were more likely to be wasted compared to younger children (AOR 1.7)]. Other associated factors were low birth weight (AOR 1.54) and lack of toilets (AOR 2.02), a proxy indicator of poor socioeconomic status. Risk of wasting was greater with recent episodes of acute respiratory infection (AOR 1.51). Assessment of

  15. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunya, Kirati; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Dongkumfu, Wuttipong; Sirisamphan, Thana; Pauwels, Olivier S G

    2015-01-14

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation.

  16. Urinary tract infection among intellectual disability individuals "etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns" in rehabilitation centers of Mazandaran province, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrolahei, M; Poorhagibagher, M; Vahedi, M; Maleki, I

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections and account for large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate and the etiologic agents of UTIs in inhabitants of rehabilitation centers of Mazandaran province in northern Iran and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the uropathogens isolated. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each of 314 participants (163 males, 151 females) residing in 12 rehabilitation centers of Ramsar, Nowshahr, Chalous, Amol, Sari and Behshahr. Urine specimens were cultured and bacterial isolates were identified by conventional methods. All urines fulfilling the criteria for the presence of significant bacteriuria (> or = 10(4) cfu/ml urine) were defined as positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The rate of urinary tract infection was 30.9% with the highest rate in pediatrics (p 50 years). Bacteria most frequently isolated from urine specimens was Escherichia coli (39.2%) with the highest rate of infection in females age group antibiotics tested against the isolated organisms for susceptibility test, ceftriaxone and gentamicin maintain good activity against the majority of gram negative bacteria that cause UTIs recovered from individuals with intellectual disability. Vancomycin was effective against Staphylococcus aureus. This survey shows that the prevalence of UTIs among inhabitants of institutions for mentally retarded persons in Mazandaran province of Iran is much higher than normal population.

  17. Sedimentological aspects of four Lower-Paleozoic formations in the northern part of the province of León (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1964-01-01

    This paper deals with the sedimentary structures and sedimentary petrography of the four lowermost formations of the Paleozoic as developed in the Northern part of the Province of León (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain). Three of the four formations have a detrital character, and one consists of

  18. Geological-geochemical characterization of the Semilus and upper Frasnian deposits of the northern part of the Timano-Pechorsk province. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, L.Z.; Peneva, A.Z.; Udot, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A geochemical characterization of the semilux-upper-Frasnian sections of various Paleotectonic elements of the northern part of the Timano-Pechorsk province is presented. The distribution of oil and gas source rock is established and an assessment of the regions is given.

  19. Provision of Abortion Services by Midwives in Limpopo Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP) Act of 1996 allows provision of abortion on request up to 12 weeks of gestation and permits midwives who have completed required training to conduct termination of pregnancies. This unique codification of midwives' role in abortion care reflects legislators' ...

  20. Bacterial levels in the Nyl River system, Limpopo province, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotrophic plate counts, faecal coliform counts and total coliform counts indicated that the system was stressed. The Modimolle sewage treatment works and local agricultural activities were found to be the point and diffuse sources of bacterial contamination, respectively. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2010, 35(1): ...

  1. Gendered vulnerability to climate change in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that women in developing countries tend to be more dependent on natural resources than men, and that female-headed households tend to rely more on agricultural livelihoods than male-headed households. Climate change is projected...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Drought Indices for Drought Zone Scheme of Northern Khorasan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan EYSHI REZAEI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the natural disasters which deeply influenced agricultural production. Drought monitoring programs could help to forecast and mitigate the impacts of drought. In this study occurrence, severity, and duration of drought were evaluated by monthly rainfall data (1986-2005 that were recorded at all meteorological stations in north Khorasan province of Iran. Drought indices include Standard Rainfall Index (SPI, Decades Index (DI and Percent of Normal (PNI calculated and compared to determine drought severity, duration and drought occurrence for all stations. In addition, drought maps were prepared by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW method, for each study zone. Based on these indices, the most extensive drought occurred in 1989, 1990, 1995, 1996, 2000, and 2001 years. The longest duration of drought based on SPI happened in 1994 and 1997 years. Furthermore, the extreme drought occurred in 1990 and 2001 in all stations. In conclusion, Central part of this province was more exposed to extreme drought during study period than other parts of this region.

  3. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi Kawasaki-related genotypes in Shandong Province, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yang, Huili; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Shoufeng; Meng, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2015-03-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and characterized by dramatic genetic diversity. To elucidate the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi populating in patients in Shandong Province, a new epidemic zone in China, we sequenced partial of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) and identified the genotypes of 43 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2010 to 2013. All of the 43 sequences are in the same clade, 39 of them are in one branch and the other four sequences, nominated as SH1002, SH1306, SH1309, and SH1307 are in four separate branches. To clarify the clinical characterizations caused by Kawasaki-related genotypes, we studied the clinical profiles of these 43 scrub typhus patients. Most patients (88.1%) were farmers lived in rural areas. They presented with fever (100.0%), headache (79.1%), dizziness (32.6%), generalized myalgia (48.8%), fatigue (53.5%), anorexia (53.5%), facial flushing (23.3%), conjunctival congestion (11.6%), skin rashes (58.1%) and lymphadenopathy (23.3%). Eschar (97.7%) was quite common in patients, which provided doctors with a luminous clue for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 23.1% of patients, and three patients (7.0%) had bronchopneumonia. There was no death report in Shandong Province during the study period. The present study provides beneficial data for clinical, serological, and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections, and also provides foundations for subsequent studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranium mineralization in the Rum Jungle-Alligator Rivers Province, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.G.; Needham, R.S.; Wilkes, P.G.; Page, R.W.; Smart, P.G.; Watchman, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    Renewed interest in uranium exploration in northern Australia in the late 1960s led to the discovery of one of the most important uranium fields in the world. To obtain an understanding of the geological setting of the uranium deposits, and to provide guidelines for future exploration, the Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) undertook an investigation which included semi-detailed mapping, aided by geophysical surveys, isotopic dating, and stratigraphic drilling. From the results so far obtained and from the important data made available by mining companies engaged in exploration in the region, a pattern of uranium mineralization can be recognized, particularly in relation to the Lower Proterozoic sedimentation of the region. (author)

  5. Geohydrological investigation of an uranium anomaly near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.; Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    An anomaly, caused by low-grade uranium accumulations in organic-rich diatomaceous earth deposits, was located by an airborne radiometric survey near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape. Low-grade uraniferous calcrete also occurs in the vicinity of the anomaly. A significant uranium anomaly was found along the whole course of the palaeodrainage with the highest values occuring behind a dolerite dyke a few kilometres south of the confluence. A multidisciplinary approach in corporating geohydrology, water geochemistry, isotopic data and radiometric borehole logging studies was used to evaluate its potential

  6. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. University of Limpopo student nurses' clinical learning experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Limpopo student nurses' clinical learning experiences in a public hospital at ... was applied to explore and describe the experiences of student nurses' clinical learning ... The ethical principles relevant to the study were observed.

  8. Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure among elderly in rural Uttaradit Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Onwilasini; Yamarat, Khemika; Neeser, Karl J; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure. A cross-sectional survey of Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure was conducted with 160 Buddhist elderly in rural Uttaradit, northern Thailand. After controlling for the variables of gender, status, education, salary, underlying hypertension, exercise, salt intake, and taking antihypertensive medications, it was found that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure is associated with the Buddhist religious practice of temple attendance. The Buddhist older people who regularly attended a temple every Buddhist Holy day (which occurs once a week) were found to have systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings lower than people who did not attend as regularly. It is recommended that nurses advocate for temple attendance in the care protocols for older Buddhist hypertensive patients both in Thailand and internationally. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers provinceNorthern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  10. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  12. Healthy dietary practices among rural and semi-urban Blacks in the Northern Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate five healthy dietary behaviours in a sample of rural and semi-urban South Africans. The sample consisted of 200 adults, 100 from an semi-urban area (Mankweng and 100 from a rural area (Tiberius in the central region of the Northern Province of South Africa. The two geographically different communities were chosen by convenience and the participants in the two communities were choosen by cluster sampling. Results indicate that about a third (30% in semi-urban and 34% in rural of the study sample are overweight and 18% are obese. A moderately high prevalence of six simple healthy dietary practices was found. However, there was a very low prevalence rate of eating fruits daily among both semi-urban (10% and rural dwellers (9%. Semi-urban dwellers showed significantly higher healthy diet behaviour than rural dwellers in regard to avoiding fat, trying to eat fiber, limiting red meat, and limiting salt. Men reported more than women that they tried to eat fiber and they had more often breakfast everyday. Being semi-urban and female were significantly associated with the healthy dietary index, whereas age, BMI, educational level and marital status were not. The results give insight into dietary health behaviour practices and the factors that influence them, which have practical implications for dietary health promotion.

  13. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  14. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  15. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  16. Hydrology of area 59, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggiani, Neville G.; Britton, Linda J.; Minges, Donald R.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Parker, Randolph S.; Kircher, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis aid in decisions to lease federally owned coal and to prepare necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of Public Law 95-87, the "Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977." This act requires an appropriate regulatory agency to issue permits, based on the review of permit-application data to assess hydrologic impacts. This report, which partially fulfills this requirement, is one in a series of nationwide coal province reports that present information thematically, through the use of a brief text and accompanying maps, graphs, charts, or other illustrations for single hydrologic topics. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 59 in north-central Colorado and southeastern Wyoming.The report area, located within the South Platte River basin, covers a 16,000-square-mile area of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics.The South Platte River, the major stream in the area, and most of its tributaries originate in granitic mountains and flow into and through the sedimentary rocks of the Great Plains. Altitudes range from less than 5,000 feet to more than 14,000 feet above sea level. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, and produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt during the spring and summer produces most streamflow. Transmountain diversion of water from the streams on the western slope of the mountains also adds to the streamflow. Precipitation in the plains is as little as 10 inches annually. Streams that originate in the plains are ephemeral.Streamflow quality is best in the mountains, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally small. Concentrations increase in the plains as streams flow through sedimentary basins, and as urbanization and irrigation increase. The quality of some mountain streams is affected by

  17. Retrospective return on investment analysis of an electronic treatment adherence device piloted in the Northern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, Sean; Mars, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The return on investment (ROI) for utilizing the SIMpill electronic treatment adherence solution as an adjunct to directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) is assessed using data from a 2005 pilot of the SIMpill solution among new smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Northern Cape Province. The value of this cost minimization analysis (CMA), for use by public health planners in low-resource settings as a precursor to more rigorous assessment, is discussed. The retrospective analysis compares the costs and health outcomes of the DOTS-SIMpill cohort with DOTS-only controls. Hypothetical 5-year cash flows are generated and discounted to estimate net present values (NPVs). Comparison between the DOTS-SIMpill pilot cohort and DOTS-only supported controls, for a hypothetical implementation of 1,000 devices, over 5 years, demonstrates positive ROI for the DOTS-SIMpill cohort based on improved health outcomes and reduced average cost per patient. The net stream is shown to be positive from the first year. Discounted NPV is ZAR 3,255,256 (US$ 493,221) for a cohort that would have started mid 2005 and ZAR 3,747,636 (US$ 487,339) starting mid 2010. This is an ROI of 23% over the 5-year period. The addition of electronic treatment adherence support technology can help to improve TB outcomes and lower average cost per patient by reducing treatment failure and the associated higher cost and burden on limited resources. CMA is an appropriate initial analysis for health planners to highlight options that may justify more sophisticated methods such as cost effectiveness analysis or full cost benefit analysis where a preferred option is immediately revealed. CMA is proposed as a tool for use by public health planners in low-resource settings to evaluate the ROI of treatment adherence technology postpilot and prior to implementation.

  18. Fluid evolution and ore genesis of the Dalingshang deposit, Dahutang W-Cu ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ning-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiong, Suo-Fei; Pi, Dao-Hui

    2018-02-01

    The Dalingshang W-Cu deposit is located in the North section of the Dahutang ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China. Vein- and breccia-style tungsten-copper mineralization is genetically associated with Mesozoic S-type granitic rocks. Infrared and conventional microthermometric studies of both gangue and ore minerals show that the homogenization temperatures for primary fluid inclusions in wolframite ( 340 °C) are similar to those in scheelite ( 330 °C), but about 40 °C higher than those of apatite ( 300 °C) and generally 70 °C higher than those in coexisting quartz ( 270 °C). Laser Raman analysis identifies CH4 and N2 without CO2 in fluid inclusions in scheelite and coexisting quartz, while fluid inclusions in quartz of the sulfide stage have variable CO2 content. The ore-forming fluids overall are characterized by high- to medium-temperature, low-salinity, CH4, N2, and/or CO2-bearing aqueous fluids. Chalcopyrite, muscovite, and sphalerite are the most abundant solids recognized in fluid inclusions from different ores. The H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions favor a dominantly magmatic origin for ores and fluids, while some depleted δ34S values (- 14.4 to - 0.9‰) of sulfides from the sulfide stage are most likely produced by an increase of oxygen fugacity, possibly caused by inflow of oxidized meteoric waters. The microthermometric data also indicate that a simple cooling process formed early scheelite and wolframite. However, increasing involvement of meteoric waters and fluid mixing may trigger a successive deposition of base metal sulfides. Fluid-rock interaction was critical for scheelite mineralization as indicated by in-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in scheelite.

  19. Levels of poverty and the poverty gap in rural Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Mears

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the income and expenditure patterns of selected deep rural villages. This is done by measuring the level of poverty and/or the poverty gap of 132 households in Limpopo, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Problem investigated: The Millennium Declaration symbolises the commitment to end extreme poverty, but limited data is available for rural areas to inform policy decisions. The relative income shares for individuals, households and percentile groups within a population provide the best information on poverty for policy formulation. The nature and size distribution of income are therefore central to analysing the poverty problem within low-income areas. The survey area is one of the poorest areas in South Africa, and shows what data is needed to measure and understand the extent of poverty. Design/Method/Approach: A representative sample of 132 households was drawn, which represents 6,9 percent of the estimated 1900 households in selected villages of rural Limpopo. A total of 740 household members were represented in the survey, with an average of 5,6 members per household. Originality/Value: Although this is a relatively small sample, it generated much-needed data on this very poor area of South Africa. Detailed empirical data on the income and expenditure patterns is not available, especially for rural areas. The socio-economic data from this research supported an important health project of the Water and Health Research Unit (WHRU of the University of Johannesburg. The article also lays the foundation for further research in this field of study, facilitating engagement with a number of related debates such as those about satisfaction of life, vulnerability to poverty, the geography of deprivation and the mapping of poverty. Conclusion: The main finding is that the government provides for many needs of the poor, especially in the deep rural areas. Only

  20. The evolutionary characteristics and study of uranium mineralization conditions of early precambrian basement and old granitoids in Northern Hebei province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Rong Jiashu; Lin Jinrong; Zheng Maogong; Wen Xiyuan

    1993-05-01

    Based on the systematic studies of petrology, geochemistry and isotope geochronology, the Early Precambrian metamorphic complex in Northern Hebei province of China can be divided into three different series, i.e. granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series. The so called 'magmatic granitoids' in that area are actually some magmagranites with different ages and different geneses, and they are not formed by migmatization. Up to now, the discovered Huaian complex which was formed in 3.5 Ga ago is the oldest nuclear area in the northern margin of North-China Platform. The granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series belong to Early Archaean (>3.0 +- 0.1 Ga), Middle Archaean (>2.7 +- 0.1 Ga) and Later Archaean (>2.4 +- 0.1 Ga) respectively. The geological time scale of the Early Precambrian for Northern Hebei Province has been built. According to the synthetic analyses of various factors there is no prospect of uranium mineralization in the ancient terrain. However, the Mesozoic volcanic basins covering over the Hercynian Period granites would be main goal for looking for large uranium deposits in north part in that area

  1. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  2. Turning Red Rural Landscapes Yellow? Sufficiency Economy and Royal Projects in the Hills of Nan Province, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the efforts of the royal family to moralise the environmental behaviour of their subjects in the name of the Sufficiency Economy philosophy solicited by King Bhumibol since the 1990s in Thailand. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nan province, Northern Thailand, in 2008 and 2009, I focus particularly on Royal Projects recently promoted to correct the rural practices of the ethnic minority groups living in the hills of Nan. In the past, many of these ethnic groups took part in the Maoist insurgency while at present, they represent a key basin of support- ers for the reformist Red Shirts movement which is currently threatening the role of the monarchy in Thai politics. The research suggests that the recently increased trend of staging new projects for sustainable agro-forestry management in a ‘red’ area as Nan does not only aim at improving the conditions of mountain peoples and of the environment, but simultaneously increases the political influence of the conservative forces over this ‘ungovernable’ territory in times of political crisis. ----- Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Bemühungen der königlichen Familie in Thailand seit den 1990-er Jahren, das Umweltverhalten ihrer Subjekte im Namen der Sufficiency Economy Philosophie von König Bhumibol zu moralisieren. Mit Bezug auf ethnografische Forschung in der Provinz Nan in Nordthailand in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 fokussiere ich insbesondere auf Royal Projects, die in letzter Zeit gefördert werden, um ländliche Praktiken ethnischer Minderheiten in den Bergen von Nan zu korrigieren. In der Vergangenheit waren viele dieser ethnischen Gruppen am maoistischen Aufstand beteiligt, während sie heute ein zentrales Auffangbecken für UnterstützerInnen der reformistischen Rothemden, die derzeit die Rolle der Monarchie in der thailändischen Politik in Frage stellen, darstellen. Die Forschung deutet an, dass der Trend zur Einführung von neuen Projekten f

  3. Late Palaeozoic magmatism in the northern New England Orogen - evidence from U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Yarrol and Connors provinces, central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withnall, I.W.; Hutton, L.J.; Hayward, M.A.; Blake, P.; Fanning, C.M.; Burch, G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The northern part of the New England Orogen in central Queensland has been divided into three provinces, which are from east to west, the Wandilla, Yarrol and Connors Provinces. Previous workers suggested that the provinces are elements in an Early Carboniferous west-dipping subduction system with the Wandilla Province representing the accretionary wedge, the Yarrol Province a forearc basin and the Connors Province the volcanic arc. Farther west, a fourth province, the Drummond Basin, is interpreted as a back-arc basin. The Connors Province crops out in two areas, the Auburn Arch in the south and Connors Arch in the north. Prior to the present study, some workers recognised two superimposed volcanic arcs, one in the Late Devonian and a second in the Early Permian. Other workers have challenged this model suggesting that the rocks in the Connors Province were mainly Late Carboniferous to Early Permian and that they recorded a period of continental extension. U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Connors Province has confirmed the existence of at least episodic Early Carboniferous magmatism from the Tournaisian to Namurian in both the Auburn and Connors Arches. We suggest that the Tournaisian rocks are vestiges of the Early Carboniferous volcanic arc suggested by earlier workers. Ages of ∼350Ma and ∼349Ma in the Connors Province are similar to ages for volcanics in Cycle 1 in the Drummond Basin and to volcanics in the lower part of the Rockhampton Group in the Yarrol Province. Magmatism in the Drummond Basin and Yarrol Province continued into the Visean although no early Visean rocks have yet been recognised in the Connors Province. The mid-Carboniferous (late Visean) may represent an important change in the evolution of the region. East of the Auburn Arch, in the Yarrol Province, this time corresponds to the boundary between the Rockhampton Group and Lorray Formation, and is marked by a sudden increase in regional radiometric response. It represents the start of

  4. The status of isotopic investigations of the Limpopo mobile belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Limpopo Belt is a zone of multiple deformed metamorphic rocks situated between the Rhodesian and Kaapvaal Cratons of Southern Africa. During the duration of the International Geodynamics Project, geochronologic and isotopic investigations were undertaken in the nothern Transvaal of rocks of the Central Zone, Southern Marginal Zone and Soutpansberg Supergroup. Strontium 86, strontium 87 and lead isotopes were used in the isotopic investigations

  5. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection of dairy cows in three northern provinces of Thailand determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant antigen CpP23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, T; Jittapalapong, S; Phasuk, J; Pinyopanuwut, N; Chimnoi, W; Kengradomkit, C; Sunanta, C; Zhang, G; Aboge, G O; Nishikawa, Y; Igarashi, I; Xuan, X

    2009-06-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is the most frequent parasitic agent that causes diarrhoea in AIDS patients in Thailand. Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in humans may be attributed to contamination of their drinking water from infected dairy pastures. A 23-kDa glycoprotein of C. parvum (CpP23) is a sporozoite surface protein that is geographically conserved among C. parvum isolates. This glycoprotein is a potentially useful candidate antigen for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Therefore, we investigated the seroprevalence of C. parvum infection in dairy cows in northern Thailand using an ELISA based on recombinant CpP23 antigen. Sera were randomly collected from 642 dairy cows of 42 small-holder farmers, which had the top three highest number of the dairy cows' population in Northern Thailand, that included Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Lumpang provinces. The overall seroprevalence of the infection was 4.4%, and the seropositive rates for the three provinces were 3.3% in Chiang Mai, 5.1% in Chiang Rai and 3% in Lumpang. These results suggest that cattle could play a role in zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in Thailand.

  6. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  7. Genetic diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguga-Phasha, N T C; Munyai, N S; Mashinya, F; Makgatho, M E; Mbajiorgu, E F

    2017-12-12

    Tuberculosis remains a major health problem and knowledge of the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in specific geographical regions can contribute to the control of the disease. This study describes the genetic profile of M. tuberculosis in five districts of Limpopo Province. A total 487 isolates were collected from the National Health Laboratory Services from all regions/districts of Limpopo Province. Only 215 isolates were confirmed to be M. tuberculosis by Bactec Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube 960® and Rhodamine-Auramine staining. Isolates were subcultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium agar slants to validate purity. They were spoligotyped and data analysed using the international spoligotyping database 4 (SpolDB4). Of the 215 isolates, 134 (62.3%) were genotyped into 21 genotype families while 81 (37.7%) were orphans. The 81 orphans were further subjected to resolution employing SpolDB3/RIM. Overall, the study revealed a high diversity of strains of 32 predominantly the non-Beijing lineages: the LAM- LAM3 (9.8%), LAM9 (4.7%) and LAM11- ZWE (3.3%), the T-T1(15.0%), T2 (0.9%), T2-T3 (1.4%), the CAS-CAS1-Delhi 5 (1.9%) and CAS1-KILI (1.4%) the MANU2 (1.4%), U (0.5%), X-X1(1.4%), X3 (1.9%), S (9.8%), CAS (1.4%), LAM7(0.9%), T3(0.5%), LAM8(4.7%), T4(1.4%), X2(0.4%), AI5(1.9%), LAM1(0.5%), FAMILY33 (1.9%), EAI4(1.4%), M. microti (1.9%). The Beijing and Beijing-like families were (14.9%) and (0.9%), respectively. A total of 28(13%) clusters and 77(36%) unique cases were identified. Beijing strain (SIT 1) formed the biggest cluster constituting 14%, followed by LAM3 (SIT 33), T1 (SIT 53) and LAM4 (SIT 811) with 7%, 5.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The Beijing family was the only genotype found in all the five districts and was predominant in Mopani (18.8%), Sekhukhune (23.7%) and Vhembe (23.3%). Dominant genotypes in Capricorn and Waterberg were LAM3 (11.9%) and T1 (13.3%), respectively. A wide diversity of lineages was demonstrated at district level. A

  8. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  9. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yulong; Liu Yunlang; Gao Yan

    2013-01-01

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  10. Hydrogeologic characterization of basalts: The northern rim of the Columbia Plateau Physiographic Province and of the Creston Study Area, eastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, T.D.; Paschis, J.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a general but comprehensive characterization of hydrogeologic and hydrogeochemical baseline conditions for the Creston area located along the northern rim of the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. Historical as well as recent data and other available information from previous studies and alternative sources have been considered in this baseline hydrological characterization. These include data and information on water levels, aquifer characteristics, and water quality for shallow basalt units comprising the Wanapum Formation and the Grande Ronde Formation in the Creston study area and for the general region surrounding this study area. The overall goal of this hydrologic characterization was to provide useful information leading to the selection of the Roza Member of the Wanapum Formation as the study's basalt horizon and for other related, subsequent study components of In-Situ's research project. 110 refs., 52 figs., 25 tabs

  11. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  12. Elephants of democracy : an unfolding process of resettlement in the Limpopo National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milgroom, J.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed paper will focus on the process of displacement taking place in the context of the creation of the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique. This park is part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which also includes the Kruger National Park (South Africa) and Gonarezhou National Park

  13. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  14. Subducted slab-plume interaction traced by magnesium isotopes in the northern margin of the Tarim Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xie, Qiuhong; Hou, Tong; Ke, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Incorporation of subducted slabs may account for the geochemical and isotopic variations of large igneous provinces (LIPs). However, the mechanism and process by which subducted slabs are involved into magmas is still highly debated. Here, we report a set of high resolution Mg isotopes for a suite of alkaline and Fe-rich rocks (including basalts, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, diabase dykes and mantle xenoliths in the kimberlitic rocks) from Tarim Large Igneous Province (TLIP). We observed that δ26 Mg values of basalts range from -0.29 to - 0.45 ‰, -0.31 to - 0.42 ‰ for mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, -0.28 to - 0.31 ‰ for diabase dykes and -0.29 to - 0.44 ‰ for pyroxenite xenoliths from the kimberlitic rocks, typically lighter than the normal mantle source (- 0.25 ‰ ± 0.04, 2 SD). After carefully precluding other possibilities, we propose that the light Mg isotopic compositions and high FeO contents should be ascribed to the involvement of recycled sedimentary carbonate rocks and pyroxenite/eclogite. Moreover, from basalts, through layered intrusions to diabase dykes, (87Sr/86Sr)i values and δ18OV-SMOW declined, whereas ε (Nd) t and δ26 Mg values increased with progressive partial melting of mantle, indicating that components of carbonate rock and pyroxenite/eclogite in the mantle sources were waning over time. In combination with the previous reported Mg isotopes for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks in TLIP, two distinct mantle domains are recognized for this province: 1) a lithospheric mantle source for basalts and mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions which were modified by calcite/dolomite and eclogite-derived high-Si melts, as evidenced by enriched Sr-Nd-O and light Mg isotopic compositions; 2) a plume source for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks which were related to magnesite or periclase/perovskite involvement as reflected by depleted Sr-Nd-O and extremely light Mg isotopes. Ultimately, our study suggests

  15. Research on metallogenic conditions of intersection-type uranium ore-deposits in Zhongdong area, Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengqi; Wu Lieqin; Zhang Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    The methods following as field geological investigation, trace element geo- chemistry and isotope geochemistry were used in this project. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics of Xiaoshui uranium ore deposits in Zhongdong area, Xiazhuang ore-field, Guangdong province, it could be concluded that: (1) The Provenance of Cretaceous mantle is a enriched mantle; (2) Silicified zone-type and intersection-type uranium ore are distinctness in the metallogenic period and mineralization process, and main metallogenic period of Xiaoshui uranium ore-deposit is 73.5 Ma; (3) The sources of uranium mineralization substance derived from enriched mantle; and (4)The intersection-type high grade uranium deposits were controlled by substances derived from mantle (contain with U, CO 2 , F, et al), tracks of intersection of NWW-across with NNE-trending faults and lithology of diabase. (authors)

  16. Research on metallogenic conditions of intersection-type uranium ore-deposits in Zhongdong area, Northern Guangdong province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengqi, Wang [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China); [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Lieqin, Wu [Institute No.290, CNNC, Shaoguan (China); Guoyu, Zhang [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2007-12-15

    The methods following as field geological investigation, trace element geo- chemistry and isotope geochemistry were used in this project. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics of Xiaoshui uranium ore deposits in Zhongdong area, Xiazhuang ore-field, Guangdong province, it could be concluded that: (1) The Provenance of Cretaceous mantle is a enriched mantle; (2) Silicified zone-type and intersection-type uranium ore are distinctness in the metallogenic period and mineralization process, and main metallogenic period of Xiaoshui uranium ore-deposit is 73.5 Ma; (3) The sources of uranium mineralization substance derived from enriched mantle; and (4)The intersection-type high grade uranium deposits were controlled by substances derived from mantle (contain with U, CO{sub 2}, F, et al), tracks of intersection of NWW-across with NNE-trending faults and lithology of diabase. (authors)

  17. Pb-Pb and U-Pb zircon ages of archean syntetocnic granites of the Carajas metallogenic province, northern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Eduardo de Mesquita; Sardinha, Alex Souza; Barbosa, Jaime dos Passos de Oliveira; Krimski, Robert; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Metallogenic Province is located in the southeastern Amazonian Craton. It has been divided in two domains, the southernmost comprises the Rio Maria region and the northernmost corresponds to Caraj region (Souza et al. 1996). The former domain is made up of Archean greenstone sequences (2,97 Ga), TTG (2,9 Ga) and calc-alkaline granitoids (2,87 Ga) (Macambira and Lafon 1995, Leite et al. 1999, Althoff et al. 2000). The Carajas block is constituted of minor mafic granulites (3,00 Ga) and quartzofeldspathic gneisses (2,81 Ga), metavolcanosedimentary sequences (2,76 Ga) and granites (2,76 to 2,56 Ga) (Machado et al. 1991; Huhn et al. 1999, Pidgeon et al. 2000). Widespread anorogenic A-type granites are found in both areas (Docegeo 1988; Dall'Agnol et al. 1994). In the last two decades several authors (Lindenamyer et al. 1994, Barros and Barbey 1998, Huhn et al. 1999 and others) have emphasized the role of the Archean granite magmatism in the tectonicthermal evolution in the Carajas Province. In this paper we discuss the tectonic significance of the Pb- Pb and U-Pb ages obtained in some granitoids from the Carajas region. The Estrela Granite Complex and the granitoids located to the north of Parauapebas were dated by Pb- Pb evaporation zircon method (cf. Kober 1987). Data are presented considering 2σ ∼ . The Pb corrections have been done in the basis of the evolution model of Pb in double stage (cf. Stacey and Kramers 1975). U-Pb zircon method (cf. Krogh 1973, Stacey and Kramers 1975, Parrish 1987, Ludwuig 1999), recently put on routine in the Para-Iso laboratories, was employed to date the granite from the Serra do Rabo area. Analyses were carried on the Finnigan Mat 262 spectrometer (au)

  18. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the coal-bearing aquifer of the Wugou coal mine, northern Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Gui, Herong

    2017-07-01

    Major ions, trace elements, and isotope concentrations were measured in 11 representative groundwater samples that were collected from a series of aquifers in the Wugou coal mine, Anhui Province. The geochemical characteristics of the groundwater samples were examined using conventional graphical and multivariate statistical approaches, and the results showed that almost all of the groundwater samples collected from the coal-bearing aquifer were the Na-SO4 type, whereas the samples from the Quaternary and the limestone aquifer were the Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl types, respectively. The groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking without treatment because of the higher values of total dissolved solids and other parameters, whereas the lower value of the sodium adsorption ratio indicates that it can be used for irrigation. The total rare earth element concentrations ranged from 0.0398 to 0.1874 mg/L, and had an average of 0.075 mg/L. There were negative cerium and positive europium anomalies in the groundwater. The δD and δ 18O values in groundwater ranged from -9.01 to -8.81 ‰, and from -74.7 to -71.4 ‰, respectively. Meteoric water with variable degrees of evaporation is the main source of the groundwater in the coal-bearing aquifer.

  19. Small is beautiful: diversity of freshwater ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda in marginal habitats of the province of Parma (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano TAVERNELLI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the distribution of ostracods in small freshwater habitats of the province of Parma was conducted from May 2004 to December 2005. Vernal pools, ponds, shallow lakes, fountains, springs, ditches, canals, and streams were among the most common types of aquatic systems included in this survey. Altogether, 90 sites located between 24 and 1557 m a.s.l. were visited, and 125 samples were collected. 41 samples did not contain ostracods, and 7 samples were not considered because only immature specimens or empty valves were found. Consequently, 77 samples from 58 sites were analysed. Whenever possible, ostracod identification was done at the species level based on the morphology of both valves and limbs. Thirty-eight taxa from 20 genera belonging to the families Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, and Notodromadidae were recorded. This roughly accounts for one-third of the estimated number of non-marine ostracod species in Italy. Scanning electron microscopy images of valves are provided. The maximum number of species per site was six. The most frequent species were Heterocypris incongruens, Eucypris virens, Pseudocandona pratensis, Cypria ophthalmica, and Tonnacypris lutaria. Of particular relevance is the occurrence of species with a limited known distribution in Italy, viz. Ilyocypris monstrifica, Potamocypris villosa, Candona cf. lindneri, Fabaeformiscandona breuili and Physocypria kraepelini. A putative new species of the genus Candona, here left in open nomenclature, is also reported. Our results highlight the importance of so-called "marginal" aquatic habitats as potential biodiversity hotspots, in spite of the general lack of interest shown by freshwater ecologists and taxonomists in undertaking scientific investigations in these environments.

  20. Evaluation of Cold Tolerant High Yielding Oil Palm Germplasm in Guangdong Province of South China, a Northern Tropical Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianhai, Z.; Denglang, P.; Zhao, L.; Junming, C.; Weifu, L.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the vegetative growth, yield components and cold resistance traits from 38 pre-selected individual oil palm plants grown in six regions (populations) at the latitude (LAT) range between 20 degree N and 23 degree N in Guangdong Province, China was carried out during the period from April 2010 to April 2015. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in traits between the individual palms or the populations [except sex-ratio of female inflorescence and fruit bunch to female inflorescence, male inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (SR)]. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that bunch number (NB) was positively correlated with fresh fruit bunch (FFB), but not significantly with average bunch weight (ABW). For the individual palms, it was found that the higher the LAT the lower the frond production (FP) and LT 50 and the higher fruit compaction rate (FCR), and the higher the LT 50 the lower the ABW. For the populations, the higher the LAT the higher the ABW and the lower the abortion ratio of female inflorescence to female inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (RAFM). Path coefficient analysis further revealed that for the individual palms ABW was the major determinant in both FFB and NB, and mainly determined by normal fruit higher per bunch (kg) (ANFW) and percent of ANFW to ABW (%) (F/B). For the populations, the major determining factors were ratio of aborted fruit bunch to fruit bunch (%) (ABR) for FFB and NB, and inflorescence (male, female, bisexual and non-anthesis) and fruit bunch numbers per year (No.) NIB and LT 50 for ABW. MM5 palm and Huazhou population were selected based on the major determining factors as high-yielding cold tolerant palm and population, respectively, which was consistent with the results of analysis of variance. (author)

  1. Assessing the effect of desertification controlling projects and policies in northern Shaanxi Province, China by integrating remote sensing and farmer investigation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duanyang; Song, Alin; Song, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    To combat desertification, the Chinese government has launched a series of Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies over the past several decades. However, the effect of these projects and policies remains controversial due to a lack of suitable methods and data to assess them. In this paper, the authors selected the farming-pastoral region of the northern Shaanxi Province in China as a sample region and attempted to assess the effect of Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies launched after 2000 by combining remote sensing and farmer investigation data. The results showed that the combination of these two complementary assessments can provide comprehensive information to support decision-making. According to the remote sensing and Net Primary Production data, the research region experienced an obvious desertification reversion between 2000 and 2010, and approximately 70% of this reversion can be explained by Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies. Farmer investigation data also indicated that these projects and policies were the dominating factor contributing to desertification reversion, and approximately 70% of investigated farmers agreed with this conclusion. However, low supervision and subsidy levels were issues that limited the policy effect. Therefore, it is necessary for the government to enhance supervision, raise subsidy levels, and develop environmental protection regulations to encourage more farmers to participate in desertification control.

  2. Factors Associated with the Failure to Seek HIV Care and Treatment Among HIV-Positive Women in a Northern Province of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen T., Nam; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Mogensen, Hanne Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    -positive women living a Haiphong, a northern province of Vietnam. The women were recruited through a network of people living with HIV/AIDS (HPN+) by means of snowball sampling and through the local, governmental HIV registration system (Provincial AIDS Centre [PAC]). Approximately 26.3% of the study......This cross-sectional survey examines the utilization of HIV care and treatment services after HIV diagnosis among women in Vietnam and describes factors that may be associated with failure in seeking services. From May 2007 to November 2007, we conducted structured interviews with 353 HIV...... status (OR: 4.0; 95% CI: 2.0–8.1), and factors associated with the testing situation, whereby women who were tested by chance had a 4.0 times increased OR (95% CI: 1.4–11.7) and women who were tested in relation to antenatal care or delivery had 3.0 times increased OR (95% CI: 1.1–8.5) for failure...

  3. Outlook of searching for oil and gas formations in the lower Frasnian-middle Devonian oil and gas complex in northern regions of the Timano-Pechora Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksin, G.A.; Rapoport, B.I.; Rassomakhin, V.Y.; Rossikhin, Y.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the northern part of the Timano-Pechora Province, highly promising middle Devonian and lower Frasnian terrigenous deposits are broadly developed. Seismic exploration has established a reduction in thicknesses of the subdomanic deposits in the near-anticline zones of structures of the ancient formation which are associated with zones of oil and gas accumulation are confined to traps of nonanticlinal and mixed types. In order to realize the program for studying terrigenous deposits of the Devonian it is necessary to accelerate drilling of search and parametric wells 8 of Kumzha, 1 of Vydshor, and 1 of Nosovaya. It is necessary to begin drilling well 5 at the Laydozhskiy field in the anticline of the new elevation revealed from results of detailed seismic work. It is necessary to drill wells on the lower Paleozoic deposits at the Diyatynskiy, Myadloveyyakhskiy, Nyamyurkhitskiy, Sadayeginskiy, East Khoreyverskiy elevations of the North Khoreyverskiy Basin, on structures of the Sorokin swell, on the Malozemel'sko-Kolguyevskiy monocline. It is necessary to accelerate searches at the khyl'chuyuskiy, Yareyyuskiy, North Khar'yaginskiy, Inzyreyskiy and other areas of the Kolvinskiy megaswell. The most important primary task of investigating the lower Frasnian-middle Devonian complex is to trace the zones of development of terrigenous deposits of the middle Devonian and zones of their thinning, as well as to prepare all structures in these deposits for seismic exploration by MOGT.

  4. A comparative analysis of the implementation of anti-corruption legislation by anti-corruption agencies in the provinces of the Eastern and Northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozama Majila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries experience various degrees of corruption. South Africa is no exception. The undeniable fact is that corruption cannot be reckoned as a mere country- or region- specific problem; it is a far wider phenomenon. However, there has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices, resulting in the removal of certain leaders from office. South Africa has formulated and promulgated legislation that is considered an international example of good practice and has established agencies for the purpose of combating corruption. The Institute for Security Studies (2007:1 proposes that anti-corruption legislation, if enforced, should equip the country’s anti-corruption agencies with a tool that could effectively be utilised as a punitive instrument for offenders and a deterrent for those contemplating corrupt activities. This article examines whether anti-corruption agencies are apolitical and capable of detecting and punishing corruption or whether they are only a response to international demands by international agreements. In this regard the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the SADC Protocol against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations based on an empirical survey of anti- corruption legislation and anti-corruption agencies conducted in the Eastern Cape and Northern Cape Provinces.

  5. Climatic impact on isovolumetric weathering of a coarse-grained schist in the northern Piedmont Province of the central Atlantic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The possible impact of periglacial climates on the rate of chemical weathering of a coarse-grained plagioclase-muscovite-quartz schist has been determined for a small watershed near Baltimore, Maryland. The isovolumetric chemical weathering model formulated from the geochemical mass balance study of the watershed shows that the weathering front advances at a velocity of 9.1 m/m.y., if the modern environmental parameters remain the same back through time. However, recent surficial geological mapping demonstrates that periglacial climates have impacted the area. Such an impact significantly affects two key chemical weathering parameters, the concentration of CO2 in the soil and groundwater moving past the weathering front. Depending upon the assumptions used in the model, the rate of saprolitization varies from 2.2 to 5.3 m/m.y. The possible impact of periglacial processes suggested by the chemical weathering rates indicates a need to reconsider theories of landscape evolution as they apply to the northern Piedmont Province of the mid-Atlantic states. I suggest that from the Late Miocene to the present that the major rivers have become incised in their present locations; this incision has enhanced groundwater circulation and chemical weathering such that crystalline rocks beneath interfluvial areas remain mantled by saprolite; and the saprolite mantle has been partially stripped as periglacial conditions alternate with humid-temperate conditions. ?? 1993.

  6. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003-2012: utility of laboratory-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.

  7. The peculiar case of Marosticano xenoliths: a cratonic mantle fragment affected by carbonatite metasomatism in the Veneto Volcanic Province (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Florencia Fahnestock, M.; Bryce, Julia G.; Marzoli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the Northern Italy, represents one of the most important volcanic provinces of the Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic districts: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas, from nephelinites to tholeiites in composition. Commonly VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths. This study presents a petrological characterization of the new xenolith occurrence of Marosticano and comparison with previously studied VVP xenolith populations (i.e. from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas), which represent off-craton lithospheric mantle fragment affected by Na-alkaline silicate metasomatism (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001; Gasperini et al., 2006). Marosticano (MA) peridotites are anhydrous spinel-bearing lherzolites and harzburgites, which are geochemically well distinguishible from the other VVP mantle xenoliths. Primary minerals record the "most restitic" composition of the VVP sampled mantle, even calling the geochemical features of a sub-cratonic mantle. Olivines in both lherzolites and harzburgites show high Ni contents compared with the Fo values (Ni→ lherzolite: 2600-3620 ppm; harzburgite: 2600-3540 ppm; Fo → lh: 91-92; hz: 90-93) that follow the trend of olivine from a cratonic area (Kelemen, 1998). Orthopyroxenes have mg# values with 1:1 ratio with coexisting olivines and Al2O3 contents always 0.5 wt%) contents are also the chemical characteristics of the clinopyroxenes. On the whole both MA pyroxenes show major element contents that recall the characteristics of those from cratonic (sp-bearing) peridotites (e.g. from Greenland, South Africa and Tanzania; Downes et al., 2004). In addition, the relationship between the high Fo content of olivine and the high chromium contents (cr#=(Cr/(Cr+Al)X100); lh: 30-53; hz: 38-67) in coexisting spinel, out of

  8. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cornwell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p<0.05. Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p<0.05, but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p<0.05. Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p<0.0001. Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This

  9. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  10. Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available mechanisms for implementing water stewardship schemes to mitigate the shared water risks. Analysis of the social-ecological system (hydrological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and governance systems) of the Limpopo River basin indicates...

  11. Rock- and Paleomagnetic Properties and Modeling of a Deep Crustal Volcanic System, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, G. W.; Pastore, Z.; Michels, A.; Church, N. S.; McEnroe, S. A.; Larsen, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex is part of the 5000 km2 Seiland Igneous Province (SIP) in Northern Norway. The SIP is argued to be the deep-seated conduit system of a Large Igneous Province and was emplaced at 25-35 km depth in less than 10 Ma (570-560 Ma). The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex was emplaced during three major successive events at 22-28km depth at pressures of 6-8kb, with associated temperatures 1450-1500°C (Roberts, 2006). The rocks are divided into three formations: the central series (CS) consisting of mainly dunites, upper layered series (ULS) consisting of dunites and wehrlites, a lower layered series (LLS) containing most pyroxene-rich rocks and a marginal zone (MZ) which formed where the ultramafic melts intruded the gabbro-norite and metasedimentary gneisses. Deep exposures such as the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex are rare, therefore this study gives a unique insight in the rock magnetic properties of a deep ultramafic system. Localised serpentinised zones provide an opportunity to observe the effect of this alteration process on the magnetic properties of deep-seated rocks. Here, we present the results from the rock magnetic properties, a paleomagnetic study and combined potential-fields modeling. The study of the rock magnetic properties provides insight in primary processes associated with the intrusion, and later serpentinization. The paleomagnetic data yields two distinct directions. One direction corresponds to a Laurentia pole at ≈ 532 Ma while the other, though younger, is not yet fully understood. Rock magnetic properties were measured on > 700 specimens and used to constrain the modelling of gravity, high-resolution helicopter, and ground magnetic data. The intrusion is modelled as a cylindrically shaped complex with a dunite core surrounded by wehrlite and gabbro. The ultramafic part of the complex dips to the NE and its maximum vertical extent is modelled to 1400m. Furthermore, modelling allows estimation of relative volumes of

  12. Plant communities and landscapes of the Parque Nacional do Limpopo, Moçambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stalmans

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Parque Nacional do Limpopo (PNL was proclaimed during 2002. It covers 1 000 000 ha in Moçambique on the eastern boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP and forms one of the major components of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. A vegetation map was required as one of the essential building blocks for the drafting of its management plan (Grossman & Holden 2002.

  13. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  14. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  15. Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorus and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Lin, Chao; Luo, Yang; Kang, Jie; Wang, Shaoming; Brown, Larry R.; Munn, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, and one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 5–10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems in the large urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural management practices

  16. Arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and human urine in Ha Nam province, the Northern Vietnam: contamination characteristics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long Hai; Nguyen, Hue Thi; Van Tran, Cuong; Nguyen, Ha Manh; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Tu, Minh Binh

    2017-06-01

    The contamination characteristics of arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and the potential risks of arsenic from the groundwater were investigated. Elevated contamination of arsenic, barium and manganese was observed in tube-well water of two villages (Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang) in Ha Nam province in the Northern Vietnam. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from 12.8 to 884 µg/L with mean values in Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 614.7 and 160.1 µg/L, respectively. About 83 % of these samples contained As concentrations exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in groundwater from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 300 and 657 μg/L and 650 and 468 μg/L, respectively. The mean value of Ba concentration in groundwater in both Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang was about 22 % of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline (700 µg/L). Arsenic concentrations in human urine of residents from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were the range from 8.6 to 458 µg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in human urine of local people from Chuyen Ngoai were 46.9 and 62.8 μg/L, respectively, while those in people from Chau Giang were 25.9 and 45.9 μg/L, respectively. The average daily dose from ingesting arsenic for consuming both untreated and treated groundwater is from 0.02 to 11.5 and 0.003 to 1.6 μg/kg day, respectively. Approximately, 57 % of the families using treated groundwater and 64 % of the families using untreated groundwater could be affected by elevated arsenic exposure.

  17. Field and geochemical constraints on the relationship between the Apoteri basalts (northern Brazil, southwestern Guyana) and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Viter M.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Hartmann, Léo A.; Bicudo, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    In northern Brazil, Roraima state and southwestern Guyana, basalt flows characterized by inflated pahoehoe structure occur along the margins of the Tacutu Rift Valley, dykes intrude the Paleoproterozoic basement close to the boundary of the rift system with concordant, NE-trend. The dykes and flows belong to Apoteri magmatism. New field, geochemical data (major, trace and rare-earth elements) and chemical stratigraphy of the Apoteri magmatism indicate petrographic and chemical homogeneity characteristic of continental tholeiitic basalts. The basalt flows of Morro Redondo and Nova Olinda sites show two distinct chemical groups: a) the lower flows with intermediate TiO2 content (ITi group) ranging from 1.09 to 1.41 wt%, MgO (5.64-6.46 wt%) and Ni (43-53 ppm) contents; and b) the upper flows with lower TiO2 content (LTi group) = 0.75 to 0.78 wt%, higher MgO = 7.95-8.85 wt% and Ni = 105-115 ppm. The two magma types share many characteristics in high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE), but in detail significant differences exist in REE ratios, e.g. (La/Yb)N of ∼4.0 for ITi and 3.2 for LTi and this may be explained by fractional crystallization. The chemical compositions of the Apoteri dykes are similar the ITi group analyses, suggesting that they have the same origin. The La/Ba versus La/Nb diagram is indicative of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and LILE/HFSE fractionation in the mantle source, and the data favor a dominant subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) component in the origin of the Apoteri flows and dykes. These data show consistent similar chemical characteristics and correspond to other tholeiitic flows from the large Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), especially eastern USA.

  18. [Phosphorus characteristics and the impact to water quality across interface of overlying water and sediment of Xiazhuhu wetland in Northern Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Huang-Chao; Wang, Zhao-De; Lin, Yuan; Li, Shuai; Xie, Guan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Healthy wetland system is regarded as an effective way for biological remediation of non-point source pollutants. A case field investigation on phosphorus (P) status of overlying water and sediment was carried out for Xiazhuhu wetland located in Northern Zhejiang Province, China. A static wetland microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the characteristics and mechanisms related to P exchanging, P forms changing, and water quality impact across the interface of water and sediment. Field investigation showed that total P (TP) concentrations of sediments were found from 0.187 mg x g(-1) to 0.591 mg x g(-1), and TP in overlying water reached from 0.022 mg x L(-1) to 0.718 mg x L(-1) where the seasonal concentration variations of TP, dissolved P (DP), and particulate P (PP) were commonly found in order as winter > summer > spring > fall. Fed by synthetic solution containing P levels of 0.0 - 10.5 mg x L(-1), a 35-day-lasting microcosm study showed that P retention by sediments could be divided into three basic phases in order, i.e., buffer reaction, rapid adsorption, and slow adsorption. Under a typical stress concentration of 1.0 mg x L(-1) in overlying water, the increment of P tanks in different forms was found as NH4 Cl-P (0.0%), Fe-P/Mn-P (around 20%), NaOH-TP (around 66%, mainly as the form of Al-P), Ca-P (1.9%), and Res-P (11.3%), on the condition of Xiazhuhu wetland under low water season. Application of Al to wetland would increase the capacity of sediment P retention in Xiazhuhu wetland.

  19. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  20. No molecular epidemiological evidence supporting household transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from pet dogs and cats in the province of Álava, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Carmena, David

    2017-06-01

    The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain. A total of 268 (including 179 human, 55 canine, and 34 feline) individual faecal specimens were obtained from 63 family households during February-March and November-December 2014. Detection of G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was achieved by direct fluorescence microscopy (DFAT) and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Giardia-positive isolates were subsequently sub-genotyped at the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes. Overall, G. duodenalis infections were identified in 3.4% (6/179) of humans, 29% (16/55) of dogs, and 5.9% (2/34) of cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were detected in 1.1% (2/179) of humans, 5.5% (3/55) of dogs, and 8.8% (3/34) of cats, respectively. Simultaneous infections in human and canine/feline hosts by G. duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. were only demonstrated in a single household in which a cat and its owner tested positive for Cryptosporidium by DFAT, but this result could not be confirmed by SSU-PCR. Infections were homogeneously distributed among the studied human or animal populations irrespectively of their sex, age group, or geographical region of origin. Inadequate washing of raw vegetables and fruits was the only risk factor significantly associated to a higher likelihood of having human giardiosis/cryptosporidiosis. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis

  1. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  2. Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province – South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mushwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative, descriptive and explorative survey was conducted to determine factors that influence adolescent pregnancy rate among teenage girls (n = 147 attending four high schools in the Greater Giyani Municipality in South Africa. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire which had a reliability of 0.65. Response frequency distributions, two-way frequency tables, Chi-square tests and Cochran–Armitage Trend Tests were used to determine the effect with the demographic characteristics of participants. Participants reported that health services were not conveniently available for them. Their relationship with nurses was poor (p < 0.05 as reported by 73% of participants with regard to maintenance of confidentiality. Participants reported key psychosocial variables such as inadequate sexual knowledge (61%, changing attitudes towards sex (58.9% and peer pressure (56.3% as contributory to high pregnancy rate. Recommendations were made to improve school health services, reproductive education in school curricula focussing on reproductive health, sexuality and guidance for future research.

  3. Natural mortality amoung four common ungulate species on Letaba Ranch, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Cronje

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five years of mortality data of impala Aepyceros melampus, blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, buffalo Syncerus caffer and kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros have been used to describe the minimum mortality profiles of the respective species in an open savanna system with the full compliment of predators. Predation is the principle cause of natural mortalities on the study site, Letaba Ranch, which is adjacent to the Kruger National Park. The principle cause of impala mortality are leopards Panthera pardus and wild dogs Lycaon pictus. Lion Panthera leo were major contributors to the mortality of wildebeest and buffalo. Anthrax Bacillus anthracis was the main cause of kudu mortality.

  4. "Why did this happen to me?" Experiences of widowhood among the Vhavenda in Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davhana-Maselesele, M

    2005-12-01

    Widows/widowers find it difficult to explain to others how the loss of a spouse has fundamentally changed their lives. They are silent about how they experience losing their spouses/partners to the extent of putting on a face that says that all is well, when there is so much pain, agony and suffering that it becomes unbearable, and which ultimately affects their mental health. In this article the researcher explores and describes the lived experience of widowhood. Guidelines are provided to support widows/widowers and help them to deal with their loss effectively, as gathered from the stories and experiences described by surviving spouses. The researcher believes that this study will be a source of strength, support and hope that, given time, all will be well; it will create a feeling of having others in the same situation to look up to, and will assist them to accept a situation that cannot be changed. A qualitative, phenomenological, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was chosen as the most appropriate for this study (Morse & Field, 1996:8-9; Burns & Grove, 1993:29). It was seen as the best way of gathering subjective reality from the participants in such a fashion that the surviving spouses sensed the researcher's empathy with their situation. Ethical measures and trustworthiness were dealt with. Data was analysed, using Tesch's Open Coding method (Creswell, 1994:155). Three major themes emerged from the data, namely experiences related to the cause of death; widows/widowers' feelings in response to losing a spouse; and the need to use survival strategies as a way of dealing with their loss. Guidelines are provided to support widows/widowers and help them to deal with their loss effectively, as gathered from the stories and experiences described by surviving spouses.

  5. Phytosociology and plant community utilisation by vervet monkeys of the Blydeberg Conservancy, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Barret

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant communities of the Blydeberg Conservancy were investigated as part of a research project on the foraging ecology of vervet monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus (senso lato in mixed lowveld bushveld and sour lowveld bushveld areas. To date there are no formal management plans for vervet monkeys. This is attributed to the limited knowledge of vervets and their utilisation of and impacts on ecosystems. From a TWINSPAN classification refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, ten plant communities that can be placed into four major groups were identified. A classification and description of these communities, including a vegetation map are presented. Diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined. Of the ten available plant communities, the vervets utilised only six during the study period. There was an abundant supply of various food sources throughout the year, with movement patterns mostly coinciding with the fruiting times of several tree and other plant species.

  6. DDT exposure of frogs: A case study from Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; Bornman, Riana; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2016-09-01

    Amphibians are globally under pressure with environmental contaminants contributing to this. Despite caution aired more than 80 years ago of threats posed to amphibians by DDT spraying for disease vector control, no data have been published on concentrations or effects of DDT contamination in frogs from areas where DDT is actively sprayed to control the insect vectors of malaria. In this study, we sampled fat bodies of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus muelleri naturally occurring in an area where indoor residual spraying of DDT is employed and from adjacent, non-sprayed, areas. ΣDDT concentrations ranged between DDT in the eggs of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. This suggests that the DDT we found in frogs may have contributed to DDT loadings higher in the food web. These findings, combined with other studies from this area, support the need to reduce and eventually move away from DDT in malaria control safely and sustainably. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roinah N. Ngunyulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postnatal care begins immediately after the expulsion of the placenta and continues for six to eight weeks post-delivery. High standard of care is required during the postnatal period because mothers and babies are at risk and vulnerable to complications related to postpartum haemorrhage and infections. Midwives and traditional birth attendants are responsible for the provision of postnatal care in different settings, such as clinics and hospitals, and homes. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed in this study. Unstructured interviews were conducted with the traditional birth attendants. An integrated literature review was conducted to identify the Western postnatalcare practices. Tesch’s process was followed during data analysis. Findings: The following main categories were identified: similarities between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices, and differences between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices. Based on these findings, training of midwives and traditional birth attendants was recommended in order to empower them with knowledge and skills regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care practices. Conclusions: It is evident that some indigenous postnatal care practices have adverse effects on the health of postnatal women and their newborn infants, but these are unknown to the traditional birth attendants. The employment of indigenous postnatal care practices by the traditional birth attendants is also influenced by their cultural beliefs, norms, values and attitudes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to train midwives and traditional birth attendants regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care to improve the health of postnatal women and their babies.

  8. Secondary School Learners' Response to the Teaching of Evolution in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpeta, M.; de Villiers, J. J. R.; Fraser, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major causes of the problems affecting evolution education is a lack of acceptance of this concept, particularly by some people who have strongly entrenched religious beliefs. This paper reports on a section of a study which explored the influence of the beliefs of learners in some secondary schools from the Vhembe District in the…

  9. Ecology and management of a remnant Brachystegia Speciformis (Miombo) Woodland in North Eastern Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saidi, AT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available is the season for re-sprouting. Fresh-brown to pink leaves start to grow. The fruit pods also dry and start to burst open to release the seeds. These seasonal changes are in line with what happens in miombo woodlands elsewhere on the continent. Mafuta (2000...) describes miombo woodlands as deciduous, losing leaves in winter and developing full foliage in summer. Palmer and Pitman (1972), describe similar seasonal changes, and further observe that pink and purple new foliage of miombo woodlands presents a great...

  10. Baseline monitoring of mercury levels in environmental matrices in the Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available and HP 3396 Integrator. 32 Total Hg (TotHg) concentrations in surface sediment and freshwater fish samples were determined following 33 USEPA protocols (Method 7473; USEPA 2007). The TotHg in solid samples, i.e. sediment and freeze-dried 34 fish, were... and anonymous reviewers for giving us many constructive 13 comments that significantly improved the paper. 14 6. References 15 Andersson, I., Parkman, H. & Jernelov, A. (1990). The role of sediments as sink or source for environmental 16 contaminants: A case...

  11. The challenges of rural water supply: a case study of rural areas in Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothetha, M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available , administrative challenges, issues that relate to policy, and political interference. For many rural communities water sources and infrastructure are available, but not maintained, as a result become unusable and thus non operational. It was also clear from...

  12. Eye protection practices and symptoms among welders in the Limpopo Province of South Africa+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sithole

    2009-12-01

    though the majority of the welders wore protective devices while welding, a few did not always use such devices while others used sunglasses for protection.  Moreover, many of the welders were occasionally, and only a few were always, exposed to welding flashes when protective devices were not used. Therefore, we concluded that eye protectionpractices amongst the welders appeared to be inadequate to avoid hazards associated with welding.  It is recommended that an eye protection educational campaign for welders should form part of the SouthAfrican Government’s workplace safety program.

  13. An environmental, economical and socio-political analysis of a variety of urban air-pollution reduction policies for primary PM10 and NOx: The case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, M.; Perrone, M.G.; Cusumano, N.; Ferrero, L.; Sangiorgi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PM10 and NO x emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NO x emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating systems, banning of diesel fuelled domestic boilers, night-time streets washing, speed limit reduction on highways, circulation restrictions of oldest EURO vehicles, conversion of diesel buses to natural gas, car sharing/biking promotion, DPF adoption in diesel vehicles, extension of road lanes for urban buses, energy efficiency refurbishment in residential buildings. Re*sults emerged from the cost–benefit analysis integrated with socio-political indicators obtained through direct surveys, will contribute, with an holistic and multidisciplinary approach, to drive the local administrators to implement the most suitable actions in one of the most polluted areas in west-Europe

  14. Implementing integrated catchment management in the Limpopo River Basin Phase 1: Situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reaches of the main stem of the Limpopo River. Much of the surface water exploitation in the basin states relies on storage reservoirs built on tributary rivers. Surface water use is directed primarily to irrigated agriculture, afforestation... and the pool storages located in the A63E and A71L catchments. The riverine gallery forest (Figure 6) is an aquifer-dependent ecosystem situated on the same aquifer used by the Venetia Mine and recharged by the Limpopo River main stem. The isolated...

  15. Gneisses (Serizzi and Beole) of the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola district (Piedmont, Northern Italy): possible candidates for the designation of "Global Heritage Stone province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Borghi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Alessandro; Primavori, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarrying district (Piedmont, northern Italy) produces many different ornamental stones (granites, gneisses, marbles): two really important categories are represented by Serizzo and Beola gneisses. Several varieties of Serizzo and Beola crop out in the upper and middle Ossola Valley: Serizzo derives from the Antigorio, Monte Leone and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, whereas Beola from the Monte Leone, Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, as well from the Fobello-Rimella schists (Austroalpine). The Serizzo, represented by a group of foliated granitoid orthogneisses (Serizzo Antigorio, Serizzo Formazza, Serizzo Sempione and Serizzo Monte Rosa varieties), is probably the most important and extensively exploited ornamental stones from the VCO province (about 70% of the VCO stone production). The quarries are mostly concentrated in the Antigorio and Formazza valleys, where the Antigorio nappe has a sub-horizontal attitude and reaches its greatest thickness (up to 1000 m). This stone was largely used to produce columns since the end of XV century (e.g. the old Ospedale Maggiore in Milano, now University of Milano) and later on it was replaced with granites. It was also used in the building structure of the Duomo di Milano, for the plinth and the piers. Nowadays, thanks to its good wear resistance and low cost, it is mainly used in polished slabs for paving: a recent application is the Frankfurt airport floor. Beola is the name of a group of heterogeneous orthogneisses with mylonitic foliation and strong mineralogical lineation (Beola Grigia, Bianca, Ghiandonata, Striata varieties), easy to split into thin slabs with hammer and chisel, occurring in the middle Ossola Valley, between Vogogna and Montecrestese. The quarries of Beola are probably the oldest of the Ossola Valley, although the precise period in which the stone started to be exported is unknown. The Beola trade probably started at the end of the XIII century, with the

  16. The politics of water payments and stakeholder participation in the Limpopo River Basin, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, Rossella; Bolding, Alex; Ducrot, Raphaëlle

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experience of the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique, the chapter analyses the articulation of a water rights framework in the context of decentralised river basin governance and IWRM-inspired reforms. The nexus between financial autonomy, service provision, stakeholder participation

  17. The politics of water payments and stakeholder participation in the Limpopo River Basin, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, R.; Bolding, J.A.; Ducrot, R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from the experience of the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique, the paper analyses the articulation of a water rights framework in the context of decentralised river basin governance and IWRM-inspired reforms. The nexus between financial autonomy, service provision, stakeholder participation

  18. Age constraints on deformation of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland: new perspectives on the evolution of the northern Tasman Orogenic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetto, R.G.; Henderson, R.A.; Davis, B.K.; Wysoczanski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Granitic plutons of the Wangetti and Mt Formartine Supersuites intrude the Hodgkinson Formation of the Macalister Range district of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. Field and microstructural analyses of country-rock fabrics and those of the granites show four deformational events (D 1 -D 4 ) for the district, in common with other sectors of the Hodgkinson Province. Structural relationships show that plutons of the two supersuites were emplaced at different times. The Wangetti Granite lacks fabric development, but the deflection of country-rock cleavage trends around it and the microscale crenulation of S 2 on the rims of D 4 porphyroblasts within its aureole indicate syn-D 4 emplacement, consistent with the Early Permian crystallisation age attributed to this pluton from isotopic evidence. Plutons of the Mt Formartine Supersuite show the effects of multiple (D 2 -D 4 ) deformation. An emplacement age of 357 ± 6 Ma (latest Devonian) was obtained for this granite by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon. This identifies an early episode of plutonism for the Hodgkinson Province, most granites from which are of Permian age. The new date constrains the age of D 2 for the Macalister Range district and the age of the protolith of the Hodgkinson Formation as pre-Carboniferous. It matches the age previously determined for one of several small, related granitic stocks in the southeastern Camel Creek Subprovince of the Broken River Province. Structural relationships for granites of this age suggest that their emplacement was broadly associated with the first episode of regional-scale orogenesis and the development of penetrative fabrics in the Hodgkinson - Broken River Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Hexavalent Chromium: Analysis of the Mechanism of Groundwater Contamination in a Former Industrial Site in the Province of Vicenza (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Accoto; Pierluigi Bullo; Ruben Faccio; Leonardo Mason; Andrea Sottani

    2017-01-01

    The study consisted in the analysis of the mobilization mechanisms of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) into groundwater from a decommissioned contaminated factory. The site is located in the Province of Vicenza and formerly was a chrome-plating plant. The subsoil consists predominantly of gravelly deposits with a thickness of at least one hundred meters. An unconfined aquifer is present with water table at about 23 m depth bgl. During the seven years of monitoring (2008-2014), the fluctuation of ...

  20. Challenges in reporting on predetermined objectives to the Auditor-General: The case of Limpopo provincial departments

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Diedericks

    2017-01-01

    Limpopo provincial departments like all other South African government departments are required to report on performance against predetermined objectives in terms of Section 40 of the Public Finance Management Act 1 of 1999, read in conjunction with Section 5.1.1 of the Treasury Regulations. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that was undertaken to establish the challenges faced by the Limpopo provincial departments in reporting on performance against predetermined objectives...

  1. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  2. Public-private partnership conceptual framework and models for the funding and financing of water services infrastructure in municipalities from selected provinces in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiters, Cornelius; Matji, Maselaganye P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents public-private partnership (PPP) framework models for funding and financing of water services infrastructure at local government (municipalities) level (sphere) in South Africa. Data were assembled from various stakeholders, viz., private and public sector institutions in the Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces of South Africa. The framework for PPPs identified three models, viz. state, hybrid and private sector models. In the 'state model' the water services value chain is 100%...

  3. Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Suppliers’ Response to the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance in Limpopo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhashoni Dorcas Nefale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Without the planning of non-technical issues, water treatment plants may face challenges in sustaining safe drinking water. Parameters such as the planning of financial resources, human resources, a lack of professional process controllers, poor working conditions, staff shortages and a lack of appropriate training of process controllers contribute to the underperformance of drinking water treatment plants. This study aimed at applying the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance to assess the compliance of small drinking water plants with management norms. Six water treatments (Vondo water scheme, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale regional water treatment plant, Tshedza and Tshedza package plant were selected from the Vhembe district municipality of the Limpopo province in South Africa. From the abovementioned non-technical parameters, the results showed that during the first assessment period (August 2008 and June 2009 selected water treatment plants scored between 53% and 68% and fell under Class 2, indicating serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment period (November and December 2010, a slight improvement was observed as all plants scored between 72% and 80%, falling under the Class 2 category. Even after corrective actions and remeasurement, none of the plants met the compliance standards, which range from 90% to 100% to obtain the Class 1 compliance standard. The study recommended that tactical and strategic plans that clearly define the operational procedures, process controlling, financial planning, maintenance culture, emergency preparedness and regular monitoring and evaluation should be entrenched for the smooth running of the small water treatment plants. Furthermore, all water services providers and water services authorities should apply the diagnostic tools as developed, which provides guidance on a stepwise procedure on plant operations and management on a daily basis.

  4. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Tingju Zhu; Claudia Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM) of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation wat...

  5. Rural and agricultural value of groundwater as an economic resource in the Limpopo region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahumani, BK

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OPSOMMING Hierdie tesis handel oor ?n sosio-ekonomiese ondersoek wat fokus op die bepaling van die ekonomiese waarde van grondwater in plattelandse huishoudelike gebruike en as besproeiingswater in die landbou. Limpopo watergebruiksgebied (WGG1... 000 kg/ha tot 50 000 kg/ha. Die aanbevelings wat in hierdie tesis rakende die ekonomiese waarde van grondwater gemaak word, voorsien inligting wat in die ontwikkeling van effektiewe grondwaterbeleid vir beter bestuur van die vraag in beide...

  6. Rainfall-interception-evaporation-runoff relationships in a semi-arid catchment, northern Limpopo basin, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, D.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Corzo Perez, G.; Twomlow, S.; Zaag, van der P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the response of a catchment to rainfall, in terms of the production of runoff vs the interception, transpiration and evaporation of water, is the first important step in understanding water resource availability in a catchment. This is particularly important in small semi-arid

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingju Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT. Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation water supply in the catchments of the Limpopo River Basin within the four riparian countries: Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The analysis found that water resources of the Limpopo River Basin are already stressed under today’s climate conditions. Projected water infrastructure and management interventions are expected to improve the situation by 2050 if current climate conditions continue into the future. However, under the climate change scenarios studied here, water supply availability is expected to worsen considerably by 2050. Assessing hydrological impacts of climate change is crucial given that expansion of irrigated areas has been postulated as a key adaptation strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa. Such expansion will need to take into account future changes in water availability in African river basins.

  8. Perceptions of patient safety culture among healthcare employees in tertiary hospitals of Heilongjiang province in northern China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Yanming; Hao, Yanhua; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Teng, Baijun; Yang, Kai; Sun, Tongbo; Wu, Qunhong; Qiao, Hong

    2018-04-19

    Assessing the patient safety culture is necessary for improving patient safety. Research on patient safety culture has attracted considerable attention. Currently, there is little research on patient safety culture in China generally, and in Heilongjiang in northern China specifically. The aim of the study is to explore the perception of healthcare employees about patient safety culture and to determine whether perception differs per sex, age, profession, years of experience, education level and marital status. Cross-sectional study. Thirteen tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang, northern China. About 1024 healthcare employees. The perception of healthcare employees was measured using the safety attitude questionnaire, which include six dimensions. Higher scores represented more positive attitudes. An analysis of variance was used to compare socio-demographic differences per position, marital status and education; t-tests were used for sex, age and experience. A total of 1024 (85.33%) valid questionnaires were returned. The mean score of the six dimensions was 73.74/100; work conditions (80.19) had the highest score of all the dimensions, and safety climate (70.48) had the lowest. Across distinct dimensions, there were significant differences in perceptions of patient safety culture per sex, age, years of experience, position, marital status and education level (P culture among healthcare employees and identifying dimensions that require improvement. Interventions aimed at specific socio-demographic groups are necessary to improve patient safety culture.

  9. 118-115 Ma magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya igneous province: Constraints on Early Cretaceous rifting of the northern margin of Greater India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Shi, Ren-Deng; Liu, Xiao-Han; Zhou, Xue-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is critical to deciphering processes associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Microcontinental calving, the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, is particularly poorly understood. Here we present new insights into these processes from geochronological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from the Tethyan Himalaya. Early Cretaceous mafic dikes are widely exposed in the eastern and western Tethyan Himalaya, but no such rocks have been reported from the central Tethyan Himalaya. Here we present an analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic data for bimodal magmatic rocks from the center-east Tethyan Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating yields six weighted-mean concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 118 ± 1.2 to 115 ± 1.3 Ma. Mafic rocks display MORB-like compositions with flat to depleted LREE trends, and positive εNd(t) (+2.76 to +5.39) and εHf(t) (+8.0 to +11.9) values. The negative Nb anomalies and relatively high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.15-0.19) of these rocks are related to variable degrees (up to 10%) of crustal contamination. Geochemical characteristics indicate that mafic rocks were generated by variable degrees (2-20%) of partial melting of spinel lherzolites in shallow depleted mantle. Felsic rocks are enriched in Th and LREE, with negative Nb anomalies and decoupling of Nd (εNd(t) = -13.39 to -12.78) and Hf (εHf(t) = -4.8 to -2.0), suggesting that they were derived mainly from garnet-bearing lower continental crust. The geochemical characteristics of the bimodal magmatic associations are comparable to those of associations that form in a continental rift setting. Results indicate that Early Cretaceous magmatism occurred across the whole Tethyan Himalaya, named here as the "Tethyan Himalaya igneous province". Separation of the Tethyan Himalaya from the Indian craton may have occurred during ongoing Early Cretaceous extension

  10. Obesity nutritional aspects and life style from a survey on a sample of primary school pupils in the Pavia province (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Arpesella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The increased risk of chronic diseases requires effective strategies to promote health, facilitating the adoption of proper life styles from childhood. In order to do that, the local health authority in Pavia has undertaken a pilot study with the aim of estimating the level of overweight and obese children in primary schools and of identifying the life styles that entail health risks.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a sample of 460 children in their last year of primary school in the Province of Pavia was performed. Pupils were classified by Body Mass Index, and a face-to-face questionnaire about children’s use of time was administered. A multiple logistic regression analysis has been applied in order to identify risks or preventive health factors linked to physical activity and eating habits.

    Results: 12.6% of the children were obese and 26.3% overweight, with the percentage of obesity nearly double in those who do not practice organized sports activities at least once a week, in those who don’t have breakfast in the morning and in those who don’t spend their free time in movement games. From a multiple logistic regression it results that the risk of being obese is twice and three times higher for the children living respectively in medium and small towns than for the ones living in large towns.

    Conclusions: In the Province of Pavia the prevalence of overweight and obese 10-year-old children exceed the data reported in recent studies all over Italy. The life styles that entail obesity risks are significantly linked both to eating habits and to physical activity: living in middle- and small sized towns and not having breakfast before going to school emerge as risk factors, while practicing movement games in the free time after school appears to be a protecting factor.

  11. Multivariate matrix model for source identification of inrush water: A case study from Renlou and Tongting coal mine in northern Anhui province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Yao, Duoxi; Su, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Under the current situation of energy demand, coal is still one of the major energy sources in China for a certain period of time, so the task of coal mine safety production remains arduous. In order to identify the water source of the mine accurately, this article takes the example from Renlou and Tongting coal mines in the northern Anhui mining area. A total of 7 conventional water chemical indexes were selected, including Ca2+, Mg2+, Na++K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 - and TDS, to establish a multivariate matrix model for the source identifying inrush water. The results show that the model is simple and is rarely limited by the quantity of water samples, and the recognition effect is ideal, which can be applied to the control and treatment for water inrush.

  12. Effect of Planting Density and Harvest Interval on the Leaf Yield and Quality of Moringa (Moringa oleifera under Diverse Agroecological Conditions of Northern South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Mabapa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder livestock farmers who depend on natural communal grazing lands are particularly vulnerable to climate change as well as to food insecurity and should be encouraged to grow drought-tolerant fodder crops. Moringa oleifera is a highly valued plant, due to its exceptionally high nutritional content. This study was conducted at two experimental sites in the Limpopo province of northern South Africa to evaluate for the first time the effect of plant density and cutting interval on biomass production and chemical composition of moringa grown under two diverse climatic conditions. Four different planting densities (435,000, 300,000, 200,000, and 100,000 plants/ha were arranged in a randomized complete block design and experimental samples were replicated four times. Data for biomass and gravimetric soil moisture content were collected each time the plants reached a height of 50 cm. Harvested leaves were analysed for chemical composition. An increase in the plant density led to elevated biomass production at both study locations, ranging between 527 and 2867 kg/ha. Moringa is capable of meeting all nutrient requirements of livestock depending on harvest time and location.

  13. Hexavalent Chromium: Analysis of the Mechanism of Groundwater Contamination in a Former Industrial Site in the Province of Vicenza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Accoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted in the analysis of the mobilization mechanisms of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI into groundwater from a decommissioned contaminated factory. The site is located in the Province of Vicenza and formerly was a chrome-plating plant. The subsoil consists predominantly of gravelly deposits with a thickness of at least one hundred meters. An unconfined aquifer is present with water table at about 23 m depth bgl. During the seven years of monitoring (2008-2014, the fluctuation of groundwater level was more than 6 m; hydraulic conductivity is about 1.0E-03 m/s and groundwater seepage velocity about 12 m/day. At the area of the source of contamination, the unsaturated soil is contaminated by hexavalent chromium throughout the thickness: concentrations range from 200 to 500 mg/kg. At the bottom of zone of groundwater level fluctuation, the hexavalent chromium concentration decreases to below the detection limit. The available data (e.g. hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwater, groundwater level, local rainfall give the opportunity to assess the effects, on the magnitude of groundwater contamination, of the effective infiltration versus the fluctuation of groundwater level. The main analysis was performed on a statistical basis, in order to find out which of the two factors was most likely related to the periodic peaks of hexavalent chromium concentration in groundwater. Statistical analysis results were verified by a mass balance. Data show that at the site both the effective infiltration through the unsaturated zone and the leaching of soil contaminated by groundwater, when it exceeds a certain piezometric level, lead to peak concentrations of hexavalent chromium, even if with characteristics and effects different.

  14. Identification of Zn-Bearing Micas and Clays from the Cristal and Mina Grande Zinc Deposits (Bongará Province, Amazonas Region, Northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Arfè

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zn-bearing phyllosilicates are common minerals in nonsulfide Zn deposits, but they seldom represent the prevailing economic species. However, even though the presence of Zn-bearing clays is considered as a disadvantage in mineral processing, their characteristics can give crucial information on the genesis of the oxidized mineralization. This research has been carried out on the Mina Grande and Cristal Zn-sulfide/nonsulfide deposits, which occur in the Bongará district (Northern Peru. In both of the deposits, Zn-bearing micas and clays occur as an accessory to the ore minerals. The XRD analyses and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS investigations revealed that the Zn-bearing micas that are occurring in both deposits mostly consist of I/S mixed layers of detrital origin, which have been partly altered or overprinted by sauconite during the supergene alteration of sulfides. Sporadic hendricksite was also identified in the Cristal nonsulfide mineral assemblage, whereas at Mina Grande, the fraipontite-zaccagnaite (3R-polytype association was detected. The identified zaccagnaite polytype suggests that both fraipontite and zaccagnaite are genetically related to weathering processes. The hendricksite detected at Cristal is a product of hydrothermal alteration, which is formed during the emplacement of sulfides. The complex nature of the identified phyllosilicates may be considered as evidence of the multiple processes (hydrothermal and supergene that occurred in the Bongará district.

  15. Modelling non-stationary annual maximum flood heights in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maposa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we fit a time-dependent generalised extreme value (GEV distribution to annual maximum flood heights at three sites: Chokwe, Sicacate and Combomune in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique. A GEV distribution is fitted to six annual maximum time series models at each site, namely: annual daily maximum (AM1, annual 2-day maximum (AM2, annual 5-day maximum (AM5, annual 7-day maximum (AM7, annual 10-day maximum (AM10 and annual 30-day maximum (AM30. Non-stationary time-dependent GEV models with a linear trend in location and scale parameters are considered in this study. The results show lack of sufficient evidence to indicate a linear trend in the location parameter at all three sites. On the other hand, the findings in this study reveal strong evidence of the existence of a linear trend in the scale parameter at Combomune and Sicacate, whilst the scale parameter had no significant linear trend at Chokwe. Further investigation in this study also reveals that the location parameter at Sicacate can be modelled by a nonlinear quadratic trend; however, the complexity of the overall model is not worthwhile in fit over a time-homogeneous model. This study shows the importance of extending the time-homogeneous GEV model to incorporate climate change factors such as trend in the lower Limpopo River basin, particularly in this era of global warming and a changing climate. Keywords: nonstationary extremes; annual maxima; lower Limpopo River; generalised extreme value

  16. Impact of socioeconomic status and district of residence on cutaneous malignant melanoma prognosis: a survival study on incident cases between 1991 and 2011 in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Lambertini, Anna G; Caranci, Nicola; Pacelli, Barbara; Carcoforo, Paolo; Ferretti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the prognosis of patients with invasive malignant melanoma (MM) incident from 1991 to 2011 in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy. A total of 750 patients provided by the Area Vasta Emilia Centrale Cancer Registry were included in this retrospective cohort study. Prognosis was analysed in terms of overall survival and specific survival. The study determinants were the patients' SES and district of residence. The confounding effect of sex, age, period and TNM stage at diagnosis was evaluated. In the study population, neither overall survival nor specific survival showed significant differences among different layers of SES and districts of residence. The risk for death from MM was lower for the female sex [hazard risk (HR)=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.94] and for diagnoses made in the most recent period (2005-2011: HR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.36-0.89 with respect to 1991-1997). A worse prognosis was observed in patients older than 70 years at the time of diagnosis (HR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.39-3.91 with respect to the Ferrara. Homogeneity in MM staging, treatment and follow-up strategies due to the relatively small extent of the study area and the presence of a single university hospital of reference, as well as less marked social and economic differences among the study patients in comparison with other previously analysed populations, may account for this finding.

  17. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaag, van der P.; Juizo, D.; Vilanculos, A.; Bolding, J.A.; Post Uiterweer, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use

  18. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  19. Integrating laser-range finding, electronic compass measurements and GPS to rapidly map vertical changes in volcanic stratigraphy and constrain unit thicknesses and volumes: two examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogier, M.; Edwards, B. R.; Wetherell, K.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of laser-range finding-GPS surveys from two separate locations in northern British Columbia, in the south-central northern Cordilleran volcanic province: Hoodoo Mountain volcano and Craven Lake cone. This technique, described in detail below, is appropriate for rapidly measuring changes in vertical thicknesses of units that either would be difficult or impossible to measure by most other techniques. The ability to accurately measure thicknesses of geologic units in otherwise difficult-to-access locations will aide in generating better quantitative estimates of deposit geometries and eruption volumes. Such data is particularly important for constraining quantitative models of magma production and eruption dynamics. The deposits of interest in this study comprised at least partly inaccessible, largely pyroclastic units, although the technique could be used to map any vertical surfaces. The first field location was the northern side of Hoodoo Mountain volcano (56deg47'23.72'N/131deg17'36.97'W/1208m-asl), where a sequence of welded to unwelded, trachytic-phonolitic tephra was deposited in a paleovalley. This deposit is informally referred to as the Pointer Ridge deposit, and it comprises at least 7 distinct subunits. The horizontal limit of the exposures is approximately 1.5km, and the vertical limit is approximately 250m. Three different GPS base stations were used to map the lateral and vertical variations in the deposit. The second field location is north of Craven Lake (56deg54'44.55'N/129deg21'42.17'W/1453m-asl), along Craven Creek, where a sequence of basaltic tephra is overlain by pillow lava and glacial diamicton. This exposure is 200m long and approximately 30m high, much smaller than the area mapped at Hoodoo Mountain. The basaltic tephra appears to comprise 4 distinct sequences (measured thicknesses vary from 3-4m) not including the overlying pillow lava (measured thickness varies from 2 to 10m), and measurements of the

  20. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  1. Challenges faced by caregivers of children on antiretroviral therapy at Mutale Municipality selected healthcare facilities, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhudzani V. Mafune

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: The conclusions drawn from this research are that caregivers hardly receive any support from family members or the community. Fear of disclosing the HIV-positive status of children resulted in the delay of financial support from the government, thus leading to serious financial burden on the caregivers.

  2. Willingness to pay for water and water rights definition: study among smallholder irrigators in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. In South Africa the smallholder irrigation sector faces two major challenges. Firstly

  3. Perceptions of Climate Change and the Potential for Adaptation in a Rural Community in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejabaledi A. Rankoana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of climate change by rural communities are centered on observations of variations in temperature and rainfall patterns supported by observations and projections on climate alterations in the form of increased temperatures and scarce rainfall by scientists worldwide. The present study documented perceptions of climate variation and the community’s ability to adapt to climate change hazards threatening the production of subsistence crops. Data were collected through interactions with 100 participants. In the study, climate change is explained as variations in temperature and rainfall patterns which resulted in excessive heat, erratic rainfall patterns and drought negatively impacting on subsistence crop production. Community members have the potential to limit the impacts of climate hazards on subsistence crop production. The negative impacts of climate hazards are limited by community members’ indigenous knowledge of rainfall prediction, the seasons, crop diversification and mixed cropping. Mulching and the application of kraal manure improve the soil structure and fertility to reduce crop failure. These adaptation measures are resilient to the negative impact of climate hazards and may be helpful in the development of adaptation policies to assist rural communities vulnerable to climate change hazards.

  4. Male partners’ views of involvement in maternal healthcare services at Makhado Municipality clinics, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Nesane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male partners have a strong influence on pregnant partners’ health and their access to care. Their involvement is critical in the delivery and uptake of maternal healthcare services and improving maternal and child health outcomes. Aim: The study sought to determine male partners’ views on their involvement in maternal healthcare services. Setting: The Makhado Municipality’s Kutama, Madombidzha and Vleifontein clinics. Methods: A qualitative study design, which is exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature, was used. The population comprised 15 men whose partners had been pregnant within the last 2 years. A non-probability, purposive sampling procedure was used. Data were collected via in-depth individual interviews using a voice recorder and an interview schedule guide. Tesch’s open coding method was used to analyse data. Results: The findings revealed one major theme, namely that maternal health issues are viewed as a woman’sdomain; and three sub-themes: culture and participation in childbirth, male partners’ employment status, and male partners’ unwillingness to participate in maternal health issues. Conclusions: The involvement of male partners in maternal healthcare services, and further research in promoting this activity, should be proposed to policymakers. Keywords: Views, partners, involvement, maternal health care services, antenatal care, labour and postnatal care.

  5. Turnover of professional nurses at Mokopane Hospital in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Experiences of nursing unit managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogale L. Mmamma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staff turnover of professional nurses remains a concern for public and private hospitals management because it has an impact on the morale of nurses and it may also lead to poor patient care. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to explore and describe the experiences of nursing unit managers with regard to the turnover of professional nurses who were under their supervision. Method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was used to determine the experiences of nursing unit managers related to the turnover of professional nurses. Data collection was done by using semi-structured one-to-one interviews with professional nurses .Two groups of participants were interviewed: Those working day duty (n = 9 and those working night duty (n = 3 who were at work on the anticipated days for data collection. Results: The findings revealed that every unit was experiencing a shortage of professional nurses, which caused other nurses to work overtime with an inevitable increase in workload. That led to tiredness, conflict amongst professional nurses, job dissatisfaction, and absenteeism which compromised nursing care. This resulted in patient dissatisfaction and sometimes led to deaths that could have been prevented. Conclusion: It is recommended that staff turnover should be addressed by the hospital top management implementing several strategies. For example, top management could ensure that staff members work in a healthy environment with resources that they need during the provision of care, address the effects of the staff turnover, support the staff members and refrain from putting pressure on nursing unit managers whilst they are attending to problems.

  6. Turnover of professional nurses at Mokopane Hospital in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Experiences of nursing unit managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmamma, Mogale L; Mothiba, Tebogo M; Nancy, Malema R

    2015-12-17

    Staff turnover of professional nurses remains a concern for public and private hospitals management because it has an impact on the morale of nurses and it may also lead to poor patient care. The objectives of this study were to explore and describe the experiences of nursing unit managers with regard to the turnover of professional nurses who were under their supervision. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was used to determine the experiences of nursing unit managers related to the turnover of professional nurses. Data collection was done by using semi-structured one-to-one interviews with professional nurses .Two groups of participants were interviewed: Those working day duty (n = 9) and those working night duty (n = 3) who were at work on the anticipated days for data collection. The findings revealed that every unit was experiencing a shortage of professional nurses, which caused other nurses to work overtime with an inevitable increase in workload. That led to tiredness, conflict amongst professional nurses, job dissatisfaction, and absenteeism which compromised nursing care. This resulted in patient dissatisfaction and sometimes led to deaths that could have been prevented. It is recommended that staff turnover should be addressed by the hospital top management implementing several strategies. For example, top management could ensure that staff members work in a healthy environment with resources that they need during the provision of care, address the effects of the staff turnover, support the staff members and refrain from putting pressure on nursing unit managers whilst they are attending to problems.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS among learners in Vhembe district of Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davhana-Maselesele

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV and AIDS among teenagers in rural schools in Vhembe district. This study focused on teenagers’ sources of knowledge about HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of how to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of the methods of transmission of the disease; their knowledge of condoms and usage levels; and people with whom they are comfortable to talk about HIV/AIDS. This was a quantitative descriptive research design where a random sample of 128 participants between the ages of 14 and 19 years was selected. The participants were in grades 8 to 12. The study recommended that holistic HIV/AIDS preventive programmes which were culture and gender sensitive be developed. Custodians of culture should be involved in dealing with HIV/AIDS. Parents should also play their role in discussing HIV/AIDS with their children in a non-threatening environment.

  8. The spatial and temporal characterisation of flooding within the floodplain wetland of the Nyl River, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rowberry, Matthew David; McCarthy, T.S.; Thompson, M.; Nomnganga, A.; Moyo, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2011), s. 445-451 ISSN 0378-4738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : landsat * remote sensing * flood dynamics Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2011 http://www.ajol.info/index.php/wsa/article/view/71421

  9. Workplace bullying : the employee health and wellness response of a provincial department in the Limpopo Province / Patricia Theresa Banyini

    OpenAIRE

    Banyini, Patricia Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Workplace bullying has become the most serious contemporary issue that negatively affects organisations socially and economically. Today organisations are faced with the financial burden associated with high staff turnover, absenteeism, low morale, high medical costs and poor performance resulting from bullying in the workplace. Therefore, organisations are focusing on ways and means to address this particular problem. The aim of the study was to explore the subjective experien...

  10. Exploration of different methods for measuring DDT exposure among malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Thompson, M.L.; Robins, T.G.; Omar, Shaheed; Riebow, John

    2004-01-01

    DDT compounds are used in many developing countries, including South Africa, for the control of malaria vectors. This study investigated biological exposures among workers in relation to job history. A cross-sectional study of 59 workers at the Malaria Control Centre (MCC) in Tzaneen, South Africa, was performed. Tests included a job history questionnaire and the measurement of serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD, corrected for serum total lipids. Forty-seven (80%) workers donated a blood sample for the determination of serum DDT. The mean number of years worked at the MCC (malaria years) was 15.8±7.8 years and the mean serum DDT was 94.3±57.1 μg/g of lipid. There were no significant associations between short-to-medium-term serum DDT exposure measures (o'p'-DDE and o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDD and DDT) and malaria years. The long-term exposure measure, p'p'-DDE, was significantly associated with malaria years (β-circumflex=3.0±1.2 μg/g lipid/year; P=0.001; n=47; adjusted for age), but only 27% variance of p'p'-DDE was explained. Blood total DDT uncorrected for lipid content was strongly related to corrected levels (β-circumflex=0.74±0.48, P=0.00, R 2 =0.77), but uncorrected p'p'-DDE had a weaker association (β-circumflex=0.0024±0.0013, P=0.074; R 2 =0.53) with malaria years than did corrected levels (β-circumflex=0.042±0.017; P=0.016; R 2 =0.56). The results show that serum DDT levels for malaria vector-control workers in South Africa with a long-term spraying history are high. Job history information on DDT exposures must be very detailed in order to provide valid estimates of exposure

  11. The impact of the water rights definition on smallholder irrigators' willingness to pay for water in Limpopo province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    Water rights are currently receiving increased attention from scholars and policymakers due to the growing understanding that ill-defined water rights impair efficient use. In South Africa, smallholder irrigation faces problems of low water use efficiency and cost recovery of government investments.

  12. Causes of deaths in children under-five years old at a tertiary hospital in Limpopo province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-02-15

    Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010, were obtained for all patients younger than 5 years and were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected using a data collection form designed for the study. Information abstracted included: date of death, age, sex, and cause of death. A total of 1266 deaths were recorded, the sex ratio was 1.26 boys per girl. About 611 (48%) of deaths were listed as neonatal deaths (0-28 days), 387 (31%) were listed as infant deaths (29 days-11 months), and 268 (21%) as children's death (1-4 years). For neonates the leading causes of death were: prematurity/low birth weight, birth asphyxia and pneumonia. For the infant death group, the leading causes of death were pneumonia, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS; and in the children's group, the leading causes were injuries, diarrhea and pneumonia. There was no statistical significant difference in the proportions of causes of death based on the sex of children. The top 10 leading causes of death in children under-5 years old treated at Pietersburg/Mankweng Hospital Complex were in descending order: prematurity/low birth weight, pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, birth asphyxia, and severe malnutrition, HIV/AIDS, hydrocephalus, unintentional injuries, meningitis and other infections. These ten conditions represent 73.9% of causes of death at this facility. A mix of multi-faceted interventions is needed to address these causes of death in children.

  13. Potential implications of mine dusts on human health: A case study of Mukula Mine, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, Abuh; E Mhlongo, Sphiwe; Abiodun, Olukoga; Muzerengi, Confidence; Mudanalwo, Matamela

    2013-11-01

    Objective : The purpose of this study was to estimate the levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in ambient air within Mukula mine and the potential risks to mineworkers and inhabitants of the adjoining Mukula community's health. Methods : An SPM was used to measure the levels of particulate matter (PM10) in and around the mining site. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significance level of PM10 in ambient air. Results : Suspended particulate matter in the air ranged from 60.25 to 1820.45 µg/m(3). The lowest value of SPM was more than four times the required World Health Organisation's allowable level in ambient air, which the mine workers and locals would be inhaling. Conclusion : Continuous inhalation of mine dusts by mine workers and locals could result in pulmonary fibrosis, silicosis and lung cancer. The findings from this study support the need to have in place the necessary control measures that will drastically reduce SPM in the air. Such measure includes wet drilling and blasting, sprinkling of water on the mine roads and planting of vegetation around the mines and neighbouring communities.

  14. Age interpretation of the Wonderkrater spring sediments and vegetation change in the Savanna Biome, Limpopo province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available is proposed by excluding samples that were possibly contaminated by younger or older materials. The dating places the pollen-based vegetation history more firmly in a framework of regional and global climate change during the Late Quaternary, thereby making...

  15. The hormonal effects of long-term DDT exposure on malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Lou Thompson, Mary; Dyer, Silke; Robins, T.G.; Omar, Shaheed; Riebow, John; Molekwa, Josef; Kruger, Phillip; Millar, R.

    2004-01-01

    DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] compounds, used in many developing countries, including South Africa, for the control of malaria vectors, have been shown to be endocrine disruptors in vitro and in vivo. The study hypothesis was that male malaria vector-control workers highly exposed to DDT in the past should demonstrate clinically significant exposure-related anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic effects that should be reflected in abnormalities in reproductive hormone levels. A cross-sectional study of 50 workers from three camps situated near the Malaria Control Center (MCC) in Tzaneen was performed. Tests included blood sampling before and after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge (100 μg). Serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD and basal and post-GnRH challenge hormone levels, including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol (E2), and inhibin, were measured. The mean number of years worked at the MCC was 15.8±7.8 years and the mean serum DDT was 94.3±57.1 μg/g of lipid. Mean baseline E2 levels (62.4±29.9 pg/mL) exceeded the laboratory reference range. Associations between DDT exposure measures (years worked at the MCC and DDT compounds) and hormonal outcomes were weak and inconsistent. The most important finding was a positive relationship of baseline E2 and baseline testosterone with DDT compounds, especially with p'p'-DDT and -DDD. The strongest association found, adjusted for age and SHBG, was between baseline estradiol and p'p'-DDT (β-circumflex=1.14±0.33 pg/mL/μg/g lipid, P=0.001, R 2 =0.31, n=46). An overall anti-androgenic mechanism best explains the results, but with a number of inconsistencies. Associations might be due to chance, as multiple comparisons were made. The results therefore do not suggest an overt anti-androgenic or estrogenic effect of long-term DDT exposure on hormone levels, but correlations do exist in a manner that is not understood

  16. Basin-scale hydrogeological, geophysical, geochemical and isotopic characterization: an essential tool for building a Decision Support System for the sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems within the provinces of Milan and Monza-Brianza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gorla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CAP Group is a public company, supplying the municipalities within the provinces of Milan and Monza/Brianza (Northern Italy with the integrated water service: 197 municipalities and more than 2 million users served, 887 wells, 154 wall-mounted tanks and hubs, a water supply network of over 7500 km, from which approximately 250 million cubic metres of water per year are withdrawn. The drinking water supply comes exclusively from groundwater resources, circulating in several overlapping aquifer systems. Basin-scale water resource management, as required by the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, is an extremely complex task. In view of this backdrop, CAP is currently developing a project called Infrastructural Aqueduct Plan that relies on a Decision Support System approach. The paper describes the preliminary steps concerning the design of a prototype Decision Support System aiming at the management of groundwater resources on a basin scale (Ticino and Adda rivers area. CAP Group Decision Support System is intended to be a package allowing for water resource assessment, identification of boundary conditions, climatic driving forces and demographic pressures, simulation and investigation of future forecasts and comparison of alternative policy measures. The project has been designed in steps including Geodatabase building, geographic information system (GIS analysis (including multilayer analysis and numerical modelling. The data collected in the geodatabase were analyzed to design GIS quantitative and qualitative thematic maps in order to perform the multilayer analysis of current and future state and impacts, for providing the decision maker with a comprehensive picture of the water system. The multilayer analysis relies on specific indicators based on some quantitative and qualitative data: hydrogeological, chemical, isotopic, soil use and hazards, climatic and demographic. Each parameter belonging to these macro areas were

  17. The Quest for Ubuntu: Water and Health in Limpopo (WHIL) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissevain, Jane; Richardson, Jeanita W; Netshandama, Vhonani; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efforts to improve health in under-resourced areas of the world frequently involve coalitions, often with at least one partner from the "outside," such as when NGOs or universities from Europe or the US work with institutions and communities in Africa or Asia. Little has been written about applying successful principles to multinational university collaborations as the unit of analysis and where challenges may be magnified by cultural differences and resource imbalances. The purpose of this article is to share the findings from an evaluation of the multi-year interdisciplinary public health Water and Health in Limpopo (WHIL) collaboration between the University of Venda (South Africa) and the University of Virginia (United States). We believe the learnings described easily transfer to collaborative educational endeavors because at their root they speak to the practices that enhance respectful engagement and partnership sustainability.

  18. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  19. Seasonal forecasting of hydrological drought in the Limpopo Basin: a comparison of statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Mathias; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2017-03-01

    The Limpopo Basin in southern Africa is prone to droughts which affect the livelihood of millions of people in South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Seasonal drought early warning is thus vital for the whole region. In this study, the predictability of hydrological droughts during the main runoff period from December to May is assessed using statistical approaches. Three methods (multiple linear models, artificial neural networks, random forest regression trees) are compared in terms of their ability to forecast streamflow with up to 12 months of lead time. The following four main findings result from the study. 1. There are stations in the basin at which standardised streamflow is predictable with lead times up to 12 months. The results show high inter-station differences of forecast skill but reach a coefficient of determination as high as 0.73 (cross validated). 2. A large range of potential predictors is considered in this study, comprising well-established climate indices, customised teleconnection indices derived from sea surface temperatures and antecedent streamflow as a proxy of catchment conditions. El Niño and customised indices, representing sea surface temperature in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, prove to be important teleconnection predictors for the region. Antecedent streamflow is a strong predictor in small catchments (with median 42 % explained variance), whereas teleconnections exert a stronger influence in large catchments. 3. Multiple linear models show the best forecast skill in this study and the greatest robustness compared to artificial neural networks and random forest regression trees, despite their capabilities to represent nonlinear relationships. 4. Employed in early warning, the models can be used to forecast a specific drought level. Even if the coefficient of determination is low, the forecast models have a skill better than a climatological forecast, which is shown by analysis of receiver operating characteristics

  20. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Challenges in reporting on predetermined objectives to the Auditor-General: The case of Limpopo provincial departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Diedericks

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Limpopo provincial departments like all other South African government departments are required to report on performance against predetermined objectives in terms of Section 40 of the Public Finance Management Act 1 of 1999, read in conjunction with Section 5.1.1 of the Treasury Regulations. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that was undertaken to establish the challenges faced by the Limpopo provincial departments in reporting on performance against predetermined objectives to the Auditor-General (AG. Reporting on predetermined objectives has been a challenge over the past financial years and this is evident in the AG’s reports, in which Limpopo provincial departments continued to receive qualified audit reports. The literature review carried out for purposes of this study revealed that performance management is fundamental to enhancing organisational performance. A qualitative research design was used to collect and analyse data. Key findings of the study included that management should prioritise strategic planning, performance reporting, monitoring and evaluation to enable it to be in a position to make a determination as to whether what was planned by the department was actually realised. It is also of paramount importance that performance reporting is highly prioritised at strategic, tactical and operational management meetings to ensure more effective and efficient organisational performance.

  2. 区域生态安全动态变化及空间差异定量分析:以陕北黄土高原为例%Quantitative analysis of the dynamic change and spatial differences of the ecological security:a case study of Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 任志远; 周自翔

    2006-01-01

    Using the theory and method of the ecological footprint, and combining the changes of regional land use, resource environment, population, society and economy, this paper calculated the ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity and ecological surplus/loss in 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province. What is more, this paper has put forward the concept of ecological pressure index, set up ecological pressure index models, and ecological security grading systems, and the prediction models of different ecological footprints, ecological carrying capacity, ecological surplus and ecological safety change, and also has assessed the ecological footprint demands of 10,000 yuan GDP.The results of this study are as follows: (1) the ecological carrying capacity in northern Shaanxi shows a decreasing trend, the difference of reducing range is the fastest; (2) the ecological footprint appears an increasing trend; (3) ecological pressure index rose to 0.91 from 0.44 during 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi with an increase of 47%; and (4) the ecological security in the study area is in a critical state, and the ecological pressure index has been increasing rapidly.

  3. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  4. Hydrothermal alteration in the Matok Igneous Complex, Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, T.; Van Reenen, D.D.; Barton, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ductile shear zones associated with the 2700 to 2650 Ma Limpopo Orogeny locally contained gold mineralization. Some of these shear zones were reactivated under brittle conditions and contain zones of hydrothermal alteration that are of potential economic significance. Within the approximately 2670 Ma Matok Complex, two examples of this shear zone controlled alteration are exposed, the Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones. The granitic rocks of this Complex experienced early selective sericitization of plagioclase and the subsequent development of perthitic porphyroblasts. This early regional alteration was overprinted along brittle shear zones by pervasive propylitization and vein controlled quartz-albite alteration. The setting, composition, and the age of the Matok Complex make it a possible source for Archaean gold mineralization. The Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones are characterized by the absence of significant gold mineralization. The pattern of wall-rock alteration indicates that the hydrothermal processes were different from typical Archaean lode gold deposits. P-T conditions during the shear-zone controlled alteration were less than 400 degrees C and 1,9 - 2,8 kb. The shear zone hosted alteration could have taken place anytime between emplacement of the Matok Complex and about 1315 Ma ago. 35 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  5. An integrated approach for Limpopo Park groundwater characterization for biodiversity safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vitale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multistep study held in the context of the SECOSUD Phase II project, called “Conservation and equitable use of biological diversity in the SADC region (Southern African Development Community [1]. The present study is developed in the activity research of the SECOSUD Phase II project funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the SADC. One of this project’s objectives is to strengthen the capacities of the SADC region scientific network, in the aim to consolidate and to harmonize the management of natural resources [1]. The overall objective of this study is to design an integrated approach for Limpopo Park groundwater characterization and management, based on dealing with the full water cycle by a tiered and complex program, which will follow several steps: a preliminary field study, data existing collection, the selection of sites meteorological stations, the location of monitoring surface water and groundwater points, which includes fields measurements and sampling, chemical and isotopic analysis, collection of hydrological data to design hydrological conceptual model in the area under study in order to quantify the water balance and to provide recommendations on where to focus future research. The monitoring systems should be supported by processing procedures, step by step, implementing a GIS database.

  6. Bestuur van die Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram in hulpbronarm skole in Limpopo – praktyk, suksesse en uitdagings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eberlein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie stel ondersoek in na die wyse waarop die implementering van die Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram (NSVP bestuur word deur skoolhoofde in hulpbronarm laerskole in die Waterberg-distrik van die Limpopo-provinsie. Dit vorm deel van ’n groter gesamentlike studie van die Universiteit van Pretoria en Northeast Normal University (UP en NENU wat fokus op die stand van prinsipaalskap in beide stedelike en landelike omgewings in SuidAfrika en in China. Data vir hierdie kwalitatiewe studie is met behulp van onderhoude en waarneming verkry binne die raamwerk van die vier bestuursfunksies soos omskryf deur Van Deventer en Kruger: beplanning; organisasie; leiding en rigtinggewing; asook kontrole en evaluering. Die primêre bevinding van die studie is dat hoewel skoolhoofde bewus is van riglyne en praktyke vir die implementering van die NSVP wat deur die Departement van Basiese Onderwys voorgeskryf word, hulle byna volledig op ander rolspelers op skoolvlak staatmaak om die program te bestuur, sonder enige daaglikse betrokkenheid by die proses of enige erkenning van hul eie rol en verantwoordelikhede in hierdie verband.

  7. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  8. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, Pieter; Juizo, Dinis; Vilanculos, Agostinho; Bolding, Alex; Uiterweer, Nynke Post

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use irrigation (4000 ha). This development includes the expansion of sugar cane production for the production of ethanol as a biofuel. Total additional water requirements may amount to 1.3 × 10 9 m 3/a or more. A simple river basin simulation model was constructed in order to assess different irrigation development scenarios, and at two storage capacities of the existing Massingir dam. Many uncertainties surround current and future water availability in the Lower Limpopo River Basin. Discharge measurements are incomplete and sometimes inconsistent, while upstream developments during the last 25 years have been dramatic and future trends are unknown. In Mozambique it is not precisely known how much water is currently consumed, especially by the many small-scale users of surface and shallow alluvial groundwater. Future impacts of climate change increase existing uncertainties. Model simulations indicate that the Limpopo River does not carry sufficient water for all planned irrigation. A maximum of approx. 58,000 ha of irrigated agriculture can be sustained in the Mozambican part of the basin. This figure assumes that Massingir will be operated at increased reservoir capacity, and implies that only about 44,000 ha of new irrigation can be developed, which is 60% of the envisaged developments. Any additional water use would certainly impact downstream users and thus create tensions. Some time will elapse before 44,000 ha of new irrigated land will have been developed. This time could be used to improve monitoring networks to decrease current uncertainties. Meanwhile the four riparian Limpopo States are preparing a joint river basin study. In this study a methodology could be

  9. Four colorful new species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from northern Thailand (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srisonchai, Ruttapon; Enghoff, Henrik; Likhitrakarn, Natdanai

    2016-01-01

    Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species...

  10. Safety and affordability of an elective Saturday list at Pietersburg Hospital Limpopo South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mavhungu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The backlog of patients waiting for operations continues to be a problem in many public hospitals in South Africa (SA, with elective surgery procedures being postponed for up to 2 years.Objective. To determine the rate of death in hospital or out of hospital within 30 days of an elective procedure performed on a Saturday, and to determine the cost incurred by paying staff members who perform these operations.Method. A prospective, observational descriptive cohort study of all patients undergoing inpatient general surgery operations during weekdays and weekends between 1 September 2015 and 31 August 2016 (1 year at Pietersburg Hospital (PBH, Limpopo, SA. Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, USA was used to analyse and derive descriptive statistics. The finance department at the hospital calculated the overtime pay for theatre staff who operated on Saturdays.Results. The study included 1 352 operations (607 elective and 745 emergency procedures. Saturday elective operations contributed 133/607 (22%, and the rate of death for these operations was 1.5%. The most common procedures performed on a Saturday were hernia repair and amputation. The cost for 8 hours of work on a Saturday was ZAR13 900, amounting to a total of ZAR333 600 for 24 Saturdays.Conclusion. Performing minor surgery on a Saturday had a mortality rate of 1.5%, and a theatre staff cost of ~ZAR2 317 per patient, excluding surgeons’ fees. If surgeons were to be paid the costs would be ZAR3 450 per patient.

  11. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of water resources uncertainties in the Luvuvhu sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, N.; Hughes, D.; Kapangaziwiri, E.; Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Mvandaba, V.

    2018-06-01

    In the absence of historical observed data, models are generally used to describe the different hydrological processes and generate data and information that will inform management and policy decision making. Ideally, any hydrological model should be based on a sound conceptual understanding of the processes in the basin and be backed by quantitative information for the parameterization of the model. However, these data are often inadequate in many sub-basins, necessitating the incorporation of the uncertainty related to the estimation process. This paper reports on the impact of the uncertainty related to the parameterization of the Pitman monthly model and water use data on the estimates of the water resources of the Luvuvhu, a sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin. The study reviews existing information sources associated with the quantification of water balance components and gives an update of water resources of the sub-basin. The flows generated by the model at the outlet of the basin were between 44.03 Mm3 and 45.48 Mm3 per month when incorporating +20% uncertainty to the main physical runoff generating parameters. The total predictive uncertainty of the model increased when water use data such as small farm and large reservoirs and irrigation were included. The dam capacity data was considered at an average of 62% uncertainty mainly as a result of the large differences between the available information in the national water resources database and that digitised from satellite imagery. Water used by irrigated crops was estimated with an average of about 50% uncertainty. The mean simulated monthly flows were between 38.57 Mm3 and 54.83 Mm3 after the water use uncertainty was added. However, it is expected that the uncertainty could be reduced by using higher resolution remote sensing imagery.

  13. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pengpid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little attention has been paid to the role of poor mental health among young people with regard to HIV risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. Objective. To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in South Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students who were recruited conveniently from public campus venues at the University of Limpopo Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa campus. The sample included 722 university students (57.6% men and 42.4% women with a mean age of 21.7 years (standard deviation ±8.8. Results. Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported ≥2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and 20% reported alcohol use in the context of sex in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and among women, being in the 4th or more year of study and current cannabis use. Conclusion. Poor mental health, including substance use, was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Co-ordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services that meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

  14. Parameter and input data uncertainty estimation for the assessment of water resources in two sub-basins of the Limpopo River Basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, Nadia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available frica Parameter and input data uncertainty estimation for the assessment of water resources in two sub-basins of the Limpopo River Basin Nadia Oosthuizen1,2, Denis A. Hughes2, Evison Kapangaziwiri1, Jean-Marc Mwenge Kahinda1, and Vuyelwa Mvandaba1,2 1...

  15. The home range of a recently established group of Southern ground-hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri in the Limpopo Valley, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Theron

    2013-10-01

    Conservation implications: The Limpopo Valley SGH population is one of the most significant outside protected areas in South Africa. This population is especially vulnerable to threats such as poisoning, persecution for window breaking and drought, as shown by their near extirpation from the area. Conservation efforts need to focus on awareness amongst local farmers, provision of artificial nests and continued monitoring of groups.

  16. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  17. Design of a water quality monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilundo, M.; Kelderman, P.; O´keeffe, J. H.

    The measurement of chemical, physical and biological parameters is important for the characterization of streams health. Thus, cost-effective and targeted water quality (WQ) monitoring programmes are required for proper assessment, restoration and protection of such systems. This research proposes a WQ monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) in Mozambique located in Southern Africa, a region prone to severe droughts. In this Basin both anthropogenic and natural driven processes, exacerbated by the increased water demand by the four riparian countries (Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique) are responsible for the degradation of surface waters, impairing their downstream use, either for aquatic ecosystem, drinking, industrial or irrigation. Hence, physico-chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics at 23 sites within the basin were studied in November 2006 and January 2007. The physico-chemical and microbiological samples were analyzed according to American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods, while the biological monitoring working party method (BMWP) was used for biological assessment. The assessment of the final WQ condition at sampled points was done taking into account appropriate indexes, the Mozambican standards for receiving waters and the WHO guidelines for drinking WQ. The assessed data indicated that sites located at proximities to the border with upstream countries were contaminated with heavy metals. The Elephants subcatchment was found with a relatively better WQ, whereas the Changane subcatchment together with the effluent point discharges in the basin were found polluted as indicated by the low dissolved oxygen and high total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio and low benthic macroinvertebrates taxa. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found for some parameters when the concentrations recorded in November and January were tested, therefore, indicating

  18. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  19. Is small-scale irrigation an efficient pro-poor strategy in the upper Limpopo Basin in Mozambique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Raphaelle

    2017-08-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is evidence that households with access to small-scale irrigation are significantly less poor than households that do not have access to irrigation. However, private motopumps tend to be distributed inequitably. This paper investigates the success of explicit pro-poor interventions with emphasis on small-scale irrigation in the semi-arid Limpopo Basin in Mozambique. It reveals that high irrigation costs are progressively excluding the poor, who are unable to generate a cash income from other activities they need to fund irrigation. In addition, the operation of collective schemes involving the poor is being jeopardized by the development of private irrigation schemes, which benefit from hidden subsidies appropriated by local elites. This results in unequal access to irrigation, which can cause resentment at community level. This weakens community cohesiveness, as well as communities' capacities for collective action and coordination, which are crucial for collective irrigation.

  20. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  1. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  2. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H

    1995-10-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  3. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  4. Effects of increased nurses’ workload on quality documentation of patient information at selected Primary Health Care facilities in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province

    OpenAIRE

    Rhulani C. Shihundla; Rachel T. Lebese; Maria S. Maputle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recording of information on multiple documents increases professional nurses’ responsibilities and workload during working hours. There are multiple registers and books at Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in which a patient’s information is to be recorded for different services during a visit to a health professional. Antenatal patients coming for the first visit must be recorded in the following documents: tick register; Prevention of Mother-ToChild Transmission (PMTCT) regis...

  5. The views of the elderly on the impact that HIV and AIDS has on their lives in the Thulamela Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhudivhusi J. Singo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS have a devastating impact on the lives of elderly people, particularly so because they are often expected to take care of their terminally ill children and assume the responsibility of looking after children orphaned by AIDS - in most cases with very little resources. Objectives: The study sought to achieve to describe the views of elderly people regarding the impact of HIV and AIDS on their lives, to determine the challenges that elderly people living with HIV or AIDS (EPLWHA face in their daily lives, and to gain a sense of the coping strategies they use to overcome the obstacles they face in relation to HIV and AIDS. Ethical issues, such as permission to conduct the study, informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, withdrawal of participation and measure to ensure trustworthiness, were ensured. Design: This was a qualitative, explorative, descriptive study. Participants were interviewedusing an interview guide. Information provided by the participants was captured on a taperecorder and analysed using open coding, and thereafter collated into themes, categories andsub-themes. Results: The study findings revealed that HIV and AIDS have serious negative impacts on the lives of elderly people, particularly those living in poverty. The following key areas in relationto EPLWHA were established: psychological or emotional health, as well as household and socio-economic burdens. Considering the role that elderly people play in the community in so far as HIV and AIDS are concerned, primary health promotion and social welfare programmes should be directed at educating all elderly people and their service providers on how to cope with the health and social problems related to HIV and AIDS.

  6. Conceptual framework for public-private partnerships model for water services infrastructure assets: case studies from municipalities in the Limpopo and Gauteng provinces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matji, MP

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for public-private partnerships PPP) in local government water services infrastructure. Water services infrastructure assets are key to the provision of basic services. Data were collected from various stakeholders, i...

  7. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie R. Gotze

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  8. The non-technical factors that affect sustainability of borehole systems in rural communities - A study on selected villages for the ASWSD project in Limpopo province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamakoa, E

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available process with relevant stakeholders was embarked upon to derive the non-technical issues. Findings indicate that municipalities struggle with getting spares for boreholes from suppliers, agreements signed with suppliers are often short term, thus continued...

  9. Services and programmes for teenage pregnancy and support for teenage mothers: Rural areas of Limpopo Province of South Africa and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Mmasetjana Lekganyane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to juxtapose the current services and programmes that deal with the prevention of teenage pregnancies and the teenage motherhood notion in South Africa and Slovenia. The paper looks at the situation in both countries and tries to detect the main problems in the two cases and therefore proposes changes on the basis of what is known about the two countries. In other words, we describe the situation, identify problems and suggest solutions. Teenage pregnancy and teenage motherhood are always viewed as inseparable and as a discourse that exists due to a variety of social and sociological variables. The notion of teenage pregnancy and teenage motherhood is assessed against related theories and scholastic (secondary evidence. Finally, it is argued that intervention services and programmes that are linked with the life perspective of teenagers and teenage mothers yield positive results.

  10. Consumption and direct-use values of savanna bio-resources used by rural households in Mametja, a semi-arid area of Limpopo province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twine, W

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available was assumed to be the same throughout the year, monthly consumption was multiplied by 12. In many cases, households reported consuming bushmeat only a few times a year. ? Edible insects ? volumes of grasshoppers, termites and flying ants were calculated... local price. In the case of wooden utensils, different itemshaddifferentprices,andthecompositevaluewasthusthe sum of the mean number of each item multiplied by its mean price. Prices of fresh and dried herbs differed, and these were applied to the mean...

  11. Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhubele, J C

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion.

  12. Structure of the Karoo-age Ellisras Basin in Limpopo Province, South Africa in the light of new airborne geophysical data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Waterberg Coalfield is destined to become the major source of energy for South Africa in the future. In 2008, Coaltech Research Organisation funded an airborne magnetic and radiometric survey over the Karoo-age Ellisras Basin in which...

  13. Smallholder farmer’s perceived effects of climate change on crop production and household livelihoods in rural Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubisi Nomcebo R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceived effects of climate change on crop production and household livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Mopani and Vhembe district, South Africa. Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to 150 smallholder farmers. The questionnaires were complemented by 8 focus group discussions and secondary data. Multinomial logit regression model was used to analyse the factors influencing smallholder farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation strategies. The study findings revealed that subsistence farmers perceived prolonged droughts (56.4% as the main shock stressing crop production. Droughts often lead to low crop yield and high crop failure (73.3%. In response to the prevailing climatic conditions different gender adopted different strategies, 41% of female farmers adapted by changing planting dates, while male farmers employed crop variety and diversification (35% and mixed cropping (15%. The smallholder farmers were vulnerable with limited adaptive capacity to withstand climate change due to compromised social, human, physical, natural and financial assets. The results showed that smallholder farmers tend to adapt better when they have access to extension officers (P<0.01. Therefore, it is important for the government to strengthen the relationship between smallholder farmers and extension officers for better climate change adaptation.

  14. The perceptions of midwives regarding audit and feedback on the use of the partogram at Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyani G. Lumadi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: The findings revealed that auditing and feedback and in-service education is done at the three hospitals, although challenges such as inconsistency in auditing because of shortage of staff, lack of knowledge on partogram use and on principles of giving feedback were highlighted.

  15. The political ecology of human-wildlife conflict: Producing wilderness, insecurity, and displacement in the Limpopo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Massé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Like conservation-induced displacement, human-wildlife conflict (HWC has potentially negative implications for communities in and around protected areas. While the ways in which displacement emerges from the creation of 'wilderness' conservation landscapes are well documented, how the production of 'wilderness' articulates with intensifications in HWC remains under examined both empirically and conceptually. Using a political-ecological approach, I analyse increases of HWC in Mozambique's Limpopo National Park (LNP and the subsequent losses of fields and livestock, as well as forms of physical displacement suffered by resident communities. While intensifications of encounters between wildlife on the one hand and people and livestock on the other result in part from increases in wildlife populations, I argue that HWC and the ways in which it constitutes and contributes to various forms of displacement results more centrally from changing relations between wildlife and people and the power and authority to manage conflict between them. Both of these contributing factors, moreover, are the consequence of practices that aim to transform the LNP into a wilderness landscape of conservation and tourism. HWC and its negative impacts are thus not natural phenomena, but are the result of political decisions to create a particular type of conservation landscape.

  16. Challenges in reporting on pre-determined objectives to the Auditor-General : the case of Limpopo Provincial Departments / Hilgard Maputle Mawela

    OpenAIRE

    Mawela, Hilgard Maputle

    2015-01-01

    All provincial departments are required to report on pre-determined objectives in terms of Section 40 of the Public Finance Management Act, read in conjunction with Section 5.1.1. of the Treasury Regulations. The purpose of this study was to establish the challenges faced by the Limpopo provincial departments in reporting pre-determined objectives to the Auditor-General. Reporting pre-determined objectives has been a challenge over the past financial years and this is evident in the Audito...

  17. Loaches and the environment in two provinces in Northern Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Bohlen, Jörg; Kalous, L.; Bui, A.T.; Chaloupková, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), 368-374 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Grant - others:MZe(CZ) 29/Mze/B/08-10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biodiversity * conservation * Teleostei Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  18. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. A total of 4 270 biopsies (13 cutaneous malignancies) were identified. The commonest was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), followed by basal cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and basosquamous carcinoma, in descending order. The odds of a white male developing ...

  19. Health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    their families, and the relationship between the two. ... and also reduce the work of school teachers involved with health and social education. ... sionary woman who has unknowingly been offered human meat from ... adverse effects ..... Where children do not trust their parents or ... Drug user networks, coping strategies,.

  20. Health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest reported taboo theme was homosexuality, followed by tattooing or piercing, and abortion. There is a significant positive correlation between health complaints of the students and taboo themes in their families. The findings call for intensified efforts on enlightenment (life skills) programmes designed to ...

  1. Parents' expectations of public schooling in the Northern Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not only have residential areas become largely mixed but also schools. This is, of course, a result of the abolishing of apartheid-era policies and legislation that enforced racial segregation. However, the phenomenon sketched above was accompanied by parents moving children from public schools to independent schools ...

  2. Parents' expectations of public schooling in the Northern Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    School education is not to be offered for the school's sake but for the child, family, the ... The following questions were to be answered through a scientific investigation: .... pertaining to employment, they cause a middle ranking of the dimension. ... On the other hand Christians were found to be expecting less school ...

  3. The feeding habits of brown hyaenas ( Hyaena brunnea ) on a game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habits of brown hyaenas ( Hyaena brunnea ) on a game ranch in Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea scats from a game ranch in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    for future studies. Relative malleability of province boundaries in the continental interior highlights this region as biogeographically diverse and dynamic. Interior-core provinces of this region (Central Gulf Coastal Plains, Northern Interior) have not been recognized previously and warrant further study. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Barron, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0-40%) than poverty stricken persons (0-95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety networks in the basin countries, the dynamic and transitory nature of food insecurity which depends on the timings of the surveys in relation to harvests, markets and food prices, and the limited dimension of food insecurity in relation to poverty which tends to be a more structural and pervasive socio-economic condition. The usefulness of this study in influencing policies and strategies targeted at alleviating poverty and improving rural livelihoods lies with using food insecurity mappings to address short-term socio-economic conditions and poverty mappings to address more structural and long-term deprivations. Using the poverty line of 1.25/day per person (2008-2013) in the basin, Zimbabwe had the highest percentage of 68.7% of its rural population classified as poor, followed by Mozambique with 68.2%, South Africa with 56.1% and Botswana with 20%. While average poverty reduction of 6.4% was observed between 2003 and 2009 in Botswana, its population growth of 20.1% indicated no real poverty reduction. Similar observations are made about Mozambique and Zimbabwe where population growth outstripped poverty reductions. In contrast, both average poverty levels and population increased by 4.3% and 11%, respectively, in South Africa from 2007 to 2010. While areas of high food insecurity and poverty consistently coincide with low water availability, it does not indicate a simple cause-effect relationship between water, poverty and food insecurity. With limited water resources, rural folks in the basin require stronger

  6. Building Healthy Northern Communities Through Strengthening Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Schmidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines and evaluates the effects of one-time funding on capacity building of health and social welfare organizations in a remote and northern section of British Columbia Canada. The Province of British Columbia awarded a two million dollar grant (Canadian to the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC. Organizations applied for funds through a competitive process that was managed by the School of Social Work at UNBC. Twenty-five different community organizations and agencies received funding for a period of eighteen months. The organizations and agencies delivered a range of services and activities located in remote First Nations communities as well as the natural resource-based single industry towns of northern BC.

  7. Detection, Quantification and Monitoring of Prosopis in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive Prosopis species pose a significant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to use Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to: (i) reveal areas susceptible to future invasion, (ii) describe the current ...

  8. U Pb and Lu Hf isotope record of detrital zircon grains from the Limpopo Belt Evidence for crustal recycling at the Hadean to early-Archean transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Klemd, Reiner; Barton, J. M., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Detrital zircon grains from Beit Bridge Group quartzite from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt near Musina yield mostly ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, minor 3.15-2.51 Ga components, and numerous older grains grouped at approximately 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 Ga. Two grains yielded concordant Late Hadean U-Pb ages of 3881 ± 11 Ma and 3909 ± 26 Ma, which are the oldest zircon grains so far found in Africa. The combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf datasets and field relationships provide evidence that the sedimentary protolith of the Beit Bridge Group quartzite was deposited after the emplacement of the Sand River Gneisses (3.35-3.15 Ga), but prior to the Neoarchean magmatic-metamorphic events at 2.65-2.60 Ga. The finding of abundant magmatic zircon detritus with concordant U-Pb ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, and 176Hf/ 177Hf of 0.28066 ± 0.00004 indicate that the Sand River Gneiss-type rocks were a predominant source. In contrast, detrital zircon grains older than approximately 3.35 Ga were derived from the hinterland of the Limpopo Belt; either from a so far unknown crustal source in southern Africa, possibly from the Zimbabwe Craton and/or a source, which was similar but not necessarily identical to the one that supplied the Hadean zircons to Jack Hills, Western Australia. The Beit Bridge Group zircon population at >3.35 Ga shows a general ɛHf t increase with decreasing age from ɛHf 3.9Ga = -6.3 to ɛHf 3.3-3.1Ga = -0.2, indicating that Hadean crust older than 4.0 Ga ( TDM = 4.45-4.36 Ga) was rejuvenated during magmatic events between >3.9 and 3.1 Ga, due to a successive mixing of crustal rocks with mantle derived magmas. The existence of a depleted mantle reservoir in the Limpopo's hinterland is reflected by the ˜3.6 Ga zircon population, which shows ɛHf 3.6Ga between -4.6 and +3.2. In a global context, our data suggest that a long-lived, mafic Hadean protocrust with some tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite constituents was destroyed and partly recycled at the Hadean/Archean transition, perhaps

  9. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  10. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  11. A situation analysis of the competitive schools based cricket coaching programmes at u/19 level in the Gauteng province

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) The purpose of this study was to investigate the management of cricket coaching programmes at u/19 level in the Gauteng Province. Specifically, this study attempted to determine the current situation regarding management of coaching programmes and the delivery of in-school driven programmes in the province. Data was collected from schools offering cricket as a sport from both the Gauteng Lions and Northerns Cricket Union franchises. There were 10 schools in the N...

  12. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. An aquatic ecoregion-based assessment for water ecological security at typical watersheds in the northern areas of Liaoning province%辽宁北部典型流域水生态功能区水生态安全评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏冉; 李法云; 谯兴国; 王金龙; 吕纯剑

    2014-01-01

    An aquatic ecoregion-based assessment for water ecological security can offer a premise for the integrat-ed management guidance of watershed ecological security with the rule of“by type,by region”.Based on the natu-ral features and social attributes of the spatial differentiation of ecological security pattern in basins on small and medium scales,the typical two tributaries in the northern Liaoning province were selected as the study areas,i.e. the Qinghe river and the Fanhe river.On the basis of the third grade aquatic ecoregion,6 elements including socio-economic pressure,environmental pressure,urban development indicators,development of resources and environ-ment indicators,investment indicators,governance indicators were anlayzed and 1 3 indexes were selected according to the pressure-state-response model(PSR).The ecological security is divided into five grades according to ecolog-ical security index by using a comprehensive ecological security index method,and they were specially insecurity, insecurity,basically security,security,special security.At the Qinghe river basin,ecoregion with codes ofⅣ-5-9 ,Ⅳ-5-10,Ⅳ-5-1 1 ,Ⅳ-5-12,Ⅳ-5-14 are basically security grade and those with codes ofⅣ-5-8 andⅣ-5-13 belong to insecurity grade.The ecoregions with codes ofⅣ-5-1 ,Ⅳ-5-2,Ⅳ-5-3 of Fanhe river basin belong to basically security grade,and that with code ofⅣ-5-4 is security grade.The results of aquatic ecoregion-based ecological se-curity and grade division offer scientific references for water ecological protection and overall ecological manage-ment in Liaohe river basin.%基于流域水生态功能区的水生态安全评价是指导流域水生态“分类、分区”综合管理的前提。本文在流域中小尺度上依据水生态空间格局分异的自然特征和社会属性,以辽河流域的清河和凡河支流为对象,在流域水生态功能三级分区的基础上,运用“压力-状态-响应模型”(PSR),通过

  15. Deep seismic sounding in northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Unger, J.D.; Leith, W.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Solodilov, L.; Egorkin, A.V.; Ryaboy, V.Z.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the former Soviet Union has carried out an extensive program of seismic studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, known as “Deep Seismic Sounding” or DSS [Piwinskii, 1979; Zverev and Kosminskaya, 1980; Egorkin and Pavlenkova, 1981; Egorkin and Chernyshov, 1983; Scheimer and Borg, 1985]. Beginning in 1939–1940 with a series of small-scale seismic experiments near Moscow, DSS profiling has broadened into a national multiinstitutional exploration effort that has completed almost 150,000 km of profiles covering all major geological provinces of northern Eurasia [Ryaboy, 1989].

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manana, Pinky N; Kuonza, Lazarus; Musekiwa, Alfred; Mpangane, Hluphi D; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-07-20

    In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. We aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria transmission to inform a public awareness campaign for SIT in Jozini Local Municipality, Mamfene in KwaZulu-Natal province. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three communities in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal during 2015. A structured field piloted questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly selected heads of households. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Of the 400 participants interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria and correctly associated it with mosquito bites. The sources of malaria information were the local health facility (53%), radio (16%) and community meetings (7%). Approximately 63% of the participants were able to identify three or four symptoms of malaria. The majority (76%) were confident that indoor residual spraying (IRS) kills mosquitoes and prevents infection. Bed nets were used by 2% of the participants. SIT knowledge was poor (9%), however 63% of the participants were supportive of mosquito releases for research purposes. The remaining 37% raised concerns and fears, including fear of the unknown and lack of information on the SIT. Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and acceptable treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria were demonstrated by members of the community. Community involvement will be crucial in achieving success of the SIT and future studies should further investigate concerns raised by the community. The existing communication channels used by the

  17. Principles for an interactive multi-scale assessment of sustainable production limits - lessons from the Limpopo river basin case, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebrich, Jochen; de Cleccq, Willem; Veraart, Jeroen; Vullings, Wies

    2015-04-01

    About 7.2 billion people currently live on the Earth and the population is projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, that growth will be mainly in developing countries, with more than half in Africa (United Nations 2013). Any local extension of irrigated agriculture in a region of scarce natural resources may potentially restrict the possibility to extend land and water use at another location of the same river basin. In order to support, develop and to assess such future interventions, it is important to define limits until which a sustainable production can take place at a given location, taking into account competing claims on natural resources, human welfare and impacts on environmental quality. We define Sustainable production limits as limits for the possible resource use, within which a production can be extended without restricting the growth opportunities at a neighboured location. The more threatened the natural resources become, the more important it is to consider the effect of other upcoming interventions within the same region. As a consequence, interventions for future resource use have to be assessed against the future available natural resources. This is of particular relevance for evaluating possible extensions of irrigation areas within a river basin. Investigating possible limits for extending irrigated agriculture at local scale requires an understanding of the complexity, including boundaries, activities, stakeholders, and opportunities at river basin scale, and more. Switching between the scales in this information, in a participatory process, appears to be a challenge in its own. Within the Limpopo River basin (South Africa), we analysed (i) possible interventions at local scale (transdisciplinary innovation of irrigation by smallholders, launching of PPPs), (ii) restrictions for developing irrigation at the Letaba sub basin scale, and (iii) water balance at the scale of the Limpopo basin. Experiences from the Limpopo case revealed, that

  18. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface

  19. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  20. Location selection of agricultural-residuals particleboard industry through group decision: The case study of northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for locating agricultural-residuals particleboard industry in the northern provinces of Iran. Particleboard industry is the only Iranian wood and paper industry with an export potential and the use of agricultural residuals as the raw material can help with increasing the production in this industry, while reducing the damage to forest resources. The northern provinces of Iran are agricultural centers with ample amounts of agricultural residues. These provinces are, therefore, preferable to other provinces as the construction sites of particleboard plants. In the location selection model presented in this paper, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method is used and the results indicate that the criterion of ‘material and production’ and the sub-criterion of ‘reliability of supply’ have the highest priorities, and that Golestan province is the best alternative.

  1. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  2. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  3. Endeavor cruise 071 navigation and bathymetry, northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.; McCreery, C.; Dickson, S.; Baker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sub-bottom seismic profiling was carried out by R/V Endeavor during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Data collection was concentrated in LLWODP study area E-N3, which encompasses the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and the adjacent lower continental rise. Time, position, and depth were logged and marked on the seismic record at 15-minute intervals. These navigational and bathymetric data have been used to produce a time/position/depth listing, and a detailed bathymetric map of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and surrounding physiographic provinces. 6 figures, 1 table

  4. A comparative assessment of the health status of feral populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative assessment of the health status of feral populations of Clarias gariepinus from three dams in the Limpopo and Olifants river systems, Limpopo province, South Africa, using the fish health assessment index protocol.

  5. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  6. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  7. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  8. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Índice de massa corpórea, sobrepeso e pressão arterial em escolares na província de Limpopo, África do Sul Índice de masa corporal, sobrepeso y presión arterial en adolescentes de la província de limpopo, Sudáfrica Body mass index, overweight, and blood pressure among adolescent schoolchildren in Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Kankane Moselakgomo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre índice de massa corporal, sobrepeso e pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes da área rural da África do Sul. MÉTODOS: A amostra abrangeu 1.172 escolares (541 meninos e 631 meninas com idades entre 10 e 16 anos. Estatura, massa corporal e dobras cutâneas foram medidas por meio de procedimentos padrão. O sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal para idade e sexo. A pressão arterial foi monitorada três vezes em cada criança com o uso de aparelhos eletrônicos validados (Omron HEM-705 CP, Omron, Tóquio, Japão. A hipertensão foi determinada como a média de três leituras da pressão arterial, em que a sistólica ou a diastólica foi igual ou acima do percentil 90 para idade e sexo. Estatísticas descritivas foram calculadas para todas as variáveis. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 5,5% para meninos e 4,4% para meninas. A taxa de crianças com pressão arterial acima do percentil 90 variou de 2,3 a 5,9%. A probabilidade do desenvolvimento de hipertensão em crianças é perceptível aos dez anos, tanto para os meninos (0,2% quanto para as meninas (0,1%, e oscilou de 0,2 a 1,7% para o sexo masculino e de 0,1 a 1,2% para o feminino. Considerando-se a amostra total, a prevalência de hipertensão foi de 4,1% para os meninos e 2,8% para as meninas. A pressão arterial apresentou correlação positiva com estatura, massa corporal, índice de massa corporal, gordura corpórea e soma das dobras cutâneas (pOBJETIVO: Este estudio evalúa la relación entre índice de masa corporal, sobrepeso y presión arterial en adolescentes rurales sudafricanos. MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó a 1.172 niños de 10-16 años de edad (541 del sexo masculino y 631 del sexo femenino. La estatura, la masa corporal y los pliegues cutáneos se midieron utilizando procedimientos estándares. El sobrepeso se definió según el índice de masa corporal para sexo y edad. Se monitorizó la presión arterial por tres veces en cada niño utilizando aparatos electrónicos validados (Omron HEM-705 CP, Omron, Tokio, Japón. Se determinó la hipertensión cuando los promedios de la presión sistólica o diastólica, calculados con base en las tres mediciones de presión arterial, fueron ≥percentil 90 para edad y sexo. Se calcularon estadísticas descriptivas para todas las variables. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de sobrepeso fue del 5,5% en los niños y 4,4% en las niñas. El porcentaje de adolescentes con presión arterial sistólica >percentil 90 osciló entre el 2,3 y el 5,9%. La probabilidad de desarrollo de hipertensión entre los jóvenes fue notable a los 10 años tanto en los niños como en las niñas (0,2 y 0,1%, respectivamente y osciló entre el 0,2 y el 1,7% en los niños y entre el 0,1 y el 1,2% en las niñas. Colectivamente, la prevalencia de hipertensión fue del 4,1 y el 2,8% en niños y niñas, respectivamente. La presión arterial estuvo positivamente correlacionada con estatura, masa corporal, índice de masa corporal, grasa corporal y suma de pliegues cutáneos (p=0,00. CONCLUSIONES: La presión arterial se elevó con la edad tanto en los niños como en las niñas, y estuvo positivamente correlacionada con estatura, masa corporal, índice de masa corporal, grasa corporal y suma de pliegues cutáneos. La medición de rutina de la presión arterial como parte del examen físico de escolares es crucial para la prevención precoz y la implementación de programas de intervención.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index, overweight, and blood pressure among South African rural children and adolescents. METHODS: The sample involved 1,172 schoolchildren (541 boys and 631 girls aged 10 to 16 years. Stature, body mass, and skinfolds were measured using standard procedures. Overweight was defined by body mass index for gender and age. Blood pressure was monitored in each child three times using validated electronic devices (Omron HEM-705 CP, Device, Tokyo, Japan. Hypertension was determined as the average of three separate blood pressure readings, in which the systolic or diastolic blood pressure was ≥90th percentile for age and sex. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 5.5% for boys and 4.4% for girls. The children who had systolic blood pressure >90th percentile ranged from 2.3 to 5.9%. The likelihood of hypertension development among children is noticeable at age 10 for both boys and girls (0.2 and 0.1%, respectively, and ranged from 0.2 to 1.7% for boys and 0.1 to 1.2% for girls. Collectively, the prevalence of hypertension was 4.1 and 2.8% for boys and girls, respectively. Blood pressure correlated positively with stature, body mass, body mass index, body fat, and sum of skinfolds (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure increased with age in both genders. The routine measurement of blood pressure, as part of physical examinations of schoolchildren, is crucial for early prevention and intervention programs.

  10. Low-altitude outbreaks of human fascioliasis related with summer rainfall in Gilan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam; Majid Habibi-Nokhandam; Màrius V. Fuentes

    2011-01-01

    Following human fascioliasis outbreaks in 1988 and 1999 in Gilan province, northern Iran, efforts are now made to shed light on the seasonal pattern of fascioliasis transmission in this endemic area, taking into account snail host populations, climatic conditions and human cases. Populations of the intermediate host snail (Lymnaea spp.) peak in May and November, while there is a fourfold increase in the rate of human fascioliasis in February compared to that of September. Transmission is like...

  11. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  12. Spatial Pattern Determination of Biodiversity Threats at Landscape Level (Case Study: Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirzaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping spatial patterns of potential biodiversity threats is one of the important steps for effective conservation planning and activities. To determine the spatial patterns of threats in Golestan province, 12 criteria in four main groups including structural (fractal coefficient of perimeter, circularity ratio of area, average slope, compositional aspects of biodiversity (presence of species at risk, non-biological threats (distance to city, distance to village, distance to road, distance to infrastructure, distance to agricultural land, soil pollution, risk of fire and isolation (Nearest Neighbor Index were used. These data layers were digitized in GIS environment and were weighted through Analytical Hierarchy Process. A weighted linear combination was then used to map the spatial pattern of biodiversity threats in the province. Compositional aspect (0.59, non-biological threats (0.23, isolation (0.11, and structural aspect (0.07 were relatively weighted in the order of importance. Central parts of the province and patches in the northern and southern parts were recognized to be more exposed to biodiversity threats. The central parts of the province were mostly threatened by urban, industrial, road and agricultural development, whereas the northern and southern parts were recognized as areas of conservation importance having a variety of threatened birds.

  13. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  14. Mise en évidence de Provinces géochimiques dans les schistes bitumeux du Toarcien de l'est du bassin de Paris Geocheminical Provinces Revealed in Toarcien Oil Shales in the Eastern Paris Basin. Analysis of the Soluble Organic Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huc A. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la matière organique soluble dans le chloroforme des schistes du Toarcien de la partie orientale du bassin de Paris met en évidence l'existence d'une province géochimique nord et d'une province géochimique sud dont la frontière commune se trouve dans la région de Fécocourt. La province septentrionale se caractérise par une influence du domaine continental (massif des Ardennes au niveau de l'apport organique. Alors que la province méridionale se révèle exempt d'apport terrestre. Ces résultats sont en accord avec les indications sédimentologiques fournies par la littérature et apportent une dimension géochimique à la paléogéographie de ce bassin. An anaalysis of soluble organic motter in the chloroform from Toarcian shales from the eastern part of the Paris Basin reveals the existence of a northern geochemical province and a southern geochemical province whose commun boundary lies in the Fecocourt region. The northern province is characterized by the influence of the continental domain (Ardennes range with regard to organic influx, whereas no terrestrial influx is found in the southern province. These findings agree with the sedimentological indications supplied by the literature and add a geochemical dimension to the paleogeography of this basin.

  15. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km 2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m 3 . (author). 1 fig

  16. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    , water from Nubian aquifers is satisfactory for most uses and is of better quality than that obtained from Umm Ruwaba aquifers. The relatively high mineralization of water from the Umm Ruwaba, especially in the eastern part of the Province, makes the water unsuitable for many municipal ad industrial uses. The water is generally usable, however, for domestic and livestock purposes. Some 175 drilled wells located at 75 water yards yield an average, of about 1,000 imperial gallons .per hour per well from Nubian or Umm Ruwaba. aquifers. Generally the water yards provide sufficient water for minimum domestic and livestock requirements throughout the year. Commonly, however, the water yards are widely separated and, hence, not always properly spaced for good range management or for serving the needs of the dispersed rural population. In 1962, withdrawals from Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the Province were approximately 600 million gallons annually. This rate of draft: could probably be continued almost indefinitely without significant depletion of the water supply. Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the southwestern part of Kordofan offer excellent potential for future development. Nubian aquifers in northern Kordofan need extensive exploration by test drilling before their economic potential can be properly evaluated.

  17. Antiparasitic herbs used in west regions ofIlam province located in west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify antiparasitic medicinal plants used by people in southern regions of Ilam province in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out using questionnaire and interview method between February 2012 and April 2013 and also by means of public resources. Along with distributing questionnaires herbarium specimens of each plant were collected and then their genus and species were determined in the Natural Resources Research Center of Ilam province. Results: A total of 19 medicinal plants used as antiparasitic plants belonged to 14 families were identified in southern regions of Ilam province. Majority of antiparasite herbs were related to Compositeae (11%, Rosaceae (11%, Solanaceae (11%, Liliaceae (11%, and Asteraceae (11% families. Aerial parts with 28% were the most plant organs used for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Results of this study showed that infusion with 83% is the most popular form of herbal medications in southern regions of Ilam province. Conclusions: The report of medicinal plants belonged to northern regions of this province may provide necessary condition for researchers to identify effective substances and to study the clinical effects claimed for these plants and their effective substances on different parasitic diseases while traditional effects of these plants are documented.

  18. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  19. Distribución temporal y espacial de poblaciones larvarias de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae en diferentes hospederos en provincias del norte de la Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae larval populations on different host plants in northern Argentina provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Murúa

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la distribución temporal y espacial de larvas del "cogollero del maíz" Spodoptera frugiperda en diferentes plantas hospederas, se realizaron muestreos sistemáticos desde el año 2004 al 2007 en diferentes asociaciones de cultivos en las provincias de Tucumán, Salta y Santiago del Estero. Se consideró "asociación de cultivos" a una zona donde coexistían simultáneamente (en tiempo y espacio más de dos cultivos colindantes. Los cultivos monitoreados fueron maíz, sorgo granífero, alfalfa, caña de azúcar, soja, trigo, cártamo, garbanzo y malezas. En cada uno se muestrearon cinco puntos al azar de 1 m² y se revisaron las plantas, recolectándose las posturas y/o larvas presentes. Se encontraron 3620 larvas. La mayor cantidad se recolectó durante los meses del verano en las tres campañas monitoreadas en todas las provincias. Su presencia estuvo relacionada con la aparición de los cultivos estivales como el maíz y el sorgo granífero, en todas las provincias. La mayor cantidad de larvas se obtuvieron en maíz (2894, independientemente de los otros cultivos que formaban parte de la asociación. Siguiendo en orden de importancia, los otros hospederos con larvas fueron: sorgo granífero (272, alfalfa (125 y malezas (282. En base al número de larvas encontradas, la soja, trigo y caña de azúcar, cultivos que estuvieron presentes en casi todas las asociaciones, no son hospederos preferenciales de esta especie.In order to study the spatial and temporal distribution of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda larval populations on different host plants, systematic samplings were made from 2004 to 2007 in different crop associations in the provinces of Tucumán, Salta and Santiago del Estero. A zone where more than two adjacent crops coexisted simultaneously (in time and space was considered a crop association. Sampled crops were corn, sorghum, alfalfa, sugarcane, soybean, wheat, safflower, chickpea and weeds. Five one

  20. Fetal alcohol syndrome among grade-one children in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS among schoolgoing children in Grade 1 in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Design. A cross-sectional study using a two-tiered method for ascertainment of FAS/partial FAS cases, comprising: ...

  1. Attitude toward Christianity among Secondary School Pupils in Northern Ireland: Shifts in Denominational Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Barnes, L. Philip; Sion, Tania ap

    2007-01-01

    Background: Northern Ireland is a province that remains deeply divided between Protestants and Catholics and maintains a segregated system of schools. Purpose: The research builds on a series of studies conducted in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s to monitor the attitude toward Christianity of males and females educated in Protestant and Catholic…

  2. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  3. Yellowcake and crocodiles: town planning, government and society in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, J.P.; Zehner, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This is the first detailed study of the controversial modern settlement of mining families in Australia's Northern Territory Uranium Province. The new uranium town of Jabiru, set in the world famous Kakadu National Park, is the focus of the book which provides an analysis of the important contradictions inherent in resources development today - mining, environmental conservation and Aboriginal rights

  4. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  5. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  6. Grenvillian vs Pan-African tectonic evolution in the Gamburtsev Province of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Guochao, W.; Finn, C.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in interior East Antarctica are underlain by 50-60 km thick crust. In contrast, the Archean to Mesoproterozoic Mawson craton that occupies the Wilkes and Terre Adelie region features only 40-45 km thick crust. The Gamburtsev Province is underlain by 200 km thick lithoshere, as typically observed over Precambrian lithosphere that has not been substantially reworked during Phanerozoic subduction or collision. Ferraccioli et al., (2011) proposed that a segment of a stalled orogen (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred) is preserved in the Gamburtsev Province and hypothesised that its origin relates to accretionary and subsequent collisional events at ca 1 Ga, linked to the assembly of Rodinia. However, passive seismic interpretations indicate that crustal thickening may relate instead to Pan-African age assembly of Gondwana (at ca 550 Ma). Here we interpret a set of enhanced magnetic and gravity images, depth to magnetic and gravity sources and 2D and forward and inverse models to characterise the crustal architecture of the Gamburtsev Province. Enhanced aeromagnetic images reveal a system of subglacial faults that segment the Gamburtsev Province into three distinct geophysical domains, the northern, central and southern domains. Apparent offsets in high-frequency magnetic anomalies within the central domain are interpreted as revealing a transpressional fault system parallel to the previously proposed Gamburtsev Suture. Our magnetic and gravity model, combined with independent constraints from sediment provenance ages, is interpreted as revealing arc and back arc terranes of inferred Grenvillian age in the northern and Central domains of the Gambrurtsev Province. Distinct magnetic anomalies correspond to inferred Paleoproterozoic crust that may have affinities with the Lambert Terrane and the South Pole Province, an inferred Mesoproterozoic (1.6-1.4 Ga?) igneous province. We

  7. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Vegetation Cover Analysis in Shaanxi Province of China Based on Grid Pixel Ternd Analysis and Stability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, H.; Liu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    As a key factor affecting the biogeochemical cycle of human existence, terrestrial vegetation is vulnerable to natural environment and human activities, with obvious temporal and spatial characteristics. The change of vegetation cover will affect the ecological balance and environmental quality to a great extent. Therefore, the research on the causes and influencing factors of vegetation cover has become the focus of attention of scholars at home and abroad. In the evolution of human activities and natural environment, the vegetation coverage in Shaanxi has changed accordingly. Using MODIS/NDVI 2000-2014 time series data, using the method of raster pixel trend analysis, stability evaluation, rescaled range analysis and correlation analysis, the climatic factors in Shaanxi province were studied in the near 15 years vegetation spatial and temporal variation and influence of vegetation NDVI changes. The results show that NDVI in Shaanxi province in the near 15 years increased by 0.081, the increase of NDVI in Northern Shaanxi was obvious, and negative growth was found in some areas of Guanzhong, southern Shaanxi NDVI overall still maintained at a high level; the trend of vegetation change in Shaanxi province has obvious spatial differences, most of the province is a slight tendency to improve vegetation, there are many obvious improvement areas in Northern Shaanxi Province. Guanzhong area vegetation area decreased, the small range of variation of vegetation in Shaanxi province; the most stable areas are mainly concentrated in the southern, southern Yanan, Yulin, Xi'an area of Weinan changed greatly; Shaanxi Province in recent 15 a, the temperature and precipitation have shown an increasing trend, and the vegetation NDVI is more closely related to the average annual rainfall, with increase of 0.48 °C/10 years and 69.5 mm per year.

  9. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  10. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  11. Inadequate dietary intake is not the cause of stunting amongst young children living in an informal settlement in Gauteng and rural Limpopo Province in South Africa: the NutriGro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, M; Amissah, A; Kleynhans, I C; Albertse, E; MacIntyre, U E

    2007-04-01

    To measure dietary intakes of young children aged 12-24 months and to determine the impact of poor diets on stunting. A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was adapted, tested and standardised. Trained enumerators conducted in-depth interviews with the mothers/caregivers of the children. Forty stunted children in urban informal settlements and 30 stunted children in rural areas were selected and pair-matched with controls. The data were captured on the Food Finder Program of the Medical Research Council. In both urban and rural areas, the diet of stunted and non-stunted groups did differ significantly and all diets were of poor nutritional quality. Diets in both areas resembled the recommended prudent diet, i.e. low in fat and high in carbohydrates. Poor quality diets were not the primary cause of stunting.

  12. An Assessment of the Food and Nutrition Security Status of Weaned 7-12 Months Old Children in Rural and Peri-Urban Communities of Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntila, Sithandiwe; Siwela, Muthulisi; Kolanisi, Unathi; Abdelgadir, Hafiz; Ndhlala, Ashwell

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the food and nutrition security status of children receiving complementary food in rural and peri-urban communities. A group of 106 mothers from Lebowakgomo village and Hammanskraal Township, respectively, participated in the survey. Additionally, six focus group discussions were conducted per study area to assess the mothers' perceptions about children's food access. The Children's Food Insecurity Access Scale (CFIAS) was used to assess the food security status (access) of the children. The Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) together with the unquantified food consumption frequency survey were used as a proxy measure of the nutritional quality of the children's diets. The age and weight of the children obtained from the children's clinic health cards were used to calculate Weight-for-Age Z scores (WAZ) in order to determine the prevalence of underweight children. The findings showed that a large percentage of children were severely food-insecure, 87% and 78%, in rural and peri-urban areas, respectively. Additionally, Lebowakgomo children (23.6%) and Hammanskraal children (17.9%) were severely underweight. Overall, children's diets in both study areas was characterized by nutrient-deficient complementary foods. Cheaper foods with a longer stomach-filling effect such as white maize meal and sugar were the most commonly purchased and used. Hence, the children consumed very limited amounts of foods rich in proteins, minerals, and vitamins, which significantly increased the risk of their being malnourished.

  13. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia Shawel; Smith, James A; Narkiewicz, Sophia; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Conaway, Mark; Singo, Alukhethi; Amidou, Samie; Mojapelo, Paul; Brant, Julia; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

  14. Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Liao, Xiaoli; Zhai, Tianlin

    2018-04-01

    differences. Under the BAU scenario, the construction land is mainly in the south of Lijiang City and the northeastern part of Kunming. Under the FP scenario, the new construction land is concentrated near the Lashi dam in northern Yunnan Province, and the high-quality arable land in the valley will be better protected. The research results can provide reference for the optimization of land use pattern in Yunnan Province, and provide scientific basis for land use management and planning. Based on the value of ecosystem services, we should implement the policy of strict protection of arable land, both to ensure food supply and promote the healthy development of ecological environment.

  15. Status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Buhler, Cyril; Pignatelli, Patricia; Ranson, Hilary; Nahzat, Sami Mohammad; Naseem, Mohammad; Sabawoon, Muhammad Farooq; Siddiqi, Abdul Majeed; Vink, Martijn

    2016-02-18

    Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. In Afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. The main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission. Adult female mosquitoes were reared from larvae successively collected in the provinces of Nangarhar, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ghazni and Laghman from August to October 2014. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %), malathion (5 %), bendiocarb (0.1 %), permethrin (0.75 %) and deltamethrin (0.05 %). In addition, the presence of kdr mutations was investigated in deltamethrin resistant and susceptible Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes collected in the eastern provinces of Nangarhar and Kunar. Analyses of mortality rates revealed emerging resistance against all four classes of insecticides in the provinces located east and south of the Hindu Kush mountain range. Resistance is observed in both An. stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies, the two dominant malaria vectors in these provinces. Anopheles superpictus in the northern province of Badakhshan shows a different pattern of susceptibility with suspected resistance observed only for deltamethrin and bendiocarb. Genotype analysis of knock down resistance (kdr) mutations at the voltage-gated channel gene from An. stephensi mosquitoes shows the presence of the known resistant alleles L1014S and L1014F. However, a significant fraction of deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes were homozygous for the 1014L wild type allele indicating that other mechanisms must be considered to account for the observed pyrethroid resistance. This study confirms the importance of monitoring insecticide resistance for the development of an integrated vector management in Afghanistan. The

  16. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  17. Parameter and input data uncertainty estimation for the assessment of water resources in two sub-basins of the Limpopo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Oosthuizen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for water resources is rapidly growing, placing more strain on access to water and its management. In order to appropriately manage water resources, there is a need to accurately quantify available water resources. Unfortunately, the data required for such assessment are frequently far from sufficient in terms of availability and quality, especially in southern Africa. In this study, the uncertainty related to the estimation of water resources of two sub-basins of the Limpopo River Basin – the Mogalakwena in South Africa and the Shashe shared between Botswana and Zimbabwe – is assessed. Input data (and model parameters are significant sources of uncertainty that should be quantified. In southern Africa water use data are among the most unreliable sources of model input data because available databases generally consist of only licensed information and actual use is generally unknown. The study assesses how these uncertainties impact the estimation of surface water resources of the sub-basins. Data on farm reservoirs and irrigated areas from various sources were collected and used to run the model. Many farm dams and large irrigation areas are located in the upper parts of the Mogalakwena sub-basin. Results indicate that water use uncertainty is small. Nevertheless, the medium to low flows are clearly impacted. The simulated mean monthly flows at the outlet of the Mogalakwena sub-basin were between 22.62 and 24.68 Mm3 per month when incorporating only the uncertainty related to the main physical runoff generating parameters. The range of total predictive uncertainty of the model increased to between 22.15 and 24.99 Mm3 when water use data such as small farm and large reservoirs and irrigation were included. For the Shashe sub-basin incorporating only uncertainty related to the main runoff parameters resulted in mean monthly flows between 11.66 and 14.54 Mm3. The range of predictive uncertainty changed to between 11.66 and 17

  18. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  19. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  20. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  1. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  2. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  3. A study of radioactive elements of various rocks in Pattani Province with gamma ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewtubtim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity of the three elements, potassium, uranium and thorium, in rocks of various types in Pattani Province was investigated by using a gamma ray spectrometer. It was found that potassium contents in igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were 6.29 %, 2.21% and 1.54 % respectively. Uranium equivalent contents in igneous rock, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were found to be 22.51 ppm, 11.25 ppm and 14.13 ppm, while thorium contents in these rocks were 21.78 ppm, 18.88 ppm and 18.15 ppm respectively. The results obtained were similar to those reported by Pungtip Ranglek (1995 for igneous rock at Liwong Pluton site in Thepha, Na Thawi, Chana and Saba Yoi Districts, Songkhla Province, and were about six times higher than those reported by Kittichai Wattananikorn (1994 for igneous rock in the northern part of Thailand.

  4. Characterization of the neoplastic disease in childhood in the province of Ciego de Avila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Calleja, Norma C

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to characterize from the standpoint of childhood cancer epidemiology in the province of Ciego de Avila from January to December 2008. The sample consisted of all the managers or guardians, with inclusion criteria and signed informed consent. We applied a structured interview criteria validated by experts. The data were divided into tables and comments. Acute leukemias were most prevalent. The northern area had a higher proportional mortality and crude with 10.7 x c/100 people died and 0.05 respectively x c/1000 plus higher incidence rate, with 0.8 x c/10000 inhabitants. The higher prevalence of cancer diseases in the municipality of the chamber. The specific rates were in the group of 1 to 4 years and only 16.3% underwent early diagnosis of the disease. We conclude that working in the promotion, teaching and research to reduce childhood cancer mortality in the province

  5. Spatio-temporal trend analysis of precipitation in Guizhou province based on GIS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Fengtai; Pan, Yuanfen; Li, Wei; Cao, Guangjie; An, Youzhi

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation changes are closely related to human production and life. Based on the data of Guizhou Province from 1998 to 2012, the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation in Guizhou Province were analyzed from the annual, seasonal and monthly scales by linear trend analysis and ArcGIS kriging spatial interpolation. The results show that the annual precipitation is mainly concentrated in the summer, accounting for 47.6% of the year, followed by spring accounted for 26.9%, autumn accounted for 18.6% in winter accounted for 6.9%. In the time, the precipitation in the study area shows a decreasing trend in the annual scale, seasonal scale and July. The overall spatial precipitation distribution shows a decreasing trend from the east to the west. The precipitation also in the south is higher than the northern region.

  6. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  7. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  8. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  9. Relationships between crustal structure and extension in the Basin and Range Province and East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G R [University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019 (United States)], E-mail: grkeller@ou.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Basin and Range Province of the western United States and northern Mexico is often cited as a classic example of a wide rift. It is also a region where metamorphic core complexes such as the ones observed in the Aegean region are observed. On the other hand, the eastern arm (Kenya rift) of the East African rift is considered to be the classic example of a continental rift, which is by some definitions narrow. In this paper, these two features are briefly compared in terms of crustal structure and associated manifestations of extension.

  10. A new species of the genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Triplophysa daochengensis, from Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yi WU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplophysa daochengensis sp. nov. is described from the Daocheng River, a northern tributary of the Jinsha River in Sichuan Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: body smooth and scales absent; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed, depth unchanging; head length equal to caudal-peduncle length; lower jaw shovel-shaped; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to the tip of the snout than to the caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin tip not reaching anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine of spiral type with three winding coils.

  11. Contraceptive use among HIV-positive women in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Bui Kim; Gammeltoft, Tine; Hanh, Nguyen Thi Thuy

    2012-01-01

    Objective  To investigate contraceptive use among HIV-positive women in Ha long city and Cam Pha town of Quang Ninh, a Northern province of Vietnam. Methods  Cross-sectional questionnaire study among HIV-positive women identified through the district HIV/AIDS register. Information on socioeconomic...... contraceptive use and the women's socioeconomic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were applied to adjust for possible confounding. The women's contraceptive use before HIV testing and after HIV testing was described and compared by Chi-square testing, and the association between post...

  12. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  13. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  14. The geomorphology of the wet and dry tropics and problems associated with the storage of uranium tailings in Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, R.F.; Pickup, G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the principal landforms of the Alligator Rivers Region Uranium Province of Northern Australia, reviews work on landforms and processes in this wet and dry tropical environment, and discusses the kinds of geomorphological hazards which might be encountered in disposing of uranium tailings at the Nabarlek, Ranger, Koongarra and Jabiluka Uranium Project Sites

  15. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  16. Water levels of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-07-13

    The Ozark aquifer is the largest aquifer, both in area of outcrop and thickness, and the most important source of freshwater in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province, supplying water to northern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. The study area includes 16 Arkansas counties lying completely or partially within the Ozark Plateaus of the Interior Highlands major physiographic division. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, conducted a study of water levels in the Ozark aquifer within Arkansas. This report presents a potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer within the Ozark Plateaus of northern Arkansas, representing water-level conditions for the early spring of 2013 and selected water-level hydrographs.

  17. Strategies Utilized by Professional Nurses in the Primary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies Utilized by Professional Nurses in the Primary Health Care Facilities Regarding Adherence of Patients to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  18. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  19. The Emeishan large igneous province: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Shellnutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone. The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040–0.7132, Nd (ɛNd(t ≈ −14 to +8, Pb (206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9–20.6 and Os (γOs ≈ −5 to +11 isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2-rich fluids

  20. Petrologic Modeling of Magmatic Evolution in The Elysium Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, D.; Karunatillake, S.; Hood, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Elysium Volcanic Province (EVP) on Mars is a massive expanse of land made up of many hundreds of lava flows of various ages1. The variable surface ages within this volcanic province have distinct elemental compositions based on the derived values from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) suite2. Without seismic data or ophiolite sequences on Mars, the compositions of lavas on the surface provide some of the only information to study the properties of the interior of the planet. The Amazonian surface age and isolated nature of the EVP in the northern lowlands of Mars make it ideal for analyzing the mantle beneath Elysium during the most recent geologic era on Mars. The MELTS algorithm is one of the most commonly used programs for simulating compositions and mineral phases of basaltic melt crystallization3. It has been used extensively for both terrestrial applications4 and for other planetary bodies3,5. The pMELTS calibration of the algorithm allows for higher pressure (10-30 kbars) regimes, and is more appropriate for modeling melt compositions and equilibrium conditions for a source within the martian mantle. We use the pMELTS program to model how partial melting of the martian mantle could evolve magmas into the surface compositions derived from the GRS instrument, and how the mantle beneath Elysium has changed over time. We attribute changes to lithospheric loading by long term, episodic volcanism within the EVP throughout its history. 1. Vaucher, J. et al. The volcanic history of central Elysium Planitia: Implications for martian magmatism. Icarus 204, 418-442 (2009). 2. Susko, D. et al. A record of igneous evolution in Elysium, a major martian volcanic province. Scientific Reports 7, 43177 (2017). 3. El Maarry, M. R. et al. Gamma-ray constraints on the chemical composition of the martian surface in the Tharsis region: A signature of partial melting of the mantle? Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 185, 116-122 (2009). 4. Ding, S. & Dasgupta, R. The

  1. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the province of Novara, Italy, and possible role of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Marina; Consonni, Michela; Filippini, Tommaso; Mazzini, Letizia; Pisano, Fabrizio; Chiò, Adriano; Esposito, Aniello; Vinceti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Based on nationwide death certificates, a cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been reported in the area of Briga (Novara province, northern Italy), known for its severe environmental contamination. We further investigated this finding, by following up with the collection of recent incidence ALS data in 2002-2012 of Novara province, also to assess the possible long-term effects of environmental pollution in that area. In the whole Novara province we identified 106 ALS cases, of which 35 were from the Briga area. Incidence rates of Novara province were 3.98, 5.14 and 2.97 for the total population, males and females, respectively, compared with the Briga area where they were 4.65, 4.27 and 4.98, respectively. The ratio of observed-to-expected ALS cases in the Briga area, using incidence of the rest of Novara province as a reference, was 1.17 (95% CI 0.81-1.62), with a value of 0.83 (95% CI 0.47-1.37) in males and 1.68 (95% CI 1.03-2.60) in females. Overall, our study did not confirm previous findings of an excess ALS incidence in an area characterised by severe environmental heavy metal pollution, and it suggests the need to interpret with caution clusters identified through mortality data.

  2. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Matter Element Analysis: A Case Study of 13 Cities in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuefeng; Pu, Lijie

    2017-08-21

    Urban public health is an important global issue and receives public concern. The urban ecosystem health (UEH) indicator system was constructed with 27 assessment indicators selected from vigor, organization, resilience, service function, and population health, then the matter element analysis (MEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) weighting method were used to assess the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province during the period of 2000-2014. The results show that the overall ecosystem health status of each city shows continuous improvement. The UEH status of each city gradually transferred from poor, general, and medium condition to good and excellent condition. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the city's UEH showing a steady status after increasing for 10 years, and their spatial variations have gradually reduced. The UEH status in Southern Jiangsu and Central Jiangsu was better than that of Northern Jiangsu Province. From each component point of view, the vigor, resilience, and population health of each city in Jiangsu Province showed a trend of continuous improvement, while the organization and service function first increased and then decreased. The common limiting factors of UEH in Jiangsu Province were Engel's coefficient of urban households, number of beds of hospitals, health centers per 10,000 people, and total investment in the treatment of environmental pollution as percent GDP. These results help decision makers to make suitable decisions to maintain the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province.

  3. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  4. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  6. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  7. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-10-10

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

  8. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

  9. A sedimentological approach to refining reservoir architecture in a mature hydrocarbon province: the Brent Province, UK North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, G.J.; Sixsmith, P.J.; Johnson, H.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering

    2004-04-01

    Improved reservoir characterisation in the mature Brent Province of the North Sea, aimed at maximising both in-field and near-field hydrocarbon potential, requires a clearer understanding of sub-seismic stratigraphy and facies distributions. In this context, we present a regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework for the Brent Group, UK North Sea based on extensive sedimentological re-interpretation of core and wireline-log data, combined with palynostratigraphy and published literature. This framework is used to place individual reservoirs in an appropriate regional context, thus resulting in the identification of subtle sedimentological and tectono-stratigraphic features of reservoir architecture that have been previously overlooked. We emphasise the following insights gained from our regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic synthesis: (1) improved definition of temporal and spatial trends in deposition both within and between individual reservoirs, (2) development of regionally consistent, predictive sedimentological models for two enigmatic reservoir intervals (the Broom and Tarbert Formations), and (3) recognition of subtle local tectono-stratigraphic controls on reservoir architecture, and their links to the regional, Middle Jurassic structural evolution of the northern North Sea. We discuss the potential applications of these insights to the identification of additional exploration potential and to improved ultimate recovery. (author)

  10. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  11. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  12. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  13. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  14. Tintina Gold Province Study, Alaska and Yukon Territory, 2002-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    The Tintina gold province is an arc-shaped 2,000-kilometer-long metallogenic province that extends from northern British Columbia, through the Yukon Territory, and across and into southwestern Alaska. In the United States, the province remains a prime area for gold exploration and includes such large gold deposits as Pogo, Fort Knox-True North, and Donlin Creek. In recent years, gold exploration and development and mining activity have accelerated in the area. Plans have been discussed for public and private projects and infrastructures associated with development. A U.S. Geological Survey study undertaken from 2002 to 2007 provides a context for understanding why and how the mineral resources of the area were formed, why this area is so abundantly endowed, and how the environmental signatures that are characteristic of the area are related to the development of mineral resources. Characterization of natural baseline metal concentrations in the area's watersheds is necessary to address future land-use issues related to mining and/or infrastructure activities. A thorough understanding of water-rock and element-bioavailability processes will help predict the possible environmental impact of development. The five tasks of this study add to the science of defining and understanding an 'intrusion-related gold system.'

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  16. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  17. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  18. Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikit, I; Slivka, J; Conkić, Lj; Krmar, M; Vesković, M; Zikić-Todorović, N; Varga, E; Curcić, S; Mrdja, D

    2005-01-01

    The widespread public belief that during the bombardment of Vojvodina (Yugoslavia) this region was contaminated by depleted uranium has recently raised public concern with respect to the potential contamination of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. Based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina we concluded that there is no increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not endanger the health safety of the produced food. No traces of depleted uranium have been found. The natural radioactivity levels are compared with the results form other countries.

  19. Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Conkic, Lj.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Zikic-Todorovic, N.; Varga, E.; Curcic, S.; Mrdja, D.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread public belief that during the bombardment of Vojvodina (Yugoslavia) this region was contaminated by depleted uranium has recently raised public concern with respect to the potential contamination of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. Based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina we concluded that there is no increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137 Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not endanger the health safety of the produced food. No traces of depleted uranium have been found. The natural radioactivity levels are compared with the results form other countries

  20. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Smith, P.E.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x10 8 m 3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

  1. Customers’ Behaviour Analysis in Furniture Field: IKEA Case in the Northern part of Bari province

    OpenAIRE

    Dario A. Schirone

    2012-01-01

    Between the 70es and the 80es, the firm strategy - meant as the whole of choices to make in order to achieve long-term targets, or, as defined by SWOT Analysis, which one referred to during the economic boom years - gives way to the strategic planning and the strategic management. In such a reference picture, the present situation of IKEA store in Bari (Puglia, Italy) is included. This study target is, therefore, to determine what can be the reasons linked to a different purchase choice by a ...

  2. Discussion on the petrochemistry characteristics and uranium deposit of Xiazhuang pluton in northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    The element characteristic of Indo-Chinese epoch Xiazhuang granite is rich in silicon (SiO 2 =69.13%∼73.39%), alkalis (K 2 O+Na 2 O=7.49%∼8.69%), the ASI=1.01∼1.21 and ratio of w (K 2 O)/w (Na 2 O)>1, Xiazhuang pluton is belong to high potassium calcium-alkaline and aluminous series rocks. It shows that the pluton is typical S-type granite, little part is A-type granite character. Under the extension tectonic setting of lithosphere, the Xiazhuang pluton is partial melting product that making up metamorphic mud and sandstone together. By analysing the tectonic setting,the pluton is belong to post-collision granite that original rock provide abundant of uranium content for granite and the tectonic setting of forming provide the moving channels and occurrence space for uranium deposit. (authors)

  3. Native forest generation in pine and eucalypt plantation in Northern Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available the Eastern escarpment, and Entabeni on Soutpansberg Mountains. The area receives 1200 to 1900 mm rain per annum, mainly during summer. Two hypotheses were tested: under storey colonisation by native plant species is strongly influenced by the overhead...

  4. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Smith, P.E.; Dziembowski, Z.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 10 8 m 3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.) [de

  5. A stream sediment orientation programme for Uranium in the Alligator River Province, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, J.E.; Foy, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments samples were collected from streams draining the Koongarra uranium deposit and the small uranium mines in the South Alligator Valley. Determinations for U, Cu and Pb on various size fractions taken from each of these samples indicated that the best results were obtained for U from the minus 200-mesh fraction, but the train from the Koongarra ore deposit was very short. Cu and Pb were not found to be very useful as indicator elements for U. Alpha-track films were used to determine the Rn content of each sample and the ratio of alpha-track film reading to U content was found to define anomalous drainage areas around the mineralization in the Koongarra area. The areas so defined were of sufficient magnitude to be defined in a reconnaissance stream sediment programme

  6. A regional mineralogical study of the manganese-bearing Voelwater subgroup in the northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleyenstueber, A.S.E.

    1985-11-01

    The Voelwater Subgroup, of the Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence, in the Hotazel area, is preserved in five structurally controlled basins, on the eastern side of the Dimoten syncline. The Subgroup represents a relatively undisturbed unit of mixed volcanogenic - chemical sedimentary rocks. The Hotazel Formation within the Voelwater Subgroup, consists of a finely banded carbonate - silicate - hematite - manganese lutite sequence of banded iron-formation and must be unique in that it contains the world's largest land-based repository of manganese. Twenty-one drill cores, sampled lithologically at intervals of approximately one metre through the total sedimentary sequence, were studied by microscopic, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe methods. The mineralogy of the Voelwater Subgroup was studied on a regional scale, with the emphasis on the minerals within the manganese beds of the Hotazel Formation. The objective of the study was: a. To study the variation and distrubution of minerals in the various manganese ores on a regional scale. b. To compare the mineralogical differences of the different ores mined, in order to gain a better understanding of their metallurgical behaviour. c. To try to locate high-grade manganese ore target areas for future exploration, with the aid of mineralogical information. d. To try to establish the origin of the manganese in the Voelwater Formation. e. To study the relationship of the manganese units with the adjacent chemical sediments of the Hotazel Formation

  7. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  8. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Hazy Days in Cities of Jiangsu Province China and an Analysis of Its Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the surface meteorological data of Jiangsu Province during 1980–2012, the climatic characteristics and the trends of haze were analyzed. The results indicated that during 1980–2012 haze days increased; in particular, severe and moderate haze days significantly increased. In the northern and coastal cities of Jiangsu Province China, haze days showed a significant increase. Haze often appeared in fall and winter and rarely in summer in the study area. It also occurred more often inland, and less along the coast. Haze occurred more often in June due to straw burning in the harvest time. The haze day increased during the 1990s over southern and southwestern Jiangsu Province; in central and northern Jiangsu, haze day increased after 2000. The continuous, regional, and regional continuous haze days all showed increasing trends. As the urban area expanded each year, industrial emissions, coal consumption, and car ownership increased accordingly, resulting in regional temperature increase and relative humidity decrease, which formed the urban heat island and dry island effects. Hence, haze formation and maintenance conditions became more favorable for more haze days, which led to the increase of haze days, and the significant increases of continuous, regional, and regional continuous haze days.

  9. Household opportunity costs of protecting and developing forest lands in Son La and Hoa Binh Provinces, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Lan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam has pilot-tested a payment for forest environmental services (PFES program in an effort to restore and protect forest areas, some of which have been severely degraded by the excessive cutting of trees by small-scale farmers planting annual crops on steep, sloping lands. The pilot program implemented in southern Vietnam seems to be successful, yet the program in northern Vietnam has not produced the desired rates of planting and maintaining forest areas. The reasons for these mixed results include differences in socio-economic characteristics and also the production and marketing opportunities available to rural households in the project areas. To gain insight regarding program participation, we examine the household-level opportunity costs of planting and ­maintaining small plots of forest trees in northern Vietnam. We find that small-scale farmers in Hoa Binh Province, with limited financial resources, prefer the annual revenue stream provided by crops such as maize and cassava, rather than waiting for 7 years to obtain revenue from a forest planting. Farmers in Son La Province, with limited access to markets, prefer annual crops because they are not able to sell bamboo shoots and other forest products harvested from their small plots. In both provinces, the payments offered for planting and maintaining forest trees are smaller than the opportunity costs of planting and harvesting annual crops. Thus, most households likely would choose not to participate in the PFES program, at current payment rates, if given the opportunity to decline.

  10. Ancient terrane boundaries as probable seismic hazards: A case study from the northern boundary of the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern part of the Indian shield, late Paleozoic–Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Talchir Basin lie precisely along a contact of Neoproterozoic age between granulites of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB and amphibolite facies rocks of the Rengali Province. At present, the northern part of the basin experiences periodic seismicity by reactivation of faults located both within the basin, and in the Rengali Province to the north. Detailed gravity data collected across the basin show that Bouguer anomalies decrease from the EGMB (∼+15 mGal, through the basin (∼−10 mGal, into the Rengali Province (∼−15 mGal. The data are consistent with the reportedly uncompensated nature of the EGMB, and indicate that the crust below the Rengali Province has a cratonic gravity signature. The contact between the two domains with distinct sub-surface structure, inferred from gravity data, coincides with the North Orissa Boundary Fault (NOBF that defines the northern boundary of the Talchir Basin. Post-Gondwana faults are also localized along the northern margin of the basin, and present-day seismic tremors also have epicenters close to the NOBF. This indicates that the NOBF was formed by reactivation of a Neoproterozoic terrane boundary, and continues to be susceptible to seismic activity even at the present-day.

  11. Geochemistry of cenozoic basaltic rocks from Shandong province and its implication for mantle process in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yungtan; Chen Juchin; Huang Shaowei; Shih Jyhyi; Lin Menglung; Juang Wenshing; Yang Huaijen

    2006-01-01

    Cenozoic (Miocene to Pleistocene) basaltic rocks found in Shandong province of northern China include tholeiite, olivine tholeiite and alkali basalt. We present major, trace and rare earth elements data of these basalts and together with Sr-Nd isotopic data in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts. The basalts from Penglai area have higher K, Na and P and incompatible elements, but lower Ca, Mg and compatible elements contents than those from Changle area of Shandong province. Spidergrams indicate that Cenozoic basalts from Shandong province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) with slight positive Nb anomaly. The negative Ba, Rb and K anomalies found in the alkali basalts suggest the presence of residual phlogopite in the mantle source, indicating a metasomatic event occurred before the partial melting. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd vs. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr plot suggested that basalts from Shandong province can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing. We propose that the EM-I type lithospheric mantle may have been produced by the recent H 2 O-CO 2 -fluids metasomatism and the fluids may be derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. Based on Shaw's equation, the basalts from eastern and central Shandong province have undergone different degrees of particle melting from the mantle source. Degrees of partial melting and chemical composition of basalts from Shandong province suggest that the lithosphere has thickened progressively since the Miocene. On the basis of Ar-Ar ages of this study and the fractional crystallization model proposed by Brooks and Nielsen (1982), we suggest that basalts from Changle and Penglai areas belong to different magmatic systems which have undergone fractional crystallization and evolved progressively to produce other types of basalts. (author)

  12. Evaluation of health resource utilization efficiency in community health centers of Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinglong; Zhou, Lulin; Antwi, Henry Asante; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-20

    While the demand for health services keep escalating at the grass roots or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remain stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, China's Deepen Medical Reform started in 2012 was intended to flush out possible disparities and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of healthcare resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. Using a hybrid of panel data analysis and an augmented data envelopment analysis (DEA), we model human resources, material, finance to determine their technical and scale efficiency to comprehensively evaluate the transverse and longitudinal allocation efficiency of community health resources in Jiangsu Province. We observed that the Deepen Medical Reform in China has led to an increase concern to ensure efficient allocation of community health resources by health policy makers in the province. This has led to greater efficiency in health resource allocation in Jiangsu in general but serious regional or municipal disparities still exist. Using the DEA model, we note that the output from the Community Health Centers does not commensurate with the substantial resources (human resources, materials, and financial) invested in them. We further observe that the case is worst in less-developed Northern parts of Jiangsu Province. The government of Jiangsu Province could improve the efficiency of health resource allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health personnel, optimizing the allocation of material resources, and enhancing the level of health of financial resource allocation.

  13. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  14. [Analysis of reports of cases of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2006 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Ding, Bangmei; Shen, Han; Zhu, Baoli; Gao, Qianqian

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing effective intervention measures and prevention strategies. The data from report cards of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2013 were arranged using EXCEL tables, and assessed. Statistical analysis was applied to the epidemiological data using SPSS. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 32672 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Jiangsu Province. Most of the cases were caused by non-occupational poisoning (life poisoning) (72.78%). A majority of patients with pesticide poisoning were 35-54 years old (40.85%) or older than 65 years (15.69%). There were more female patients (58.22%) than male patients (41.78%). Among patients with occupational poisoning, male patients (50.90%) were more than female patients. Among patients with non-occupational poisoning, female patients were more than male patients (38.37%). Pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September. The case-fatality rate of occupational poisoning (0.47%) was lower than that of non-occupational poisoning (7.10%). All 13 cities in Jiangsu Province reported cases of pesticide poisoning. There were more cases in the northern regions than in the southern regions. Pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by organophosphorus insecticides including methamidophos, dichlorvos, dimethoate, omethoate, and parathion, which accounted for 65.58%of all cases. Paraquat had the highest case-fatality rate (10.06%) among all pesticides, followed by tetramine (10.00%), dimethoate or omethoate (7.85%), methamidophos (7.79%), and dimehypo (7.68%). Pesticide poisoning cannot be ignored. The management and control should be improved in production and usage of highly toxic pesticides including organophosphorus insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides. More attention should be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups including women, children, and the elderly.

  15. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  16. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  17. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  18. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  19. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  20. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David

    2017-01-01

    . The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better...

  1. Prospects of gold mineralization in the Gilgit-Baltistan Province of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M. T.; Khan, S. D.; Tahirkheli, T.; Ahmad, L.; Miandad, S.; Rehman, A. U.; Ali, L.

    2012-12-01

    Gilgit-Baltistan province is the northern most province of Pakistan having its eastern, northern and western boarders with India, China and Afghanistan respectively. The geology of this province is unique as it has the spectacular tectonic entities of Asiatic plate (AP), Indian plate (IP) and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc (KLA). The Northern Suture Zone (NSZ) or Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) separate the KLA from AP in the north while the Maim Mantle Thrust (MMT) separate the KLA from IP in the south. These different tectonic events have generated various types of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the form of gigantic mountain chains in the region. Considering the metallogenic provinces related to such types of tectonic environments world over, it can be suggested that the Gigit-Baltistan province may have the potential for the occurrence of economic mineral deposits. The present study is the follow-up of the previous studies for exploration of gold and base metals conducted by the Austrominerals and the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) in the region. On the basis of PMDC extensive stream sediments geochemical survey of the province and delineated number of anomalous catchment areas for gold mineralization. In order to find the source bed-rock of gold, we have identified various alteration zones in these catchment areas by applying Remote sensing techniques by using both multispectral (LANDSAT, ASTER and Geoeye) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) data. Most of the alteration zones were found in steep high altitude inaccessible terrains. During this study, few of the accessible alteration zones in Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas were selected for geological filed work and collection of proper samples from the alteration zones and host rocks for the identification of possible gold mineralization. In all these localities, the alteration zones are present along shear zones where the sulfide mineralization commonly occurs in the form of

  2. Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis for northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Louis R. Iverson; David J. Mladenoff; Emily Peters; Kirk R. Wythers; Weimin Xi; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Linda R. Parker; Amy J. Amman; Brian Bogaczyk; Christine Handler; Ellen Lesch; Peter B. Reich; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Sami Khanal; Feng Liu; Tara Bal; Dustin Bronson; Andrew Burton; Jim Ferris; Jon Fosgitt; Shawn Hagan; Erin Johnston; Evan Kane; Colleen Matula; Ryan O' Connor; Dale Higgins; Matt St. Pierre; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; David Neitzel; Michael Notaro; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems across the Northwoods will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province of northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan under a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate...

  3. LC-MS/MS determination of acrylamide in instant noodles from supermarkets in the Hebei province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.

  4. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11-15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (pCanada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to understand; however, specific positive safety assets that might exist in different community contexts must also be considered.

  5. Epidemiology of hand foot mouth disease in Northern Thailand in 2016: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panupong Upala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between the meteorological data and the number of hand foot mouth disease (HFMD cases in 2016 in Northern Thailand, and to estimate the medical costs. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Data on numbers of HFMD cases were collected from 49 hospitals in three different provinces in Northern Thailand: 16 hospitals from Chiang Rai Province, 7 hospitals from Pha Yao Province, and 26 hospitals from Chiang Mai Province. A questionnaire had been developed and tested for validity and reliability before used. The specific form for collecting meteorological data was developed and used in the field. All information was recorded in the same data spread sheet before analysis. Chi-square and correlation tests were used for explaining the epidemiology of HFMD in the areas. An alpha error at 0.05 was used to determine the statistical significance level. Results: A total of 8 261 cases were analyzed in the study. 56.0% were males, 97.5% aged less than 6 years, 82.6% were out-patient department (OPD cases, 75.5% were reported in raining season, and 43.2% were from Chiang Mai Province. The number of HFMD cases had statistically significant correlations with temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, and rainfall amount. Averagely, 216 baht and 3 678 baht per case per visit had to be expended for medical cost in OPD and IPD cases, respectively. Most of the cases had been reported in the border areas: Thai-Myanmar, and Thai-Lao. Conclusions: Thailand health care system should provide a concrete schedule for taking care of HFMD patients during raining season, and should develop an effective preventive and control program for HFMD particularly among children less than 6 years.

  6. Analysis of factors affecting the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olive is one of the most valuable worldwide trees that produces useful products having high nutritional values. It is widely grown in many parts of world. The cost of olives hand picking is estimated to be about two-thirds of the total gross return of olive production. Therefore, various types of olive harvesting machineries were developed in the world. Guilan Province of Iran is one of the leading regions for olives production in Iran. At the present time, almost all olives produced in Guilan province of Iran are manually harvested. Review of the reports showed that no research was performed to study the factors affecting the development of mechanized olive picking in Guilan Province, Iran. Due to the complexity of using the olive harvest machineries, identifying the factors affecting of their application is essential. Therefore, a Delphi study were conducted to identify and analysis the drivers and barriers for mechanized olive harvest in Guilan province, Iran. Materials and Methods This research was conducted using the Delphi technique in Guilan Province, Northern Iran. Delphi technique is a structured process to gather and classify the knowledge of a group of experts. Through consultation with professors and researchers in related institutions, 22 experts from the subsidiary offices of agricultural organization of Guilan Province were selected for the study. In the first round of the study, the participants were asked to answer to two open questions about the driving factors and barriers of mechanical olive harvest in Guilan Province. Nineteen items were found as driving factors and seventeen as barriers for developing the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan Province. In the second phase of the study, the respondents were asked to answer to the all items written in the form of a five-level Likert scale, and finally, experts of panel were asked to answer to the top 10 items of driving factors and barriers in percent form. The

  7. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  8. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Usher syndrome clinical characterization. Holguin province

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Hernández, Elayne Esther; Lantigua Cruz, Paulina Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: El síndrome de Usher es una enfermedad determinada genéticamente, con una gran heterogeneidad clínica y genética; está caracterizada por hipoacusia neurosensorial de moderada a severa, retinosis pigmentaria progresiva y puede acompañarse de alteración vestibular. Por la alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad en la provincia de Holguín, se considera necesario este estudio. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente todos los enfermos con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Usher en la provinc...

  10. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  11. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  12. Engendering social suffering: a Chinese diasporic community in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how reproducing Chineseness has become a source of social suffering through the case study of a group of Yunnan Chinese who escaped Chinese communist rules in the Mainland in 1949 or shortly after and settled in northern Thailand in the 1960s. As self-proclaimed carriers of traditional Chinese culture, they worked arduously to replicate whatever they considered 'authentic' Chinese through a narrow interpretation of the Confucian moral tenets in daily life. The (re)establishment of a patriarchal social order in Thailand - a society with a relatively high level of gender-equality, has inflicted tremendous pain and suffering among women and youth in this reified society. Ethnographic fieldwork, upon which this paper was based, was conducted in Maehong Village, Chiang Mai Province, between 2002 and 2007.

  13. Factors Affecting Herd Status for Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhla, Tawatchai; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Alvarez, Julio; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Phornwisetsirikun, Somphorn; Sankwan, Jamnong; Srijun, Mongkol; Wells, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this case-control study was to identify farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy cows in northern Thailand. Spatial analysis was performed to identify geographical clustering of case-farms located in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces in northern Thailand. To identify management factors affecting bTB status, a matched case-control study was conducted with 20 case-farms and 38 control-farms. Case-farms were dairy farms with at least single intradermal tuberculin test- (SIT-) reactor(s) in the farms during 2011 to 2015. Control-farms were dairy farms with no SIT-reactors in the same period and located within 5 km from case-farms. Questionnaires were administered for data collection with questions based on epidemiological plausibility and characteristics of the local livestock industry. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. A significant geographic cluster was identified only in Chiang Mai province (p < 0.05). The risk factor associated with presence of SIT-reactors in dairy herds located in this region was purchasing dairy cows from dealers (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.66–20.58, and p = 0.006). From this study, it was concluded that geographic clustering was identified for dairy farms with SIT-reactors in these provinces, and the cattle movements through cattle dealers increased the risks for SIT-reactor farm status. PMID:28553557

  14. Radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Kh.; Boboev, B.D.; Bolibekov, Sh.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau. The physicochemical properties of water of northern slopes of Mogoltau were studied. The radiation monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau was carried out during several years under various weather conditions. The exposure rate of human settlements of northern part of Mogoltau was defined.

  15. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Northern Coast Range, Sacramento Valley, and the Modoc Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Heat capacity mapping mission images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depend chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semiarid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images are of limited value except in semiarid regions.

  16. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  17. Dynamic biogeochemical provinces in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Longhurst, Alan; Martinez, Elodie; Beaugrand, Gregory; Antoine, David; Maury, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, it has been found useful to partition the pelagic environment using the concept of biogeochemical provinces, or BGCPs, within each of which it is assumed that environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique at global scale. The boundaries between provinces respond to features of physical oceanography and, ideally, should follow seasonal and interannual changes in ocean dynamics. But this ideal has not been fulfilled except for small regions of the oceans. Moreover, BGCPs have been used only as static entities having boundaries that were originally established to compute global primary production. In the present study, a new statistical methodology based on non-parametric procedures is implemented to capture the environmental characteristics within 56 BGCPs. Four main environmental parameters (bathymetry, chlorophyll a concentration, surface temperature, and salinity) are used to infer the spatial distribution of each BGCP over 1997-2007. The resulting dynamic partition allows us to integrate changes in the distribution of BGCPs at seasonal and interannual timescales, and so introduces the possibility of detecting spatial shifts in environmental conditions.

  18. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  19. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  20. Bedrock geologic map of the northern Alaska Peninsula area, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Blome, Charles D.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Preller, Cindi C.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2017-03-03

    The northern Alaska Peninsula is a region of transition from the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula to a Proterozoic and early Paleozoic carbonate platform and then to the poorly understood, tectonically complex sedimentary basins of southwestern Alaska. Physiographically, the region ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska-Aleutian Range to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet on the east and Bristol Bay on the southwest. The lower Ahklun Mountains and finger lakes on the west side of the map area show strong effects from glaciation. Structurally, a number of major faults cut the map area. Most important of these are the Bruin Bay Fault that parallels the coast of Cook Inlet, the Lake Clark Fault that cuts diagonally northeast to southwest across the eastern part of the map area, and the presently active Holitna Fault to the northwest that cuts surficial deposits.Distinctive rock packages assigned to three provinces are overlain by younger sedimentary rocks and intruded by widely dispersed latest Cretaceous and (or) early Tertiary granitic rocks. Much of the east half of the map area lies in the Alaska-Aleutian Range province; the Jurassic to Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith and derivative Jurassic sedimentary rocks form the core of this province, which is intruded and overlain by the Aleutian magmatic arc. The Lime Hills province, the carbonate platform, occurs in the north-central part of the map area. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ahklun Mountains province in the western part of the map area includes abundant chert, argillite, and graywacke and lesser limestone, basalt, and tectonic mélange. The Kuskokwim Group, an Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequence, is extensively exposed and bounds all three provinces in the west-central part of the map area.

  1. Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which

  2. Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Brucella Seropositivity in Sheep and Goats in Duhok Province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali. G. Alhamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Using parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI: 26.1, 36.3 of sheep and 34.0% (95% CI: 24.7, 44.3 of goats had antibodies against Brucella in the study area. A random-effects multivariable logistic regression model indicated that a higher chance of being seropositive (odds ratio (OR = 1.7; 95% 1.4; 2.2 was associated with an increase in the age of animals. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in flocks where sheep and goats grazed together was 2.0 times higher (95% CI: 1.08; 3.9 compared to flocks where sheep and goats grazed separately. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in small ruminants was 2.2 higher (95% CI: 1.2; 4.3 for animals originating from farms with a history of goat abortion in the preceding 12 months. In contrast, for every 1000 Iraqi Dinars (~0.85 US Dollar spent by the farmers on control of Brucella in their flocks, the odds of Brucella seropositivity decreased significantly (OR = 0.9, p-value = 0.021. The final model also indicated significant differences in Brucella seropositivity between the different districts of Duhok Province. This study provides a contribution to the epidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in northern Iraq.

  4. Spatial diffusion of influenza outbreak-related climate factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapan, Supachai; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Souris, Marc

    2012-10-24

    Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  5. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  6. Time constraint based on zircon dating for the Jacareacanga group (Tapajos province, Amazon craton, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.E.; Ferreira, A.L; Macambira, M.J.B.; Sachett, C.R

    2001-01-01

    During long time the Jacareacanga meta-volcano sedimentary sequence have been interpreted as Archean greenstone belt terrain. However, recent data are indicating younger U-Pb ages about 2.1 Ga. In the Tapajos Province (Amazon Craton), the Cuiu-Cuiu Complex (2.00-2.03 Ga), Creporizao granitoids (1.99-1.96 Ga) and Jacareacanga Group are the oldest rocks. The Jacareancaga Group is composed by quartzmica schists, quartzites, ferruginous quartzite, metachert, and minor talc-tremolite-chlorite schist, actinolite-epidote schist, hornfels, metargilites and metawackes metamorphosed in low to medium-grade conditions. The aim of the present paper is to estabilish the maximum age of Jacareacanga sedimentation and identify probable sources in Espirito Santo region (Espirito Santo muscovite-biotite schist). In this research, similar and new results are obtained by zircon evaporation methodology. This research shows geochronological data about the Espirito Santo muscovite-biotite schist related to Jacareacanga Group (Ferreira et al., 2000) in Tapajos Province (Amazon Craton). The area is located near Amazonas and Para States boundary (Northern Brazil) and the sample was obtained at Espirito Santo (garimpo) small-scale gold mine (06 o 00min.48seg.S,58 o 08min.17seg.W) (au)

  7. Job Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Related Factors among Health Care Workers in Golestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Javad; Heidari, Alireza; Etemad, Koorosh; Gashti, Ashrafi Babazadeh; Jafari, Nahid; Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Ariaee, Mohammad; Lotfi, Mansureh

    2016-09-01

    Burnout causes physical and emotional tireness, job dissatisfaction, resulting in reduced efficiency and a feeling of alienation from colleagues. Also, job satisfaction has a major impact on job-related behaviors, such as turnover intention, absenteeism, and job performance. The aim of this study was to determine job burnout, job satisfaction rate, and related factors among health care workers in Golestan Province in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,141 health workers in Golestan Province in northern Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was comprised of four sections. It consisted of socio-economic characteristics, physical environment and facilities of health house (rural health clinic), Maslach burnout inventory, and a satisfaction questionnaire. Multi-nomial Logistic Regression was conducted to analyze the data using SPSS software, version 22. There were significant relationships between the intensity of job burnout and age (p income (p job burnout and age (p income (p job satisfaction and the satisfaction from income (p = 0.001), the physical environment of health houses (p = 0.001), and the facilities of health houses (p = 0.001). Burnout was average among health workers, and health workers job satisfaction rate was lower than the average level in health workers. Effective interventions are recommended with regards to the unfavorable condition of job satisfaction and its relationship with job burnout.

  8. Coprologic survey on ruminant's fasciolosis in east Azerbaijan province during 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Imani Baran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a zoonotic disease of humans and animals causing health problems and great economic losses in different parts of the world including Iran. Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are well-known agents for fasciolosis. Due to health and economic implications of this disease and the lack of field studies on fasciolosis in living ruminants of East Azerbaijan, the current study was carried out to determine fasciolosis status in living ruminants from different regions of East Azerbaijan province based on coprologic method for the first time. For this purpose, a total of 2012 fecal samples (1782 from sheep and 230 from cattle were collected and examined under light microscope. The microscopic findings showed that of all the samples, 62 (3.48% from sheep and 10 (4.35% from cattle were infected with Fasciola spp. eggs. A total of 72 (3.58% fecal samples were infected by fasciola eggs. Geographically, the highest percentage of infection in cattle and sheep were observed in the northern regions of province with 6.14% and 5.21% respectively. In terms of age the infection rates in cattle under and over 2 years were 3.81% (4.105 and 4/8% (6.125 respectively whereas those for sheep were 4.38% (41.937 and 2.49% (21.845. The results indicated presence of fasciolosis amongst ruminants of the province necessitating further studies to detect the unknown aspects of disease and regular antiparasitic treatments for its prevention.

  9. The practice of 'Dr' Paep: continuity and change in indigenous healing in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, D H

    1984-01-01

    Dr. Paep Plienphleng is an indigenous curer in a rural district in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, where he is numbered among the group of healers known as mqq mueang ('Northern doctors'). He specializes in curing saan or 'tumors' by combining several techniques: indigenous surgery, herbal curing and supernatural curing. Other aspects of Dr Paep's practice have been due to larger trends in indigenous healing that have affected him and other curers over past decades. This paper describes the practice of Dr Paep and some aspects of his healing, and examines the context of his practice by exploring other categories of indigenous healers found in this area of the North. It is concluded that Northern Thai healing is undergoing a transformation from a stress on general healing to an emphasis on the use of supernatural cures, more specialization among healers and efforts to adapt services to fit the plural system of care found in this rural Northern Thai environment. Thus, we find the skills of indigenous healers and the nature of indigenous Northern Thai medicine allow for creative adaptation to a changing medical environment.

  10. Experimental and petrological constraints on local-scale interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at middle-crustal conditions: Example from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction textures and fluid inclusions in the ∼2.0 Ga pyroxene-bearing dehydration zones within the Sand River biotite-hornblende orthogneisses (Central Zone of the Limpopo Complex suggest that the formation of these zones is a result of close interplay between dehydration process along ductile shear zones triggered by H2O-CO2-salt fluids at 750–800 °C and 5.5–6.2 kbar, partial melting, and later exsolution of residual brine and H2O-CO2 fluids during melt crystallization at 650–700 °C. These processes caused local variations of water and alkali activity in the fluids, resulting in various mineral assemblages within the dehydration zone. The petrological observations are substantiated by experiments on the interaction of the Sand River gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at 750 and 800 °C and 5.5 kbar. It follows that the interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids is accompanied by partial melting at 750–800 °C. Orthopyroxene-bearing assemblages are characteristic for temperature 800 °C and are stable in equilibrium with fluids with low salt concentrations, while salt-rich fluids produce clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages. These observations are in good agreement with the petrological data on the dehydration zones within the Sand River orthogneisses.

  11. CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating of single zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single metamorphic event at ˜2.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, H.; Brandl, G.; Whitehouse, M.; de Waal, S.; Guiraud, M.

    2008-02-01

    The combination of ion microprobe dating and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt were used to constrain the age of metamorphic events in the area. Zircon grains extracted from an orthopyroxene-gedrite-bearing granulite were prepared for single crystal CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating. The grains display complex zoning when using SEM-based CL-imaging. A common feature in most grains is the presence of a distinct core with a broken oscillatory zoned structure, which clearly appears to be the remnant of an original grain of igneous origin. This core is overgrown by an unzoned thin rim measuring about 10-30 μm in diameter, which is considered as new zircon growth during a single metamorphic event. Selected domains of the zircon grains were analysed for U, Pb and Th isotopic composition using a CAMECA IMS 1270 ion microprobe (Nordsim facility). Most of the grains define a near-concordant cluster with some evidence of Pb loss. The most concordant ages of the cores yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2689 ± 15 (2 σ) Ma, interpreted as the age of the protolith of an igneous origin. The unzoned overgrowths of the zircon grains yielded a considerably younger weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of ˜2006.5 ± 8.0 Ma (2 σ), and these data are interpreted to reflect closely the age of the ubiquitous high-grade metamorphic event in the Central Zone. This study shows clearly, based on both the internal structure of the zircons and the data obtained by ion microprobe dating, that only a single metamorphic event is recorded by the studied 2.69 Ga old rocks, and we found no evidence of an earlier metamorphic event at ˜2.5 Ga as postulated earlier by some workers.

  12. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ...

  13. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  14. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  15. Bibliography on Saskatchewan uranium inquiries and the northern and global impact of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Forgay, B.; Gianoli, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years Saskatchewan, Canada has become the major site for the expansion of the world-wide uranium industry. Largely due to the higher concentration of ore in the province and reduced exploitation elsewhere, by 1984 Canada had become the world's leading non-communist producer of uranium. This expansion has remained one of the most controversial political and ecological issues in Saskatchewan for nearly a decade. What follows is a comprehensive bibliography on the Saskatchewan uranium mining inquiries that paralleled the growth of this industry in the province and on the northern and global impact of the uranium industry. It is the culmination of more than three years of research including in-depth content analysis of transcripts of uranium mining inquiries held in Saskatchewan between 1977-1980

  16. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  17. Results of Paleomagnetic Investigation of Angara - Taseeva Depression and Central Part of Tunguska Syncline (Siberian Trap Province, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Pavlov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Results of paleomagnetic investigation of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and central part of Tunguska syncline) are performed here. Our work was dedicated to the estimation of dynamics and duration of magmatic activity during Siberian Traps emplacement. The conclusions are based on paleomagnetic study of large dolerite sills in the periphery of Siberian Trap province, tuffaceous deposits, small intrusions and lava flows of Tunguska syncline, and on geochronological data (Ivanov et al., 2013; Reichow et al., 2009). The presented data show that formation of Siberian Traps in these regions took place as several short bursts of magmatic activity led to large sill intrusions and eruptions of tuffs. This data are in agreement with the pulsating character of magmatic activity in the Northern part of Siberian platform (Pavlov et al., 2014). The most powerful burst of magmatic activity in Angara-Taseeva syncline is supposed to be synchronous to the main phase of volcanic eruptions in the Northern part of Siberian platform and emplacement of ore-bearing intrusions in Noril'sk district. This study was funded by grant RFBR # 14-05-31447.

  18. A Tiny Bilbao in the Province?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun

    2014-01-01

    the size of the province communities have in relation to the application of experience economy thinking in cultural planning. The paper presents a reading of the current 13 Danish “Culture Agreements” made between the ministry of culture and the cultural regions (Kulturstyrelsen) The reading has a special...... the utilization of cultural institutions, creative industries and the demands of the creative class were drivers in the development of the major cities, i.e. the ”Bilbao Effect”. From the major cities these ideas spread to smaller cities, which raised questions about critical mass, etc. This ”second wave...... of the welfare state, which focus on accessibility, a democratic and inclusive approach expressed in the form of culture projects that will enhance the quality of life and liveability in the local community. The paper discusses how and if the two rationales can be executed in the same projects: economic growth...

  19. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  20. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Han

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107 bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species.

  1. Clinical and microbiological features of melioidosis in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Doan Mai; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Breitbach, Katrin; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Nübel, Ulrich; Flunker, Gisela; Khang, Dinh Duy; Quang, Nguyen Xuan; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2008-12-01

    Sporadic cases of melioidosis have been reported from Vietnam for decades, but clinical and epidemiological data for the indigenous population are still scarce. In this study, we reviewed clinical and demographic data of patients with culture-proven melioidosis diagnosed at a single large referral hospital in Hanoi between November 1997 and December 2005. We found that the clinical manifestations of melioidosis (with fatal septicaemia as the most common presentation), a high rate of underlying diseases, and a peak of cases admitted during the wet season, were similar to studies from other endemic areas. The geographical origin of patients with melioidosis showed that melioidosis existed in at least 18 northern provinces. The characterization of clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei strains by multilocus sequence typing identified 17 different sequence types (STs), 11 of which have (as yet) not been found outside Vietnam. Several of these STs presumably were generated through recent evolutionary events in this rapidly diversifying bacterial species, and thus, restricted geographic distribution may be a consequence of limited time passed since emergence. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a series of cases describing clinical and epidemiological features of melioidosis and corresponding B. pseudomallei strains from northern Vietnam.

  2. Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylska, N.L.; Graebeiel, J.E.; Mirus, R.K.; Janzen, S.S.; Frost, R.J.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye

    2015-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  4. The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsbo, P.; Groves, D.I.; Hofstra, A.H.; Bierlein, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Northern Nevada hosts the only province that contains multiple world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. The first-order control on the uniqueness of this province is its anomalous far back-arc tectonic setting over the rifted North American paleocontinental margin that separates Precambrian from Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Globally, most other significant gold provinces form in volcanic arcs and accreted terranes proximal to convergent margins. In northern Nevada, periodic reactivation of basement faults along this margin focused and amplified subsequent geological events. Early basement faults localized Devonian synsedimentary extension and normal faulting. These controlled the geometry of the Devonian sedimentary basin architecture and focused the discharge of basinal brines that deposited syngenetic gold along the basin margins. Inversion of these basins and faults during subsequent contraction produced the complex elongate structural culminations that characterize the anomalous mineral deposit "trends." Subsequently, these features localized repeated episodes of shallow magmatic and hydrothermal activity that also deposited some gold. During a pulse of Eocene extension, these faults focused advection of Carlin-type fluids, which had the opportunity to leach gold from gold-enriched sequences and deposit it in reactive miogeoclinal host rocks below the hydrologic seal at the Roberts Mountain thrust contact. Hence, the vast endowment of the Carlin province resulted from the conjunction of spatially superposed events localized by long-lived basement structures in a highly anomalous tectonic setting, rather than by the sole operation of special magmatic or fluid-related processes. An important indicator of the longevity of this basement control is the superposition of different gold deposit types (e.g., Sedex, porphyry, Carlin-type, epithermal, and hot spring deposits) that formed repeatedly between the Devonian and Miocene time along the trends

  5. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2–4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed ‘realfeel’ temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of ‘stuffiness’ and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat–health impact warning categories of ‘caution’ and ‘extreme caution’.

  6. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Street, Renée A; Cele, Nokulunga; Kunene, Zamantimande; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Albers, Patricia N; Mathee, Angela

    2017-01-06

    Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor) temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2-4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT) incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed 'realfeel' temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of 'stuffiness' and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat-health impact warning categories of 'caution' and 'extreme caution'.

  7. A new species of Liolaemus (Reptilia: Squamata: Tropiduridae from Mendoza province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheridge, Richard

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Una nueva especie del complejo Liolaemus darwinii es descrita para el centro de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Se parece más a L. olongasta y L. laurenti en que los machos adultos tienen pigmento negro en el pliegue antehumeral y manchas escapulares que no son agrandadas. Difiere de estas especies en tener un cuerpo adulto menor, un número mayor de escamas en la mitad del cuerpo, una cola más corta y un mayor número de poros precloacales en machos, y un patrón ventral distinto en machos adultos. En el norte de su distribución se encuentra L. darwinii en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza y en la provincia de San Luis, y en el sur en el oeste de la provincia de La Pampa, en el noroeste de la provincia de Neuquén y en la provincia de Río Negro, pero se desconoce si estas poblaciones del norte y del sur de L. darwtnii están separadas por la distribución de la nueva especie. Análisis cladísticos basados en comportamiento, morfología y secuencias de DNA muestran filogenias conflictivas, pero concuerdan en que la nueva especie es un miembro del grupo boulengeri, con afinidades más cercanas a L. darwinii, L. olongasta y L. laurenti. A new species,of the Liolaemus darwinii complex is described from central Mendoza Province, Argentina. It most closely resembles L. olongasta and L. laurenti in that adult males have black pigment in the antehumeral fold and scapular spots that are not enlarged. It differs from these species in having a smaller adult body size, a higher number of midbody scales, a shorter tail, more precloacal pores in males, and a different adult male ventral body pattern. Its range is bordered by L. darwinii on the north in northern Mendoza and San Luis provinces, and on the south in western La Pampa and northwestern Neuquén and Río Negro provinces, but it is unknown whether these northern and southern populations of L. darwinii are separated by the range of the new species. Cladistic analyses based on behaviour

  8. Multiple sclerosis in the province of Ferrara : evidence for an increasing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, E; Economou, N-T; De Gennaro, R; Tola, M R; Caniatti, L; Govoni, V; Fainardi, E; Casetta, I

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiological studies on the distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) conducted in the Mediterranean area in the last two decades have disclosed a significant increase in frequency of the disease, indicating caution when a latitude-related model of MS is accepted. Previous descriptive surveys in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy, carried out by our own epidemiological research group, have established that this area is at high risk for MS. To confirm the above assumption and to update MS frequency estimates in this area. We conducted a community-based intensive prevalence and incidence study, by adopting a complete enumeration approach. On December 31, 2004, 423 patients (300 women and 123 men) suffering from definite or probable MS (Poser's criteria) living in the province of Ferrara, yielded a crude prevalence rate of 120.93 (95 % CI, 110.05-134.23) per 100,000, 164.26 for women and 73.59 for men. The average incidence from 1990 to 2003 was 4.35 per 100,000 (95 % CI, 3.77-4.99), 5.91 for women and 2.63 for men. The incidence rate,which was relatively stable during the previous 25 years (1965-1989) with a mean rate of 2.3 per 100,000, increased to a value of 3.39 per 100,000 in the period 1990-1994, 4.09 per 100,000 in the period 1995-1999 and 3.84 per 100,000 in the period 2000-2003. These results confirm that in Ferrara MS occurs more frequently than suggested by the geographic- related distribution model and, based on other recent national surveys, support the view that northern Italy is a high-risk area for the disease. The marked increase in MS prevalence rate, in comparison with previous investigations, is in part due to the increasing survival of patients as a result of improved supportive care and the accumulation of new incidence cases owing to the reduction in diagnostic latency for better quality of neurological diagnostic procedures. The incidence in the province of Ferrara was found to slowly change with an incremental trend,which cannot only be

  9. Late Cretaceous-recent tectonic assembly of diverse crustal blocks in Central America, the Nicaraguan Rise, the Colombian Basin and northern South America as seen on a 1600-km-long, geologic and structural transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a 1600-km-long transect from northern Honduras to northern Colombia that crosses northeastward-striking crustal blocks using a combination of offshore seismic data, gravity and magnetic data, well subsidence information, nearby outcrop information, and results from previous thermochronological, geochronological, geochemical and paleostress studies. The transect defines three major crustal and structural provinces: 1) Precambrian-Paleozoic, Chortis continental block whose northern edge is defined by the North America-Caribbean plate boundary. Events in this ~20-25-km-thick province include two major unconformities at the top of the Cretaceous and Eocene, associated southeast-dipping thrust faults related to collision of the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) and Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) with the Chortis continental block. A third event is Eocene to recent subsidence and transtensional basins formed during the opening of the Cayman trough; 2) Late Cretaceous GAC and CLIP of oceanic arc and plateau origin, whose northern, deformed edge corresponds to the mapped Siuna belt of northern Nicaragua. This crustal province has a ~15-20-km-thick crust and is largely undeformed and extends across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise, Hess fault, to the southern limit of the Colombian basin where about 300 km of this province has been subducted beneath the accretionary wedge of the South Caribbean deformed belt of northwestern South America; and 3) Eocene to recent accretionary prism and intramontane basins on continental crust of northern South America, where Miocene accelerated exhumation and erosion of Paleogene and Cretaceous rocks reflect either shallow subduction of the CLIP or the Panama collisional event to the southwest.

  10. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  11. Epidemiological survey of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy: influence of environmental exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Bondavalli, M; Sabadini, R; Marcello, N; Vinceti, M; Cavalletti, S; Marbini, A; Gemignani, F; Colombo, A; Ferrari, A; Vivoli, G; Solimè, F

    1996-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective incidence, prevalence and mortality survey of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the province of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy. Based on 79 patients, the mean incidence per year for the period 1980 through 1992 was 1.5 cases per 100,000. On December 31st, 1992, the prevalence rate was 5.4 per 100,000. In the 10-year period of 1983-1992 the average mortality rate was 1.3 per 100,000 per year. The average age at onset was 61.3 +/- 10.2, the average survival period thereafter was 26.3 months +/- 17.7; 27.3 +/- 17.6 for classic ALS, 19.5 +/- 8.4 for progressive bulbar palsy and 36.3 +/- 41.4 for pseudopolyneuritic ALS. The incidence rate, recorded in public health district No.12, an area with documented lead pollution since the 1970s, was standardized to the sex and age of the population of the province. Its incidence and prevalence rate were comparable to the rates found in the remaining area of the province.

  12. Northern micro-grid project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, David; Singh, Bob

    2010-09-15

    The electrical distribution system for the Kasabonika Lake First Nation in northern Ontario (Canada) consumed 1.2 million liters of diesel fuel in 2008, amounting to 3,434 tones of CO2 emissions. The Northern Micro-Grid Project, supported by seven partners, involves integrating renewable generation & storage into the Kasabonika Lake distribution system. Through R&D and demonstration, the objectives are to reduce the amount of diesel consumed, support the distribution system exclusively on renewable resources during light loads, engage and impart knowledge/training to better position the community for future opportunities. The paper will discuss challenges, opportunities and future plans associated with the project.

  13. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  14. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Some HCMM images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depends chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semi-arid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images were limited value, except in semi-arid regions.

  15. Feeding habits and stomach contents of silver sillago, Sillago sihama, in the northern Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Taghavi Motlagh, A.; Hakimelahi, M.; Ghodrati Shojaei, M.; Vahabnezhad, A.; Taheri Mirghaed, A.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the stomach content of Sillago sihama in Hormuzgan Province waters located in the northern Persian Gulf from October 2009 to March 2010. The stomach analysis was carried out using frequency of occurrence and numeric methods. Diatoms, blue-green algae and dinoflagellates constituted main food of plant origin. Diatoms were found to be the most preferable food of plant origin where it occurred in more than 60.8% of food item by number and 59.5% by occurrence. Crustacean in...

  16. An Attempt to Construction of Seismotectonic Province Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myung Hyun; Shim, Taek Mo

    2010-01-01

    A seismotectonic province is a kind of seismic source where, in general, seismic characteristics are assumed to be uniform. It is different from earthquake-generating geological structures such as faults or folds. It is an area or a zone where earthquakes diffusely occur but no specific geological structure is identified to be responsible for those earthquakes. The terminology, a seismotectonic province is originated from a tectonic province of U.S. federal code, with emphasis on earthquakes. The seismotectonic province is called the seismogenic source in the regulatory guides of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the zone of diffuse seismicity in a guide of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In Korea, existing seismotectonic province maps were constructed based on the geological information due to insufficient earthquake data. As understood in its name, however, a seismotectonic province map should be based on the seismic information. Moreover, it should be noted that the Korean (geologic) tectonic structures cannot correctly represent the current tectonic regime because they were formed before the Cenozoic. In this context, we attempted to construct a seismotectonic province map by using seismic and geophysical information as well as geologic information

  17. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  18. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Thanh Xuan, Le Thi; Ngoc Hoat, Luu

    2012-01-01

    on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the complex socio-economic and cultural determinants of health in multi-ethnic population groups. These lessons learned can improve......Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned...... for future RHSP.A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government...

  19. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Byrnes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories, injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective: To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078. Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results: The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001 and fighting (p=0.02 injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01. Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94, average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97 or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91, not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85, not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97 and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98 were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59. Conclusions: Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are

  20. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  1. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua; Dai, Feiyan; Liu, Zili; Yuan, Feizhou; Zhao, Siyue; Xiang, Xun; Zou, Fengcai; Zeng, Bangquan; Fan, Yating; Duan, Gang

    2014-02-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log₂. The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present survey have significant public health concerns.

  2. Sending our child to college. Heilongjiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1994-03-01

    An educational program for female farmers in Keshan County, Heilongjiang Province, originally limited to the topics of women's health care and family planning has not only improved health status, but has also helped increase income level among the participants. Keshan County is one of China's grain bases composed of seventeen townships with a total population of 460,000. The education program resulted from the health check-up for women conducted in 1985 which found 62.1% of local women with gynecological diseases, largely ignorant of health care, and too shy to visit doctors. A textbook was subsequently compiled on women's health care and family planning, and lectures were commenced on the topics. Lectures were soon expanded to cover health care for teenagers, newlyweds, pregnant women, young mothers, and middle-aged and elderly people. It was also found after some time that farmers wanted to be wealthier, to secure good educations for their children, and enjoy good health and longevity. Education topics were again expanded to include subjects relevant to farmers' income-production desires. These education sessions are now being replicated in most rural areas countrywide.

  3. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  4. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)

    1997-02-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  5. Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna FLAIM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990, modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

  6. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  8. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  9. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  10. Northern Rivers Basins ecological and human health studies : summary, relevance and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    Residents in northern Alberta expressed concerns that the original Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) only examined the impacts of contaminants on ecological health and did not include impacts on human health. In response to these concerns, Alberta Health established the Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This document links the ecological information collected by the original NRBS program with the information provided by the health program. Issues regarding health impacts from pulp mills and oil sand mining were also discussed. The findings of the health program were summarized and recommendations were made for future studies. The contaminants of potential concern (COPC) arising from the original NRBS were described in terms of their sources and any known connections between exposure and human health. The COPCs included arsenic, dioxins, chlorinated furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mercury, chlorinated phenolics, toxaphene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulphur dioxide, acid sulphates and particulate matter. Examples of Canadian regulatory criteria for these contaminants were also presented. 41 refs., 1 tab

  11. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  12. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  13. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  14. Lagoa Real uranium province - The History of an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de

    1982-01-01

    It is narrated a historic about the anomalies descovered in Lagoa Real province (BA), focusing the aspects related to geology, mineralization, drillings data and reserves evaluation. Geologic and radiometric maps of the anomalies are shown. (A.B.) [pt

  15. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  16. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  17. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  18. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  19. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs in recent years. However, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis infecting NHPs in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (MLGs of G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in southwestern China were determined. We examined 207 fecal samples from NHPs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens were positive for G. duodenalis. The overall infection rate was 7.7%, and only assemblage B was identified. G. duodenalis was detect positive in northern white-cheeked gibbon (14/36, 38.9%, crab-eating macaque (1/60, 1.7% and rhesus macaques (1/101, 0.9%. Multilocus sequence typing based on beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh revealed nine different assemblage B MLGs (five known genotypes and four novel genotypes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, one potentially zoonotic genotype of MLG SW7 was identified in a northern white-cheeked gibbon. A high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage B was observed in captive northern white-cheeked gibbons in Southwestern China, including a potentially zoonotic genotype, MLG SW7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using a MLGs approach to identify G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in Southwestern China.

  20. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.