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Sample records for northern france concentration

  1. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  2. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, K.

    1991-01-01

    The grandeur of the nation is the most important national concern in the France of the Fifth Republic. National independence and maximum world status have been (and still are) characteristic imperatives of French policy. Any asset or resource which promises to strengthen the nation, which seems suitable for improving the global status and glory of France, becomes a worthwhile policy device. Of course, the sots incurred in the pursuit of these objectives are frequently the subject of critical discussion, but all in all these costs are accepted. This has been the case with numerous prestige projects including the French nuclear deterrent, the force de frappe. This paper reports that an analysis of the French ambition to possess nuclear weapons must begin with the complete loss of world status which France suffered as a consequence of World War II. Throughout the post-war period, French political leaders have concentrated their efforts on reversing this loss of status and on preventing a similar occurrence

  3. A survey of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, B P; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D

    2017-08-01

    Even at low concentrations, the presence of arsenic and mercury in soils can lead to ecological and health impacts. The recent European-wide LUCAS Topsoil Survey found that the arsenic concentration of a large proportion of French soils exceeded a threshold which indicated that further investigation was required. A much smaller proportion of soils exceeded the corresponding threshold for mercury but the impacts of mining and industrial activities on mercury concentrations are not well understood. We use samples from the French national soil monitoring network (RMQS: Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols) to explore the variation of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across mainland France at a finer spatial resolution than was reported by LUCAS Topsoil. We use geostatistical methods to map the expected concentrations of these elements in the topsoil and the probabilities that the legislative thresholds are exceeded. We find that, with the exception of some areas where the geogenic concentrations and soil adsorption capacities are very low, arsenic concentrations are generally larger than the threshold which indicates that further assessment of the area is required. The lower of two other guideline values indicating risks to ecology or health is exceeded in fewer than 5% of RMQS samples. These exceedances occur in localised hot-spots primarily associated with mining and mineralization. The probabilities of mercury concentrations exceeding the further assessment threshold value are everywhere less than 0.01 and none of the RMQS samples exceed either of the ecological and health risk thresholds. However, there are some regions with elevated concentrations which can be related to volcanic material, natural mineralizations and industrial contamination. These regions are more diffuse than the hot-spots of arsenic reflecting the greater volatility of mercury and therefore the greater ease with which it can be transported and redeposited. The maps provide a

  4. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline; Billon, Gabriel; Ouddane, Baghdad; Boughriet, Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. → Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. → Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. → Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? → Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water quality data recommended

  5. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The French energy system, like that of most energy-importing nations, was profoundly transformed by the first oil shock. But France was more vulnerable than any other industrialized country besides Japan to oil supply disruption: in 1973, the nation imported 77 percent of total primary energy requirements of 7.6 EJ, and 98 percent of its petroleum. Two imperatives have since formed the 'French response' to the threat of external energy supply disruptions: augmentation of the rate of energy self-sufficiency, and minimization of major macroeconomic dislocations. These two objectives displaced a high priority in France in the early 1970s - protection of the natural environment. Because France has embraced nuclear power, it is often viewed by its European neighbors as having feeble ecological sensibility. At that time, France had a rather advanced policy in this field: sulfur emissions laws were enacted in 1967 and a Ministry of Environment was created in January 1971. Now that environmental concerns have re-emerged as an important force, France finds itself with a plausible greenhouse response in a mix of policies - without environmental protection having been the objective envisioned

  6. Quality assessment of a storm overflow, by using different frequency monitoring (northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Dumoulin, David; Criquet, Justine; Prygiel, Jean; Pohu, Jérôme; Hottin, Frédéric; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The Heron lake is a storm-water pond of 30 hectare constructed in the 70's to avoid the flooding in the city of Villeneuve d'Ascq (Lille urban area in Northern France). This facility could also receive some untreated urban wastewaters during high rainfall events. The water level is regulated by automatic pumps, which periodically discharge the overflow into a natural watercourse, the Marque River. Located in an urban area, the lake is qualified as eutrophic because of the high nutrients concentration, which stimulates the presence of cyanobacteria. Recently, the invasive macrophyte Elodea nuttallii colonized the lake. This proliferation causes ecological troubles like anoxic events or even obstruction of the pumps, thereby increasing the risk of flooding. Two types of monitoring (low and high frequencies) were implemented to assess the functioning of this lake and to estimate its impact to the river. The low frequency monitoring consisted on punctual screenings on the dissolved phase and monthly grab samplings from February 2014 to February 2015. Physicochemical parameters (oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, solid particulate matter, dissolved organic carbon) and nutrients (NO3-, NH4+ and PO43-) were recorded. Additionally, a high frequency monitoring was undertaken (with measurements every 10 minutes) was performed by using a buoy equipped with different sensors for measuring oxygen, turbidity, temperature, conductivity, pH and phytoplankton pigments. Furthermore, both the discharge lake flow and the pluviometry were recorded at the scale of the day. Although all the data are not yet fully interpreted, several key points have already been evidenced: (i) at the entrance of the lake, the water is enriched in urban sewage; (ii) some significant differences of oxygenation exist between the entrance and the rest of the lake due to both waste waters inputs in the entrance channel and atmosphere-water interactions; (iii) eutrophication occurs at the beginning of the

  7. The success of recent land management efforts to reduce soil erosion in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Prêtre, Vincent; Nyssen, Jan; Salvador, Pierre-Gil

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion is an important problem in open-field agricultural landscapes. With almost no permanent vegetation in small headwater catchments, and with few physical obstacles to reduce runoff velocities, runoff concentration along linear landscape elements (plot boundaries) or thalwegs frequently causes ephemeral gullies to form - the latter reflecting the poor hydrogeomorphic condition of the land- and soilscape. To address this problem, and to remediate negative on- and off-site effects, land management efforts have multiplied over the past decades in many regions. This includes, amongst other measures, the implementation of vegetation barriers called 'fascines'. In the loess-dominated Aa River basin of northern France, where cropland accounts for 67% of the cover, we investigated the effect of fascines on ephemeral gully erosion dynamics, together with rainfall characteristics and cropland management. This was accomplished through a spatially explicit study of 269 sites prone to ephemeral gullying using a diachronic analysis of historical aerial photographs. Between 1947 and 2012, ephemeral gully densities at the scale of the Aa River basin (643 km2) varied between 0.39 and 1.31 m ha- 1 (long-term average of 0.68 m ha- 1 (with local maxima up to 9.35 m ha- 1). Densities are, however, much higher when only considering the most erosion-vulnerable municipalities (long-term average of 2.23-4.30 m ha- 1); those values should be used when comparing results from this study to other reports of ephemeral gully erosion. Fascines were introduced in 2001 and were present in 30% of the gully erosion sites by 2012. Although the presence of fascines has an effect on gully length reduction, spatial and temporal variations in gully length were mainly driven by cumulative precipitation. Measurement of sediment deposition at 29 fascines in 2016 showed that only 47% of the fascines functioned as sediment sinks. They stored on average 1.7 Mg of sediment per winter half

  8. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  9. Hydrogeological modeling constraints provided by geophysical and geochemical mapping of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Stephen; Guérin, Roger; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2014-09-01

    A methodological approach is described which combines geophysical and geochemical data to delineate the extent of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France; the methodology was used to calibrate a hydrogeological model of the contaminants' migration and degradation. The existence of strong reducing conditions in some parts of the aquifer is first determined by measuring in situ the redox potential and dissolved oxygen, dissolved ferrous iron and chloride concentrations. Electrical resistivity imaging and electromagnetic mapping, using the Slingram method, are then used to determine the shape of the pollutant plume. A decreasing empirical exponential relation between measured chloride concentrations in the water and aquifer electrical resistivity is observed; the resistivity formation factor calculated at a few points also shows a major contribution of chloride concentration in the resistivity of the saturated porous medium. MODFLOW software and MT3D99 first-order parent-daughter chain reaction and the RT3D aerobic-anaerobic model for tetrachloroethene (PCE)/trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination are finally used for a first attempt at modeling the degradation of the chlorinated ethenes. After calibration, the distribution of the chlorinated ethenes and their degradation products simulated with the model approximately reflects the mean measured values in the observation wells, confirming the data-derived image of the plume.

  10. Evolution of natural populations in the Drosophila melanogaster sigma system II. Northern and central France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, A

    1990-01-01

    A survey of French natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster has been systematically performed, concerning their status of infection by the sigma virus and the characteristics of viral clones. These investigations, which were not as extensive as those performed in the Languedoc region (Fleuriet et al., 1990) nevertheless give a good representation of the evolution of this system because of the long period involved (almost 20 years). Some trends were observed in all French populations such as (1) a decrease in the high efficiency of transmission by males (which is an important parameter for the viral invading ability); (2) high frequency of a best adapted viral Type. These high frequencies might be due to a recent invasion which is expected to spread to other European populations. However, the frequency of infected flies remained low in northern and central France, unlike in Languedoc. The complexity of this, apparently simple, system of two well-known coevolving organisms should once again be stressed. It is impossible with the known parameters to arrive at a general interpretation of observations made in Languedoc and the rest of France. These data may also throw some light on the structure of French wild populations of D. melanogaster which appear to be subdivided into local populations between which gene flow might be low.

  11. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  12. Klaus, an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France - a comparison between storm diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    The synoptic evolution and dynamical characteristics of storm "Klaus" (23 and 24 January 2009) are analysed. "Klaus" was an extratropical cyclone which developed over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean on the 21st January 2009, then moved eastward embedded in the strong westerly flow and experienced a notorious strengthening on the 23rd January. The storm moved into the Bay of Biscay and deepened further before hitting Northern Spain and Southwestern France with gusts of up to 198 km/h. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. "Klaus" was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes: a) the vorticity maxima based algorithm originally developed by Murray and Simmonds [1991], adapted for Northern Hemisphere cyclone characteristics [Pinto et al. 2005]; and b) the pressure minima based algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region [Trigo et al. 1999; 2002] and later extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region [Trigo 2006]. Additionally, the synoptic and mesoscale features of the storm are analysed. The vorticity based method detects the storm earlier than the pressure minima one. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor discrepancies being probably related to different ways of both methods handling the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple candidates for cyclonic centres. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During maximum intensity change within 24 hours was 1.165hPa/(deglat)2. References: Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) Aust

  13. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  14. Detection of atmospheric tritium by scintillation. Variations in its concentration in France; Detection du tritium atmospherique par scintillation. Evolution de sa concentration en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibron, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    The tritium released into the atmosphere as a result of the explosion of thermonuclear devices is a useful radioactive tracer for the study of certain geophysical problems. The low concentrations found however call for the use of extremely sensitive detectors. Two detection methods using liquid scintillators are described. In the first method, the sample is introduced into the scintillator in liquid form, after prior concentration of the tritium by electrolysis. In the second method the tritium is incorporated into the scintillator solvent molecule by chemical synthesis. In the last part of the report are examined the variations in the tritium concentration in rain-water and of the free hydrogen in the air in France. A discussion is then made of the seasonal variations in the case of rain-water and these are compared to the variations in the strontium-90 concentrations. (author) [French] Le tritium introduit dans l'atmosphere par les explosions d'armes thermonucleaires est un traceur radioactif Interessant pour l'etude de certains problemes de geophysique. Les faibles concentrations rencontrees obligent toutefois a utiliser des detecteurs extremement sensibles. On decrit deux methodes de detection utilisant des scintillateurs liquides. Dans la premiere methode, l'echantillon est introduit dans le scintillateur, sous forme aqueuse, apres une concentration prealable du tritium par electrolyse. Dans la seconde methode, le tritium est incorpore a la molecule du solvant du scintillateur par synthese chimique. Dans la derniere partie du rapport, on examine l'evolution de la concentration du tritium dans les eaux de precipitation et l'hydrogene libre de l'air en France. On discute ensuite les variations saisonnieres dans le cas des eaux de precipitation et on les compare aux variations du strontium 90. (auteur)

  15. Detection of atmospheric tritium by scintillation. Variations in its concentration in France; Detection du tritium atmospherique par scintillation. Evolution de sa concentration en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibron, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    The tritium released into the atmosphere as a result of the explosion of thermonuclear devices is a useful radioactive tracer for the study of certain geophysical problems. The low concentrations found however call for the use of extremely sensitive detectors. Two detection methods using liquid scintillators are described. In the first method, the sample is introduced into the scintillator in liquid form, after prior concentration of the tritium by electrolysis. In the second method the tritium is incorporated into the scintillator solvent molecule by chemical synthesis. In the last part of the report are examined the variations in the tritium concentration in rain-water and of the free hydrogen in the air in France. A discussion is then made of the seasonal variations in the case of rain-water and these are compared to the variations in the strontium-90 concentrations. (author) [French] Le tritium introduit dans l'atmosphere par les explosions d'armes thermonucleaires est un traceur radioactif Interessant pour l'etude de certains problemes de geophysique. Les faibles concentrations rencontrees obligent toutefois a utiliser des detecteurs extremement sensibles. On decrit deux methodes de detection utilisant des scintillateurs liquides. Dans la premiere methode, l'echantillon est introduit dans le scintillateur, sous forme aqueuse, apres une concentration prealable du tritium par electrolyse. Dans la seconde methode, le tritium est incorpore a la molecule du solvant du scintillateur par synthese chimique. Dans la derniere partie du rapport, on examine l'evolution de la concentration du tritium dans les eaux de precipitation et l'hydrogene libre de l'air en France. On discute ensuite les variations saisonnieres dans le cas des eaux de precipitation et on les compare aux variations du strontium 90. (auteur)

  16. Remobilization of metals from slag and polluted sediments (Case Study: The canal of the Deule River, northern France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovic, Neda; Billon, Gabriel; Gabelle, Cedric; Potdevin, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the environment in the last century has proven to be very negative due to the fast development of industry. A typical example is the Deule River in northern France, one of the most polluted sites in this region. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in river sediments are 300, 800, 50 and 15 times higher, respectively, than the background values. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the capacity of already polluted sediments to capture metals released from industrial wastes (slag). As it were, in spite of the high metal pollution level, sediments have still shown the ability to adsorb metals released from slag under the conditions provided. Their efficiency in 'cleaning up' some of the metals (e.g. Pb) seems to be additionally enhanced in anoxic conditions. This study provided some additional information on the importance of sediments as a pollutant sink. - Heavily polluted sediments of the Deule River are still able to adsorb heavy metals released from toxic wastes

  17. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  18. Blood and urinary levels of metals and metalloids in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE study, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisse, Catherine; Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Howsam, Mike; Richeval, Camille; Labat, Laurence; Leroyer, Ariane

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of human chemical risks related to occupational or environmental exposure to pollutants requires the use of both accurate exposure indicators and reference values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the blood and urinary levels of various metals and metalloids in a sample of adults aged 20-59 years of the general population of Northern France, a formerly heavily industrialised area that retains some industrial activity. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2008 and 2010, enrolling 2000 residents of Northern France. The quota method was used to guarantee the representativeness of the participants on a sex, age, social category and smoking status basis, according to the census done by the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. The levels of 14 metals: aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), total arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were quantified by ICP-MS in urine and blood samples. A total of 982 men and 1018 women participated, allowing the analysis of 1992 blood and 1910 urine samples. Some metal(loid)s were detected in over 99% of the blood (Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb) and urine (As, Co, Pb, Zn) samples and the remaining metals in 84-99% of the samples, with the exception of blood V (19%), blood Be (57%) and urine Be (58%). Mean blood levels of Pb and Zn were significantly higher in men, and Mn, Co and Cr in women. In urine, mean Pb, Tl and Sb concentrations were significantly higher in men, and Al and Co in women. Current smokers had significantly higher mean levels of blood Cd and Pb and lower blood Co, Mn and Hg. In urine (adjusted on urinary creatinine), the smokers had higher mean levels of Cd, Pb, V and Zn and lower mean levels of As, Co, and Hg. Overall, the mean urinary levels of most metal(loid)s found in the general population of Northern France were higher than those found in the

  19. Importance of data comparability for multi-year trends and source apportionment of NMHC concentrations observed in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Stéphane; Waked, Antoine; Leonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    Non Methane Hydrocarbon Compounds (NMHCs) are of interest due to their potential health impact and their key role in atmospheric processes as precursors of secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Hourly measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban sites in France over the period of a decade. The trends analysis showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are known as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. They are compared with the ones reported for 3 French rural sites (EMEP). A year per year source apportionment study using PMF was also conducted for 2 of the urban sites over the period 2005-2013. Using source fingerprints, five common anthropogenic sources were identified for Paris and Strasbourg: traffic-exhaust emissions (21±5%, 18±5%), evaporative sources (17±4%, 24±7%), natural gas & background (22±5%, 25±5%), residential heating (17±4%, 17±5%) and solvent use (19±7%, 12±5%). Biogenic sources were also identified and accounted for 4±1% of the total measured NMHC's at both sites. Along the presentation, the robustness of these results will be discussed regarding the site representativeness, the data comparability, and the temporal variation of the data quality

  20. Detection of atmospheric tritium by scintillation. Variations in its concentration in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibron, R.

    1964-06-01

    The tritium released into the atmosphere as a result of the explosion of thermonuclear devices is a useful radioactive tracer for the study of certain geophysical problems. The low concentrations found however call for the use of extremely sensitive detectors. Two detection methods using liquid scintillators are described. In the first method, the sample is introduced into the scintillator in liquid form, after prior concentration of the tritium by electrolysis. In the second method the tritium is incorporated into the scintillator solvent molecule by chemical synthesis. In the last part of the report are examined the variations in the tritium concentration in rain-water and of the free hydrogen in the air in France. A discussion is then made of the seasonal variations in the case of rain-water and these are compared to the variations in the strontium-90 concentrations. (author) [fr

  1. Wintertime Ambient Ammonia Concentrations in Northern Utah's Urban Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, I. A.; Martin, R. S.; Silva, P.; Baasandorj, M.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the population centers in northern Utah are currently classified as non-attainment or serious non-attainment, Wasatch Front, for PM2.5 and previous studies have shown ammonium nitrate to often be the largest contributor to the particulate mass. Furthermore, measurements have shown several of the Wasatch Front cities and Cache Valley (UT/ID) consistently recorded some of the highest ambient ammonia (NH3) concentrations in the continental United States. As a part of the multi-organization 2017 Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study real-time NH3 concentrations were monitored in the Cache Valley at the Logan, UT site, collocated at an EPA sampling trailer near the Utah State University (USU) campus. A Picarro model G2508 was to used collect 5-sec averaged concentrations of NH3, carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) from January 16th to February 14th, 2017. Parts of three inversion events, wherein the PM2.5 concentrations approached or exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, were captured during the sampling period, including a 10-day event from January 25th to February 4th. Concentrations of all three of the observed species showed significant accumulation during the events, with NH3 concentrations ranging from below the detection limit (70 ppb. Preliminary analysis suggested the temporal NH3 changes tracked the increase in PM2.5 throughout the inversion events; however, a one-day period of NH3 depletion during the main inversion event was observed while PM2.5 continued to increase. Additionally, a network of passive NH3 samplers (Ogawa Model 3300) were arrayed at 25 sites throughout the Cache Valley and at 11 sites located along the Wasatch Front. These networks sampled for three 7-day periods, during the same study time frame. Ion chromatographic (IC) analyses of the sample pads are not yet finalized; however, preliminary results show concentrations in the tens of ppb and seemingly spatially correlate with previous studies showing elevated

  2. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  3. Regional variation in hospital admission rates in the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Nordrhein-Westfalen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordt, M. van; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    For the analysis of regional variations in hospital admission rates a model was set up, including both supply and demand indicators. Data were gathered for regions in four health care systems (the Dutch, Belgian, French and German), for 1982, 1979, 1974 (France 1982 only). Hospital bed supply proved

  4. Mercury Distribution in the Deûle River (Northern France) Measured by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique and Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviš, Pavel; Kadlecová, Milada; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of mercury in surface water and in sediment from Deûle River in Northern France was studied by application of conventional sampling methods and by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Concentration of total dissolved mercury in surface water was 20.8 ± 0.8 ng l(-1). The particulate mercury concentration was 6.2 ± 0.6 µg g(-1). The particulate mercury was accumulated in sediment (9.9 ± 2.3 mg kg(-1)), and it was transformed by methylating bacteria to methylmercury, mainly in the first 2-cm layer of the sediment. Total dissolved concentration of mercury in sediment pore water obtained by application of centrifugation extraction was 17.6 ± 4.1 ng l(-1), and it was comparable with total dissolved pore water mercury concentration measured by DGT probe containing Duolite GT-73 resin gel (18.2 ± 4.3 ng l(-1)), taking the sediment heterogeneity and different principles of the applied methods into account. By application of two DGT probes with different resin gels specific for mercury, it was found that approximately 30% of total dissolved mercury in sediment pore water was present in labile forms easy available for biota. The resolution of mercury DGT depth profiles was 0.5 cm, which allows, unlike conventional techniques, to study the connection of the geochemical cycle of mercury with geochemical cycles of iron and manganese.

  5. Fluvial depositional environment evolving into deltaic setting with marine influences in the buntsandstein of northern vosges (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jean-Claude

    The Buntsandstein in the Northern Vosges (France) originates mainly in an inland braidplain fluvial environment which passes in the upper part of the sequence into deltaic milieu in the coastal plain along the border of the sea, with the continental environment finally being drowned with the transgression of the shallow sea. The fluvial sedimentation is characterized by the presence of two facies throughout the Buntsandstein : channel facies and overbank plain facies. The channel facies comprises sandy and conglomeratic deposits forming within active streams by strong currents, whereas the overbank plain facies is built up of silty-clayey sandstones or silt/clay originating in stagnant water in abandoned watercourses, ponds, pools and puddles. The significance of particularly the floodplain sediments is subjected to considerable changes throughout the Buntsandstein sequence. There are all stages of transition between overbank plain deposits being only preserved in ghost-like facies as reworked clasts due to effective secondary removal of primarily occasionally formed suspension fines, and an abundance of autochthonous floodplain sediments in the depositional record resulting from favourable conditions of primary origin and secondary preservation. Reworked ventifacts within fluvial channel sediments testify to subordinate aeolian influences in the alluvial plain, with reasonable reworking, however, having removed all in situ traces of wind activity. Declining aridity of palaeoclimate towards the top is indicated by the appearance of violet horizon palaeosols in the Zone-Limite-Violette and the Couches intermédiaires being accompanied by Bröckelbank carbonate breccias originating from concentration of reworked fragments of pedogenic carbonate nodules. Biogenic traces are in the lower part of the sequence mainly present as Planolites burrows in the finer-grained sediments. Palaeosalinities as revealed from boron contents indicate progressively increasing

  6. Declining Dioxin concentrations in the Rhone River, France, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9 ± 2.6 and 9.1 ± 2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced.

  7. Structural data, geomorphology and rock slides in the SW of Barles (The Alps of Northern Provence, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, D.

    2016-10-01

    The Alps of northern Provence in France is a familiar area to European geologists because numerous, long field studies have been organized by European universities and private petroleum companies during the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, geologists have made few comments on the consequences of some topographic slides and, more broadly, on the manner by which nature has sculpted the local geomorphology. After having set the local tectonic data (the thrust of the Blayeul Massif on an already folded para-autochtonous formation and locally up and down reversals in the area of the Heights of Chine and Proussier), a geological and geomorphological summary introduces a discussion on slides and slope formations; then the details of the morphology analysis lead us to the conclusions. (Author)

  8. Assessment of a remediation technique using the replacement of contaminated soils in kitchen gardens nearby a former lead smelter in Northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douay, F; Roussel, H; Pruvot, C; Loriette, A; Fourrier, H

    2008-08-15

    Vegetables cultivated in kitchen gardens that are strongly contaminated by heavy metals (Pb, Cd) may represent to consumers a means of exposure to these metals. This exposure is more problematic for those families that include a large quantity of home-grown vegetables in their diet. Researchers have shown that the majority of vegetables produced in kitchen gardens in the vicinity of the Metaleurop Nord smelter (Northern France) do not conform to European regulations. This study was carried out in three of these kitchen gardens. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the topsoils were up to 24 and 3300 mg kg(-1) respectively. The method consisted of delineating a surface area of about 50 to 100 m(2) for each garden, then removing the contaminated soil and replacing it with a clean one. Seven species of vegetables were cultivated from 2003 to 2005 in the original contaminated soils and the remediated ones. The data showed a clear improvement of the quality of the vegetables cultivated in remediated soils, although 17% of them were still over the European legislative limits for foodstuffs. This suggested that there was a foliar contamination due to contaminated dust fallout coming from the closed smelter site and the adjacent polluted soils. In addition, the measurement of the Cd and Pb concentrations in the dust fallout showed that the substantial rise in metal concentrations in the remediated soil was not only due to atmospheric fallout. These results raise questions about possible technical, economic and sociological problems associated with this kind of remediation.

  9. Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of northern France during autumn 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Cêtre-Sossah, C; Mathieu, B; Meiswinkel, R; Gerbier, G

    2008-10-15

    In August 2006, bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the Netherlands, Belgium, western Germany, Luxembourg and northern France for the first time. Consequently, a longitudinal entomological study was conducted in the affected region of northern France (Ardennes) throughout the autumn of 2006. Data on the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with livestock were collected and an attempt was made to identify the vector(s) involved in BTV transmission by means of virus detection in wild-caught biting midges. Weekly sampling using standardized Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were performed simultaneously both outdoors and indoors in one BTV-free and three BTV-affected farms between September and December 2006. Culicoides were sorted according to farm, location (outdoors vs. indoors), time point (in weeks), species and physiological stage. BTV detection was conducted by RT-PCR on monospecific pools of non-bloodfed parous female Culicoides. The principal results showed: (i) the absence of the Mediterranean vector, C. imicola, (ii) the relatively low abundance of C. dewulfi and C. pulicaris, (iii) the widespread occurrence and abundance of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus with longevity and behaviour compatible with BTV transmission, and (iv) all Culicoides pools tested for BTV were negative. In France, the very low levels of BTV-8 circulation were probably due to the limited introduction of the virus from affected neighbouring countries, and not due to the absence of local vector populations. A key finding has been the substantiation, for the first time, that Culicoides, and particularly the potential vectors C. obsoletus/C. scoticus and C. dewulfi, can be active at night inside livestock buildings and not only outside, as originally believed. The endophagic tendencies of members of the Obsoletus group are discussed in light of the prolonged period of BTV transmission during the autumn of 2006 and the risk of BTV overwintering and

  10. Hydrodynamic and geochemical constraints on pesticide concentrations in the groundwater of an agricultural catchment (Brevilles, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, N. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: n.baran@brgm.fr; Mouvet, C. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Negrel, Ph. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-08-15

    The monitoring of a spring and seven piezometers in the 3 km{sup 2} Brevilles agricultural catchment (France) over five and a half years revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations of atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine (both systematically quantified at the outlet spring): maximum 0.97 and 2.72 {mu}g L{sup -1}, mean 0.19 and 0.59 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Isoproturon, the pesticide applied in the greatest amount, was detected in only 10 of the 133 samples. These observations can only partly be explained by land use and intrinsic pesticide properties. Geochemical measurements and tritium dating showed the importance of the stratification of the sandy saturated zone and the buffer function of the unsaturated limestone. Principal component analysis on 39 monthly data series of atrazine, deethylatrazine, nitrate, chloride and piezometric levels revealed a temporal structuring of the data possibly reflecting the existence within the aquifer of two different reservoirs with time-variable contributions. - We present an integrated approach combining geochemistry and hydrogeology that leads to a better understanding of the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the pesticide concentrations in groundwater of a pilot agricultural catchment.

  11. Stable isotope record of Eemian seasonal temperature from MIS 5e tufa stromatolite; Somme Basin, Northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowski, J.; Andrews, J.; Antoine, P.; Marca-Bell, A.

    2013-03-01

    In many modern to sub-fossil deposits tufa formations, very well crystallised deposits called stromatolites are preserved. These are often strongly laminated deposits, the laminae linked to seasonal climatic and environmental variations. Where found in fossil tufas such deposits have huge potential as high resolution archives of Pleistocene climate. One of the first investigations of this type has been performed on a 2.5 cm-radius stromatolite from the Eemian sequence of Caours (Somme Basin, Northern France), where precise observations in thin section have been combined with intra-lamina δ18O and δ13C analyses. Independent interpretations of petrographical and geochemical data are strongly coherent and demonstrate a clear seasonal signal. Moreover, as δ18O is temperature dependent, we have quantified likely maximum water temperature variations between summer and winter at Caours. A small mismatch between the δ18O derived temperature values and the typical modern range is observed, which may reflect a real difference between modern and Eemian temperature seasonality. This study supports previous investigations performed on a laminated tufa from central Greece and clearly confirms the potential of tufa stromatolites as records of seasonal climatic information and for the quantification of riverine water temperature variations.

  12. Contributions of local and regional anthropogenic sources of metals in PM2.5 at an urban site in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Frédéric; Kfoury, Adib; Delmaire, Gilles; Roussel, Gilles; El Zein, Atallah; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    PM 2.5 have been related to various adverse health effects, mainly due to their ability to penetrate deeply and to convey harmful chemical components, such as metals inside the body. In this work, PM 2.5 were sampled at Saint-Omer, a medium-sized city located in northern France, in March-April 2011 and analyzed for their total carbon, water-soluble ions, major and trace elements. More specifically, the origin of 15 selected elements was examined using different tools including enrichment factors, conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) representations, diagnostic ratios and receptor modelling. The results indicated that PM 2.5 metal composition is affected by both emissions of a local glassmaking factory and an integrated steelworks located at a distance of 35 km from the sampling site. For the first time, diagnostic ratios were proposed for the glassmaking activity. Therefore, metals in PM 2.5 could be attributed to the following anthropogenic sources: (i) local glassmaking industry for Sn, As, Cu and Cr, (ii) distant integrated steelworks for Ag, Fe, Cd, Mn, Rb and Pb, (iii) heavy fuel oil combustion for Ni, V and Co and (iv) non-exhaust traffic for Zn, Pb, Mn, Sb, and Cu. The impact of such sources on metal concentrations in PM 2.5 was assessed using a constrained receptor model. Despite their low participation to PM 2.5 concentration (2.7%), the latter sources were found as the main contributors (80%) to the overall concentration levels of the 15 selected elements in PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors influencing mercury concentrations in walleyes in northern Wisconsin lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, J.G.; Martini, R.E.; Sheffy, T.B.; Glass, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examined relations between mercury concentrations in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which spanned a broad range of pH values (5.0-8.1) and acid- neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 mu eq/L). Total concentrations of mercury in axial muscle tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from 0.12 to 1.74 mu g/g wet weight. Concentrations were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in 88% of the samples analyzed and 1.0 mu g/g in 44%. In the five lakes with pH of 7.0 and above, concentrations exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in only 1 of 21 walleyes. Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total length of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-neutralizing capacity as independent variables accounted for 67% of the variation in concentration.

  14. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  15. Contribution of lifetime smoking habit in France and Northern Ireland to country and socioeconomic differentials in mortality and cardiovascular incidence: the PRIME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W G; Patterson, C C; Arveiler, D; Amouyel, P; Ferrières, J; Woodside, J V; Haas, B; Montaye, M; Ruidavets, J B; Kee, F; Evans, A; Bingham, A; Ducimetière, P

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the contribution of lifetime smoking habit to the socioeconomic gradient in all-cause and smoking-related mortality and in cardiovascular incidence in two countries. 10,600 men aged 50-59 years were examined in 1991-4 in centres in Northern Ireland and France and followed annually for 10 years. Deaths and cardiovascular events were documented. Current smoking habit, lifetime smoking (pack-years) and other health behaviours were evaluated at baseline. As socio-occupational coding schemes differ between the countries seven proxy socioeconomic indicators were used. Lifetime smoking habit showed marked associations with most socioeconomic indicators in both countries, but lifetime smoking was more than 10 pack-years greater overall in Northern Ireland and smoking patterns differed. Total mortality was 49% higher in Northern Ireland than in France, and smoking-related mortality and cardiovascular incidence were 93% and 92% higher, respectively. Both lifetime smoking and fibrinogen contributed independently to these differentials, but together explained only 42% of the difference in total mortality between countries, adjusted for both biological and lifestyle confounders. Socioeconomic gradients were steeper for total and smoking-related mortality than for cardiovascular incidence. Residual contributions of lifetime smoking habit ranged from 6% to 34% for the seven proxy indicators of socioeconomic position for total and smoking-related mortality. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular incidence were minimal following adjustment for confounders. In Northern Ireland and France lifetime smoking appeared to explain a significant part of the gradients in total and smoking-related mortality between socioeconomic groups, but the contribution of smoking was generally small for cardiovascular incidence.

  16. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  17. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in some regions of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Qasim, S.Z.; Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.

    Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in some parts of the Northern Indian Ocean using UV bsorbance technique with a clean up step. The concentration of oil ranged from 0.6 to 26.5 mu gl. Higher values were recorded along the oil tanker...

  18. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the composition, concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics: A case study of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, L; Paul-Pont, I; Rinnert, E; Petton, S; Jaffré, J; Bihannic, I; Soudant, P; Lambert, C; Huvet, A

    2017-06-01

    The concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) was investigated in two surveys. Surface water and sediment were sampled at nine locations in areas characterized by contrasting anthropic pressures, riverine influences or water mixing. Microplastics were categorized by their polymer type and size class. Microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment was dominated by polyethylene fragments (PE, 53-67%) followed by polypropylene (PP, 16-30%) and polystyrene (PS, 16-17%) microparticles. The presence of buoyant microplastics (PE, PP and PS) in sediment suggests the existence of physical and/or biological processes leading to vertical transfer of lightweight microplastics in the bay. In sediment (upper 5 cm), the percentage of particles identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy was lower (41%) than in surface water (79%) and may explain the apparent low concentration observed in this matrix (0.97 ± 2.08 MP kg -1 dry sediment). Mean microplastic concentration was 0.24 ± 0.35 MP m -3 in surface water. We suggest that the observed spatial MP distribution is related to proximity to urbanized areas and to hydrodynamics in the bay. A particle dispersal model was used to study the influence of hydrodynamics on surface microplastic distribution. The outputs of the model showed the presence of a transitional convergence zone in the centre of the bay during flood tide, where floating debris coming from the northern and southern parts of the bay tends to accumulate before being expelled from the bay. Further modelling work and observations integrating (i) the complex vertical motion of microplastics, and (ii) their point sources is required to better understand the fate of microplastics in such a complex coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Baseline concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in Sargassum from the northern Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Aba, A.; Bebhehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first baseline for 210 Po and 210 Pb in Sargassum from northern Gulf. • 210 Po concentration in Sargassum boveanum is higher than Sargassum oligocystum. • 210 Pb concentrations in two Sargassum species was not statistically significant. • The concentration factor is microalgae is slightly higher than IAEA recommended value. - Abstract: This baseline study highlights the 210 Po and 210 Pb concentration in two species of the benthic macroalgae Sargassum from northern Gulf, also known as the ROPME Sea Area (RSA). Within the marine environment, 210 Po is initially absorbed from water and concentrated by phytoplankton and macroalgae, and this concentrated 210 Po can then readily be passed along to the higher trophic level of the marine food web. The 210 Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (22.5–25.6 Bq kg −1 ) was higher than that in Sargassum oligocystum (20.2–22.5 Bq kg −1 ), but is not statistically significant (p > 0.064), where as the difference between 210 Pb concentrations in Sargassum boveanum (15.3–16.8 Bq kg −1 ) and Sargassum oligocystum (18.4–22.0 Bq kg −1 ) was statistically significant (p > 0.019). The measured concentration factor for 210 Po in Sargassum in the northern Gulf varied between 0.55 and 1.2 × 10 4 , values higher to the IAEA recommended value of 1 × 10 3 . The 210 Po enrichment is observed in both the species of Sargassum, 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was >1 at all the stations for all the samples

  20. Atmospheric tritium concentrations under influence of AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant (France) and background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Maro, D; Pellerin, G; Voiseux, C; Lamotte, M; Laguionie, P

    2017-10-01

    In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m -3 for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field 85 Kr, HT and HTO activities. Environmental measurements are in line with those taken at the discharge stack, and tend to demonstrate that there are no rapid changes in the tritium forms released. Out of the influence of any nuclear activities, the levels measured were below 13 mBq.m -3 for HT and 5 mBq.m -3 for HTO (<0.5 Bq. L -1 ). HTO level in air seems to be influenced by HTO activities in surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Baseline concentrations of strontium and 90Sr in seawater from the northern Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Al Ghadban, A.N.; Behbahani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first baseline for strontium and 90 Sr from northern Gulf. • The total strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceans. • The Sr/salinity ratio correlates well with global averages. • High Sr might be due to increased salinity/CaCo 3 dissolution in acidifying Gulf waters. -- Abstract: Baseline concentration of strontium and Sr-90 in Gulf is presented. The strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceanic waters, while the Sr-90 concentration is low at 0.7–1.0 mBq l −1 , that represents the background level following nuclear tests and can be used as an effective tracer in case of any radioactive release in the region. The strontium concentration is primarily related to the increasing salinity off the Gulf coast

  2. France and the Rif War: Lessons from a Forgotten Counterinsurgency War (Northern Morocco - April 1925 - May 1927)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    Points Histoire , 2009. - Harris, Walter, France, Spain and the Rif. London: Edward Arnold & CO., 1927. Woolman, David, Rebels in the Rif, Abd el...Marmie, Laguerre du Rif(Paris: Points Histoire , 2009), 17. 6 On the youth and education of Abd El Krim see Cow·celle-Labrousse, Laguerre du Rif, 213

  3. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental magnetism and effective radium concentration: the case study of the painted cave of Pech Merle, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, Aude; Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bourges, François

    2017-04-01

    Painted caves, showing testimony of prehistoric art, are nowadays subject to intense attention to understand the conditions of stability and avoid degradation. The preservation of cultural sequences and archaeological artefacts represents especially a crucial issue in the case of caves opened to visitors. For this purpose, a better knowledge of these preserved environments that imprint paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of deposition is needed. In this context, different environmental parameters of the Pech Merle cave, in France, are currently actively monitored including temperature, hygrometry, and gas measurements such as CO2 and radon-222 (decay product of radium-226). This temporal monitoring needs to be complemented by a detailed characterisation of the site, including petrophysical and mineralogical properties. To better constrain the environmental and paleoenvironmental context, more than 100 samples including soils, sediments, rocks and speleothems were collected inside and outside the cave area. We report here magnetic properties of powdered samples (low-field susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, and saturation magnetization) coupled with effective radium concentration (ECRa) measurements. We observe that magnetic susceptibility, which ranges over 5 orders of magnitude from calcareous rocks to topsoils and argillaceous filling deposits, correlates well with ECRa values. This correlation, previously observed (Girault et al., 2016) in very different geological contexts, could be interpreted as a common concentration of sources, also indicating a signature of natural samples to the contrary of anthropic environments disturbed by human activities, in which case the association is blurred. This study demonstrates the general interest of combining two different parameters - here low-field magnetic susceptibility and effective radium concentration determined using non-destructive techniques in the field and in the laboratory - to physically characterize

  5. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. Origin of the interstitial isopod Microcharon (Crustacea, Microparasellidae from the western Languedoc and the northern Pyrenees (France with the description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole COINEAU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial groundwater genus Microcharon (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae is highly diversified in southern France. A new species, Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is described from the Aude River, whereas specimens from the Lachein River in the central Pyrenees are reassigned to another species, M. ariegensis new to Science. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is closely related to the species of the group rouchi and may belong to the phylogenetic western Mediterranean lineage. The two-step model of colonization and evolution provides an understanding of the origin and age of this stygobite. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is derived from marine ancestors that lived in the interstitial littoral shallow bottoms of the Atlantic embayment which covered southwestern France at the very beginning of the early Eocene period. Both the regression of this gulf at the start of the Eocene and the Pyrenees uplift may have played a major role in the evolutionary history through vicariance of Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. and of the northern Pyrenean species of the group rouchi.

  7. Factors influencing indoor PM2.5 concentration in rural houses of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Chen, Bin

    2018-02-01

    In traditional houses in rural areas of Northern China, most traditional heating systems, heated by mini-stove in the kitchen, usually take agricultural residues as fuels resources. Besides, burning cave under the ground-floor of a rural house is also widely used. The higher PM2.5 concentration is crisis for human health. In this study, PM2.5 concentration, temperature, relative humidity inside and outside the houses have been measured, moreover the factors impact on I/O rate coefficient has been discussed. The results show that the I/O rate coefficient in the evening is 2.5 times greater than the I/O rate coefficient in the daytime. I/O rate coefficient of PM2.5 concentration is positive related to air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor. In addition, the impact of outdoor wind speed and predominant wind direction on the PM2.5 emission has been studied.

  8. Baseline concentration of {sup 210}Po in Sargassum from the Northern Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, S.; Bebhehani, M.; Talebi, L. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of the {sup 210}Po is of enormous interest because of its large contribution to the natural radiation dose received by marine organisms and human populations consuming seafood. In fact natural {sup 210}Po is responsible for higher radiation doses to humans consuming marine products than is plutonium and other man-made radionuclides. Many marine organisms are capable of concentrating {sup 210}Po in their tissues. {sup 210}Po is an alpha emitter in the {sup 238}U series, with 138-d half-life, that is supplied to seawater from atmospheric inputs and river runoff, however, the main source of {sup 210}Po in the environment is {sup 222}Rn exhalation from the ground. Assessing the impact of radionuclides in the environment requires the establishment of baseline levels in the environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to establish baseline levels in Sargassum. Two most common species of Sargassum found in the northern Gulf were analysed for {sup 210}Po. These macro-algae were collected from three different locations during January 2013. This study sets the baseline for {sup 210}Po concentration in northern Gulf, {sup 210}Po is absorbed from water and concentrated by Phytoplankton and macro-algae. This concentrated {sup 210}Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The {sup 210}Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (4.405 - 4.952 BqKg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (p>0.084) than Sargassum oligocystum (3.838 - 4.358 BqKg{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentration in these seaweeds from the Arabian/Persian Gulf were substantially lower than those found in various Phytoplankton and macro-algae species from other regions; this may be due to the lower background {sup 210}Po concentration in the Kuwait marine waters (0.282 - 0.382 mBq l{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentrations in seawater measured at the 3 stations during January 2013 were less than those reported previously from the same region

  9. Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviews 23 (2004) 803?810 Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations J.S. Waterhousea,*, V.R. Switsura,b, A.C. Barkera, A.H.C. Cartera,b,{, D.L. Hemmingc, N.J. Loaderd, I..., V.R., Waterhouse, J.S., Heaton, T.H.E., Carter, A.H.C., 1998. Climatic variation andthe stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus silvestris. Tellus 50B, 25?33. J.ggi, M...

  10. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils differ greatly from natural ones as they are located in areas of intense anthropogenic activity (e.g. pollution, physical disturbance, surface transformation). Urban soils are a crucial component of urban ecosystems, especially in public green spaces, and contribute to many ecosystem services from the mitigation of urban heat island to recreational services. In the last decade, the study of urban soils has emerged as an important frontier in environmental research, at least because of their impact on the quality of life of urban populations, because of the services they deliver and because they are more and more recognized as a valuable resource. One of the key issues is the pollution of urban soils because they receive a variety of deposits from local (vehicle emissions, industrial discharges, domestic heating, waste incineration and other anthropogenic activities) and from remote sources (through atmospheric transport). Typical contaminants include persistent toxic substances, such as trace metals (TMs) that have drawn wide attention due to their long persistence in the environment, their tendency to bioaccumulate in the food chain and their toxicity for humans and other organisms. Concentrations, spatial distributions, dynamics, impacts and sources of TMs (e.g. industry or fossil fuels combustion) have attracted a global interest in urban soils and are the subject of ongoing research (e.g. ecotoxicological urban ecology). Some studies have already documented soil pollution with TMs at both the town and regional scales. So far, several monitoring programs (e.g. National Network for the long term Monitoring of Forest Ecosystem, Regional Monitoring Quality of Soil in France) and studies have been carried out on a national scale to measure the ranges of TM concentrations and natural background values in French soils. These studies have focused on French agricultural and forest soils and have not tackled urban soils. No study has described TM

  11. Radon daughter concentrations in and around dwellings in the northern part of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfs, F.; Hofstede, H.; Meijer, R.J. de; Put, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of radon daughters in and around 80 dwellings located in the northern part of the Netherlands has been determined using a one-filter method. Median values of 2.0 and 0.4 mWL were measured for the indoor and outdoor concentrations, respectively. The average outdoor concentration was about an order of magnitude higher for wind directions between SE-SW than for SW-NW. On average, dwellings with double pane windows and/or concrete floors were found to have significantly higher radon concentrations than those with single pane windows and/or wooden floors. For the living room of a particular dwelling, 18 measurements were carried out. The data for this dwelling indicate a linear relation between the concentration indoors and outdoors with a slope of 3.8 +- 2.0. This unexpected behaviour is thought to be related to ventilation via the crawl space. Measurements of ventilation patterns and measurements of radon concentrations in the living room and the crawl space are consistent with this picture. (author)

  12. Radon concentration and its relation with some environmental conditions in the northern safaga bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arabi, A.M.; Tartor, B.A.; Bashter, I.I.; El-Saman, M.I.; Maiyza, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    The coastal zone along the Red Sea at Safaga town is a site for industrial development and accepting future establishment of dense recreational resorts. It includes Safaga harbour in which international trade depends. Until now most of the coastal area at Safaga is pristine and suffering from continuous increasing population densities. There is no idea about the distribution of hydro graphic parameters or radon level in the northern Safaga bay in spite of the area famous as the treatment area for Psoriases and Rheumatoid as will as attractive area for tourism. The relative high relations exist between the radioactivity component and the ph, specific conductivity, water salinity, water density and dissolved oxygen were calculated. The concentration of 226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K in sediment samples collected from bottom of the northern Safaga Bay fluctuated between 5 to 19 Bq.kg-1, 4 to 19 Bq.kg-1 and 1545 to 6122 Bq.kg-1, respectively. Whereas the concentration of radon air varies between 2 -11 Bq.cm-3

  13. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  14. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely

  15. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Himberg, M. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L.; Ek, P. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Wiklund, T. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Hägerstrand, H. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  16. Insight into Groundwater Flow within a Crystalline Aquifer. Case Study of the Ursuya Mount, Northern Basque Country (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunat, J.; Huneau, F.; Dupuy, A.; Franceschi, M.; Coustumer, P. Le; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Ursuya Mount is one of the main water supplies of the Northern Basque Country. A study is being conducted since 2009 on this aquifer in order to improve the knowledge on its potential and its hydrodynamics properties. Two hydrological cycles are required to get the necessary data to meet the following objectives: clarifying the aquifer potential of the site both quantitatively and qualitatively; determining the geographic and seasonal variations; understanding the origin and the flow pattern of the groundwater; evaluating the groundwater residence times and the areas of preferential recharge. Here, we present only some geochemical and isotopic data. Thus, structural or hydrodynamic approaches will not be discussed.

  17. Influence of atmospheric stability and transport on CH{sub 4} concentrations in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, M. Ángeles, E-mail: magperez@fa1.uva.es; Sánchez, M. Luisa; Pérez, Isidro A.; Ozores, Marta I.; Pardo, Nuria

    2016-04-15

    Continuous methane (CH{sub 4}) concentrations were measured in Northern Spain over two years (2011–2012) by multi-point sampling at 1.8, 3.7 and 8.3 m using a Picarro analyser. The technique is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The contrast in mean concentrations was about 1.2 ppb, with 95th percentiles differing by 2.2 ppb and mean minimum concentrations proving similar. Temporal variations of CH{sub 4} were also analysed, with a similar seasonal variability being found for the three heights. The highest CH{sub 4} concentrations were obtained in late autumn and winter and the lowest in summer, yielding a range of 52 ppb. This variation may depend on the active photochemical reaction with OH radical during a period of intense solar radiation and changes in soil conditions together with variations in emissions. Peak concentration levels were recorded at night-time, between 5:00–7:00 GMT, with mean values ranging between 1920 and 1923 ppb. The lowest value, around 1884 ppb, was obtained at 16:00 GMT. This diurnal variation was mainly related to vertical mixing and photochemistry. Therefore, CH{sub 4} concentrations were also examined using the bulk Richardson number (R{sub B}) as a stability indicator. Four groups were distinguished: unstable cases, situations with pure shear flow, transitional stages and drainage flows. The highest contrast in mean CH{sub 4} concentrations between lower and upper heights was obtained for the transition and drainage cases, mainly associated to high concentrations from nearby sources. The impact of long range transport was analysed by means of 3-day isobaric backward air mass trajectories, which were calculated taking into account origins from Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and Local conditions. Assessment of the results showed the influence of S and SE wind sectors, especially with Local conditions associated with low winds. Finally, an estimation of the background CH{sub 4} concentration in the study period provided an

  18. The Potential of Concentrated Solar Power for Remote Mine Sites in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Baig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Territory (NT is among the regions in Australia and the world with the highest solar radiation intensities. The NT has many mine sites which consume significant amount of fossil fuel with consequent greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The environmental concern related to the fossil fuel consumption and availability of immense solar energy resource in the NT open the possibilities for considering the provision of power to the mining sites using proven solar technologies. Concentrating solar power (CSP systems are deemed as the potential alternatives to current fossil fuel based generating systems in mining industry in the NT. The finding is based on consideration of the major factors in determining the feasibility of CSP system installation, with particular reference to the NT mine sites. These are plant design requirements, climatic, environmental, and other requirements, and capital and operating costs. Based on these factors, four mine sites have been identified as having the potential for CSP plants installation. These are McArthur River Mine, Ranger Mine, Northern Territory Gold Mines, and Tanami Operations. Each site could be served by one CSP plant to cater for the needs of mining operation and the local communities.

  19. Insight into Groundwater Flow Within a Crystalline Aquifer. Case study of the Ursuya Mount, Northern Basque Country (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunat, J.; Huneau, F.; Dupuy, A.; Franceschi, M.; Le Coustumer, P. [Universite de Bordeaux, Institut EGID, EA Georessources et Environnement, Pessac (France); Celle-Jeanton, H. [Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, LMV UMR 6524, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2013-07-15

    Stable isotopes of the water molecule and tritium in conjunction with geochemistry have been used to understand the groundwater flow pattern and origin within the gneissic aquifer of the Ursuya Mount. This aquifer constitutes one of the main water supplies of the Northern Basque Country and improved knowledge about the water recharge, origin, quality and residence time is of strategic importance for a sustainable development of the resource. 16 springs, 4 boreholes and total rainfall have been sampled monthly since summer 2009. Preliminary results indicate complex and contrasted groundwater flows within the aquifer. Shallow groundwater restricted to the upper weathered horizons is characterized by a strong influence of anthropogenic inputs. At depth, groundwater mainly circulates along the major structural discontinuities of the gneiss in semi-confined conditions. These levels, providing the most promising resource for the water supply, show increased water mineralization caused by a longer residence time of groundwater and hence indicate a slower dynamic of the system. (author)

  20. Dietary Predictors and Plasma Concentrations of Perfluorinated Compounds in a Coastal Population from Northern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylander, C.; Brustad, M.; Falk, H.; Sandanger, T.M.; Rylander, C.; Falk, H.; Sandanger, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated compounds in a study population from northern Norway (44 women and 16 men). In addition to donating a blood sample, the participants answered a detailed questionnaire about diet and lifestyle. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (29 ng/mL), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (3.9 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (0.5 ng/mL), perfluoro nonanoate (Pna) (0.8 ng/ml), and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (Phps) (1.1 ng/ml) were detected in more than 95% of all samples. Of the dietary items investigated, fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the concentrations of Pos and Phps, whereas fatty fish to a smaller extent significantly increased the levels of the same compounds. Men had significantly higher concentrations of Pos, Poa, PFHxS, and PFHpS than women. There were significant differences in PFOS isomer pattern between genders, with women having the largest proportion of linear PFOS. PFOS, PFHxS, and PFHpS concentrations also increased with age.

  1. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R W; Malca-García, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Chait, G; Díaz, D; Pourmand, K; Jonat, B; Somogy, S; Guardado, G; Aguirre, C; Chan, R; Meyer, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A; Effio-Carbajal, J; Frías-Fernandez, F; Benito, M

    2010-10-28

    The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as "inflammation". The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against Escherichia coli and 38 extracts against Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256 mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites in the convenience sample of an urban population of Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgomas, Bartosz; Nahorski, Wacław; Czarnowski, Wojciech

    2013-06-01

    Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites were measured in the first void urine samples collected from 132 healthy people living in the Gdańsk region of Northern Poland in 2010 and 2011. Four metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids: cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (cis-, trans-Cl2CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (Br2CA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) were simultaneously liquid-liquid extracted, derivatized with hexafluoroisopropanol and analyzed by a gas chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry. All the analytes were detected and quantified in the samples with various frequency, 3-phenoxybenzoic being the most often (80%) and the others less frequently (7-11%). Distribution of 3-PBA concentrations followed log-normal model, the mean concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid: 0.393 μg/L (0.327 μg/g creatinine) is similar to those of the other general populations in various regions of the world. Neither sex nor age were predictors of urinary 3-PBA. Our findings suggest wide exposure to pyrethroid insecticides in the Polish general population. There is a continuous need to further study the exposure to synthetic pyrethroids among the general population since there is a strong, increasing trend in their usage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of preventive measures for accidental blood exposure in operating theaters: a survey of 20 hospitals in Northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Golliot, Franck; L'Heriteau, François; Lebascle, Karin; Ha, Catherine; Farret, Danièle; Bignon, Sylvie; Smaïl, Amar; Doutrellot-Philippon, Catherine; Astagneau, Pascal; Bouvet, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Accidental exposures to blood of body fluids (ABE) expose health care workers (HCW) to the risk of occupational infection. Our aim was to assess the prevention equipment available in the operating theater (OT) with reference to guidelines or recommendations and its use by the staff in that OT on that day and past history of ABE. Correspondents of the Centre de Coordination de la Lutte contre les Infections Nosocomiales (CCLIN) Paris-Nord ABE Surveillance Taskforce carried out an observational multicenter survey in 20 volunteer French hospitals. In total, 260 operating staff (including 151 surgeons) were investigated. Forty-nine of the 260 (18.8%) staff said they double-gloved for all patients and procedures, changing gloves hourly. Blunt-tipped suture needles were available in 49.1% of OT; 42 of 76 (55.3%) of the surgeons in these OT said they never used them. Overall, 60% and 64% of surgeons had never self-tested for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. Fifty-five surgeons said they had sustained a total of 96 needlestick injuries during the month preceding the survey. Ten of these surgeons had notified of 1 needlestick injury each to the occupational health department of their hospital (notification rate, 10.4%). The occurrence of needlestick injury remained high in operating personnel in France in 2000. Although hospitals may improve access to protective devices, operating staff mindful of safety in the OT should increase their use of available devices, their knowledge of their own serostatus, and their ABE notification rate to guide well-targeted prevention efforts.

  4. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Pihier, Nathalie; Vanbockstael, Caroline; Le Hello, Simon; Cadel Six, Sabrina; Fournet, Nelly; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-10-06

    A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notification of S. Enteritidis cases in the Somme reinitiated investigations that confirmed a link with food bank A and with consumption of frozen beefburgers from the same Polish producer. In the face of a possible persistent source of contamination, all frozen beefburgers distributed by food bank A and from the same origin were blocked on 3 March 2015. Microbiological analyses confirmed contamination by S. Enteritidis of frozen beefburgers from a second lot remaining in cases' homes. A second recall was initiated on 6 March 2015 and all frozen beefburgers from the Polish producer remain blocked after analyses identified additional contaminated lots over several months of production. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  5. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  6. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  7. Concentration of 99Tc in edible seaweed (Konbu) in the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now performing uranium testing. We surveyed the distribution of background environmental radiation and radioactive materials around the plant before its full operation and studied causes of their fluctuation. The 99 Tc concentrations of edible seaweed (Konbu) collected in the northern part of Japan are reported here. Since the plant will release small amounts of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater near the plant might possibly increase in the future. Seaweeds are important food items in Japan, and concentrate some radionuclides in seawater. Therefore, the 99 Tc concentrations in edible seaweeds before the full plant's operation are important to investigate the effect of the plant on the local environmental radioactivity. However, there are few reports of concentrations in edible seaweeds in the world, including those of Japan. Because concentrations of this nuclide in a general environmental sample are extremely low, it is difficult to determine them using conventional radioanalytical techniques. In this study, Tc in a sample was simply and rapidly separated from matrix elements by a solid phase chromatographic resin and an anion exchange resin, successively. The nuclide was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Radioactivity of 137 Cs in the sample was also measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. In 2004, fishing industry cooperative associations of Aomori, Iwate and Hokkaido provided 15 edible seaweed (Konbu) samples, 11 Laminaria japonica and one each of L. ochotensis, L. angustata L. diabolica and L. longissima. Concentrations of 99 Tc in L. japonica ranged from 3.9 to 74 mBq kg -1 -dry, and mean value was 31 mBq kg -1 -dry. Concentrations in other edible seaweeds in Hokkaido were 3.4 - 6.2 mBq kg -1 -dry, except for L. longissima, which was lower than the detection limit (2.4 mBq kg -1 -dry

  8. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed.

  9. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull

  10. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-02-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull.

  11. Studies on radionuclide concentration along the Northern Coast of Krusadai Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inigo Valan, I.; Stephen, A.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Murthy, S.M.S.; Vijayalakshmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Krusadai Island - The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GaM) near Rameswaram of Tamilnadu, India. It has been recognized as Ecological sensitive area under Coastal regulation zone notification 1991 because these area act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Above all Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared Gulf of Mannar as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Apart from this 2004 Tsunami had many devastating effects along the coastal Tamil Nadu. GOM (Especially Rameswaram coast) didn't suffer a lot due to the barricade-like protection given by the island nation Sri Lanka. But reports suggest that northeastern part of the Krusadai Island had noticeable effects due to Tsunami, which interests to study this area. Current study is a preliminary radioactive report on the northern part of the Krusadai Island

  12. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in 4 northern hardwood tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefcik, L.T.; Zak, D.R.; Ellsworth, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) varies among tree species and species groups. In this study, seedling responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and solar irradiance over 2 growing seasons were investigated for shade tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh.; Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh; and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina. Seedlings were exposed to a combination of elevated and ambient concentrations of CO 2 and understory shade in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. It was observed that the elevated CO 2 treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rates by 63 per cent in the shade-tolerant species and 67 per cent in the shade-intolerant species. When measured at the elevated CO 2 , long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10 per cent lower than the instantaneous enhancement observed in ambient-CO 2 -grown plants. As the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated CO 2 decreased from 97 per cent for plants grown in deep shade to 47 per cent for plants grown in moderate shade. Results indicated that in nitrogen (N) limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO 2 enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, due to greater down-regulation. It was concluded that if elevated CO 2 levels promote the survival of shade-intolerant species in dim understory light, the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities may be altered. 70 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Speciation and transport of uranium: application to a study case (the 'La Crouzille' uranium mining district, Northern Limousin, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, Ch.; Cathelineau, M.; Ruhlmann, F.; Thiry, J.; Moulin, V.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of suspended particles / colloids in mining effluent waters is studied for their potential role in the transport and deposit of contaminants (especially uranium) via the rivers. It is well-know that a major source of acid to waters in mineralized areas is the oxidation of pyrite. Although the overall oxidant that drives pyrite oxidation is O 2 from the atmosphere, dissolved Fe(III) appears to be the primary oxidant that attacks the pyrite surface to form Fe(II), SO 4 , and protons. The Fe(II) that is produced can oxidize in the presence of O 2 to Fe(III). This reaction is the rate determining step and is usually catalyzed by autotrophic bacteria. The Fe(III) produced can either further oxidize pyrite or hydrolyze and then precipitate as hydrous Fe oxide (goethite [?FeOOH] or ferri-hydrite [∼Fe 5 (OH) 8 .4H 2 O]) or as Fe hydroxy-sulfate minerals (jarosite [KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 ] or schwertmannite [Fe 8 O 8 (OH) 6 SO 4 ]) depending on kinetic factors, pH, and concentrations of Fe(III), SO 4 , and bicarbonate. These reactions is accompanied by the gypsum formation. Water circulating through the galleries then will lixiviate these alteration minerals. Then, the mining water with Fe, Ca, Mg, U and SO 4 and to a lesser extent out of Na, K and Cl. Uranium in solution, can then be sorbed on the particles of more or less big size. This chemical adsorption is characterized by the formation of chemical associations between ions or molecules from the solution and surface particles. This includes chemi-sorption, ion exchange and co-precipitation mechanisms. The objective of this work is to discriminate in the uranium transport the relative role played by suspended particles / colloids and complexes (dissolved state). Methods: The most common procedure for the separation and concentration of suspended particles in natural waters for subsequent analysis is filtration using membrane filters of various types and pore diameters. The ultrafiltration technique are

  14. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  15. Low black carbon concentration in agricultural soils of central and northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Halla, Markku; Rimhanen, Karoliina; Muurinen, Johanna; Kaseva, Janne; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2018-08-01

    Soil carbon (C) represents the largest terrestrial carbon stock and is key for soil productivity. Major fractions of soil C consist of organic C, carbonates and black C. The turnover rate of black C is lower than that of organic C, and black C abundance decreases the vulnerablility of soil C stock to decomposition under climate change. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of soil C in different pools and impact of agricultural management on the abundance of different species. Soil C fractions were quantified in the topsoils (0-15cm) of 23 sites in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The sites in central Ethiopia represented paired plots of agroforestry and adjacent control plots where cereal crops were traditionally grown in clayey soils. In the sandy loam and loam soils of northern Ethiopia, the pairs represented restrained grazing with adjacent control plots with free grazing, and terracing with cereal-based cropping with adjacent control plots without terracing. Soil C contained in carbonates, organic matter and black C along with total C was determined. The total C median was 1.5% (range 0.3-3.6%). The median proportion of organic C was 85% (range 53-94%), 6% (0-41%) for carbonate C and 6% (4-21%) for black C. An increase was observed in the organic C and black C fractions attributable to agroforestry and restrained grazing. The very low concentration of the relatively stable black C fraction and the dominance of organic C in these Ethiopian soils suggest vulnerability to degradation and the necessity for cultivation practices maintaining the C stock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  17. Contrasting isotopic signatures between anthropogenic and geogenic Zn and evidence for post-depositional fractionation processes in smelter-impacted soils from Northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillot, Farid; Maréchal, Chloe; Morin, Guillaume; Jouvin, Delphine; Cacaly, Sylvain; Telouk, Philipe; Benedetti, Marc F.; Ildefonse, Philippe; Sutton, Steve; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2011-05-01

    Zinc isotopes have been studied along two smelter-impacted soil profiles sampled near one of the largest Pb and Zn processing plants in Europe located in northern France, about 50 km south of Lille. Mean δ 66Zn values along these two soil profiles range from +0.22 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) to +0.34 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) at the lowest horizons and from +0.38 ± 0.45‰ (2 σ) to +0.76 ± 0.14‰ (2 σ) near the surface. The δ 66Zn values in the lowest horizons of the soils are interpreted as being representative of the local geochemical background (mean value +0.31 ± 0.38‰), whereas heavier δ 66Zn values near the surface of the two soils are related to anthropogenic Zn. This anthropogenic Zn occurs in the form of franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4)-bearing slag grains originating from processing wastes at the smelter site and exhibiting δ 66Zn values of +0.81 ± 0.20‰ (2 σ). The presence of franklinite is indicated by EXAFS analysis of the topsoil samples from both soil profiles as well as by micro-XANES analysis of the surface horizon of a third smelter-impacted soil from a distant site. These results indicate that naturally occurring Zn and smelter-derived Zn exhibit significantly different δ 66Zn values, which suggests that zinc isotopes can be used to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of Zn in smelter-impacted soils. In addition to a possible influence of additional past sources of light Zn (likely Zn-sulfides and Zn-sulfates directly emitted by the smelter), the light δ 66Zn values in the surface horizons compared to smelter-derived slag materials are interpreted as resulting mainly from fractionation processes associated with biotic and/or abiotic pedological processes (Zn-bearing mineral precipitation, Zn complexation by organic matter, and plant uptake of Zn). This conclusion emphasizes the need for additional Zn isotopic studies before being able to use Zn isotopes to trace sources and pathways of this element in surface environments.

  18. Baseline concentration of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb in Sargassum from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Bebhehani, M

    2015-01-15

    This baseline study highlights the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in two species of the benthic macroalgae Sargassum from northern Gulf, also known as the ROPME Sea Area (RSA). Within the marine environment, (210)Po is initially absorbed from water and concentrated by phytoplankton and macroalgae, and this concentrated (210)Po can then readily be passed along to the higher trophic level of the marine food web. The (210)Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (22.5-25.6 Bq kg(-1)) was higher than that in Sargassum oligocystum (20.2-22.5 Bq kg(-1)), but is not statistically significant (p>0.064), where as the difference between (210)Pb concentrations in Sargassum boveanum (15.3-16.8 Bq kg(-1)) and Sargassum oligocystum (18.4-22.0 Bq kg(-1)) was statistically significant (p>0.019). The measured concentration factor for (210)Po in Sargassum in the northern Gulf varied between 0.55 and 1.2×10(4), values higher to the IAEA recommended value of 1×10(3). The (210)Po enrichment is observed in both the species of Sargassum,(210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was >1 at all the stations for all the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations of leaf N and P concentrations in shrubland biomes across northern China: phylogeny, climate, and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian; Chi, Xiulian; Ji, Chengjun; Liu, Hongyan; Ma, Wenhong; Mohhammat, Anwar; Shi, Zhaoyong; Wang, Xiangping; Yu, Shunli; Yue, Ming; Tang, Zhiyao

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two key traits of plants for ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Foliar stoichiometry varies remarkably among life forms. However, previous studies have focused on the stoichiometric patterns of trees and grasses, leaving a significant knowledge gap for shrubs. In this study, we explored the intraspecific and interspecific variations of leaf N and P concentrations in response to the changes in climate, soil property, and evolutionary history. We analysed 1486 samples composed of 163 shrub species from 361 shrubland sites in northern China encompassing 46.1° (86.7-132.8° E) in longitude and 19.8° (32.6-52.4° N) in latitude. Leaf N concentrations decreased with precipitation, while leaf P concentrations decreased with temperature and increased with precipitation and soil total P concentrations. Both leaf N and P concentrations were phylogenetically conserved, but leaf P concentrations were less conserved than leaf N concentrations. At the community level, climate explained more interspecific variation of leaf nutrient concentrations, while soil nutrients explained most of the intraspecific variation. These results suggested that leaf N and P concentrations responded to climate, soil, and phylogeny in different ways. Climate influenced the community chemical traits through the shift in species composition, whereas soil directly influenced the community chemical traits. New patterns were discovered using our observations on specific regions and vegetation types, which improved our knowledge of broad biogeographic patterns of leaf chemical traits.

  20. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  1. High-resolution stratigraphy of the northernmost concentric raised bog in Europe : Sellevollmyra, Andoya, northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorren, Karl-Dag; Wastegard, Stefan; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Jensen, Christin; Wastegård, Stefan; Blaauw, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    From the Sellevollmyra bog at Andoya, northern Norway, a 440-cm long peat core covering the last c. 7000 calendar years was examined for humification, loss-on-ignition, microfossils, macrofossils and tephra. The age model was based on a Bayesian wiggle-match of 35 C-14 dates and two historically

  2. PCDD/F and PCB multi-media ambient concentrations, congener patterns and occurrence in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Etang de Thau, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Jimenez, J. [European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability(IES), TP 290, Via Enrico Fermi, 1. 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: javier.castro-jimenez@jrc.it; Deviller, G.; Ghiani, M.; Loos, R.; Mariani, G.; Skejo, H.; Umlauf, G.; Wollgast, J. [European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability(IES), TP 290, Via Enrico Fermi, 1. 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); Laugier, T. [Ifremer, Laboratory of Environmental Resources, Bd Jean Monnet, BP 171, 34203 Sete Cedex (France); Heas-Moisan, K.; Leaute, F.; Munschy, C.; Tixier, C.; Tronczynski, J. [Ifremer, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2008-11-15

    Ambient concentrations, congener patterns and multi-media distribution of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were determined in air, water, sediment and mussels in a semi-enclosed marine ecosystem (Thau lagoon, France). {sigma}2,3,7,8-PCDD/F and {sigma}7ICES PCB air concentrations (0.2-1.4 and 31-57 pg m{sup -3}, respectively) were typical of rural areas. Concentrations in the water column were very low for PCDD/Fs (163-476 fg L{sup -1}) and low for PCBs (138-708 pg L{sup -1}). PCDD/F and PCB concentrations found in surface sediment (0.15-1.6 and 2.5-33 ng g{sup -1} d.w., respectively) and mussel (13-21 pg g{sup -1} d.w. and 10-39 ng g{sup -1} d.w., respectively) were medium levels. PCDD/F congener patterns observed in air, water particulate phase and sediments were similar suggesting direct coupling among these compartments and atmospheric inputs of PCDD/Fs into the lagoon. Conversely, for the same set of samples, similar patterns were not observed for PCBs in the mentioned compartments. - Multi-media ambient concentrations and distribution of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Thau Lagoon provide insight into the POPs behavior in semi-enclosed marine ecosystems.

  3. Environmental determinants of the urinary concentrations of herbicides during pregnancy: the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Serrano, Tania; Lecerf, Rémi; Limon, Gwendolina; Petit, Claire; Monfort, Christine; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2014-02-01

    Herbicides are generally the most extensively used of the pesticides applied to agricultural crops. However, the literature contains little evidence useful in assessing the potential sources of the general population's exposure to herbicides, including by residential proximity to crops. The objective of this study was to take advantage of data from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort to identify the main determinants of the body burden of exposure to the chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides commonly used on corn crops in Brittany, France, before 2006. Urine samples from a randomly selected subcohort of women in the first trimester of pregnancy (n=579) were assayed for herbicide metabolites. The residential exposure resulting from proximity to corn crops was assessed with satellite-image-based scores combined with meteorological data. Data on diet, drinking tap water (from the public water supply), occupations, and household herbicide use were collected by questionnaires. Herbicides were quantified in 5.3% to 39.7% of urine samples. Alachlor and acetochlor were found most frequently in the urine of women living in rural areas. The presence of dealkylated triazine metabolites in urine samples was positively associated with residential proximity to corn crops (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Urinary metabolites of both atrazine and dealkylated triazine were correlated with tap water consumption (OR=2.94, 1.09-7.90, and OR=1.82, 1.10-3.03, respectively); hydroxylated triazine metabolites were correlated with fish intake (OR=1.48, 1.09-1.99). This study reinforces previous results that suggest that environmental contamination resulting from agricultural activities may contribute to the general population's exposure to herbicides. © 2013.

  4. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  5. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Hao; Yao, Lan; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Fanping; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Yang, Lingxiao; Lu, Keding; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanghang; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-03-01

    Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain) in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m-3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m-3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  6. Concentrations of 99Tc and 137Cs in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Iyogi, T.; Takaku, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sekine, T.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now under the active test using actual spent nuclear fuels. Since the plant will release small amount of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater nearby the plant will possibly increase in future. Since it is important to get background concentration levels of 99 Tc and 137 Cs in marine products from the ocean nearby the plant for assessing the effect to the concentration levels by the plant, the nuclides in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan (Aomori, Hokkaido and Iwate) were observed. Concentrations of 99 Tc in the kelps were lower than those reported for other non-edible seaweeds (Sargassum thunbergii) in Aomori, and the same level to the reported value of Hizikia fusiformis in Kyushu. 99 Tc concentrations in the urchin ovaries were lower than the detection limit of our method, and concentrations of 137 Cs in them were similar to these in the kelps. It suggested that 99 Tc is not concentrated in sea urchin ovaries. This work was supported by a grant from Aomori prefecture, Japan. (author)

  7. Nutrient concentrations in coarse and fine woody debris of Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest harvesting practices, specifically harvesting woody biomass as a source of bioenergy feedstock, may remove more woody debris from a site than conventional harvesting. Woody debris, particularly smaller diameter woody debris, plays a key role in maintaining ecosystem nutrient stores following disturbance. Understanding nutrient concentrations within woody debris is necessary for assessing the long-term nutrient balance consequences of altered woody debris retention, particularly in forests slated for use as bioenergy feedstocks. Nutrient concentrations in downed woody debris of various sizes, decay classes, and species were characterized within one such forest type, Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Nutrient concentrations differed significantly between size and decay classes and generally increased as decay progressed. Fine woody debris (≤ 7.5 cm diameter) had higher nutrient concentrations than coarse woody debris (> 7.5 cm diameter) for all nutrients examined except Na and Mn, and nutrient concentrations varied among species. Concentrations of N, Mn, Al, Fe, and Zn in coarse woody debris increased between one and three orders of magnitude, while K decreased by an order of magnitude with progressing decay. The variations in nutrient concentrations observed here underscore the complexity of woody debris nutrient stores in forested ecosystems and suggest that retaining fine woody debris at harvest may provide a potentially important source of nutrients following intensive removals of bioenergy feedstocks.

  8. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease genotyping and drug concentration determination during triple therapy with telaprevir or boceprevir for chronic infection with genotype 1 viruses, southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherfi, Sarah; Solas, Caroline; Motte, Anne; Moreau, Jacques; Borentain, Patrick; Mokhtari, Saadia; Botta-Fridlund, Danielle; Dhiver, Catherine; Portal, Isabelle; Ruiz, Jean-Marie; Ravaux, Isabelle; Bregigeon, Sylvie; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Stein, Andreas; Gérolami, René; Brouqui, Philippe; Tamalet, Catherine; Colson, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Telaprevir and boceprevir, the two first hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs), considerably increase rates of sustained virologic response in association with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in chronic HCV genotype 1 infections. The 30 first patients treated by telaprevir or boceprevir including anti-HCV therapies since 2011 in Marseille University hospitals, France, were monitored. HCV loads and plasmatic concentrations of telaprevir and boceprevir were determined on sequential blood samples. HCV NS3 protease gene population sequencing was performed at baseline of treatment and in case of treatment failure. Fifteen patients (including 7 co-infected with HIV) received telaprevir and the other 15 patients (including 4 co-infected with HIV) received boceprevir. At baseline, HCV NS3 protease from six patients harbored amino acid substitutions associated with PI-resistance. Treatment failure occurred at week 12 for 7 patients. Amino acid substitutions associated with PI-resistance were observed in six of these cases. HCV NS3 R155K and T54A/S mutants, all of genotype 1a, were found from four patients. Median (interquartile range) plasma concentrations were 3,092 ng/ml (2,320-3,525) for telaprevir and 486 ng/ml (265-619) for boceprevir. For HIV-HCV co-infected patients, median concentrations were 3,162 ng/ml (2,270-4,232) for telaprevir and 374 ng/ml (229-519) for boceprevir. Plasma drug concentration monitoring revealed undetectable concentrations for two patients at week 4, and probable non-adherence to therapy for another patient. These findings indicate that routine HCV NS3 protease sequencing and plasma PI concentration monitoring might be helpful to characterize cases of therapy failure, at a cost dramatically low compared to that of anti-HCV therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  10. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  11. Comparative Analysis of Fluoride Concentrations in Groundwaters in Northern and Southern Ghana: Implications for the Contaminant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkari, Emmanuel Daanoba; Zango, Musah Saeed; Korboe, Harriet Mateko

    2018-04-01

    Bongo and Sekyere South districts, both in the northern and southern parts of Ghana, respectively, have high populations living in rural areas and most of them use groundwater for drinking purposes. The groundwater in these areas is prone to contamination from natural and/or artificial sources. Therefore this study aims; (1) to present a comparative analysis of the fluoride concentration in groundwater samples from Bongo and Sekyere South districts and the associated groundwater-rock interaction that may be the cause for the varied fluoride concentrations, (2) to determine the leaching potential of fluoride from the host rocks as the possible mechanism for groundwater contamination. Sixty (60) groundwater samples from active pumping wells and twelve (12) rock samples from outcrops were collected from various communities in the two districts for fluoride concentration and mineralogical analysis. Based on the variations in fluoride concentration, fluoride spatial distribution maps were prepared using empirical Bayesian kriging interpolation method and analysed by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The fluoride concentration in Bongo district varies between 1.71 and 4.0 mg/L, whereas that in Sekyere South district changes from 0.3 to 0.8 mg/L. From the mineralogical studies, biotite has the highest percentage in the Bongo district and has positive correlation with fluoride concentration in the analysed water samples than in the Sekyere South district. The elevated fluoride concentration in the Bongo district relative to the Sekyere South district is due to the dissolution of biotite in the groundwater and the sufficient groundwater-rock interaction since the water samples are mainly sourced from deeper boreholes. This high fluoride concentration has resulted in a plethora of reported cases of dental fluorosis and other health-related issues in Bongo.

  12. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable 226 Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of 226 Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that 228 Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits. -- Highlights: • Fruit and soil samples were taken from wild growing native passionfruit plants. • The sampling locations were on natural and U mining impacted sites. • Sequential extraction of the soil was undertaken. • Radium-226, radium-228 and other key elements were measured. • Concentration factors show the lowest variability in the bioavailable fraction

  13. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  14. Metal concentrations in Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Lamellibranchia from of 12 Northern Italian lakes in relation to their trophic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo LODIGIANI

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test the reliability of environmental monitoring by bioaccumulators of pollutants; that is to establish a positive relationship between the pollutant concentrations in the bioaccumulator and those in the water in which it lives. To this end we analysed the contents of Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ca in the soft tissues and shell of Unio pictorum mancus. The filtered water samples from the mussel habitat were analysed for the same metals. The mussels were collected from 15 stations settled in 12 Northern Italian lakes during the first two weeks of July 2001. These results were obtained: a metal concentrations varied widely with mussel size and among stations; b a significant positive correlation between the concentration of calcium in the water and in the mussel tissues, but no relationship emerged for the other metals; c no relationship between the metal concentrations in the tissues and those in the shell was found; d there was a certain tendency for Mn, Fe and Zn concentrations in the soft tissues to increase with shell size; e the sequence of the decreasing metal concentrations arranged for the tissues was similar to that of the shell, but rather different from that in the water; and f the concentration factor values of the trace metals were high for the shell and soft tissues. In highly productive lakes large size mussels dominated, whereas small mussels were more abundant in low productive lakes. Although the metal concentrations in the water of productive lakes were greater than in low productive ones, the metal concentrations in the tissues of the mussels from the latter were generally higher than those in the mussels from the former. We propose some hypotheses to explain this paradox. Finally, our results show that the metal concentrations in the mussels do not reflect the metal concentrations in the water in which they live. It follows that this commonly used but oversimplified monitoring system cannot be recommended. On

  15. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m−3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m−3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  16. Convolute laminations and load structures in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections and decelerations against bounding slopes. Examples from the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, R.; Muzzi Magalhaes, P.; Tagliaferri, A.; Cunha, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations very common within turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures. Detailed facies analyses of the foredeep turbidites in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France) show that these deformational structures tend to increase near morphological obstacles, concomitantly with contained-reflected beds. The lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures, as well as their geometry, has a well-defined depositional logic related to flow decelerations and reflections against bounding slopes. This evidence suggests an interaction between fine-grained sediment and the presence of morphologic relief, and impulsive and cyclic-wave loadings, which are produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to impinging bipartite turbidity currents.

  17. A comparison of lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in formula and human milk samples from Northern Ireland mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, V C; Mayes, C B D; Tubman, T R J; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Thurnham, D I

    2004-01-01

    Two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye where they are believed to protect it against oxidative and light damage. The amounts of these carotenoids consumed by premature infants are not known. The objective of the investigation was to measure these carotenoids in human and formulae milks. In all, 28 human milk samples were obtained at various times between days 1 and 41 of lactation from 13 mothers. Six formula milks commonly used in hospitals were also analysed. Mothers who provided the milk samples had infants in the neonatal ward at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast. Median lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in human milk were 4.79 (range 0.42-9.98) nmol/g fat and 0.55 (0.00-1.70) nmol/g fat, respectively. Five of the six formula milks also contained lutein and zeaxanthin with concentrations that varied over a wide range (0.7-9.7 and 0.1-1.2 nmol/g fat, respectively). Carotenoid concentrations usually decreased with the duration of lactation. Some formula milks that were specially formulated for premature infants contained high concentrations of the lutein and zeaxanthin and the source may be egg yolk. These studies were supported by the University of Ulster and the Northern Ireland Mother and Baby Appeal.

  18. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Nunavik, Northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigue, Jean [Environment Canada, Service canadien de la faune, 1141 route de l' Eglise, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4H5 (Canada)]. E-mail: jean.rodrigue@ec.gc.ca; Champoux, Louise [Environment Canada, Service canadien de la faune, 1141 route de l' Eglise, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4H5 (Canada); Leclair, Daniel [Centre de recherche du Nunavik, Societe Makivik, C.P. 179, Kuujjuaq, Quebec, J0M 1C0 (Canada); Duchesne, Jean-Francois [Unite de recherche en sante publique du CHUQ, 945, avenue Wolfe, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Willow and rock ptarmigan were obtained from Northern Quebec. Willow ptarmigan were found to have mean cadmium concentrations of 179.7 {mu}g/g (dw) in the kidneys and 25.8 {mu}g/g (dw) in the liver; these levels were three times higher than those found in the rock ptarmigan. The cadmium levels in the ptarmigan were below the threshold above which adverse effects can be observed in birds. The difference between the two ptarmigan species in cadmium content is explained by the diet. A comparison of their diet showed that willow, which stores cadmium, is an important food resource for willow ptarmigan but not for rock ptarmigan. Because there is limited information available on the consumption of ptarmigan kidneys and liver by the Inuit, and the fact that this is a traditional way of life and provides nutritional benefits to the Inuit population, no consumption guidelines are proposed. - High levels of cadmium were found in ptarmigan in Northern Quebec. No consumption guidelines are proposed for the Inuit people.

  19. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Nunavik, Northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigue, Jean; Champoux, Louise; Leclair, Daniel; Duchesne, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    Willow and rock ptarmigan were obtained from Northern Quebec. Willow ptarmigan were found to have mean cadmium concentrations of 179.7 μg/g (dw) in the kidneys and 25.8 μg/g (dw) in the liver; these levels were three times higher than those found in the rock ptarmigan. The cadmium levels in the ptarmigan were below the threshold above which adverse effects can be observed in birds. The difference between the two ptarmigan species in cadmium content is explained by the diet. A comparison of their diet showed that willow, which stores cadmium, is an important food resource for willow ptarmigan but not for rock ptarmigan. Because there is limited information available on the consumption of ptarmigan kidneys and liver by the Inuit, and the fact that this is a traditional way of life and provides nutritional benefits to the Inuit population, no consumption guidelines are proposed. - High levels of cadmium were found in ptarmigan in Northern Quebec. No consumption guidelines are proposed for the Inuit people

  20. Comparison of atmospheric concentrations of currently used pesticides between urban and rural areas during intensive application period in Alsace (France) by using XAD-2® based passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Celine; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Millet, Maurice

    2017-07-03

    XAD-2® passive samplers (PAS) have been exposed simultaneously for 14 days on two sites, one rural and one urban, situated in Alsace (East of France) during intensive pesticides application in agriculture (between March and September). PAS have been extracted and analyzed for current-used pesticides and lindane with an analytical method coupling accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS/MS. Results show the detection of pesticides is linked to the period of application and spatial and temporal variabilities can be observed with these PAS during the selected sampling period. The spatial and temporal variability is comparable to the one previously observed by comparing data obtained with PAS with data from Hi.-Vol. samplers in an urban area. Sampling rates were calculated for some pesticides and values are comparable to the data already available in the literature. From these sampling rates, concentrations in ng m -3 of pesticides in PAS have been calculated and are in the same order of magnitude as those obtained with Hi.Vol. sampling during the same period of time.

  1. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  2. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  3. Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations in Rutilus frisii kutum on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Naghipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine products, especially fish, play an increasingly significant role in human diets and health. This research evaluated the concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum along the Caspian Sea coasts of northern Iran. Methods: Thirty samples of fishes were taken from five stations (Astara, Rezvanshahr, Anazali, Ramsar, and Tonekabon during fishing season. An ICP-OES spectrophotometer was used to determine concentrations of the studied metals. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistical index, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA test; P Ni>Pb>Cd. The results showed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of these metals in liver and muscle tissues (P < 0.05, but no significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: Based on calculations, the estimated permissible tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs of cadmium (0.042 and 0.567 mg and lead (0.0021 and 0.027 mg in this study are lower than the levels established by the World Health Organization (WHO (0.455 mg for cadmium and 1.625 mg for lead.

  4. 137Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137 Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137 Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137 Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137 Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137 Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137 Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

  5. Comparison of tire and road wear particle concentrations in sediment for watersheds in France, Japan, and the United States by quantitative pyrolysis GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unice, Ken M; Kreider, Marisa L; Panko, Julie M

    2013-08-06

    Impacts of surface runoff to aquatic species are an ongoing area of concern. Tire and road wear particles (TRWP) are a constituent of runoff, and determining accurate TRWP concentrations in sediment is necessary in order to evaluate the likelihood that these particles present a risk to the aquatic environment. TRWP consist of approximately equal mass fractions of tire tread rubber and road surface mineral encrustations. Sampling was completed in the Seine (France), Chesapeake (U.S.), and Yodo-Lake Biwa (Japan) watersheds to quantify TRWP in the surficial sediment of watersheds characterized by a wide diversity of population densities and land uses. By using a novel quantitative pyrolysis-GC/MS analysis for rubber polymer, we detected TRWP in 97% of the 149 sediment samples collected. The mean concentrations of TRWP were 4500 (n = 49; range = 62-11 600), 910 (n = 50; range = 50-4400) and 770 (n = 50; range = 26-4600) μg/g d.w. for the characterized portions of the Seine, Chesapeake and Yodo-Lake Biwa watersheds, respectively. A subset of samples from the watersheds (n = 45) was pooled to evaluate TRWP metals, grain size and organic carbon correlations by principal components analysis (PCA), which indicated that four components explain 90% of the variance. The PCA components appeared to correspond to (1) metal alloys possibly from brake wear (primarily Cu, Pb, Zn), (2) crustal minerals (primarily Al, V, Fe), (3) metals mediated by microbial immobilization (primarily Co, Mn, Fe with TOC), and (4) TRWP and other particulate deposition (primarily TRWP with grain size and TOC). This study should provide useful information for assessing potential aquatic effects related to tire service life.

  6. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, L., E-mail: l5tran@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, J.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish.

  7. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, L.; Reist, J.D.; Power, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in the northern part of The Netherlands after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Meijer, R.J.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Brummelhuis, M.J.; Jansen, J.F.; Put, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl reactor accident were measured as a function of time in air, rainwater, grass, cow's milk, vegetables and dust by means of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to grass and milk originating from the same meadows. Also, milk of cows temporarily kept inside after the accident was monitored until a few days after their release from the stables. Activity ratios in various types of samples and the implication of the sheltering measures for cows are discussed

  9. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-10-29

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  10. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2008-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  11. Factors Affecting Element Concentrations in Eggshells of Three Sympatrically Nesting Waterbirds in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz

    2018-02-01

    Avian eggshells are convenient samples in biomonitoring studies, because they are easily accessible, especially from colonially or semicolonially breeding birds. In the present study, concentrations of 17 elements, including heavy metals and essential elements in post-hatch eggshells, were compared among three species of waterbirds of differing strategies for gaining reserves for egg production and diet: mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (ML, a capital breeder, mainly herbivorous), common tern, Sterna hirundo (CT, an income breeder, piscivorous) and black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (BHG, mixed strategy, omnivorous) and breeding sympatrically in three sites in North Poland. Analyses revealed that Fe, Zn, and Cu levels differed the most in the studied species, which may be explained by various contributions of fish, aquatic plants, and soil invertebrates in their diets. Generally, the studied species' eggshells accumulated amounts of elements comparable to those reported for other waterbirds without putting the growth and development of the embryo at risk. The only exception was very high levels of Cr in ML and CT, which may be explained by their foraging on aquatic organisms in waterbodies polluted by this element. Intersite differences in eggshell concentrations of Ni, Sr, Hg and Cr in CT (an income breeder) may be explained by the influence of local pollution sources (small factories, polluted river).

  12. Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations: Comparing chemistry-climate models and observations at northern midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D. D.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L.; Shindell, D. T.; Staehelin, J.; Derwent, R.; Cooper, O. R.; Tanimoto, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Gilge, S.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Fröhlich, M.

    2014-05-01

    Two recent papers have quantified long-term ozone (O3) changes observed at northern midlatitude sites that are believed to represent baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) conditions. Three chemistry-climate models (NCAR CAM-chem, GFDL-CM3, and GISS-E2-R) have calculated retrospective tropospheric O3 concentrations as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model intercomparisons. We present an approach for quantitative comparisons of model results with measurements for seasonally averaged O3 concentrations. There is considerable qualitative agreement between the measurements and the models, but there are also substantial and consistent quantitative disagreements. Most notably, models (1) overestimate absolute O3 mixing ratios, on average by 5 to 17 ppbv in the year 2000, (2) capture only 50% of O3 changes observed over the past five to six decades, and little of observed seasonal differences, and (3) capture 25 to 45% of the rate of change of the long-term changes. These disagreements are significant enough to indicate that only limited confidence can be placed on estimates of present-day radiative forcing of tropospheric O3 derived from modeled historic concentration changes and on predicted future O3 concentrations. Evidently our understanding of tropospheric O3, or the incorporation of chemistry and transport processes into current chemical climate models, is incomplete. Modeled O3 trends approximately parallel estimated trends in anthropogenic emissions of NOx, an important O3 precursor, while measured O3 changes increase more rapidly than these emission estimates.

  13. Unexpected spatial impact of treatment plant discharges induced by episodic hydrodynamic events: Modelling Lagrangian transport of fine particles by Northern Current intrusions in the bays of Marseille (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Bertrand; Pinazo, Christel; Banaru, Daniela; Pagès, Rémi; Guiart, Pierre; Pairaud, Ivane

    2018-01-01

    Our study highlights the Lagrangian transport of solid particles discharged at the Marseille Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), located at Cortiou on the southern coastline. We focused on episodic situations characterized by a coastal circulation pattern induced by intrusion events of the Northern Current (NC) on the continental shelf, associated with SE wind regimes. We computed, using MARS3D-RHOMA and ICHTHYOP models, the particle trajectories from a patch of 5.104 passive and conservative fine particles released at the WWTP outlet, during 2 chosen representative periods of intrusion of the NC in June 2008 and in October 2011, associated with S-SE and E-SE winds, respectively. Unexpected results highlighted that the amount of particles reaching the vulnerable shorelines of both northern and southern bays accounted for 21.2% and 46.3% of the WWTP initial patch, in June 2008 and October 2011, respectively. Finally, a conceptual diagram is proposed to highlight the mechanisms of dispersion within the bays of Marseille of the fine particles released at the WWTP outlet that have long been underestimated.

  14. Querns and mills during Roman times at the northern frontier of the Roman Empire (Belgium, Northern France, Southern Netherlands, Western Germany: Unraveling geological and geographical provenances, a multidisciplinary research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibrecht Reniere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a multi-disciplinary provenance study of querns and millstones during the Roman period (1st-4th century CE in the northern part of the Roman Empire (provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania Inferior. Comparative petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis allowed an international team of archaeologists and geologists to identify the different raw materials used for the manufacturing of querns and millstones. As a result, (litho- stratigraphic assignments as well as geological-geographical provenances are suggested or corroborated for the broad spectrum of these natural geo-materials. We give evidence for the exploitation of at least seven different rock types. They include sedimentary rocks (fine- to coarse-grained quartzitic and arkosic sandstones, conglomerates, limestones and volcanic rocks (vesicular lavas derived from different geological strata in the following geological-geographical settings: the volcanic Eifel area (Pleistocene lava, the Ardennes Massif (Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks and the Paris and Northern Sea Basin (Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Furthermore we show that a large diversity existed within different productions (different types of hand-mills and mechanical powered mills and distribution patterns. This paper provides new data which will lead to new insights into the socio-economics of the local “Gallo-Roman” communities and into their networks within the northern Roman Empire.

  15. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle fiber type, fiber diameter and myoglobin concentration in the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby eMoore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris (NES are known to be deep, long-duration divers and to sustain long-repeated patterns of breath-hold, or apnea. Some phocid dives remain within the bounds of aerobic metabolism, accompanied by physiological responses inducing lung compression, bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction. Current data suggest an absence of type IIb fibers in pinniped locomotory musculature. To date, no fiber type data exist for NES, a consummate deep diver. In this study, NES were biopsied in the wild. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle were revealed through succinate dehydrogenase (SDH based fiber typing. Results indicated a predominance of uniformly shaped, large type I fibers and elevated myoglobin (Mb concentrations in the longissimus dorsi (LD muscle of adults. No type II muscle fibers were detected in any adult sampled. This was in contrast to the juvenile animals that demonstrated type II myosin in Western Blot analysis, indicative of an ontogenetic change in skeletal muscle with maturation. These data support previous hypotheses that the absence of type II fibers indicates reliance on aerobic metabolism during dives, as well as a depressed metabolic rate and low energy locomotion. We also suggest that the lack of type IIb fibers (adults may provide a protection against ischemia reperfusion (IR injury in vasoconstricted peripheral skeletal muscle.

  16. Flight Dynamics and Abundance of Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae in Different Sawmills from Northern Spain: Differences between Local Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae and Southern France Incoming P. pinaster Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, the windstorm “Klaus” struck the southern part of France, affecting 37.9 million m3 of maritime pine Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pinales: Pinaceae. This breeding plant material favored the outbreak of Ips sexdentatus (Börner (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. As much of this timber is imported to the Basque Country (northern Spain, a potential risk to conifer stands is generated, due to the emergence of the incoming beetles. Thus, flight dynamics and beetle abundance were compared in different sawmills, according to the timber species (either local P. radiata D. Don or imported P. pinaster. A maximum flight peak of I. sexdentatus was observed in mid-June in P. pinaster importing sawmills, whereas a second lighter peak occurred in September. In contrast, only a maximum peak in mid-June was observed in P. radiata inhabiting beetles, being significantly smaller than in local P. pinaster trading sawmills. In addition, significant differences were found between imported P. pinaster and P. radiata regarding the number of insects beneath the bark. The development of IPM strategies for controlling I. sexdentatus populations is recommended, due to the insect abundance found in P. pinaster imported timber.

  17. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough's Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K, 212 Pb and 214 Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected

  19. Climate control on sulphate and nitrate concentrations in alpine streams of Northern Italy along a nitrogen saturation gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rogora

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of meteorology, hydrology and atmospheric deposition on the temporal pattern of SO4 and NO3 concentrations was investigated for three streams draining alpine catchments in Northern Italy.

    The study sites lie on a gradient of atmospheric fluxes of SO4 and NO3 (from about 50 to 80 meq m−2 y−1, and from 40 to 90 meq m−2 y−1, respectively. As a consequence of the increasing N input, the three catchments are also representative of aggrading levels of N saturation. Different methods of statistical analysis were applied to monthly data for the period 1997–2005 to identify which variables (temperature, precipitation, hydrology, SO4 and NO3 deposition were the main predictors of water chemistry and its change in time. Hydrological changes and snow cover proved to be the main confounding factors in the response to atmospheric deposition in the River Masino catchment. Its particular characteristics (small catchment area, rapid flushing during runoff and thin soil cover meant that this site responded without a significant delay to SO4 deposition decrease. It also showed a clear seasonal pattern of NO3 concentration, in response to hydrology and biological uptake in the growing season.

    The selected driving variables failed to model the water chemistry at the other study sites. Nevertheless, temperature, especially extreme values, turned out to be important in both SO4 and NO3 export from the catchments. This result might be largely explained by the effect of warm periods on temperature-dependent processes such as mineralization, nitrification and S desorption.

    Our findings suggest that surface waters in the alpine area will be extremely sensitive to a climate warming scenario: higher temperatures and increasing frequency of drought could exacerbate the effects

  20. Evaluation of groundwater-surface water interaction through groundwater modelling: simulation of the effects of removal of a dam along a river at a contaminated site in Northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Remonti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed for an industrial site bounded by a river in in Basse Normandie, Northern France. The scope of the work was the optimisation of the existing groundwater pump and treat system and the prediction of possible effects on groundwater circulation after the future removal of a dam located along the river. The model has been implemented with the finite difference code MODFLOW 2005 and represents an area with an extension of approximately 800 x 500 m. It has been calibrated using static conditions groundwater head data (wells deactivated and verified with 1 abstracting conditions (wells abstracting head data, 2 simulating pumping tests with transient simulations and 3 comparing measured average river baseflow with modelled river drainage. The model indicates that the hydraulic barrier in the present abstraction scenario has some problematic areas and needs some improvements, as confirmed by the hydrochemical data of the river water. A first predictive scenario has been developed to optimise the barrier, indicating that a flow rate of 0.5 m3/h each at three new barrier wells, in addition to the present abstraction scenario, should ensure the hydraulic containment of the site. A second predictive scenario simulates the optimised groundwater abstractions without the presence of the dam along the neighbouring river. In these conditions, the river will increase the drainage effect on the aquifer, requiring a further increase in the rate of abstraction from the existing and new wells to ensure the hydraulic containment. With this paper we would like to present an example of what we think is a correct professional approach, with the design of the simplest model as possible depending on the hydrogeological conceptual model complexity, the abundance of data and the model objectives, and where multiple confirmations of the correctness of groundwater model results have been searched for.

  1. Negligible Impact of Ingested Microplastics on Tissue Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Northern Fulmars off Coastal Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzke, D.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Haughdahl, T.; Nøst, T.; Götsch, A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.; Langset, M.; Fangel, K.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is defined as an indicator species of plastic pollution by the Oslo-Paris Convention for the North-East Atlantic, but few data exist for fulmars from Norway. Moreover, the relationship between uptake of plastic and pollutants in seabirds is poorly understood.

  2. Assessing the seasonal variability of ephemeral gully erosion using high-frequency monitoring: case study in a fully cultivated catchment (The Pommeroye, Northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patault, E.; Alary, C.; Franke, C.; Gauthier, A.; Abriak, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Gully erosion results in on-site and off-site problems including the loss of cultivated soils, the silting of riverbeds and dams as well as infrastructure and property damage by muddy floods. Regions of intensive agricultural production situated on the European loess belt are particularly affected. Recently a growing interest has focused on ephemeral gullies since there have been recognized as a major contributor to the sediment yield in small agricultural catchment in this area. The aims of this case study are (i) to quantify the sediment yield transported by ephemeral gullies, (ii) to identify parameters that control the function of the hydro-sedimentary response and (iii) to evaluate the influence of seasonal variability on the ephemeral gully erosion. For this study a high-frequency monitoring station was implemented. For each flood event, 8 variables related to hydro-sedimentary and rainfall dynamics are calculated and the relationships between these variables are analyzed using the Pearson correlation matrix and Principal Component Analysis. During the first year of monitoring (03/2016-03/2017), 22 flood events were recorded of which 75% occurred in spring and winter. The specific sediment yield was evaluated to 30 t km-2 yr-1 which is conventional for the study region but the results show a highly variable seasonal distribution; 90% of the sedimentary transfer occurred in winter and autumn. The main reasons were a high cumulative rainfall and a long duration for the events. The maximum suspended sediment concentration at the catchment outlet was observed in spring, likely due to maximum rainfall intensities in that season. Also, a huge variability between the events is observed; e.g. one exceptional rain storm in 11/2016 represents 45% of the total sediment yield of the study period. For the monitored 22 events, 2 different types of hysteresis behavior were observed: (i) clockwise and (ii) complex. In winter, only clockwise hysteresis was observed. These

  3. [Hospital fluoroquinolone prescription habits in northern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, T; Cabaret, P

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the good use organization and fluoroquinolone prescription habits in cases of bone and joint, urinary, pulmonary, and digestive infections. A declarative survey was made (questionnaire for the hospital and for the prescriber). Thirty percent (44/145) of hospitals participated with 274 prescribers. Eighty percent had prescription protocols, 71 % of clinicians had access to epidemiologic data. A percentage of 30.7 (853/2,771) of prescriptions included a fluoroquinolone, 44.5 % (380/853) among these had not been recommended. The excessive prescription reached 24.4 % (116/474) in case of bone and joint infection, 14.6 % (107/731), and 20 % (157/779) in cases of digestive and respiratory infection respectively. Prescriptions for urinary infection were adequate in 47.6 % (375/787) of cases. Inadequate prescriptions were made because of bad knowledge of bacteria resistance epidemiology and pharmacology (insufficient dose, monotherapy at risk of selection), and non-application of good practice recommendations. This study justifies the rationalization of antibiotic prescription. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring mercury in freshwater fish in the oil sands region of Northern Alberta : spatial and temporal comparisons to regional mercury concentrations in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) was launched to provide a better understanding of the potential effects of oil sands development on aquatic systems, and to address issues important to communities of northern Alberta, such as mercury concentrations in fish. Muskeg dewatering, deforestation, flooding, and air emissions are among the potential mercury sources entering the aquatic systems within the oil sands region. RAMP collects non-lethal tissue samples on an annual basis for mercury analysis from northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in various rivers and lakes within the oil sands region. The purpose is to evaluate the suitability of fisheries resources for human consumption and to evaluate the potential cumulative biological effects on fish. A mercury database was developed based on studies in other regions in Alberta and across Canada in order to provide a regional context to the RAMP monitoring results. Data points from 1975 to 2009 were mapped to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in mercury concentrations and any exceedances of subsistence and general consumption guidelines. This monitoring effort has been instrumental in determining whether changes in mercury concentrations in fish are localized to a specific waterbody or regional in nature.

  5. Intra-clutch and inter-colony variability in element concentrations in eggshells of the black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus, in northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz; Jakubas, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    Eggshells are good bioindicators of environmental contamination, and therefore, the concentrations of 17 trace elements in 87 eggshells of black-headed gulls, Chroicocephalus ridibundus, were determined in five breeding colonies in an area dominated by farmland in northern Poland. The intra-clutch variability in the eggshell concentrations of heavy metals and other elements was also investigated, and the concentrations of the elements showed the following pattern: Ca > Mg > Sr > Fe > Zn > Al > Cr > Se > Mn > Cu > Pb > As > Ni > Mo = V > Sc > Cd. The concentrations of Fe, Al, and Mn decreased with the order in which the eggs were laid, but Sr concentrations increased. In contrast, the concentration of Cu significantly increased with the laying date. The concentrations of all elements significantly differed among the studied colonies; the highest concentration of eight elements was found in the eggshells from the Kusowo colony, which may have resulted from the intensive use of fertilizers, manure, and slurry in the surrounding agricultural region. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, and Zn in the eggshells from Skoki Duże were higher than those of the other studied colonies, which may have occurred because the gulls were nesting in a functioning gravel pit; soil and the parent rock are natural reservoirs of these elements. The observed element levels indicate that the environment where the black-headed gull eggs were formed, i.e., primarily near the breeding colonies, remains in a relatively unpolluted state, which was reflected by the low levels of Cd, Ni, and Pb and the lack of measurable levels of Hg.

  6. Reopening abandoned forest roads in northern Idaho, USA: Quantification of runoff, sediment concentration, infiltration, and interrill erosion parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Foltz; N. S. Copeland; W. J. Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This study measured runoff and sediment concentration from the tire track and from the non-tire track to determine infiltration, interrill erodibility, and vegetative cover impacts of reopening an abandoned forest road. Runoff was lowest on the non-track portion of the abandoned road and highest on the reopened road. Sediment concentrations were significantly higher on...

  7. Distribution and seasonal variation of concentrations of particulate carbohydrates and uronic acids in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Fernandes, L.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Bhosle, N.B.; Fernandes, V.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    particulate carbohydrate (TPCHO), total particulate uronic acid (TPURA) and total particulate neutral carbohydrate (TPNCHO) concentrations and composition. Strong spatial, temporal and depth related variations were evident in the distribution...

  8. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The 90 Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The 239+240 Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, 137 Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow

  9. Arsenic speciation and uranium concentrations in drinking water supply wells in Northern Greece: Correlations with redox indicative parameters and implications for groundwater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A.; Hug, Stephan J.; Ammann, Adrian; Zikoudi, Antonia; Hatziliontos, Christodoulos

    2007-01-01

    The cities in the Aksios and Kalikratia areas in Northern Greece rely on arsenic contaminated groundwater for their municipal water supply. As remedial action strongly depends on arsenic speciation, the presence of other possible contaminants, and on the general water composition, a detailed study with samples from 21 representative locations was undertaken. Arsenic concentrations were typically 10-70 μg/L. In the groundwaters of the Aksios area with lower Eh values (87-172 mV), pH 7.5-8.2 and 4-6 mM HCO 3 alkalinity, As(III) predominated. Manganese concentrations were mostly above the EC standard of 0.05 mg/L (0.1-0.7 mg/L). In groundwaters of the Kalikratia area with higher Eh values (272-352 mV), pH 6.7-7.5 and 6-12 mM HCO 3 alkalinity, As(V) was the main species. Uranium in the groundwaters was also investigated and correlations with total arsenic concentrations and speciation were examined to understand more of the redox chemistry of the examined groundwaters. Uranium concentrations were in the range 0.01-10 μg/L, with the higher concentrations to occur in the oxidizing groundwaters of the Kalikratia area. Uranium and total arsenic concentrations showed no correlation, whereas uranium concentrations correlated strongly with As(III)/As(tot) ratios, depicting their use as a possible indicator of groundwater redox conditions. Finally, boron was found to exceed the EC drinking water standard of 1 mg/L in some wells in the Kalikratia area and its removal should also be considered in the design of a remedial action

  10. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Geography and clear political leadership have combined to put France in the forefront of both nuclear and hydro-electric generation and energy efficiency so that about 90% of France's electricity is generated by non-fossil fuels. This article explains how and why France has developed its energy mix. (Author)

  11. Comparison of Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particle Data with Modelled Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentration and Deposition and Air Mass Sources in Northern Europe, 1850–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Ruppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP are a well-defined fraction of black carbon (BC, produced only by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Their past concentrations have been studied using environmental archives, but, additionally, historical trends of BC concentration and deposition can be estimated by modelling. These models are based on BC emission inventories, but actual measurements of BC concentration and deposition play an essential role in their evaluation and validation. We use the chemistry transport model OsloCTM2 to model historical time series of BC concentration and deposition from energy and industrial sources and compare these to sedimentary measurements of SCPs obtained from lake sediments in Northern Europe from 1850 to 2010. To determine the origin of SCPs we generated back trajectories of air masses to the study sites. Generally, trends of SCP deposition and modelled results agree reasonably well, showing rapidly increasing values from 1950, to a peak in 1980, and a decrease towards the present. Empirical SCP data show differences in deposition magnitude between the sites that are not captured by the model but which may be explained by different air mass transport patterns. The results highlight the need for numerous observational records to reliably validate model results.

  12. Association between PM10 concentrations and school absences in proximity of a cement plant in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Girardi, Paolo; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Blengio, Gianstefano; de Zolt Sappadina, Simona; Falcone, Salvatore; Frapporti, Guglielmo; Predicatori, Francesca; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Dusts are one of the main air pollutants emitted during cement manufacturing. A substantial part of these are breathable particles that are less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), which represent a potential threat for the health of the exposed population. This study aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of PM10 concentrations on the health of children, aged 6-14 years, who attended the schools in Fumane (Italy), in proximity (1.2 km) to a large cement plant. School absenteeism was used as a proxy indicator of child morbidity. Time series of daily school absences and PM10 concentrations were collected for 3 school-years from 2007 to 2010 (541 school-days, 462 children on average). The associations between PM10 concentrations and school absence rates in the same day (lag0) and in the following 4 days (lag1 to lag4) were evaluated using generalised additive models, smoothed for medium/long term trends and adjusted for day of the week, influenza outbreaks, daily temperature and rain precipitations. The average concentration of PM10 in the period was 34 (range: 4-183) μg/m(3). An average 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM10 concentration in the previous days (lag0-4) was associated with a statistically significant 2.5% (95%CI: 1.1-4.0%) increase in the rate of school absences. The highest increase in the absence rates (2.4%; 95%CI: 1.2-3.5%) was found 2 days after exposure (lag2). These findings provide epidemiological evidence of the acute health effects of PM10 in areas with annual concentrations that are lower than the legal European Union limit of 40 μg/m(3), and support the need to establish more restrictive legislative standards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal variations in the concentration and solubility of elements in atmospheric particulate matter: a case study in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canepari S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is characterized by a variety of chemical components, generally produced by different sources. Chemical fractionation of elements, namely the determination of their extractable and residual fractions, may reliably increase the selectivity of some elements as tracers of specific PM sources. Seasonal variations of atmospheric particulate matter concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of elemental concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of the extractable and residual fraction of elements in different size fractions in the range 0.18 – 18 μm are reported in this paper. The effect of the ageing of the air masses is discussed.

  14. Common genetic variants are associated with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations across the year among children at northern latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study including 642 healthy 8-11-year-old Danish children, we investigated associations between vitamin D dependent SNP and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations across a school year (August-June). Serum 25(OH)D was measured three times for every child, which...... reductase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase-1(DHCR7/NADSYN1); group-specific complement (GC); and vitamin D receptor were genotyped. We found minor alleles of CYP2R1 rs10500804, and of GC rs4588 and rs7041 to be associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations across the three seasons (all P...

  15. Radioactive Ores and Concentrates (Packaging and Transport) Regulations 1980 (Northern Territory) No. 30 of 21 July 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Regulations were issued pursuant to the provisions of the 1980 Radioactive Ores and Concentrates (Packaging and Transport) Act. The primary purpose of the Regulations is to lay down specific record-keeping practices for persons licensed to transport and store radioactive material. (NEA) [fr

  16. A 40-year record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration and isotope ratios from the firn at Greenland Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, P., Jr.; Petrenko, V. V.; Vimont, I.; Buizert, C.; Lang, P. M.; Edwards, J.; Harth, C. M.; Hmiel, B.; Mak, J. E.; Novelli, P. C.; Brook, E.; Weiss, R. F.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important atmospheric trace gas that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contributes indirectly to climate forcing by being a major sink of tropospheric OH. A good understanding of the past atmospheric CO budget is therefore important for climate models attempting to characterize recent changes in the atmosphere. Previous work at NEEM, Greenland provided the first reconstructions of Arctic atmospheric history of CO concentration and stable isotope ratios (δC18O and δ13CO) from firn air, dating to the 1950s. In this new study, firn air was sampled from eighteen depth levels through the firn column at Summit, Greenland (in May 2013), yielding a second, independent record of Arctic CO concentration and isotopic ratios. Carbon monoxide stable isotope ratios were analyzed on replicate samples and using a newly developed system with improved precision allowing for a more robust reconstruction. The new CO concentration and stable isotope results overall confirm the earlier findings from NEEM, with a CO concentration peak around the 1970s and higher δC18O and δ13CO values associated with peak CO. Modeling and interpretation of the data are in progress.

  17. Mercury concentrations, speciation, and isotopic composition in sediment from a cold seep in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Garry; Sleeper, Kenneth; Johnson, Marcus W.; Blum, Joel D.; Cizdziel, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • T-Hg, MMHg, and Hg isotopes were determined in Gulf of Mexico deep marine sediments. • Levels of mass independent fractionation of Hg isotopes varied from coastal sediments. • Levels of the MMHg were only slightly elevated at the cold seep site. • Cold seeps do not appear to be significant sources of MMHg to Gulf of Mexico waters. -- Abstract: Total-Hg, monomethylmercury (MMHg), and mercury isotopic composition was determined in sediment from a cold seep and background sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM). Total-Hg averaged 50 ng/g (n = 28), ranged from 31 to 67 ng/g, and decreased with depth (0–15 cm). MMHg averaged 0.91 ng/g (n = 18), and ranged from 0.2 to 1.9 ng/g. There was no significant difference for total-Hg or MMHg between cold seep and background sites. δ 202 Hg ranged from −0.5 to −0.8‰ and becomes more negative with depth (r = 0.989). Mass independent fractionation (Δ 199 Hg) was small but consistently positive (0.04–0.12‰); there was no difference between cold seeps (Δ 199 Hg = +0.09 ± 0.03; n = 7, 1SD) and background sites (Δ 199 Hg = +0.07 ± 0.02; n = 5, 1SD). This suggests that releases of hydrocarbons at the cold seep do not significantly alter Hg levels, and that cold seeps are likely not major sources of MMHg to nGoM waters

  18. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  19. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  20. Concentration and dispersion characteristics of U, Au and Si in the granite area of northern Guangdong and Southern Jiangxi and their model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengyi; Li Yongli; Chen Jinrong; Shen Chaiqing; Li Jun; Guo Xiuying

    1995-05-01

    On the basis of studying the concentration and dispersion characteristics of U, Au and Si in the granite area of Northern Guangdong and Southern Jiangxi in combination with the model experiments of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, the spatial distribution of U, Au and Si, the environment of the formation for U-productive and auriferous granitic bodies and migration characteristics of U, Au and Si during magmatic and hydrothermal stages, the relationship between uranium, gold and pyrite, are briefly described. The metallogenic prediction is also given. The research achievements provided important reference for the second-round U-prospecting in the South China and Au-prospecting in the U-productive areas. This approach of research method of self-proposing hypotheses combined with model experiments is first used in the research domain of uranium geology. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  1. Modeling Cl- concentration and δ37Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel; Matray, Jean-Michel; Bensenouci, Fethic; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles; Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ 37 Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ 37 Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ 37 Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  2. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  3. Modeling Cl{sup -} concentration and δ{sup 37}Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel [Universite de Nimes / Site GIS - 30035 Nimes cedex 01 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, CEREGE UMR7330, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Matray, Jean-Michel [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bensenouci, Fethic [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Michelot, Jean-Luc [IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue. West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ{sup 37}Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ{sup 37}Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ{sup 37}Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  4. Accelerating carbon uptake in the Northern Hemisphere - Evidence from the interhemispheric difference of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxuan [Ministry of Education Key Lab. for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Dept. of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M Univ. at Galveston, Galveston (United States)], e-mail: yxw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Mingwei; Shen, Lulu [Ministry of Education Key Lab. for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the regression slope between the interhemispheric difference (IHD) of CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and fossil fuel (FF) CO{sub 2} emissions was rather constant at about 0.5 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1957 - 2003. In this study, we found that the average regression slopes between the IHD of CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and IHD of FF emissions for 16 sites in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) decreased from 0.69{+-}0.12 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.37{+-}0.06 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1996 - 2008 (IHD of CO{sub 2} defined as the differences between each site and the South Pole, SPO). The largest difference was found in summer and autumn. The change in the spatial distribution of FF emissions driven by fast increasing Asian emissions may explain the slope change at three sites located north of 60 deg N but not at the other sites. A 30-yr SF{sub 6} simulation with time-varying meteorology and constant emissions suggests no significant difference in the decadal average and seasonal variation of interhemispheric exchange time{sub (}t{sub ex)} between the two periods. Based on the hemispheric net carbon fluxes derived from a two-box model, we attributed 75 % of the regression slope decrease at NH sites south of 60 deg N to the acceleration of net carbon sink increase in the NH and 25 % to the weakening of net carbon sink increase in the SH during 1996 - 2008. The growth rate of net carbon sink in the NH has increased by a factor of about three from 0.028{+-}0.023 [mean{+-}2{sigma}] Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.093{+-}0.033 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1996 - 2008, exceeding the percentage increase in the growth rate of IHD of FF emissions between the two periods (45%). The growth rate of net carbon sink in the SH has reduced 62 % from 0.058{+-}0.018 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.022{+-}0.012 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1996 - 2008.

  5. Pollutant Concentrations and Emission Rates from Scripted Natural Gas Cooking Burner Use in Nine Northern California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lorenzetti, David M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    METHODS: Combustion pollutant concentrations were measured during the scripted operation of natural gas cooking burners in nine homes. In addition to a base condition of closed windows, no forced air unit (FAU) use, and no mechanical exhaust, additional experiments were conducted while operating an FAU and/or vented range hood. Test homes included a 26m2 two-room apartment, a 134m2 first floor flat, and seven detached homes of 117–226m2. There were four single-story, four two-story and one 1.5 story homes. Cooktop use entailed boiling and simmering activities, using water as a heat sink. Oven and broiler use also were simulated. Time-resolved concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particles with diameters of 6 nm or larger (PN), carbon monoxide (CO), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in the kitchen (K) and bedroom area (BR) of each home. CO2, NO, NO2, and PN data from sequential experiments were analyzed to quantify the contribution of burner use to the highest 1h and 4h time-integrated concentrations in each room. RESULTS: Four of the nine homes had kitchen 1h NO2 exceed the national ambient air quality standard (100 ppb). Two other homes had 1h NO2 exceed 50 ppb in the kitchen, and three had 1h NO2 above 50 ppb in the bedroom, suggesting substantial exposures to anyone at home when burners are used for a single substantial event. In all homes, the highest 1h kitchen PN exceeded 2 x105 cm-3-h, and the highest 4h PN exceeded 3 x105 cm-3-hr in all homes. The lowest 1h kitchen/bedroom ratios were 1.3–2.1 for NO in the apartment and two open floor plan homes. The largest K/BR ratios of 1h NO2 were in a two-story 1990s home retrofitted for deep energy savings: ratios in this home were 3.3 to 6.6. Kitchen 1h ratios of NO, NO2 and PN to CO2 were used to calculate fuel normalized emission factors (ng J-1). Range hood use substantially reduced cooking burner pollutant concentrations both

  6. Assessing spatial and temporal variability in phytoplankton concentration through chlorophyll-a satellite data: a case study of northern arabian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Ghazal, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on applying remote sensing technology to identify and assess seasonal and intra-annual variation of phytoplankton availability. A standard MODIS algorithm for Chlorophyll-a, is used to obtain a variation of phytoplankton with the help of MODIS time series images from April 2011 to March 2012 that describe the situation for a whole year, we also used periodical data for each three months, i.e., from April 2011 to June 2011, July 2011 to September 2011, October 2011 to December 2011 and finally January 2012 to March 2012. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), products were retrieved from the sensor data that demonstrates the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton concentration in the northern Arabian sea near the coastline and open sea water of Pakistan, India, Iran and Oman. High concentration of Chl-a, were observed during two periods August to September and February to March respectively. It was also revealed that Chl-a, concentration was almost identical between the latitude 20 and 21 degrees N throughout the year. (author)

  7. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  8. Relation of nutrient concentrations, nutrient loading, and algal production to changes in water levels in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment has led to excessive algal growth in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota. Water- and sediment-quality data were collected during 2008-09 to assess internal and external nutrient loading. Data collection was focused in Kabetogama Lake and its inflows, the area of greatest concern for eutrophication among the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. Nutrient and algal data were used to determine trophic status and were evaluated in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels following changes to dam operation starting in 2000. Analyses were used to estimate external nutrient loading at inflows and assess the potential contribution of internal phosphorus loading. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for a few occasionally stratified areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, combined with larger bottom-water nutrient concentrations, larger sediment phosphorus concentrations, and estimated phosphorus release rates from sediment cores indicate that Lost Bay may be one of several areas that may be contributing substantially to internal loading. Internal loading is a concern because nutrients may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, microcystin, was detected in 7 of 14 cyanobacterial bloom samples, with total concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter, the World Health Organization's guideline for finished drinking water for the congener, microcystin-LR. Comparisons of the results of this study to previous studies indicate that chlorophyll-a concentrations and trophic state indices have improved since 2000, when the rules governing dam operation changed. However, total-phosphorus concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000.

  9. Anomalous ichthyoplankton distributions and concentrations in the northern California Current during the 2010 El Niño and La Niña events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auth, Toby D.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Peterson, Jay O.

    2015-09-01

    In late spring of 2010, the northern California Current (NCC) experienced a transition from El Niño to La Niña conditions resulting in anomalous distributions and concentrations within the ichthyoplankton community. We analyzed larval fish data collected during the four months before and after this transition and compared them to data from three previous studies conducted in the NCC. In one comparison, concentrations of larvae collected during winter from stations 2 to 46 km offshore along the central Oregon coast were higher in 2010 than in any other year from 1998 to 2011. In a second comparison of nearshore larvae collected during six periods (1971-1972, 1978, 1983, 1998, 1999-2002, and 2003-2005) previous to 2010, concentrations of total larvae and most dominant larval taxa were higher during the winter/spring and lower during the summer/fall seasons in 2010 (corresponding to the shift from El Niño to La Niña conditions) than during similar seasons in any other annual period. In a third comparison, larvae collected from stations 21 to 102 km offshore along the southern Washington to south-central Oregon coast in May 2010, at the end of the El Niño event, were found in higher concentrations than during any May from 2004 to 2009 and 2011. The high concentration of larvae in the winter and spring of 2010 was likely the direct result of El Niño and warm-ocean conditions (high values of the MEI, NOI, and PDO) along with strong downwelling and onshore transport that increased the abundance of offshore taxa over the shelf. Continued monitoring of the NCC is warranted as El Niño effects on larval fish observed in the past may not be indicative of future effects.

  10. Chlorination by-product concentration levels in seawater and fish of an industrialised bay (Gulf of Fos, France) exposed to multiple chlorinated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjellaba, D; Dron, J; Revenko, G; Démelas, C; Boudenne, J-L

    2016-01-15

    Chlorination is one of the most widely used techniques for biofouling control in large industrial units, leading to the formation of halogenated chlorination by-products (CBPs). This study was carried out to evaluate the distribution and the dispersion of these compounds within an industrialised bay hosting multiple chlorination discharges issued from various industrial processes. The water column was sampled at the surface and at 7 m depth (or bottom) in 24 stations for the analysis of CBPs, and muscle samples from 15 conger eel (Conger conger) were also investigated. Temperature and salinity profiles supported the identification of the chlorination releases, with potentially complex patterns. Chemical analyses showed that bromoform was the most abundant CBP, ranging from 0.5 to 2.2 μg L(-1) away from outlets (up to 10 km distance), and up to 18.6 μg L(-1) in a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification plume. However, CBP distributions were not homogeneous, halophenols being prominent in a power station outlet and dibromoacetonitrile in more remote stations. A seasonal effect was identified as fewer stations revealed CBPs in summer, probably due to the air and water temperatures increases favouring volatilisation and reactivity. A simple risk assessment of the 11 identified CBPs showed that 7 compounds concentrations were above the potential risk levels to the local marine environment. Finally, conger eel muscles presented relatively high levels of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, traducing a generalised impregnation of the Gulf of Fos to CBPs and a global bioconcentration factor of 25 was determined for this compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear prospects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    At the present time, then, we are on the threshold of the second phase of nuclear development, in the. course of which nuclear activities will play a more telling role in the economic cycle. We must therefore consider the development of nuclear energy during its first two decades in the light of the above conclusions and in the realization that for some time to come we shall find ourselves in a delicate transitional stage, during which various influences from the period behind us and the period ahead will make themselves felt. This train of events is not restricted to France, where in 1970 the CEA undertook a complete restructuring of its departments. It is also taking place in other countries, where the various atomic energy commissions are feeling the need to reorganize in order to fit themselves for essential changes. We must therefore be prepared to act in the most effective way possible during this nuclear industrial period. To this end we must establish structures and adopt ways of thinking that art in keeping with the objectives of the period, which will be accompanied by a large growth of investment in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Success will depend to a large extent on timely joint efforts in the public and private sectors. Taken together, these requirements imply that we must follow a long-term policy covering at least the next 20 years. As our remarks are to concern the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in France, leaving aside questions of fundamental research and military applications, we shall concentrate ori the fuel cycle and the production of nuclear power, enlarging the subject at each step to encompass the necessary and increasing international co-operation.

  12. The concentration, source and deposition flux of ammonium and nitrate in atmospheric particles during dust events at a coastal site in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianhua; Liu, Xiaohuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Ruifeng; Chen, Xiaojing; Lin, Xuehui; Gao, Huiwang; Liu, Ruhai

    2018-01-01

    Asian dust has been reported to carry anthropogenic reactive nitrogen during transport from source areas to the oceans. In this study, we attempted to characterize NH4+ and NO3- in atmospheric particles collected at a coastal site in northern China during spring dust events from 2008 to 2011. Based on the mass concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in each total suspended particle (TSP) sample, the samples can be classified into increasing or decreasing types. In Category 1, the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- were 20-440 % higher in dust day samples relative to samples collected immediately before or after a dust event. These concentrations decreased by 10-75 % in the dust day samples in Categories 2 and 3. Back trajectory analysis suggested that multiple factors, such as the transport distance prior to the reception site, the mixing layer depth on the transport route and the residence time across highly polluted regions, might affect the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3-. NH4+ in the dust day samples was likely either in the form of ammonium salts existing separately to dust aerosols or as the residual of incomplete reactions between ammonium salts and carbonate salts. NO3- in the dust day samples was attributed to various formation processes during the long-range transport. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model results showed that the contribution of soil dust increased from 23 to 36 % on dust days, with decreasing contributions from local anthropogenic inputs and associated secondary aerosols. The estimated deposition flux of NNH4++NO3- varied greatly from event to event; e.g., the dry deposition flux of NNH4++NO3- increased by 9-285 % in Category 1 but decreased by 46-73 % in Category 2. In Category 3, the average dry deposition fluxes of particulate nitrate and ammonium decreased by 46 % and increased by 10 %, respectively, leading to 11-48 % decrease in the fluxes of NNH4++NO3-.

  13. Evolution of size-segregated aerosol mass concentration during the Antarctic summer at Northern Foothills, Victoria Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Bau, Sébastien; Annibaldi, Anna; Mantini, Caterina; Libani, Giulia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Italian National Programm for Antarctic Research (PNRA), the first direct gravimetric measurements of size-segregated aerosol fractions were carried out at Faraglione Camp, ˜3-km far from the Italian station "M. Zucchelli" (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea), during the 2014-2015 austral summer. A six-stage high-volume cascade impactor with size classes between 10 μm and 0.49 μm, and, in parallel, for comparison purposes, a PM10 high-volume sampler (50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) were used. A 10-day sampling strategy was adopted. Aerosol mass measurements were carried out before and after exposure by using a microbalance specifically designed for the filter weight and placed inside a glove bag in order to maintain stable temperature and humidity conditions during weighing sessions. Measured atmospheric concentrations (referred to the "actual air conditions" of mean temperature of 268 K and mean pressure of 975 hPa) of size-segregated aerosol fractions showed the following values, given as size range, means (interquartile range): Dp range 0.1-1.0 μm) and two coarse modes (CM1 in the range 1.0-3.0 μm, and CM2 in the range 3.0-10 μm). From 50% to 90% of the PM10 mass comes from particles of a size smaller than 1.0 μm. The two coarse modes represented from ˜5% to ˜35% of the PM10, showing opposite seasonal trends (CM1 decreased while CM2 increased). During summer, PM10 mass concentration increased to a maximum of ˜1.6 μg m-3 at mid-December, while in January it decreased to values that are typical of November. Both accumulation and upper super-micron fractions showed a maximum in the same period contributing to the PM10 peak of mid-summer.

  14. The Spirit of France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Jr, Philip

    1994-01-01

    .... Demonstrating unyielding perseverance to elevate France to a position of respect in the world arena, de Gaulle aggressively pursued national interest objectives to restore French national identity...

  15. Long-term decline of radiocesium concentration in seafood from the Ligurian Sea (Northern Italy) after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallelli, Giovanni; Panatto, Donatella; Perdelli, Fernanda [Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, Universitadi Genova, Genova (Italy); Pellegrino, Claudio [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte Liguria, Val d`Aosta (Italy)

    1997-02-28

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 40}K in tissues from fish, mollusc and shellfish of the Ligurian sea was measured during 1987-1988. The mean annual concentrations in 1987 were 5.92{+-}4.1 Bq/kg (wet tissue) for {sup 137}Cs and 2.7{+-}1.5 Bq/kg for {sup 134}Cs and 2.46{+-}1.82 and 0.33{+-}0.57 Bq/kg respectively in 1988. The mean value of {sup 40}K activity was 138.6{+-}22.1 Bq/kg. Contamination was significantly higher in the littoral area up to 1000m from the coast (8.39{+-}7.6 and 1.74{+-}2.08 Bq/kg respectively versus 2.91{+-}1.87 and 0.58{+-}0.59 Bq/kg respectively in the open sea). The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) had the highest radioactivity values and could be utilized as an indicator of radioactivity pollution. There were no significant differences regarding the trophic level, the seafood phylum, or the east and west Ligurian sea areas. Long-term reduction in the sea habitat was estimated at about 200 days for {sup 137}Cs and 110 days for {sup 134}Cs, reflecting differences in the physical half-life of these radionuclides. These values were lower than those found in terrestrial foodstuff and could have reflected dilution of the contaminants in the open sea. The effective dose equivalent for the Ligurian population of radiocesium originating from seafood was estimated at 1.3 {mu}Sv in 1987 and 0.5 {mu}Sv in 1988. These values represent 0.8 and 0.3% respectively of the annual dose (180 {mu}Sv/year) due to {sup 40}K intake with the diet.

  16. Long-term decline of radiocesium concentration in seafood from the Ligurian Sea (Northern Italy) after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallelli, Giovanni; Panatto, Donatella; Perdelli, Fernanda; Pellegrino, Claudio

    1997-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K in tissues from fish, mollusc and shellfish of the Ligurian sea was measured during 1987-1988. The mean annual concentrations in 1987 were 5.92±4.1 Bq/kg (wet tissue) for 137 Cs and 2.7±1.5 Bq/kg for 134 Cs and 2.46±1.82 and 0.33±0.57 Bq/kg respectively in 1988. The mean value of 40 K activity was 138.6±22.1 Bq/kg. Contamination was significantly higher in the littoral area up to 1000m from the coast (8.39±7.6 and 1.74±2.08 Bq/kg respectively versus 2.91±1.87 and 0.58±0.59 Bq/kg respectively in the open sea). The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) had the highest radioactivity values and could be utilized as an indicator of radioactivity pollution. There were no significant differences regarding the trophic level, the seafood phylum, or the east and west Ligurian sea areas. Long-term reduction in the sea habitat was estimated at about 200 days for 137 Cs and 110 days for 134 Cs, reflecting differences in the physical half-life of these radionuclides. These values were lower than those found in terrestrial foodstuff and could have reflected dilution of the contaminants in the open sea. The effective dose equivalent for the Ligurian population of radiocesium originating from seafood was estimated at 1.3 μSv in 1987 and 0.5 μSv in 1988. These values represent 0.8 and 0.3% respectively of the annual dose (180 μSv/year) due to 40 K intake with the diet

  17. Variability of Black Carbon and Ultrafine Particle Concentration on Urban Bike Routes in a Mid-Sized City in the Po Valley (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lonati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclists might experience increased air pollution exposure, due to the proximity to traffic, and higher intake, due to their active travel mode and higher ventilation. Several local factors, like meteorology, road and traffic features, and bike lanes features, affect cyclists’ exposure to traffic-related pollutants. This paper investigates the concentration levels and the effect of the features of the bike lanes on cyclists’ exposure to airborne ultrafine particulate matter (UFP and black carbon (BC in the mid-sized city of Piacenza, located in the middle of the Po Valley, Northern Italy. Monitoring campaigns were performed by means of portable instruments along different urban bike routes with bike lanes, characterized by different distances from the traffic source (on-road cycle lane, separated cycle lane, green cycle path, during morning (9:00 am–10:00 am and evening (17:30 pm–18:30 pm workday rush hours in both cold and warm seasons. The proximity to traffic significantly affected cyclists’ exposure to UFP and BC: exposure concentrations measured for the separated lane and for the green path were 1–2 times and 2–4 times lower than for the on-road lane. Concurrent measurements showed that exposure concentrations to PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were not influenced by traffic proximity, without any significant variation between on-road cycle lane, separated lane, or green cycle path. Thus, for the location of this study PM mass-based metrics were not able to capture local scale concentration gradients in the urban area as a consequence of the rather high urban and regional background that hides the contribution of local scale sources, such as road traffic. The impact of route choice on cyclists’ exposure to UFPs and BC during commuting trips back and forth from a residential area to the train station has been also estimated through a probabilistic approach through an iterative Monte Carlo technique, based on the measured data. Compared

  18. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  19. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  20. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  1. Geospatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments, northern part of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Simon Peter, T; Godson, Prince S; Chandrasekar, N; Magesh, N S

    2017-12-15

    Fifty two surface sediments were collected from the northern part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve to assess the geospatial risk of sediments. We found that distribution of organic matter and CaCO 3 distributions were locally controlled by the mangrove litters and fragmented coral debris. In addition, Fe and Mn concentrations in the marine sediments were probably supplied through the riverine input and natural processes. The Geo-accumulation of elements fall under the uncontaminated category except Pb. Lead show a wide range of contamination from uncontaminated-moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated category. The sediment toxicity level of the elements revealed that the majority of the sediments fall under moderately to highly polluted sediments (23.07-28.84%). The grades of potential ecological risk suggest that predominant sediments fall under low to moderate risk category (55.7-32.7%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low to moderate risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gaz de France annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  3. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, France. A total of 202 elderly hospitalized patients were included during the 4.5 months of the study (1.5 months per center). The mean number of drugs was seven on admission and at discharge. Over half of the prescriptions at admission contained at least one potentially inappropriate medication or one potential prescription omission. The prescriptions at discharge contained significantly fewer potentially inappropriate medications than prescriptions on admission (P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference between prescriptions at discharge in terms of potential prescription omissions. Acute geriatric hospitalization in France improves prescriptions in terms of potentially inappropriate medication, but has no impact on potential prescription omissions. Further studies must be carried out to see if STOPP/START could be used as a tool in French prescription. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Concentrations and source regions of light-absorbing particles in snow/ice in northern Pakistan and their impact on snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Chaman; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Zhang, Yulan; Ali, Shaukat; Li, Yang; Li, Xiaofei

    2018-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), water-insoluble organic carbon (OC), and mineral dust are important particles in snow and ice which significantly reduce albedo and accelerate melting. Surface snow and ice samples were collected from the Karakoram-Himalayan region of northern Pakistan during 2015 and 2016 in summer (six glaciers), autumn (two glaciers), and winter (six mountain valleys). The average BC concentration overall was 2130 ± 1560 ng g-1 in summer samples, 2883 ± 3439 ng g-1 in autumn samples, and 992 ± 883 ng g-1 in winter samples. The average water-insoluble OC concentration overall was 1839 ± 1108 ng g-1 in summer samples, 1423 ± 208 ng g-1 in autumn samples, and 1342 ± 672 ng g-1 in winter samples. The overall concentration of BC, OC, and dust in aged snow samples collected during the summer campaign was higher than the concentration in ice samples. The values are relatively high compared to reports by others for the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. This is probably the result of taking more representative samples at lower elevation where deposition is higher and the effects of ageing and enrichment are more marked. A reduction in snow albedo of 0.1-8.3 % for fresh snow and 0.9-32.5 % for aged snow was calculated for selected solar zenith angles during daytime using the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model. The daily mean albedo was reduced by 0.07-12.0 %. The calculated radiative forcing ranged from 0.16 to 43.45 W m-2 depending on snow type, solar zenith angle, and location. The potential source regions of the deposited pollutants were identified using spatial variance in wind vector maps, emission inventories coupled with backward air trajectories, and simple region-tagged chemical transport modeling. Central, south, and west Asia were the major sources of pollutants during the sampling months, with only a small contribution from east Asia. Analysis based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-STEM) chemical transport model identified a

  5. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  6. Nuclear materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korycanek, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 1.5 million tons of uranium ore, 8000 tons of uranium concentrate, 1000 tons of UF 6 , 340 spent fuel containers, and 30 000 m 3 of nuclear wastes are transported annually by trucks, trains and ships in France. Annual costs of this transportation amount to 500-600 million FRF, and about 200 employees are engaged in this activity. Transportation of spent fuel to the La Hague and Marcoule fuel reprocessing plants, and the transport of plutonium are dealt with in detail. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  7. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  8. Case study - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture concerns the training of the personnel of the PWR 900 MW twin units nuclear power station which is located in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China. The following points are covered: General organization of the training; preparation and recruitment of personnel trained in France; training and qualification of the personnel trained in France; complementary training in PRC for the above personnel; training of additional personnel in PRC; attended retraining. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  10. Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. PMID:22393958

  11. Secondhand smoke concentrations in hospitality venues in the Pacific Basin: findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke- free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/ m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments.

  12. An investigation of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration creep among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients and healthy children in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ning; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Chan, Ming-Chin; Yu, Ching-Mei; Wang, Chih-Chien

    2017-06-01

    The phenomenon of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep is an increasingly serious problem in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. In this study, we investigated the vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values of MRSA strains isolated from pediatric patients and MRSA colonized healthy children. Then, we assessed whether there was evidence of clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. We collected clinical MRSA isolates from pediatric patients and from healthy children colonized with MRSA during 2008-2012 at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan and obtained vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values using the Etest method. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) typing were used to assess clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. A total 195 MRSA strains were included in this study; 87 were isolated patients with a clinical MRSA infection, and the other 108 strains from nasally colonized healthy children. Vancomycin MIC≥1.5 μg/mL was seen in more clinical isolates (60/87, 69%) than colonized isolates (32/108, 29.6%), p < 0.001. The PFGE typing of both strains revealed multiple pulsotypes. Vancomycin MIC creeps existed in both clinical MRSA isolates and colonized MRSA strains. Great diversity of PFGE typing was in both strains collected. There was no association between the clinical and colonized MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC creep. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the bivalve Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758 on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were studied in Perna perna from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena and Ponta do Retiro on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State by ICP-AES. The average concentration was 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd; 1.9 ± 0.6 (Cr; 6.1 ± 0.7 (Cu; 1,130 ± 113 (Fe; 22 ± 3.2 (Mn; 9.3 ± 4.6 (Ni; 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb; 44 ± 5.8 (Zn µg.g-1 dry weight. There were no significant difference for almost all the studied metals in relation to sex. Although, significant spatial variations (p Este trabalho descreve as concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn em Perna perna das praias de Barra do Furado (BF, Buena (B and Ponta do Retiro (PR na costa Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As concentrações dos metais foram determinadas em ICP-AES. As concentrações médias foram 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd; 1,9 ± 0.6 (Cr; 6,13 ± 0.7 (Cu; 1.130 ± 113 (Fe; 22 ± 3,2 (Mn; 9.3 ± 4,6 (Ni; 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb; 44 ± 5,8 (Zn µg.g-1 de peso seco. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos metais, em relação ao sexo. Variações espaciais significativas (p < 0.05 ocorreram para Cr, Pb e Ni com os maiores valores em BF. Variações temporais significativas (p < 0.05 ocorreram nas três praias, contudo, nenhuma tendência sazonal de acumulação foi observada. As concentrações dos metais foram similares aquelas áreas descritas sob baixo impacto de poluição por metais pesados, exceto para o Fe, cujos altos valores provavelmente estão associados a presença de substratos locais ricos em óxido de Fe.

  14. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; Talbot, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n = 16), pesticides (n = 14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n = 12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings. - Highlights: • Broad range of microorganics detected in Chalk groundwater in England and France. • Plasticisers, pesticides, BPA and THM detected at the highest concentrations. • Pesticides higher in outcrop Chalk, caffeine and BPA at concealed sites. • Occurrences show some relationship to land use, borehole depth and water level. - Broad screening reveals for the first time the extent of emerging microorganic pollution in Chalk groundwater sources across England and France

  15. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  16. A fugitive illusion. anti-nuclear 'barbarism'. Nuclear policies: France hums and haws, England dashes, Germany sinks, Northern America strengthens, Japan gets ready, Russia and China move forward, and the rest of the world emerges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-04-01

    This document proposes three articles by the same author. In the first one, he presents wind energy and photovoltaic as a complete economic failure (and even disaster), a sector in which huge investments have been lost with dramatic human consequences. In the second one, he comments and criticizes the statements contained in an anti-nuclear publication entitled Antinuclear barbarism (in French: Barbarie antinucleaire) which denounces various aspects of the nuclear industry notably in Japan and in Fukushima, but also regarding the Chernobyl accident and its health consequences, or the French nuclear policy (ASTRID project) and energy policies of various countries. The third article proposes an overview of nuclear policies in France (no important nuclear project until 2007, difficulties with the EPR, new perspectives in China and in the UK), in England (project of construction of 10 EPRs), in Germany (dramatic consequences of the decision to phase out nuclear), in Eastern European countries (new reactor projects), in Scandinavia (Finland and Sweden may extend their nuclear fleet), in the USA (a 20 year extension of reactor life) and in Canada, in Russia (nuclear revival with remarkable improvements on the existing reactors, project of development of fast breeder reactors, development of the VVER fleet, good prospects for exports), in Asia (Japan, South Korea, China)

  17. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  18. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  19. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: purpose and context (includes information about France's energy supplies, use and responsible organizations); evolution of relationships among institutions; review of prevailing preoccupations of sectors (separate headings for oil, gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and unconventional energy sources: under the nuclear heading information is given about the organization of the nuclear industry in France, mining, enrichment, reprocessing, reactor construction); nature and operation of government control; energy in the plans; formulation of policy; opposition to the nuclear policy. (U.K.)

  20. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  1. France - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  2. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  3. The action of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  5. France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  6. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  7. Geochemical signatures of fluid paleo-transfer in fracture filling calcite from low permeability rock masses: examples taken from Bure's and Tournemire's site in France and northern Switzerland; Signatures geochimiques de paleocirculations aqueuses dans la calcite de remplissage de fracture de massifs argileux peu permeables et de leurs encaissants: exemples pris sur les sites de Bure, Tournemire et Suisse du nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecocq, D

    2002-12-15

    Fractures in rock masses represent preferential path for fluid transfer and, as such, are the most efficient way for migration of radionuclides at a regional scale. The impact of fracturing on hydrogeological system is a major challenge for underground radioactive waste storage projects. In this context, geochemistry of fracture-filling calcite is used to better understand physical and chemical properties of palaeo-fluids. A new methodology has been developed to analyze Mg, Mn, Fe, Sr and Rare Earth Elements REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy and Yb) in calcite by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Analyses of calcite crystals have been performed in fractures from Jurassic clays and limestones in France (Bure and Tournemire sites) and northern Switzerland (Mt Terri's tunnel and deep borehole). On each case, several geochemical signatures are observed, according to REE partitioning and Mn and Fe concentrations. In the Bure site, a dependence of calcite geochemistry from fracture host rock has been evidenced. On the other hand, speciation of REE in solution equilibrated with clayey or calcareous rocks at circum-neutral pH (7 to 8) is not significantly influenced by the media: speciation is dominated by carbonate species in both cases and phosphate complexes can modify heavy REE availability in relatively to light REE. These results point out that in fractures in clays, calcite crystallizes at equilibrium with a fluid expulsed during diagenesis from clay minerals, recording the effect of clays and accessory phases. In limestone fractures, calcite records a later event related to the past functioning of the present aquifer, and the fluid has reached equilibrium with the rock minerals. In secondary filling calcite from Toarcian Argilites faults close to Tournemire's tunnel, three successive generations of calcite are observed in an extensive fault, and a fourth in a compressive one. In Aalenian Opalinus Clays veins, comparison between existing isotopic data and Mn, Fe

  8. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  9. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  10. Tidal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author first discusses the potential theoretical production of tidal energy in the world and more particularly in France, and compares this potential production with that of hydroelectric energy. He discusses the existence of potentially interesting sites in France in terms of sizing and exploitation modes. He describes the main associated works for turbines and sea walls, impacts on the environment, on the economy and on employment. He discusses the production possibilities and their cost, and the issue of energy storage. He indicates sites which could be built before 2025: Saint-Brieuc, Portbail-Coutainville or Granville, Mers or Cayeux, Penly or Saint-Valery en Caux. For each of this site, the author describes the project implantation, gives an gross assessment of the construction cost, and therefore of the kWh cost

  11. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. La titrisation en France.

    OpenAIRE

    BIROUK, O.; CASSAN, L.

    2012-01-01

    La crise financière a justifié une surveillance accrue de la titrisation dans le refinancement de l’économie. Les créances titrisées en France sont en grande majorité représentatives de crédits octroyés par les banques aux ménages et aux sociétés non financières résidents.

  13. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  14. Pharmacy education in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  15. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  16. Energy options in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid rise of oil price and the future shortage of oil are the problems, to which those in charge of energy must face. The method of maintaining and increasing energy consumption without destroying financial balance must be found. As the common points in Japan and France, domestic energy resources are scarce, coal reserves are small and the cost is high, the room for expanding water power generation hardly remains, and the atomic energy projects of large scale seem to be the only solution, but actually, they encountered many difficulties. In France, Energy Conservation Agency was established in 1974. The energy consumption per man was 4500 kWh in 1979, and it is not high level, accordingly it is difficult to reduce the present consumption further. The growth of electricity consumption in 1979 slowed down remarkably. The present crisis is oil crisis instead of energy crisis. Therefore electric power is the most suitable medium to get rid of the bondage of oil. The breakdown of heat production is as follows: coal 41%, oil 32%, gas 4%, and uranium 23%. Since 1976, 15 power plants of 3.5 million kW were converted to coal burning, but more staffs are required for the operation and maintenance. Water power generation is valuable to supplement nuclear power generation which lacks flexibility. As the nucleus of energy projects in France, PWR development project is in progress. Six 900 MW PWR plants are in operation. (Kako, I.)

  17. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  18. Communication of 20 October received from the Permanent Mission of France to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On 23 October 1995, the Director General received a letter dated 20 October 1995 from the Permanent Mission of France transmitting a joint Statement of 20 October 1995 by France, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America about their intention to sign the Protocols to the Treaty of Rarotonga. As requested by the Permanent Mission of France, the text of the Statement is being circulated for the information of Member States

  19. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  20. G8 global partnership. France's contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    During the G8 summit at Kananaskis (Canada) in June 2002, G8 Leaders decided to launch the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Under this initiative, partners support specific cooperation projects to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues. Since then, thirteen other donor countries have joined the initiative from which the Ukraine may also now benefit. France intends to make an effective contribution, up to 750 million euros, to the implementation of this initiative, giving priority to a genuine partnership between France and Russia covering projects in the nuclear, chemical and biological fields. France intends to be involved in the various fields identified at Kananaskis: in the nuclear field, it is participating in nuclear submarine dismantling actions and contributes to the improvement of nuclear safety and security. It also supports the program for the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes. France is also involved in the destruction of chemical weapons and intends to develop responses to bio-terrorist threats, while promoting reemployment of scientists. To optimise its action, France has committed itself to both multilateral and bilateral programs. In the multilateral framework, France contributes to: - the NDEP fund (Northern Dimension Environment Partnership) which will finance projects related to the dismantling of nuclear submarines and remediation of the sites concerned; - the MPDG (Multilateral Plutonium Disposition Group), whose objective is to enable the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes; - the construction of the new Chernobyl shelter in the Ukraine. France is also developing bilateral cooperation, primarily with Russia: - in the nuclear field, the implementing agreement negotiated in the framework of the Multilateral Environmental

  1. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. II. Trace metal concentrations in the Magela Creek billabongs at the end of the 1978 dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.H.R.; Hart, B.T.

    1981-12-01

    Billabongs downstream of the Ranger uranium mining operation have been identified as potential deposition areas for released trace metals. Samples were taken at the end of the dry season and analysed for total and filterable concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu and Zn. There was an increase in the concentrations of total Fe, Zn, Cd and Cu in the backflow and flood plain billabongs compared with the concentrations recorded during the wet season. The increase was most noticeable for iron

  2. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  3. Literatures of Medieval France

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  4. Planeteria: news from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Acker, A.; Delfosse, X.

    2011-10-01

    France has a good network of planetaria. They are linked through a network called Association of the French Speaking Planetaria. In this talk, I will present this organization and its different activities. I will also report on the making of a Art and Science museum in Grenoble which will include a planetarium. The grand opening is foreseen in 2014. Finally, I will present an astronomical show which has been adapted for planetaria and demonstrate how this benefits both to the show and the planetarium.

  5. Mael-e(st-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mée, Mael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A performance of Mael Le Mée and France Geoffroy Photos and videos (France: Denis Louis Photo (Montreal: Alexandre Cv France Geoffroy’s assistant: Rosalie Chrétien Production: Espace Projet and Dorsa Barlow Performance co-developed within the project BIOGRAPHIES, with the support of CNC – DICRéAM, Aquitaine Regional Council and the City of Bordeaux.

  6. Gas de France international strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the main international objectives of Gaz de France, and actions taken to achieve them. The safety and the reliability of natural gas supplies is the priority-holder axis of the international strategy of Gaz de France. The second axis is to obtain a consolidated position in Europe on natural gas markets and valorize the know-how of Gaz de France in foreign countries

  7. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  8. Gas Hydrate Occurrence Inferred from Dissolved Cl− Concentrations and δ18O Values of Pore Water and Dissolved Sulfate in the Shallow Sediments of the Pockmark Field in Southwestern Xisha Uplift, Northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water pockmarks are frequently accompanied by the occurrence of massive gas hydrates in shallow sediments. A decline in pore-water Cl− concentration and rise in δ18O value provide compelling evidence for the gas hydrate dissociation. Mega-pockmarks are widely scattered in the southwestern Xisha Uplift, northern South China Sea (SCS. Pore water collected from a gravity-core inside of a mega-pockmark exhibits a downward Cl− concentration decrease concomitant with an increase in δ18O value at the interval of 5.7–6.7 mbsf. Concentrations of Cl−, Na+, and K+ mainly cluster along the seawater freshening line without distinct Na+ enrichment and K+ depletion. Thus, we infer that the pore water anomalies of Cl− concentrations and δ18O values are attributed to gas hydrate dissociation instead of clay mineral dehydration. Moreover, the lower δ18O values of sulfate in the target core (C14 than those in the reference core (C9 may be associated with the equilibrium oxygen fractionation during sulfate reduction between sulfate and the relatively 18O-depleted ambient water resulting from gas hydrate formation. The gas hydrate contents are estimated to be 6%–10% and 7%–15%, respectively, according to the offset of Cl− concentrations and δ18O values from the baselines. This pockmark field in southwestern Xisha Uplift is likely to be a good prospective area for the occurrence of gas hydrate in shallow sediments.

  9. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  10. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1991-01-01

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  11. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  12. Atmospheric distribution and seasonality of airborne polyfluorinated compounds. Spatial and temporal concentration variations from ship- and land-based measurements in Northern Germany, the Atlantic Ocean, and Polar Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin

    2010-07-01

    In order to assess the distribution of per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) in ambient air on temporal as well as spatial scales, air samples were taken during several sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Permanent air monitoring stations close to Hamburg (Germany) as well as several research vessels operating in the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Baltic Sea were used as sampling platforms. Airborne PFC were sampled using glass fibre filters (particlebound PFC) and a sandwich polyurethane foam and the polymer resin XAD-2 (gaseous PFC). Samples were extracted by acetone: methyl-tert-butyl ether (1:1) or methanol and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Airborne PFC were detected in all of the collected air samples, even in Antarctica, with southern hemispheric concentrations being lower than those of the northern hemisphere which provides further evidence that this emerging group of contaminants is subject to atmospheric long-range transport from mainly northern hemispheric source regions towards remote areas. While the persistent perfluorinated acids (PFCA, PFSA) were only determined at concentrations below 1 pg m{sup -3} in the particulate phase, their neutral volatile precursors (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE)) occurred predominantly in the gas phase at concentrations that were usually two orders of magnitude higher and ranged from 4.5 pg m{sup -3} in the Southern Ocean to 335 pg m{sup -3} in source regions in ship-based samples and from 17 to 972 pg m{sup -3} in land-based samples. Furthermore, PFC in ambient air varied strongly over time as observed during a 14 months lasting sampling campaign close to Hamburg. Emissions from nearby local sources as well as long-range transport of PFC emitted from diffuse sources west and southwest of the sampling sites were considered as explanation for the observed pattern. (orig.)

  13. Concentrations and geographical variations of selected toxic elements in meat from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in mid- and northern Norway: evaluation of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-05-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS), whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05). Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML) available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC). Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.

  14. Study of cyanotoxins presence from experimental cyanobacteria concentrations using a new data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines in Trasona reservoir (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Nieto, P J; Sánchez Lasheras, F; de Cos Juez, F J; Alonso Fernández, J R

    2011-11-15

    There is an increasing need to describe cyanobacteria blooms since some cyanobacteria produce toxins, termed cyanotoxins. These latter can be toxic and dangerous to humans as well as other animals and life in general. It must be remarked that the cyanobacteria are reproduced explosively under certain conditions. This results in algae blooms, which can become harmful to other species if the cyanobacteria involved produce cyanotoxins. In this research work, the evolution of cyanotoxins in Trasona reservoir (Principality of Asturias, Northern Spain) was studied with success using the data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. The results of the present study are two-fold. On one hand, the importance of the different kind of cyanobacteria over the presence of cyanotoxins in the reservoir is presented through the MARS model and on the other hand a predictive model able to forecast the possible presence of cyanotoxins in a short term was obtained. The agreement of the MARS model with experimental data confirmed the good performance of the same one. Finally, conclusions of this innovative research are exposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  16. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  17. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  18. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  19. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  20. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  1. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  2. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  3. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  4. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  5. Energy in France. References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet is a compilation of key data about the energy in France: energy and economy (energy industries and gross internal product, employment, investments), overall energies (primary energy production and consumption, sectoral consumption, energy bill, price of imported crude oil), petroleum (primary production, sectoral consumption of refined petroleum products, automotive fuels demand, import and export of petroleum products), natural gas (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of origin), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports), electric power (production per origin, classical thermal production per type of fuel, sectoral consumption), renewable energies (overall production, heat networks supplied with non-conventional energy sources, wood consumption, wind power production, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, cumulated energy saving), energy prices (in industries and households, automotive fuel prices, energy consumptions in households), energy and environment (CO 2 emissions). A synthesis of the main energy tariffs and prices is given in a separate folder. (J.S.)

  6. Shielding research in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P

    1964-10-01

    Shielding research as an independent subject in France dates from 1956. The importance of these studies has been reflected in the contribution which they have made to power reactor design and in the resultant savings in expenditure for civil engineering and machinery for the removal of mobile shields. The Reactor Shielding Research Division numbers approximately 60 persons and uses several experimental facilities. These include: NAIADE I, installed near the ZOE reactor and operating with a natural uranium slab 2 cm thick (an effective diameter of 60 cm is the one most commonly used); the TRITON pool-type reactor, mainly used in shielding studies, includes an active-water loop, by means of which the secondary shields required for light-water reactors can be studied; core, NEREIDE, which is situated near a 2 m x 2 m aluminium window enables a large neutron source to be placed in a compartment without water in which large-scale mock-ups can be mounted for the study, in particular, of neutron diffusion in large cavities, and of reactor shielding of greater thickness than that in NAIADE I; SAMES 600 keV accelerator is used for monoenergetic neutron studies. Instrumentation studies are an important part of the work, mainly in the measurement of fast neutrons and their spectra by activation detectors. Of late, attention has been directed towards the use of (n, n') (rhodium) reactions and of heavy detectors for low-flux measurements. The simultaneous use of a large number of detectors poses automation problems. With our installation we can count 16 detectors simultaneously. Neutron spectrum studies are conducted with nuclear emulsions and a lithium-6 semiconductor spectrometer. As to the materials used, the research carried out in France involves chiefly graphite, iron and concrete at various temperatures up to 800 deg C. Different compounds, borated and non-borated and of densities up to between 1 and 9 are under consideration. Problems connected with applications are

  7. Effect of the Summer Monsoon on Aerosols at Two Measurement Stations in Northern India – Part 1: PM and BC Concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Raatikainen, T.; Brus, David; Komppula, M.; Panwar, T.S.; Hooda, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 16 (2011), s. 8271-8282 ISSN 1680-7316 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosols * concentrations * summer monsoon Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2011

  8. High resolution analysis of uranium and thorium concentration as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from Payre (Ardèche, France) using laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Aubert, Maxime; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2008-11-01

    We have mapped U ( 238U) and Th ( 232Th) elemental concentrations as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Payre using laser ablation ICP-MS. The U-concentrations in an enamel section varied between 1 and 1500 ppb. The U-concentration maps show that U-migration through the external enamel surface is minute, the bulk of the uranium having migrated internally via the dentine into the enamel. The uranium migration and uptake is critically dependent on the mineralogical structure of the enamel. Increased U-concentrations are observed along lineaments, some of which are associated with cracks, and others may be related to intra-prismatic zones or structural weaknesses reaching from the dentine into the enamel. The uranium concentrations in the dentine vary between about 25,000 and 45,000 ppb. Our systematic mapping of U-concentration and U-series isotopes provides insight into the time domain of U-accumulation. Most of the uranium was accumulated in an early stage of burial, with some much later overprints. None of the uranium concentration and U-series profiles across the root of the tooth complied with a single stage diffusion-adsorption (D-A) model that is used for quality control in U-series dating of bones and teeth. Nevertheless, in the domains that yielded the oldest apparent U-series age estimates, U-leaching could be excluded. This means that the oldest apparent U-series ages of around 200 ka represent a minimum age for this Neanderthal specimen. This is in good agreement with independent age assessments (200-230 ka) for the archaeological layer, in which it was found. The Th elemental concentrations in the dental tissues were generally low (between about 1 and 20 ppb), and show little relationship with the nature of the tissue.

  9. Effects of recharge and discharge on delta2H and delta18O composition and chloride concentration of high arsenic/fluoride groundwater from the Datong Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Su, Chunli; Duan, Mengyu

    2013-02-01

    To better understand the effects of recharge and discharge on the hydrogeochemistry of high levels of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in groundwater, environmental isotopic composition (delta2H and delta18O) and chloride (Cl) concentrations were analyzed in 29 groundwater samples collected from the Datong Basin. High arsenic groundwater samples (As > 50 micog/L) were found to be enriched in lighter isotopic composition that ranged from -92 to -78 per thousand for deuterium (delta2H) and from -12.5 to -9.9 per thousand for oxygen-18 (delta18O). High F-containing groundwater (F > 1 mg/L) was relatively enriched in heavier isotopic composition and varied from -90 to -57 per thousand and from -12.2 to -6.7 per thousand for delta2H and delta18O, respectively. High chloride concentrations and delta18O values were primarily measured in groundwater samples from the northern and southwestern portions of the study area, indicating the effect of evaporation on groundwater. The observation of relatively homogenized and low delta18O values and chloride concentrations in groundwater samples from central part of the Datong Basin might be a result of fast recharge by irrigation returns, which suggests that irrigation using arsenic-contaminated groundwater affected the occurrence of high arsenic-containing groundwater in the basin.

  10. Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the Cree of northern Quebec, Canada: results from the multi-community environment-and-health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Cote, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nieboer, Evert

    2014-02-01

    Historically, resource development has had negative impacts on the traditional lifestyle of First Nation Cree Communities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In response to the perceived need for fisheries restoration and for managing health concerns associated with environmental pollutants, the Mercury Program in the James Bay Region of Quebec was reconstituted in 2001 and broadened to include a wider range of chemicals of concern. Based on comprehensive surveys of the nine Cree Territory (Eeyou Istchee) communities in this region during the period 2002-2009, blood plasma concentrations are presented of Aroclor 1260, PCB congeners 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 163, 170, 180, 183, and 187, Aldrin, ß-HCH, α-Chlordane, γ-Chlordane, oxy-Chlordane, trans-Nonachlor, cis-Nonachlor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Hexachloro benzene (HCB), Mirex, PBB 153, PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 100, PBDE 153, Toxaphene 26, and Toxaphene 50. The organohalogenated compounds were extracted using solid-phase extraction and cleaned on florisil columns before high resolution HRGC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the large number of contaminant variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. ANOVA identified significant differences between age groups, with the older participants having higher body burdens of legacy lipophilic contaminants, but not for the PBDEs. In certain female age groups, plasma concentrations of PBDEs were observed to be lower than for males; conversely, DDT was higher. Among communities, concentrations were different (p<0.001) for all contaminants. This work provides a baseline for the James Bay Eeyou Istchee communities who, to varying degrees, rely on food and other resources from the land and therefore are at higher risk of increased body burdens of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). © 2013.

  11. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  12. Poppers regulation for public sale: No measure in France yet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Trewick, David; Dejoie, Thomas; Masson, Damien; Bulteau, Samuel; Rousselet, Morgane; Sauvaget, Anne; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

    2017-10-23

    Poppers have become legal in France since June 2013. Is their liberalisation associated with an increase of severe side effects observed? To identify elevated methaemoglobinaemia related to poppers abuse, we reviewed all methaemoglobin concentrations measured in Nantes university hospital, during 12 months. Methaemoglobin concentrations were superior to 25% in three cases of poppers consumption that occurred after the legalisation. Evaluating the prevalence of elevated methaemoglobinaemia could help to monitor severe complications of poppers use in France. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Carbon-13 isotopic abundance and concentration of atmospheric methane for background air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.M.; Sepanski; Morris, L.J.

    1995-03-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH 4 ) may become an increasingly important contributor to global warming in future years. Its atmospheric concentration has risen, doubling over the past several hundred years, and additional methane is thought to have a much greater effect on climate, on a per molecule basis, than additional C0 2 at present day concentrations (Shine et al. 1990). The causes of the increase of atmospheric CH 4 have been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of quantitative knowledge of the fluxes (i.e., net emissions) from the numerous anthropogenic and natural sources. The goal of CH 4 isotopic studies is to provide a constraint (and so reduce the uncertainties) in estimating the relative fluxes from the various isotopically distinct sources, whose combined fluxes must result in the measured atmospheric isotopic composition, after the fractionating effect of the atmospheric removal process is considered. In addition, knowledge of the spatial and temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric CH 4 , along with estimates of the fluxes from some of the major sources, makes it possible to calculate growth rates for sources whose temporal emissions trends would be difficult to measure directly

  15. France looks to biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-22

    France's Solar Energy Commission has announced a series of measures it is backing to increase the country's production of energy from biomass. Following consultations on suitable equipment, it has decided to go ahead with experiments of 15 systems designed to produce methane from animal wastes. Its eventual target is the production of between 1 million and 1.5 million tons per year of oil equivalent (toe) from this source. Secondly, it has launched a tender for the supply of domestic and industrial heating equipment capable of functioning on straw. It has calculated that the amount of straw available for this end use is in the region of 6 million ton per year, equivalent to about 2 million tons per year toe. Finally, tests are to be carried out in 14 different areas to determine the best variety of Jerusalem artichoke for the production of ethanol. Together with the Institut Francais du Petrole the Commission is building a demonstration unit for the production of acetone/butyric acid by fermentation of sugars from Jerusamlem artichoke and beet roots.

  16. Nuclear electricity from France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.

    1987-01-01

    This second volume of the Berlin series presents the papers and discussion of the eleventh discussion meeting on energy law, for the first time held in Berlin, on May 12-13, 1987. The leading subject of the first conference day, namely electricity imports from France, has since then widely been discussed in the media or at other meetings, although the legal problems or obstacles revealed at this Berlin meeting are far from being solved. There is EdF's wish to export electricity to West Germany on the other hand, and there is the West German coal industry's scepticism on the other hand. Much is at stake for West Germany's national concept of enhanced use of coal for electricity generation, and the related system of subventions. Supply concepts and franchise charges, a standing topic of the power sector for quite a time now, have been discussed on the second conference day. The papers read there gave an account of the situation and also presented some new aspects. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1981-02-01

    The principles and rules governing the safety of nuclear installations are defined as from three fundamental principles and three practical rules as follows: First principle: the operator is responsible and of the highest order. Second principle: the public authorities exercise their control responsibility with respect to the design, construction and running of the installations. Third principle: nuclear safety, this is to accept that man and his technique are not infallible and that one must be prepared to control the unpredictable. First rule: the installations must include several 'lines of defence' in succession and to the extent where this is possible these must be independent of each other. Second rule: procedures are required and supervised by the Government Departments. Third rule: nuclear safety requires that any incident or anomaly must undergo an analysis in depth and is also based on a standing 'clinical' examination of the installations. The definition is given as to how the public authorities exercise their intervention: terms and conditions of the intervention by the safety authorities, authorization procedures, surveillance of the installations, general technical regulations. Two specific subjects are presented in the addendum, (a) the choice of nuclear power station sites in France and (b) the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  18. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  19. Outreach in southern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year

  20. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  1. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  2. Analysis of Light Absorbing Aerosols in Northern Pakistan: Concentration on Snow/Ice, their Source Regions and Impacts on Snow Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, C.; Praveen, P. S.; Shichang, K.; Adhikary, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ali, S.

    2016-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) and light absorbing organic carbon (OC) are important particulate impurities in snow and ice which significantly reduce the albedo of glaciers and accelerate their melting. Snow and ice samples were collected from Karakorum-Himalayan region of North Pakistan during the summer campaign (May-Jun) 2015 and only snow samples were collected during winter (Dec 2015- Jan 2016). Total 41 surface snow/ice samples were collected during summer campaign along different elevation ranges (2569 to 3895 a.m.s.l) from six glaciers: Sachin, Henarche, Barpu, Mear, Gulkin and Passu. Similarly 18 snow samples were collected from Sust, Hoper, Tawas, Astore, Shangla, and Kalam regions during the winter campaign. Quartz filters were used for filtering of melted snow and ice samples which were then analyzed by thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method to determine the concentration of EC and OC. The average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) were found as follows: Passu (249.5, 536.8, 475), Barpu (1190, 397.6, 1288), Gulkin (412, 793, 761), Sachin (911, 2130, 358), Mear (678, 2067, 83) and Henarche (755, 1868, 241) respectively during summer campaign. Similarly, average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) was found in the samples of Sust (2506, 1039, 131), Hoper (646, 1153, 76), Tawas (650, 1320, 16), Astore (1305, 2161, 97), Shangla (739, 2079, 31) and Kalam (107, 347, 5) respectively during winter campaign. Two methods were adopted to identify the source regions: one coupled emissions inventory with back trajectories, second with a simple region tagged chemical transport modeling analysis. In addition, CALIPSO subtype aerosol composition indicated that frequency of smoke in the atmosphere over the region was highest followed by dust and then polluted dust. SNICAR model was used to estimate the snow albedo reduction from our in-situ measurements. Snow albedo reduction was observed to be 0.3% to 27.6%. The derived results were used

  3. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  4. The nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear energy in France is done. The great centers and the great research lines of the French nuclear program, as well as its present status and prospects for the future are presented. (EG) [pt

  5. Electricite de France in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menage, G.; Bergougnoux, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes financial results of a french electric utility (Electricite de France) in 1992. Statistical data on investments, tariffs, and prices of electric power in Europe are also given. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Gaz de France. Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  7. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  8. The chemical industry of uranium in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1955-01-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  9. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. In brief...France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Among the different news we can find information about the situation of the radiation accidents at the hospital of Epinal in the east of France. The medical surveillance of the irradiated patients has allowed to find others cases of over exposure.These new cases add to a series of events enlightened in this service: 24 patients treated for a prostate cancer between may 2004 and august 2005 have been over exposed of about 20 % because of a bad use of the treatment planning software. 4 hundred patients treated for a prostate cancer between 2001 and 2006 have been over exposed of about 8% by an excessive use of the imaging controlling the positioning during the treatment. Among 4500 patients treated for different cancers between september 1987 and july 2000 and concerned by a programming error of an internal software, 312 patients have received an overexposure of about 7%. The Authority of nuclear safety and the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) publish the report of management 2006 on the Internet gate of the National network of environmental radioactivity measurements. The Internet site of the pluralist expertise group on the uranium mines sites of the Limousin opens at the address :www.gep-nucleaire.org. The high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety is officially created. The Asn has classified at the level 4+ of the experimental scale Asn-S.F.R.O. the accident occurred at the teaching hospital of Toulouse between the 11. april 2006 and the 18. april 2007 implying 145 patients treated by intracranial radiosurgery. (N.C.)

  11. Leaf functional response to increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations over the last century in two northern Amazonian tree species: a historical δ(13) C and δ(18) O approach using herbarium samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Damien; Ponton, Stéphane; Le Thiec, Didier; Richard, Béatrice; Ningre, Nathalie; Hérault, Bruno; Ogée, Jérôme; Gonzalez, Sophie; Pignal, Marc; Sabatier, Daniel; Guehl, Jean-Marc

    2011-08-01

    We assessed the extent of recent environmental changes on leaf morphological (stomatal density, stomatal surface, leaf mass per unit area) and physiological traits (carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C(leaf) , and discrimination, Δ(13)C(leaf) , oxygen isotope composition, δ(18)O(leaf) ) of two tropical rainforest species (Dicorynia guianensis; Humiria balsamifera) that are abundant in the Guiana shield (Northern Amazonia). Leaf samples were collected in different international herbariums to cover a 200 year time-period (1790-2004) and the whole Guiana shield. Using models describing carbon and oxygen isotope fractionations during photosynthesis, different scenarios of change in intercellular CO(2) concentrations inside the leaf (C(i)), stomatal conductance (g), and photosynthesis (A) were tested in order to understand leaf physiological response to increasing air CO(2) concentrations (C(a)). Our results confirmed that both species displayed physiological response to changing C(a) . For both species, we observed a decrease of about 1.7‰ in δ(13)C(leaf) since 1950, without significant change in Δ(13)C(leaf) and leaf morphological traits. Furthermore, there was no clear change in δ(18)O(leaf) for Humiria over this period. Our simulation approach revealed that an increase in A, rather than a decrease in g, explained the observed trends for these tropical rainforest species, allowing them to maintain a constant ratio of C(i)/C(a) . © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Changes in persistent contaminant concentration and CYP1A1 protein expression in biopsy samples from northern bottlenose whales, Hyperoodon ampullatus, following the onset of nearby oil and gas development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, Sascha K. [Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1 (Canada); Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, FIFE KY16 8YG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.hooker@st-andrews.ac.uk; Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Metcalfe, Chris D. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8 (Canada); Angell, Carolyn M.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Moore, Michael J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Whitehead, Hal [Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1 (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    A small population of endangered northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) inhabits 'The Gully' a Marine Protected Area on the Scotian Shelf, eastern Canada. Amid concerns regarding nearby oil and gas development, we took 36 skin and blubber biopsy samples in 1996-1997 (prior to major development) and 2002-2003 (five years after development began), and three samples from a population in the Davis Strait, Labrador in 2003. These were analysed for cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) protein expression (n = 36), and for persistent contaminants (n = 23). CYP1A1 showed generally low expression in whales from The Gully, but higher levels during 2003, potentially coincident with recorded oil spills, and higher levels in Davis Strait whales. A range of PCB congeners and organochlorine compounds were detected, with concentrations similar to other North Atlantic odontocetes. Concentrations were higher in whales from The Gully than from the Davis Strait, with significant increases in 4,4'-DDE and trans-nonachlor in 2002-2003 relative to 1996-1997. - Whale contaminants highlight concerns from oil and gas development near a marine protected area.

  13. Changes in persistent contaminant concentration and CYP1A1 protein expression in biopsy samples from northern bottlenose whales, Hyperoodon ampullatus, following the onset of nearby oil and gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Metcalfe, Chris D.; Angell, Carolyn M.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Moore, Michael J.; Whitehead, Hal

    2008-01-01

    A small population of endangered northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) inhabits 'The Gully' a Marine Protected Area on the Scotian Shelf, eastern Canada. Amid concerns regarding nearby oil and gas development, we took 36 skin and blubber biopsy samples in 1996-1997 (prior to major development) and 2002-2003 (five years after development began), and three samples from a population in the Davis Strait, Labrador in 2003. These were analysed for cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) protein expression (n = 36), and for persistent contaminants (n = 23). CYP1A1 showed generally low expression in whales from The Gully, but higher levels during 2003, potentially coincident with recorded oil spills, and higher levels in Davis Strait whales. A range of PCB congeners and organochlorine compounds were detected, with concentrations similar to other North Atlantic odontocetes. Concentrations were higher in whales from The Gully than from the Davis Strait, with significant increases in 4,4'-DDE and trans-nonachlor in 2002-2003 relative to 1996-1997. - Whale contaminants highlight concerns from oil and gas development near a marine protected area

  14. Report on the seventh workshop organised by CRL-Salmonella. Ploufragan (France), 28 May 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raamsdonk EC van; Henken AM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    At 28 May 2002 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Ploufragan, France. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States, with the exception of the Greek and the Northern-Ireland NRLs-Salmonella,

  15. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. - Highlights: • We studied uptake of Ra-226 from soil into Buchanania obovata. • The influence of group II metals (Sr, Ba and Ca) on Ra uptake was investigated. • The exchangeable Ra fraction of the soil was not a more reliable predictor of Ra uptake than total soil Ra. • Ca outcompetes group II metals Sr, Ba and Ra for root uptake. • Uptake discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra.

  16. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  17. France's 2010 energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    2010 in Europe was marked by a moderate economic upturn after the crisis year of 2009, when consumption dropped. At the global level, the energy demand from emerging countries continued to push up prices. In France, 2010 was a year in which the winter months were particularly cold, causing additional consumption for heating of more than 10 per cent, estimated at 4.6 millions tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). National primary energy production was 138.6 Mtoe, 0.2 Mtoe higher than the previous record year 2008. Nearly all forms of energy contributed to the increase. Nuclear power increased its output by 4.6 per cent and was only 5 per cent below its maximum, reached in 2005. Hydro production returned to a regime almost in line with the average. Wind power once again increased significantly (+19%) and photovoltaic electricity tripled, although it still only accounts for 0.6 Mtoe. Extraction of conventional fossil fuels was stable at 2.5 Mtoe. Thermal renewable energy and energy recovered from waste also increased markedly, by 10.7 per cent (+1.7 Mtoe). Total primary energy consumption increased by 3.8 per cent. Once corrected for climatic variations, it increased slightly (+1.7%) but remained well below its pre-crisis level. With 266 Mtoe it was even below its 2000 level. It progressed by 4 Mtoe per year on average in the 1990's, then by only 2 Mtoe in 2001 and 2002. Since then, despite a rebound in 2004, it had remained stable until the clear drop in 2009. Aggregated renewable thermal energy and energy recovered from waste continued their progression (+5.1%). The pace dipped slightly, but progress has been permanent since 2006 (+37% in 4 years). However, this group of sources still only accounts for 6.4 per cent of primary consumption. Stimulated by the rigours of the climate, gas beat all its records. However, after correction, its level was close to that around which it was fluctuating before the crisis, between 2002 and 2008. Primary electricity consumption (+2

  18. Production and use of stable isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Letolle, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper can not cover the field of production and use of stable isotopes in France exhaustively within six pages. We have chosen to concentrate on highlights of the subject and on recent work, and to give references for further reading. 26 refs

  19. The ''Société Géologique du Nord'' (SGN) and Earth Sciences in Northern France; La « Société Géologique du Nord » y las ciencias de la tierra en el norte de Francia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blieck, A.; Meilliez, F.

    2016-10-01

    The ''Société Géologique du Nord'', located in Lille, in northern France, was founded in 1870, with Jules Gosselet as the first president. It has always been closely connected to the geology department of the Faculty of Sciences of Lille, now called the ''Université de Lille Sciences et Technologies'', and keeps strong links with the Natural History Museum of Lille. Its activities and evolution were closely related to those of the coal-mining basin of the area until the last shaft was closed in 1990. Its activities are both in the fields of applied and fundamental geosciences. From its beginning, the Society has published the results of the research of its members, both in a periodical journal, the Annales, and as monographies called Mémoires. From the 1970s, the Mémoires have been progressively replaced by Publications, mostly devoted to State doctoral theses. During the transition from the 20th to the 21st century, the activities of the Society have strongly declined, due to several internal and external factors. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the SGN has tried to adapt itself to the new conditions of both the university and the regional territory. It is still a scientific society, but it is open to its social environment. (Author) [French] La « Société Géologique du Nord » tiene su sede en Lille, en el norte de Francia. Se fundó en 1870, con Jules Gosselet como primer presidente. Siempre ha estado vinculada al Departamento de Geología de la Facultad de Ciencias de Lille, actualmente Université de Lille – Sciences et Technologies, y mantiene fuertes vínculos con el Museo de Historia Natural de Lille. Sus actividades y su evolución han estado relacionadas con las de la cuenca minera (hullera) de la región, hasta que, en 1990, cerró el último pozo de mina. Sus intereses son, a la vez, en el campo de las geociencias fundamentales y aplicadas. Desde su fundación, la Sociedad ha publicado los

  20. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Cooper, D.M., E-mail: cooper@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Mills, G., E-mail: gmi@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.no [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Thoeni, L., E-mail: lotti.thoeni@fub-ag.ch [FUB-Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Alte Jonastrasse 83, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.it [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Carballeira, A., E-mail: alejo.carballeira@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.be [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Tervuren (Belgium); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.lv [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Riga (Latvia); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.es [Univ. of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations ({>=}1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km x 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r{sup 2} = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: > Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. > Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. > The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. > Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. > Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  1. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  2. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  3. 235U, 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in marine sediments along the northern coast of Oman Sea using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2012-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in sediment samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz canyon to Goatr seaport, as the first time has been determined. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. Sediments from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs using two high purity germanium detectors with 38.5% and 55% relative efficiencies. The concentration of 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.01 and 2.87 Bq/kg, 11.83 and 22.68 Bq/kg, 10.7 and 25.02 Bq/kg, 222.89 and 535.07 Bq/kg and 0.14 and 2.8 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose.

  4. Approach and institutions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1989-01-01

    In France, safety training for workers is compulsory under general legislation, supplemented in some cases by specific regulations on certain individual hazards. The radiation protection training for exposed workers is largely left to the initiative of the qualified officers, and there are regulations governing the training of the officers themselves. Qualified officers play a fundamental part in France in disseminating the radiation protection training and information which the regulations require them to have. It should be pointed out that qualification for the purposes of these regulations, implies having a clear grasp of the mechanisms involved rather than the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and requires a thorough understanding of the relevant legislation

  5. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Delivery of iron-fortified yoghurt, through a dairy value chain program, increases hemoglobin concentration among children 24 to 59 months old in Northern Senegal: A cluster-randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, Agnes; Bernard, Tanguy; Hidrobo, Melissa; Birba, Ousmane; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to enhance the nutritional impact of agriculture. Value chain approaches, which use supply chains to add value (usually economic) to products as they move from producers to consumers, can be used to increase access to nutritious foods and improve nutritional status. This study tested whether a dairy value chain could be used to distribute a micronutrient-fortified yoghurt (MNFY) (conditional upon the producer supplying a minimum amount of cow milk/day) to improve hemoglobin and reduce anemia among preschool children in a remote area in Northern Senegal. A cluster randomized control trial was used to compare 204 children (24 to 59 months of age at baseline) from households who received the MNFY coupled to a behavior change communication (BCC) campaign focusing on anemia prevention to 245 children from a control group (receiving BCC only) after one year. Randomization was done at the level of the family concession (households from the same family) (n = 321). Eligible households had a child of the target age and were willing to deliver milk to the dairy factory. Changes in anemia and hemoglobin between groups were assessed using mixed regression models. Anemia prevalence was very high at baseline (80%) and dropped to close to 60% at endline, with no differences between intervention groups. Hemoglobin increased by 0.55 g/dL, 95%CI (0.27; 0.84) more in the intervention compared to the control group after one year, in models that controlled for potentially confounding factors. The impact was greater (0.72 g/dL, 95%CI (0.34; 1.12)) for boys, compared to girls (0.38 g/dL, 95%CI (-0.03; 0.80)). The dairy value chain was a successful strategy to distribute MNFY among pastoralists in Northern Senegal, and increase Hb concentrations among their children. This study is one of the first proofs of concept showing that a nutrition-sensitive agriculture value chain approach can contribute to improved child nutrition in a remote pastoralist

  7. 2004 energy accounting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. 2003 energy situation of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    This short document summarizes the key data of the 2003 energy status of France: real and climate-corrected total primary energy consumption, end-use energy consumption (demand per energy source and per sector of use), power supply and demand, and CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  9. Human coronavirus NL63, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vabret, Astrid; Mourez, Thomas; Dina, Julia; van der Hoek, Lia; Gouarin, Stéphanie; Petitjean, Joëlle; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2005-01-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in The Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory

  10. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  11. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  12. Gaz de France and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th.

    2004-01-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  13. France under a microscope - Nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The first French nuclear power plant was built in 1956, but it was only after the 1970's oil shock that nuclear power gained an important place in the French energy sector. Planning Act 2005-781 of 13 July 2005 laying down French energy policy orientations confirmed that nuclear energy was to remain the primary source of electricity supply in France. The Act also encourages diversification of sources of electricity production through renewable energies (wind power, biomass) and the security of electricity supply from oil, gas and coal. Nuclear energy accounted for 78.4% of electricity production in France in 2006. French nuclear capacity includes 58 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that produced 450 billion nuclear kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, i.e. 78.4% of total electricity production which is of 574 billion kWh. The lifetime of a third of currently operating nuclear plants will end in around 2020 and, with a view to the renewal of its nuclear capacity, France is about to deploy new-generation reactors that meet requirements in terms of production, environmental protection and enhanced nuclear safety. In April 2007, France started building a third-generation EPR reactor at Flamanville in the Manche Department. The EPR is to be operational by 2012. France is also devoting research programmes to fourth generation reactor technology with a view to those reactors being operational by 2040. There are a number of reasons for choosing nuclear power: it enables France to ensure its national energy independence (France imports less than 50% of its energy resources) and environmental protection (France is one of the European countries which emits the least greenhouse gases) at a stable and competitive price. Decree 2008-378 of 21 April 2008 instituted a council on nuclear policy presided by the President of the Republic. The council will define the broad lines of nuclear policy and monitor their implementation, particularly with regard to exports and international

  14. Energy prices in the EU: France is less expensive for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    This article proposes a comparison of electricity and gas prices among the European Union countries in 2008. It outlines that the price of electricity in France is among the cheapest, that taxes are higher in northern European countries as far as electricity is concerned, that the price of gas in France is in the average and that taxing in Europe is less for gas than for electricity. The existence of carbon taxes or climate-energy contributions in some countries is briefly presented (in Sweden since 1991, in Denmark since 1992, in Finland since 1994, in Slovenia since 1997 and in Great-Britain since 2001)

  15. Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers, northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina, October 2005 to September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Feaster, Toby D.; Petkewich, Mattew D.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, evaluated the concentrations, loads, and yields of suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus at sites in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers in northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina from October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2009 (water years 2006 to 2009). Nutrient and sediment loads and yields also were computed for the intervening subbasin of the Pacolet River not represented by the South and North Pacolet River Basins. Except for a few outliers, the majority of the measurements of total nitrogen concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.69 milligram per liter for streams and rivers in the nutrient ecoregion IX, which includes the study area within the Pacolet River Basin. Dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower at the South Pacolet River site compared to the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites. About 90 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the South Pacolet River site were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.37 milligram per liter, and more than 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites were above that guideline. At all sites, minimum annual nutrient loads for the estimation period were observed during water year 2008 when severe drought conditions were present. An estimated mean annual total nitrogen load of 37,770 kilograms per year and yield of 2.63 kilograms per hectare per year were determined for the South Pacolet River site for the estimation period. The North Pacolet River site had a mean annual total nitrogen load of 65,890 kilograms per year and yield of 2.19 kilograms per hectare per year

  16. Ebooks: rather electronic or book? Extending legal deposit to ebooks at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    OpenAIRE

    Derrot , Sophie; Oury , Clément

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Even though the ebooks market has developed more slowly in France than in other countries, especially in northern America and northern Europe, the number of titles proposed is now increasing. The ebook production and distribution chain has been clarified, while major standard ebooks formats (EPUB, PDF) and metadata schemes (ONIX) have emerged. A growing number of French citizens are currently using ebooks to access knowledge, culture and entertainment. Being able to co...

  17. Cinéma en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel VIGOUROUX

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cinéma est l’objet de bases de données exhaustives sur les équipements et les fréquentations. Les données sur les salles permettent d’identifier le phénomène de concentration de propriété et d’exploitation. La perspective dynamique peut être observée sur 45 ans. À l’échelle régionale, on peut apprécier le dynamisme du cinéma en haute montagne alpine et la différence de réseaux sur le territoire (France de l’Ouest.

  18. Suspended sediment propagation in a long river reach: spatial and temporal dynamics of the Suspended Sediment Concentration-Water Discharge diagram for several hydrological events in the Northern French Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Germain; Jodeau, Magali; Camenen, Benoit; Esteves, Michel

    2014-05-01

    The relative propagation of water and suspended sediment is a key parameter to understand the suspended sediment transfers at the catchment scale. Several studies have shown the interest of performing detailed investigations of both temporal suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and water discharge signals. Most of them used temporal data from one measurement site, and classified hydrological events by studying the SSC curve as a function of water discharge (SSC-WD diagrams). Theoretical interpretations of these curves have been used to estimate the different sources of suspended sediment supply from sub-catchments, to evaluate the effect of seasons on the dynamics of suspended sediment, or to highlight the effect of a critical change at the catchment scale. However, few studies have focused on the signal propagation along the river channel. In this study, we analyze sampled data from a very well instrumented river reach in the Northern French Alps: the Arc-Isère River system. This gravel-bed river system is characterized by large concentrations of fines sediments, coming from the highly erodible mountains around. To control the hydraulic, sedimentary and chemical parameters from the catchment head, several gauging stations have been established since 2006. The continuous data measured at 4 gauging stations along 120 km of river have been analyzed to estimate the spatial and temporal dynamics of both SSC and water discharge. More precisely, about 40 major hydrological events have been sampled statistically between 2006 and 2012 from the data set and are analyzed in details. The study shows that the mean value of the propagation velocity is equal to 2 m/s and 3 m/s respectively for the SSC signal and the water discharge. These different propagation velocities imply that the suspended sediment mass is not only transported by the advection of the water at the river scale. The dispersion, erosion or deposition processes, and also the suspended sediment and discharge

  19. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  20. Coal: a revival for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brones, W.

    2007-01-01

    All energy consumption forecasts indicate a world production peak of fossil fuels around 2030 followed by a rapid decline. The oil peak should probably occur earlier. In this context the huge worldwide reserves of coal represent a fantastic opportunity to meet the world power demand which should double between 2002 and 2030 with in particular a huge growth in China and India. If promising alternate technologies (coal liquefaction..) exist which would allow to replace petroleum by coal, the main question remains the management of CO 2 . Capture and sequestration techniques are already implemented and tested and the search for new coal deposits is going on, in particular in France in the Nievre area. Economic studies about the profitability of coal exploitation in France stress on the socio-economical advantage that a revival of this activity would represent, in particular in terms of employment. (J.S.)

  1. User's inspection authorities in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robault, B.; Paquet, D.

    2004-01-01

    The article 14 of the directive 97/23 EC concerning pressure equipment has been introduced in french regulation. Electricite de France (EDF) and Gaz de France (GDF) decided to become user inspectorates. The EDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/10/2000 re-conducted by departmental order of 19/12/2002. The GDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/07/2002 re-conducted by departmental order of 09/02/2004. The presentation of user inspectorates evaluation methods associated with the experience of firsts evaluations shows the interest of user inspectorates. This interest concerned specific equipments with experience accumulated in manufacturing and plant working. (authors)

  2. Nuclear safety organisation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report outlines the public authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear installations in France. The composition and responsibilities of the Central Safety Service of Nuclear Installations within the Ministry of Industry, the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety within the CEA, the Central Service of Protection Against Ionising Radiation and the Interministerial Committee of Nuclear Safety are given. Other areas covered include the technical safety examination of large nuclear installations, the occurrence of accidents, treatment and control of release of radioactive wastes and decommissioning. The section on regulations covers the authorisation procedure, plant commissioning, release of radioactive effluents, surveillance and protection of workers exposed to ionising radiation. The situation is compared with the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany. A list of commercial nuclear installations in France is given

  3. Training at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1985-01-01

    With 41 nuclear power units operating and another 21 units under construction, France is serious about improving personnel training for the 3000 new employees each year. Electricite de France (EdF) takes a paternalistic approach to personnel training and to recruitment and advancement from within the organization. Courses in the training program range from one day to one year in length, and may take place either on or off the site. The author describes the training centers and schedule, but emphasizes the training is an ongoing process. Most instructors come from operating power stations. The courses use simulators to train operators in the use of fault analysis during an emergency. Computer-aided teaching systems are also widely used. 1 figure

  4. Developing solar energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alary-Grall, L.

    2003-01-01

    3 years ago the 'Soleil' program was launched and today 660.000 m 2 of solar cells have been installed which has made France to rank 4 behind Germany, Greece and Austria in terms of the use of solar energy. The 'Soleil' program, that will end in 2006, aims at developing solar energy in France and is composed of 4 axis: 1) the contribution to the funding of solar equipment through enticing financial helps, 2) the implementation of a quality plan for the installers of solar equipment, 3) the setting of a quality label for innovative and efficient solar equipment and 4) the promoting of solar energy to the professionals of the construction sector. (A.C.)

  5. Regional indexes for France. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of regional weather indexes for France. Each regional index covers an homogenous area in terms of temperature represented by the biggest city. Five reference cities are used to represent the 22 economical regions of France (Paris Orly, Lyon, Marignane, Bordeaux and Strasbourg). (J.S.)

  6. Jihadists’ Grievance Narratives against France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bindner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available France ranks first in the EU as a provider of foreign terrorist fighters in Syria and Iraq, and as the most-targeted European country in the context of the Syrian-Iraqi conflict. France has a longstanding history related to jihadism, correlated with multiple grievances from jihadist groups: it has been depicted as an enemy of Islam because of its foreign policy, its domestic policy towards religion, and, last but not least, its very essence. These grievances have been conveyed, like the baton of a relay race, from the first generations of North-African Islamist networks and the “elder brothers of jihad” to contemporary jihadists. The French jihadist media ecosystem has been instrumental in attracting a particularly large contemporary following. From the French perspective, a range of social, cultural, religious, economic, political, demographic drivers and identity factors converged to create a fertile ground for receptive radicals to emerge and break away from democratic values. Informed by these issues, this Policy Brief aims to identify avenues of further development for the French counter-terrorism strategic communication strategy. It concludes by stressing the need for this communication strategy to strive for positive, alternative messaging to re-create a continuum between individuals in the jihadist milieu and France as a nation state.

  7. 2035: a no nuclear France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  8. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  9. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  10. Climate index for France - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  11. Electrical energy statistics for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, national electrical consumption reached 494.5 TWh, an increase of 2.9 % compared with 2007 (480.4 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies and leap year, its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +1.3 % Consumption by business and private customers came to 198.0 TWh, an increase of 5.9 % compared with 2007 (187.0 TWh); consumption by Large-scale industry and SME/SMIs came to 263.0 TWh, an increase of 0.7 % compared with 2007 (261.3 TWh). Generation in France came to 549.1 TWh, as in 2006, an increase of 4.3 TWh or +0.8 % compared with 2007 (544.8 TWh). Hydro-electric generation reached 68.0 TWh, an increase of 7.5 % compared with 2007 (63.3 TWh). Renewable energy sources generation but hydro reached 9.7 TWh, an increase of 23.8 % compared with 2007 (7.8 TWh), mainly due to an increase of 37.5 % of wind energy (5.6 TWh in 2008 compared with 4.0 TWh in 2007). This progression is coherent with the increase of 48% of the installed capacity for wind generation. Nuclear generation came to 418.3 TWh in 2008, a decrease of 0.1 % compared with 2007 (418.6 TWh). Fossil thermal generation came to 53.1 TWh, a decrease of 3.5 % compared with 2007 (55.1 TWh). The heaviest load in terms of capacity reaches 92.4 GW during winter 2008/2009. Its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +3.8 % with a temperature lower by 2.2 deg. C. Since 2001, the heaviest load in winter has increased by 16% whereas the national electrical consumption has increased by 10%. The year 2008 is marked by the commissioning of the 400 kV line VIGY-MARLENHEIM. Besides, the underground circuits lengths grow by 118 km over the entire network. In terms of physical exchanges of electrical energy between France and the neighbouring countries France exported a net total of 48.0 TWh, a decrease of 15.4 % compared with 2007 (56.7 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries came to a cumulative value for exports and imports of 116.2 TWh, an increase of 5.1 % compared with 2007 (110.5 TWh

  12. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  13. Climate index for France - Methodology; Indice climatique France - Methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  14. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  15. Statistical data on energy. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy status of France for the year 2001: supplies, consumption and uses, national production, evolution per energy source and per sector of the national production and consumption since 1973, general indicators (evolution of the energy bill, prices, energy independence and gross internal product since 1973), projections. Details about the resources, uses and prices are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electricity and solid mineral fuels and compared with the average data of the European Union. (J.S.)

  16. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  17. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  18. Energy statistics. France. August 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the statistical data relative to the production, consumption, supplies, resources, and prices of energies in France: 1 - all energies (coal, oil, gas, electric power, renewable energies): supplies, uses per sector, national production and consumption of primary energies, final consumption, general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices index, prices of imported crude oil, energy independence, internal gross product, evolution between 1973 and 2000, and projections for 2020). 2 - detailed data per energy source (petroleum, natural gas, electric power, solid mineral fuels): resources, uses, and prices. An indicative comparison is made with the other countries of the European Union. (J.S.)

  19. Electricite de France: Lifetime Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Jean-Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Electricite de France produces almost 80% of its electricity by means of standardized PWR nuclear power stations. Starting in 1986, therefore, a project known as the 'Lifetime Project' was developed, whose aim was initially to ensure that the lifetime defined at design stage (40 years in general) could be attained without major difficulty (follow up of the aging process). It then became apparent that it would be useful to know just how far it would be technically and economically possible to go. As a result, the project is now working towards increasing the lifetime of power stations. (author)

  20. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  1. France's Climate Plan - update 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosciusko-Morizet, Nathalie

    2011-07-01

    After a presentation of the background of the French climate policy and of prospective data regarding carbon emissions by 2020 (global evolution, sector-based analysis, vigilance items, scenario by 2030), this report presents the different policies and measures implemented in France. After the transverse policies and measures, it presents the current status and policies and measures for different sectors: housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and forest, energy (energy demand and management of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy production), wastes, public authorities and local communities

  2. The energy future in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, Paul Henri

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, the author indicates figures for primary energy sources in France, outlines what is expected from a source of energy, and discusses the energy transformation efficiency. He addresses the case of electricity production and consumption, production costs for the different sources, nuclear energy, primary fluid mechanical energies, issue of intermittency and storage, photovoltaic, storage, subsidies and purchase obligation for EDF, fossil energies and carbon dioxide production. He questions the possibility of reduction of energy consumption, evokes and criticizes the French energy policy concerning electricity production, and possibilities of energy saving in housing and in transports, and by developing smart grids

  3. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, S.; Manet, M.

    1985-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled France to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsibilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  4. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.; Brignon, P.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled FRANCE to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning, and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsabilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  5. [Violence against persons in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The violence against persons in France are various, from those inflicted by society against human groups or individuals, from those, almost unrecognizable, occurring inside the families. It is an important public health problem and need population-based surveys to evaluate and to prevent it. The numerous publications about violence, and particularly about violence against women which have been recently published reflect the actual awareness. But they demonstrate also the diversity and the evolution of the policies which do not simplify the the ways to find solutions.

  6. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  7. Present developmental conditions of petroleum substituting energies in France; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The French Government most enthusiastically promotes development of bio-gasoline in renewable energy field. EU makes pressure to remove the French Government`s fiscal advantages for bio-gasoline which only benefit French farmers, and the IEA (International Energy Agency) report also estimates no benefit corresponding to the fiscal support cost. Start of the `Eolien 2005` project is attractive in renewable energy field which aims at construction of wind power generation stations of 250-500MW by 2005. The `Eolien 2005` project is mainly supported by Electricite de France (EDF) who guarantees the purchase of produced electric power at a submitted price. In addition to this subsidy activity, EDF decided to positively tackle renewable energy. On R and D efforts for renewable energy, France belongs to the most poor countries among IEA countries, and in addition, the effort is considerably concentrated onto the study on reduction of production cost for bio-gasoline. There were no changes in this situation in 1996. 7 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Solar energy perspectives in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context combining climate change, energy supply crisis, an increased interest in solar energy, a strongly increasing market of solar installations, new technologies, a promotion of the development of the use solar energy in France and a fast development of the water heater and photovoltaic generator markets in France, this report proposes a wide overview of the past, present and future development of solar energy. It discusses the evolution of the French national energy policy and of the solar energy within this policy. It presents and discusses the solar energy resources, their strengths and weaknesses, their geographical and time distribution. It describes the various uses and applications of solar energy in buildings, discusses different aspects of this market (actors, economical data, evolutions, public incentives, perspectives). Then, it describes and discusses technical and economical aspects of two important technologies, the photovoltaic solar energy and the thermodynamic conversion of solar energy. Public incentives, laws and regulations, technical and economic aspects of the connection to the distribution network are then discussed. Some recommendations and ideas are formulated concerning research activities, industrial development, quality of equipment and facilities, personnel education, investment needs

  9. Management of mycetomas in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioni, S; Develoux, M; Brun, S; Martin, A; Jaureguy, F; Naggara, N; Bouchaud, O

    2013-07-01

    Mycetomas are chronic sub-cutaneous tropical infections in which exogenous causative agents, fungal (eumycetes) or bacterial (actinomycetes), generate grains. The typical presentation is multi-fistulized pseudotumors. This disease, particularly eumycetoma, is difficult to treat. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. In France, the disease is rare, but patients have access to a broader range of treatments. The authors had for objective to present the cases of mycetomas diagnosed in developed country and their management. A retrospective study was made on the clinical presentation and management of mycetomas from 1995 to 2011, in the Bobigny Avicenne teaching hospital. Six patient files were studied. The patients were men with a median age of 31 years (16-70). Five patients were from Sub Saharan Africa, one from Sri Lanka. The etiologies were one actinomycetoma and five eumycetomas. There was bone involvement in five cases. There was one atypical presentation: a primary intra-osseous mycetoma. Three patients were cured including two by surgical management and one by medical treatment (actinomycetoma). Antifungal therapy failed (four patients) in every case (voriconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, caspofungin). The results of this study made in a non-epidemic zone revealed that despite a typical clinical presentation, the diagnosis and management were delayed because this imported disease is rare in France. The patients received new broad-spectrum triazole and caspofungin, but none were cured with antifungal therapy alone. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Plutonium in tree rings from France and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrec, J.-P.; Suzuki, T.; Mahara, Y.; Santry, D.C.; Miyahara, S.; Sugahara, M.; Zheng, J.; Kudo, A.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, along with other radionuclide concentrations, was measured in evergreen tree rings from two different locations. This was used as an information source for the past two centuries. Tree rings are a product of annual layers and thus chronological information is clearly visible. Three trees were harvested in 1988-1990: a French white fir (137 years old) and a spruce tree (177 years old) from the France-Germany border near Nancy, France and a sugi (78 years old) from Nagasaki, Japan. The highest 239 + 240 Pu concentration of 30.0 mBq/kg of dry wood was obtained from the tree rings from Nagasaki, located at the centre of the local fallout of the Pu A-bomb detonated in 1945. This concentration peak was, however, observed in tree rings of 1965-67. The concentration was only 2.9 mBq/kg for the tree rings of 1944-46. The contribution of the local fallout on the surface soils from the A-bomb was 181 mBq/cm 2 at the harvested area of the tree, while the contribution of global fallout by many weapons testing was 5.9 mBq/cm 2 (or 3.3% total fallout in the region). The reason for the over 20 year time lag of 239 + 240 Pu uptake by the tree rings is unknown because many factors influence the routes of Pu into the tree rings. Also the chemical form of Pu in surface soils may have been changed by the surrounding environment. The highest concentration in the tree rings from France was 9.4 mBq/kg which is about 31% of Nagasaki 239 + 240 Pu concentration. (author)

  11. EURATOM safeguards implementation in France and cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddou, J.

    2013-01-01

    International safeguards in France are applied both by: -) the European Commission (EC), through the Chapter 7 of the EURATOM Treaty; -) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as France is a party to the NPT and has concluded a safeguards agreement with IAEA. With the exception of mining, France has a complete nuclear fuel cycle from ore concentrates to waste. Based on the legal framework of the EURATOM Treaty, all civil nuclear facilities and all civil nuclear materials are safeguarded by EURATOM wherever they are in France. Therefore the two conversion plants, the two enrichment plants, the three fuel fabrication plants, the 59 nuclear power plants including the EPR of Flamanville under construction, the 2 reprocessing plants in La Hague, the five facilities for waste treatment and numerous research centers and reactors of CEA are declared and controlled by the European Commission. The activities of the EURATOM inspectors are of various kind depending of the facility and the type of inspection. The most common checks are: identification and counting of the nuclear material, verification of accountancy declaration vs. physical follow-up of the nuclear material, non-destructive analysis and destructive analysis after sampling in large bulk handling facilities. There is a strong cooperation between IAEA and EC: the majority of IAEA inspections in France are joint team inspections with the EC. This pooling of equipment and teams can save money and human resources. Equipment for containment and surveillance are paid whether by the EC or by the IAEA and can be used by both bodies of inspectors. With the principle of 'One Job One Person', verification activities are done only once and it saves time for the inspectors and the operators. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  12. Electrical energy in France 2002; Energie electrique en France 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This report presents the provisional results of power flows on the French power system (RTE) in 2002: generation, national consumption, physical exchanges with foreign countries (instantaneous exchange balances measured by metering on each interconnection line, recorded as imports or exports, depending on the sign), adjusted consumption (for climate contingencies and leap years), energy balance (generated and imported, consumed), noteworthy data (all flows on the RTE network as well as generation auto-consumed by the industrial customers connected to this network), electricity market (contractual exchanges with foreign countries, base load blocks exchanged between balance responsible entities), power facilities (thermal, hydro-, transmission lines), main transmission facilities commissioned during the year (interconnections between France and Spain, Italy, Germany and Belgium). (J.S.)

  13. Evolution of the uranium industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P.; Vertes, P.

    1964-01-01

    The main feature in the development of the French uranium industry during the last few years is the completion of the programme, already started in 1958, for the equipment of mining units and treatment plants. It was thus possible by 1961, to reach a production capacity of about 2000 T of metal contained in concentrates, and about 1800 T of metal of nuclear purity. The prospecting and research carried on in France by the Commissariat and by private Industry have brought about not only a satisfactory renewal of the reserves under exploitation but also the development of two new uranium-producing regions: one of the usual type in France, in the crystalline formations to the South-East of the Massif Central, the other in the Permian sedimentary formations in the department of l'Herault. Uraniferous concentrates are produced in two forms: -on the one hand two chemical plants run by a combined Commissariat-private industry firm, the Societe Industrielle des Minerais de l'Ouest, produce magnesium uranates by a conventional process, in the Vendee and at la Crouzille; - on the other hand two Commissariat plants, one managed by the same Society in the Forez, the other run directly by the Commissariat at Gueugnon in the Grury mining district, at present inactive, produce uranyl nitrate: the former from ore extracted in the Forez region, the latter from magnesium uranate pre-concentrates imported from Gabon. Two Commissariat plants convert the concentrates into a product of nuclear purity: - one at le Bouchet, run by the C.E.A., which also deals with development studies, - the other at Malvesi, managed by a Commissariat-private industry combine, the Societe de Raffinage de l'Uranium. This latter has a production capacity about double that of le Bouchet and uses the same manufacturing processes. The bulk of the uranium metal is still produced by calcium reduction, but the le Bouchet plant is already equipped for magnesium reduction and is using this process. Uranium fluoride

  14. Fallout Concentration Various Environmental Samples in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman

    2001-01-01

    The testing of nuclear weapons have been carried out by the advanced countries, such as United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan, since about 1945 until 1998. Nuclear weapons tests were conducted at various locations, on and above the earth's surface or underground or on and under the ocean's surface. Nuclear explosions caused the radionuclides of fission product, such as 131 l, 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 239 Pu released to the atmospheric layer. In the atmospheric layer, the long-lived radionuclides, i.e, 90 Sr dan 137 Cs will be distributed into the environment as the fallout radionuclides, and deposited in the various environmental samples (soil, water, and biota). In general, at several locations in Indonesia the 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the various environmental samples still can be detected. The data of measurement results of 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations were generally lower than that from some countries in the northern hemisphere. (author)

  15. Numerical Simulation of A Right-moving Storm Over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancibault, K.; Ducrocq, V.; Lafore, J.-Ph.

    A three-dimensional non-hydrostatic mesoscale model is used to simulate the right- moving storm produced through storm splitting, on 30 may 1999, over northern France. The initial state is provided by the French 3D-var ARPEGE analysis and the simuation is performed with two interactive nested domains. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of such storm dynamics. A vor- ticity analysis has been carried out, with emphasis on stretching and tilting terms of the vertical vorticity equation, thanks to the backward trajectories. The baroclinic produc- tion and stretching terms of the horizontal vorticity equation have also been studied to understand the interaction between the horizontal vorticity and a mesoscale thermal line. Finally, the spatial and temporal variation of the Storm Relative Environmental Helicity has been examined. Most of the results compare well with previous results on right-moving storms ob- tained from theoritical or numerical studies from idealized homogeneous base state.

  16. A safe energy supplying for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffin-Payne, J.

    2001-01-01

    Contrarily to other European nations like United-kingdom, Germany or Norway, France has no important fossil energy resources. The 2 major oil crisis (in 1973 and 1979) made public opinion abruptly aware of the urgent necessity for the diversification of energy supplying. Today the French production of electricity rests on nuclear energy, fossil energy and renewable energies (hydroelectricity). France is the first European country for nuclear energy (88 millions tons of oil equivalent in 1999) and for renewable energy (29 millions toe). The energy independence rate has sharply increased in 20 years from 26% in 1973 it reaches now 49%. France has developed an important capacity of fossil fuels storage about 10.5 milliards m 3 , it means that France can face a 30% decrease in its energy imports for a year without reducing its industrial output. Because of their energy choices Switzerland and France are the European countries the least sensible to price fluctuations of oil and gas. The doubling of oil price has implied a 0.32 francs rise of kWh cost in France and a 1.8 francs rise elsewhere in Europe. (A.C.)

  17. France intends to raise electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotelueschen, M.; Boiteux.

    1986-01-01

    In this interview with the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Electricite de France (EdF), the promotion of nuclear power in France, the chances on the export sector, and the structure of electric power supply are discussed and compared with the situation in West Germany. (UA) [de

  18. Teaching with "Voix et Images de France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrow, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    A report on the classroom use of Voix et Images de France," the French text prepared by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pourla Diffusion du Francais (CREDIF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud in France. (FB)

  19. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France... U.S.C. 1675d(c)) (the Act), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4164 (June 2010), entitled Sorbitol from...

  20. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  1. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because

  2. Which energy transition for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    While recalling the five main objectives of the French bill project for energy transition, the author proposes some critical reflections. He notices that economic, political and financial means to reach the expected decrease of energy consumption are not sufficient. He notably comments the content of the various retained scenarios, discusses and explains the fact that there will always be a gap between the expected optimal energy efficiency and the obtained results: economic actors are not ready to make the required investments, France lacks of a culture of territorial energy governance, and a way of paying the produced carbon emissions is missing. He discusses the introduction of a carbon tax. He states that the Efficiency scenario seems difficult to be reached and briefly discusses the associated consequences. He finally outlines that the nuclear issue is not clearly addressed, either in the Ademe's scenario or by the bill project

  3. France energy assessment for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the economic and energetic context for 2010: revival of activity and trade at the world level but moderate in the euro zone and in France, an exceptionally cold year, a new increase of energy prices. It briefly comments the moderate demand resumption. It comments the evolutions of productions, trade and consumptions of different energies (coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and renewable energies). It comments the resumption of energy final consumption in the main sectors (industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture and fishery, transports). It outlines a slight improvement of energy efficiency, the slight decrease of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy consumption, and a 20% increase of the French energy bill

  4. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  5. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for radioactive waste management are already in existence and applied on an industrial scale for short-lived wastes. France has acquired an aknowledged expertise on the international level and several foreign contemporaries are interested in the relevant techniques developed. An intensive international cooperation has allowed to define bases for an underground deep repository for long-lived wastes. It is therefore important to choose a site which meets the expected storage conditions. This development work has been started in several countries in a similar way and which should be completed by the beginning of the next century. An 'open channel' with the public about this emotional topic can smooth the way for solutions by which mankind can master its technological challenges

  6. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study; Impacts du changement climatique sur le potentiel eolien en France: une etude de regionalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  7. The PermaFRANCE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    A French long term monitoring network of permafrost and frost related processes, named PermaFRANCE, is being built since two years. It will represent the French contribution to the Alpine wide PermaNET network. The PermaFRANCE network will focus not only on permafrost, but on all frost related phenomena at different altitudinal levels, including both thermal monitoring and process observation and monitoring : 1) continuous and discontinuous permafrost in rock walls : - thermal monitoring is mainly performed at the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif) and includes rock surface temperature (RST) and temperature profils in medium depth boreholes (10 m) ; - inventory and observation of rockfall activity in high mountain rock walls : this action concerns the whole Mont Blanc area and is based on a hitorical inventory and an observation of current activity based on a network of observers and contributors ; 2) discontinuous permafrost is surficial deposits and flat bedrock : - thermal monitoring is performed on five rockglacier sites and includes ground surface temperature (GST) and annual BTS campaigns on some sites. Two medium depth boreholes (15 m) have been made in 2009 on one site, and equipped for thermal profile monitoring. A deep borehole (100 m) will be made in 2010 at 45° N latitude ; - geophysical monitoring is performed on 4 sites : repeated vertical electrical soundings exist for some sites since 20 years, and have been complemented since 2007 by eletrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismics ; - surficial displacements of rockglaciers : surficial displacements are measured either by classical geodesy or by DGPS on 6 rockglaciers ; 3) sporadic permafrost at middle altitudes : - an inventory of cold scree slopes and biological investigations on soil and tree growth (dendrogeomorphology) have already been achieved ; - a thermal monitoring should be initiated on selected sites in 2010 ; 4) seasonal frost and frost/thaw cycles at middle and low

  8. Regulation of pluralism in France. Context, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Almiron-Roig, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical and up-to-date study of the media regulation in France with regards to the protection of pluralism. To this end, the article presents a study on the French legal framework for the media, which is complemented with the opinions of scholars, journalists, trade union representatives, members of public organizations regulating the media, and relevant figures with expertise in the media sector in France. The views of these actors were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews conducted in Paris in July 2008 and December 2009. The study reveals that the legal framework, which uses multiple mechanisms and instruments to guarantee pluralism, both external (mainly, corporate concentration and internal (media contents, is highly complex, vast, difficult, and almost impossible to apply. The study suggests that the French legal framework is a top example of inefficient hyper-regulation, which the author sees as a result of the ferocious battle between the two strongest modern forces in France: the egalitarian democratic values, based on solidarity and deeply rooted in the historical tradition of the French Republic; and the neoliberal capitalism based on the ideas of material accumulation and individualism.

  9. Key figures on climate France and Worldwide. 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a synthesis on the climate in France and in the World. Contents: 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect, Humans and the Greenhouse Effect, Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 , Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels, Concentrations and Temperatures, Global Warming, Warming Differentiated by Latitude, Consequences of Global Warming; 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions, European Panorama of GHGs, French Panorama of GHGs; 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: 3.1 Energy-related CO 2 emissions, CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants, CO 2 Emission Factors; 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 , CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion, Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions, Industry-related CO 2 Emissions, CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors, CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion; 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol, The Tradable Permit Market, Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, The European Union's Commitment, European CO 2 Market (EU ETS), Towards a Price Signal for CO 2 Emissions, States Climate Policy: The Case of France, Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions; 6 - Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures, Glossary of Terms, Useful Links

  10. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  11. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  12. Severe accident research in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Reocreux, M.; Tattegrain, A.

    1988-01-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. Nevertheless, an overall safety objective was issued in 1977 by the safety authority which set an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences; this resulted, in particular, in the elaboration of the ''H'' procedures, aimed at reducing significantly the risk of core uncovery subsequent to the loss of redunbant safety-related systems. The U1 symptom-oriented procedure, based on the nuclear steam supply system ''cooling states'', was introduced later, in order to prevent core melting in situations where the operating crew was confused by multiple failures and/or inappropriate previous actions. In the event that a core-melt should occur, the ultimate procedures U2, U4 and U5 - the latter providing a venting of the containment through a filtration system - should enable the radioactive releases to be limited to characteristics compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans. Such emergency management procedures necessitate a significant study effort in order to be elaborated and qualified; this also presupposes that an adequate level of scientific knowledge has been gained as regards the response of specific components of a PWR under beyond-design conditions. The purpose of severe accident research in France is to attain a level of basic knowledge such that emergency procedures may be conceived and ultimately tested

  13. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  14. France's energy balance for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Jean-Paul; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Louati, Sami; Mordant, Guillaume; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Collet, Isabelle; Fratacci, Lisa; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Wong, Florine; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    As in 2012, activity in France increased slightly (+0.3%), thanks to an upturn in the second half. Fossil energy prices on the international markets took a downward turn in 2013 under the influence of the morose world economic climate, dropping sharply for oil and coal and rising, but at a slowed rate, for gas. Quoted prices nonetheless remained high: the Brent price remained well above US$100/barrel and steam coal above US$ 80/ton. Conversely, the price of natural gas took an upward path three years ago in continental Europe. Electricity prices dropped on the European markets, notably as a result of strong production of renewable energy in Germany and Spain. Energy prices in France continued to increase but at a slowed rate and more slowly than the prices for goods and services as a whole for the first time in 10 years. Prices for oil products saw a downturn, something which had not happened since 2009 but gas and electricity prices rose sharply. French households' average gasoline and diesel oil expenditure was euro 60 less in 2013 than in 2012, due almost entirely to the price drop. Spending on energy for household use increased by euro 100 under the combined effect of price increase and greater heating needs. French people's expenditure for energy represented 6.2% of their effective consumption. 2013 was characterised by a colder first half which induced an additional need for heating of 3.1 Mtoe in 2013 in relation to the previous year. The physical foreign trade gap, structurally biased towards imports, accordingly widened slightly in 2013 to 124 Mtoe, as a result of the refined oil products, and additional purchasing of coal made necessary by greater use of thermal power plants. The effect of decreasing international energy prices outweighed the physical flows: France's energy bill reduced by 4.6% in relation to the record 2012, reaching euro 66 billion. The oil bill was therefore significantly reduced as a result of the dual decrease in volume and price

  15. Post-mining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This plentifully illustrated book aims at showing how new equilibria are building up during the transition between mining activity and post-mining, and at stressing on the necessity to keep up the cultural elements, the competencies and knowledge of mining works. The first chapter - mine and men - shows the importance of mineral substances in the objects of the everyday life, illustrates the importance of the mining tradition in France and describes the technical and administrative organisation of the end of the mining activity (works, rehabilitation, regulation, monitoring..). Chapter two - exploitation methods - presents the surface and underground facilities and their impact on the environment (extraction machines, workshops, ore processing plants, decantation ponds..). The third chapter deals with the rehabilitation and monitoring aspects: impact of mining activity stoppage on underground and surface waters, land stability, soils cleansing.. The last chapter summarizes the history of French mining region by region: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lorraine-Alsace, Massif central, Bretagne-Normandie, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Pyrenees

  16. France's energy assessment for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report first gives a description of the world economic context in 2007 (GDP evolutions of several countries), and of the French macro-economic context in 2007 (GDP, goods production, demographic, household consumption, and trade evolutions). It comments the evolution of international oil product prices and of other energy prices (gas, coal) during the same year, and since 1980, and evokes other factors influencing the French energy bill (money market, climate). It briefly comments the evolution of the total primary energy consumption from 1973 to 2007. It describes the evolution of the national energy production, globally and for each energy source (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, renewable energies and wastes), indicating the energy independence rate for each of them, as well as the import origins. Energy consumption is then analysed in the same way, i.e., globally and for each energy source, and also by economic sectors (non-energetic uses, industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, electricity production). Some comments are made on the opening of the electricity market in France. The evolutions of the energy intensity and of carbon emissions related to energy consumption are finally discussed

  17. Energy in France. Reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This small guidebook summarizes the main statistical data on energy for France. Data are presented in tables and graphs for the last decades up to the year 2000: energy in economy (contribution of energy industries to the national gross product, employment and investments in the energy sector), overall energies (average monthly price of crude oil, public opinion about nuclear energy, supplies and consumptions, primary energy production, consumption per energy and per sector, energy bill, import crude oil prices), petroleum (primary production, sectoral end-consumption of refined petroleum products, consumption per type of product, automotive fuels demand, imports and exports of petroleum products, petroleum bill), natural gas (total production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production, imports bill), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production), electricity (gross production, classical thermal production per type of fuel, simplified status, sectoral final consumption, nuclear sites, electricity trades with foreign countries), renewable energies (total production, district heating networks, wood consumption, installed wind power, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, compared evolutions of the national gross product with the energy consumption, cumulated energy savings), prices (energies in the industry and in the domestic sectors, automotive fuels, energy consumptions in households), environment (sectoral and net CO 2 emissions). An energy units conversion table is added at the end of the booklet. (J.S.)

  18. France's energy balance for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louati, Sami; Ouradou, Frederic; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Korman, Bernard; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene; Wong, Florine; Albertini, Jean-Paul; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Economic activity in France stagnated in 2012. Energy prices continued to increase globally, sweeping along with them the prices of energy products imported into France, notably oil products and natural gas. In addition, the difference in temperatures between 2011 and 2012 created an additional energy need for 5.7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2012 in relation to the previous year. The volume of imports of refined oil products and coal increased to meet the additional needs of thermal power stations. The physical trade deficit thus increased for refined oil products (+29%) and for coal (+7%). In parallel, exports of electricity decreased. Nonetheless, the overall physical trade deficit decreased in 2012 (-1.5%). However, this apparent improvement was actually due to difficulties in the refining sector, resulting in a 12% decrease in crude oil imports. Increased imported energy prices and additional needs therefore explain the new peak in France's energy bill, which reached almost euro 69 billion, an increase of more than euro 7 billion in relation to 2011. National primary energy production settled back in 2012 at a little over 136 Mtoe, a decrease of 1.2% in relation to the record reached in 2011. This can be attributed almost entirely to the nuclear power sector which reduced production by more than 4 Mtoe as a result of decreased availability of nuclear power plants. National production of fossil energies, already marginal, continued to decline. Conversely, all of the renewable sources saw an upturn, after a year in 2011 marked by severe contrasts. After reaching a historical low in 2011, hydropower production increased by 25% as a result of the end of the period of drought. Installations continued to increase, with wind-generated and photovoltaic electricity and energy from renewable thermal sources and from waste all increasing their production in 2012. In all, the renewable energy sectors combined produced around 4 Mtoe more than in 2011. In 2012

  19. France energy status for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    2001 was marked by a lifeless global economic context: growth in output, and especially in world trade, slowed sharply. The euro zone was particularly affected. In a tense geopolitical context, especially in the Middle East, international prices of raw materials rose sharply in 2011, in particular oil prices. This affected France's energy bill which, at euro 61.4 billion, increased by almost one-third and accounted for 88% of the country's trade deficit. It thus represents 3.1% of GDP, compared with just 1% in the 1990's. The bill for oil alone is now more than euro 50 billion. The impact could have been even greater if 2011 had not been the warmest year on record since 1900, with an average annual temperature 1.3 deg. C above the reference (1981-2010). As a result, energy needs for heating were much lower than average. The physical trade deficit decreased by 4%, as imports of gas and coal decreased. In terms of consumption, 6.6 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) were saved. Corrected for climate variations, total primary energy consumption continued its rise in 2011 (+0.8%) after the dip registered in 2009, a consequence of the economic crisis. It thus exceeded 266 Mtoe, but still remains below pre-crisis levels. In spite of lower growth than in the previous year (+ 3.6% against + 4.5% in 2010), consumption of thermal energy from renewable sources and energy recovered from waste showed the strongest increase in 2011. However, at 17.1 Mtoe, this still represents only 6.4% of total primary energy consumption. After two years of reduction, oil showed an upturn (+ 2 %). Primary electricity, also on the rise, consolidated its share of total primary consumption (almost 44%). Conversely, coal dropped by 14 % and its share in primary consumption has been quartered since the 1970's, at less than 4%. The structure of France's primary energy mix has thus stabilised since the mid 2000's. According to European directive indicators, and contrary to the situation in 2010

  20. LPG fuels in France in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This short note gives a statement of the sales of butane, propane and LPG fuels in France during the year 1997. Details are given for conditioned butane and propane products, cylinders and fixed reservoirs. (J.S.)

  1. Energy data book. France in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catz, H.

    1999-01-01

    This memento about energy provides a series of tables with numerical data relative to energy resources and uses in France, in the European Union and in the rest of the world: energy consumption and demand (primary energy demand, consumption, and efficiency per region and per source; forecasting, CO 2 emissions, energy independence, supplies, uses and imports, demand scenarios, energy savings..), power production (production per geopolitical region, in OECD countries and in France; peak load demand, power consumption and generation in France; hydro-power and thermal plants in France; total capacity, forecasts and exports), nuclear power (production, forecasting, reactors population, characteristics of French PWRs, uranium needs and fuel cycle), energy resources (renewable energies, fossil fuels and uranium reserves and production), economic data (gross national product, economic and energy indicators, prices and cost estimations), energy units and conversion factors (counting, calorific value of coals, production costs, energy units). (J.S.)

  2. Energy bill of France in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy situation in France is presented. Data and charts illustrate the prices evolution at the import for the petroleum and the other energies, the exchanged energies volume and the bill for each energy sector. (A.L.B.)

  3. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dana Lofgren (202...

  4. Key data for climate. France and the World. Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouradou, Frederic; Wong, Florine; Delalande, Daniel; Delbosc, Anais

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes figures, tables, graphs and maps which illustrate climate change (greenhouse effect, impact of human activity, greenhouse gas tanks, fluxes and concentrations), emissions of greenhouse gases (at the world, European and French levels), emissions of greenhouse gases due to energy production in the world, the sector-based distribution of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and in France (energy combustion, energy production and transformation, transports, industry, other sectors). Then, it presents the climate policies: Kyoto protocol, the emission permit market, Kyoto protocol project mechanisms, other initiatives aimed at emission reduction, the European trading scheme (EU ETS), carbon price in the EU ETS, French climate policy

  5. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  6. The gas de France group in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1999-01-01

    The speech by the Chairman of France's largest gas company is always a highlight of the Gas Conference's closing session. This year, Pierre Gadonneix outlined the gas supply context in which Gaz de France will be running its business operations, and revealed the group's development strategy in a Europe-wide market soon to become a reality, with the implementation of the gas directive in August 2000. (authors)

  7. Evolution of maintainability in France since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr

  8. Status of food irradiation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Yves

    1985-01-01

    The situation regarding food irradiation in France is one of cautious progress, with clearance of specific food items including onions, garlic, shallots, deboned poultry meats and 72 spices. A general clearance for the use of ionizing radiation treatment up to 1 kilogray is under consideration. A most important guiding principle has apparently been accepted in France that no further toxicological studies are required for food irradiation dose levels up to ten kilograys

  9. France's energy assessment for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussud, Xavier; Guggemos, Fabien; Riedinger, Nicolas; Cavaud, Denis; Delamare, Karine; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Lauverjat, Jean; Misak, Evelyne; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Mombel, David; Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This accounting document has been elaborated in compliance with standards defined by the European Union, the International Agency of Energy, and the United Nations. It gives a global overview of the supply and usage chain for each energy source (coal, oil, gas, electricity, thermal renewable energies and wastes). It also gives data related to energy efficiency, supply dependence on other countries, and carbon dioxide emissions. A first part presents the economic and climatic context for 2015: slow world economic growth and an oil market always in surplus, GDP growth at a higher rate, the third hottest year since 1900 with rainfall deficit and sunshine higher than normal. The second part analyses the weight of energy in the French economy: evolutions of energy and oil markets, decrease of energy bill, stronger decrease of oil product prices, higher energy expenses and lower fuel expenses for households. The third part analyses France's energy supply: slight increase of primary production, further decrease of coal imports, recovery of crude oil imports but decrease of refined product trade deficit, moderate increase of natural gas imports, moderate increase of some renewable productions (biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal, heat pumps), slight increase of electricity production with increased use of natural gas. The fourth part analyses quantities and forms of consumed energy: globally, for coal, oil, gas, biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal and heat pumps, and electricity. The fifth part analyses usages and sectors of energy consumption: global final energy, and case of housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery. The sixth part proposes an assessment for overseas territories, globally and for the different energy sources. The seventh part discusses other energy-related issues: evolution of energy intensity, of CO_2 emissions due to energy combustion, co-generated heat and heat networks. Numerous data and methodological

  10. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Malausa

    Full Text Available Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  11. The chemical industry of uranium in France; L'industrie chimique de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  12. Disposal of disused sealed sources in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certes, C.

    2003-01-01

    The current status of the disused sealed sources in France is presented and a proposal for future management is given.About 150 000 disused source are registered, most of which are located in the Centre de l'Aube (130 000) and the rest are in about 250 installations. Since 2002 the tracing of the sources are made bu the IRSN/UES. A scheme of sealed sources management is given consisting of collecting, channeling (recycling, reconditioning, interim storage, denaturation) and elimination (surface disposal, long interim or deep disposal). The capacity of the CDA for disposal is 1 mill. m 3 (about 2 mill. tons of waste). It is intended for waste packages containing (basic safety rule I.2) - Low and Intermediate specific activity levels ( ∼ 103 ∼ 106 Bq/g); Short-lived radionuclides (half-life 60 Co). For sources containing one concentrated long-lived radionuclide in case of non-conformity with the basic safety rule I.2 (heterogeneity and long half-life) for example refusal is received for a few sources containing 241 Am). Radiological capacity id base on inventories nad safety evaluation scenarios. Fixed by decree (TBq) are: 60 Co(5.3 y) - 400 000; 3 H(12.3 y) - 4000; 137 Cs(30 y); - 200 000; 90 Sr(29 y) -40 000; Σ alpha (at 300 years) - 750. Waste acceptance criterion is based on the mass activity limit. The importance of the calculation method in this criterion is emphasised. IRSN reflexion basis for disposal is discussed

  13. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  14. [Kidney transplantation epidemiology in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesse, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Kidney transplantation activity in France is among the most important worldwide: in 2011, 2976 transplants have been performed (47.5 per million population), and the number of patients living with a functional graft is estimated around 30,000, representing 44.7% of all patients (n = 67,270) treated for end-stage renal failure. However, the rate of preemptive kidney transplants remains very low, only 3.3% of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy. The analysis of demand showed a progressive increase in recent years, as demonstrated by the registration rate on the kidney transplantation waiting list, increasing by 5% yearly between 2006 and 2010, but with huge differences according to age categories and regional registration areas, reflecting discrepant appreciations in indications for kidney transplantation. The median waiting time between registration and transplantation increased progressively in recent years, reaching 22.3 months with considerable variations according to regional areas and transplantation teams. Kidney transplantation activity, while increasing continuously, is far to cover the rising demand, and inexorably patients accumulate on the waiting list (around 9000 patients were registered by January 2012). This situation is the consequence of insufficient organ procurement activity. The deceased organ procurement rate remained high: 1572 harvested donors in 2011 (24.1 per million population), but the proportion of older donors rose in recent years, to reach the rate of 26% of donors older than 65 years in 2011. The procurement activity of donors after cardiac arrest was reintroduced in 2006, but increased slowly: 65 transplants were performed in 2011 using kidney procured in non heart-beating donors. The living donor kidney transplantation activity has markedly increased recently: 302 living donor transplantations were performed in 2011, representing 10.1% of the kidney transplantations. Facing the predictable increase in the number of

  15. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  16. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J A; Carrat, J; Poughon, A; Sanselme, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  17. Risk of Lung Cancer and Indoor Radon Exposure in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M.; Tymen, G.; Ducloy, F.; Laurier, D.

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that radon exposure increases risks of lung cancer among underground miners. to estimate the lung cancer risk linked to indoor radon exposure, a hospital based case-control study was carried out in France, With a focus on precise reconstruction of past indoor radon exposure over the 30 years preceding the lung cancer diagnosis. The investigation rook place from 1992 to 1998 in four regions of France: Auvergne, Brittany, Languedoc and Limousin. During face-to-face interviews a standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic characteristics, information on active and passive smoking, occupational exposure, medical history as well as extensive details on residential history. Radon concentrations were measured in the dwellings where subjects had lived at least one year during the 5-30 year period before interview. Measurements of radon concentrations were performed during a 6-month period, using two Kodalpha LR 115 detectors, one in the living room and one in the bedroom. The time-weighted average (TWA) radon concentration for a subject during the 5-30 year period before interview was based on radon concentrations over all addresses occupied by the subject weighted by the number of years spent at each address. For the time intervals without available measurements, we imputed the region-specific arithmetic average of radon concentrations for measured addresses of control subjects. Lung cancer risk was examined in relation to indoor radon exposure after adjustment for age, sex, region, cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. The estimated relative a risk per 100 Bq/m''3 was 1.04, at the borderline of statistical significance (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.99, 1..1). These results are in agreement with results from other indoor radon case-control studies and with extrapolations from underground miners studies. (Author) 31 refs

  18. Long-term socio-ecological forest research in southeast France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teissier du Cros, E.; Bariteau, M.; Kramer, K.

    2004-01-01

    France concentrates its research involving Mediterranean forests and related land-use on a series of long-term study sites meant to assess the effect of historical land-use on the current distribution of forest tree species and on the adaptability of these ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic

  19. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  20. Concentrations of metals, PCB and dioxin and furans in fish and sediments of four lakes in Northern Quebec in 2001; Teneurs en metaux, en BPC et en dioxines et furanes dans les poissons et les sediments de quatre lacs du nord du Quebec en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laliberte, D.; Tremblay, G. [Quebec Ministere de l' Environnement, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction du Suivi de l' Etat de l' Environnement

    2002-07-01

    An environmental study was conducted on Chibougamau, aux Dores, Obatogamau, and Waconichi Lakes in northern Quebec in 2001. Those lakes are used by the Cree Indians for subsistence fishing and sport fishing by the rest of the Quebec population. Concentrations in heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were measured in sediments from Lakes Chibougamau and aux Dores. Heavy metals concentrations were also measured from two mining effluents and four waste samples originating from a mining waste location around the lakes. In addition, three fish species were sampled in those two lakes to evaluate the effect of mining activity on mercury levels in those species. The measurements were compared to those obtained from fish originating from Obatogamau and Waconichi Lakes. Finally, heavy metals, PCB, and dioxins and furans were measured in five fish species from the four lakes. The results of the analysis from the mining effluents revealed concentrations of the six metals included in directive 019 for the mining industry were lower than the authorized limits. However, a bio-essay performed in 2002 in the final effluent of the mining basin showed that the effluent from Copper Rand Mine presented toxicity and was not in agreement with the directive for this parameter. The sediments had low mercury concentrations. The highest concentration originated from the site near Henderson Mine I. None of the concentrations exceeded the limit and there are no negative effect expected on the fauna. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc had high concentrations in sediments. The corresponding locations were near Copper Rand Mine, south of Principale Mine and at the foot of Principale Park. No PCB were detected in Chibougamau and aux Dores Lakes. Data does not indicate that the mining activity caused an increase in mercury levels in fish. Mercury levels in fish captured in 2001 in Chibougamau Lake were lower than those measured in 1999. 12 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  1. Chemical composition of fogwater in an urban area: Strasbourg (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, M; Sanusi, A; Wortham, H

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the acidity and to identify the predominant compounds, this work presents the chemical analysis of 18 fogwater samples collected during the year 1991 in Strasbourg, in the east of France. For each fog event, two droplet size categories (2-6 microm and 5-8 microm) have been separately collected and 16 ionic components have been analysed. These two fraction sizes were chosen because they correspond approximately to the size range that can penetrate the human lung and they may have possible health effects. The dominant species were NH4+, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Cl-, with a maximum level of 12,640, 17,270, 21,620 and 13,540 microeq litre(-1), respectively. For most of the fog events the highest concentrations of all analysed species were observed in the 2-6 microm droplets. pH values ranged between 2.79 and 5.70 and the fogwater acidity was governed by three strong acids, H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl and was partially neutralised by NH3 and probably by the presence of CaCO3 in the 'loess', which is the major constituent of soils in the upper Rhine valley. In other respects the acetate/formate ratio (methanoate/ethanoate), generally lower than 1, indicates an important pollution due to automobile exhaust, although the Pb concentrations are moderate due to the general use of unleaded gasoline in France since 1989.

  2. Gaz de France 2006 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary

  3. GEMAS - Tin and Tungsten: possible sources of enriched concentrations in soils in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Batista, Maria; Filipe, Augusto; Reimann, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    southern soils and SiO2 is higher in loess sediments region, in the North German-Poland basin and in the Paris basin. Organic matter may immobilise these metals and silica content influences metallic elements concentrations in soils. Natural processes of soil development, land management of agricultural soils and population density all together may be responsible for higher concentrations of W in the soils of Netherlands Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and northeast France which seems not related with Sn-W mineral provinces. Tin and tungsten are enriched in the Precambrian shields compared to the Caledonian shields soils in the northern countries, although in northern countries climatic conditions may play the most important role in these elements concentrations. Tin and tungsten and tin or tungsten alone or in association of precious metals, copper, uranium, niobium, beryllium, titanium altogether were extracted in 650 small or median size mines in Portugal. Except tin in Neves Corvo mine of the Iberian Pyrite Belt the rest of these mines occurred in the Variscides granitic intrusions region. Tin and tungsten concentrations are therefore well reflected in the northern Portugal soils. At the GEMAS density of sampling pollution and local natural phenomena are not reflected in mapping but this important province is well delimited.

  4. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were studied. • Speleothems are

  5. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  6. Electric power plants in cogeneration: a promising potential even in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Implantation of cogeneration power plants has increased in France since two years but stays below other countries such as northern Europe. Technical, economical, legal and financial aspects of cogeneration have been debated during the ''Euroforum'' seminar (June 14-16, 1995). The european association Cogen Europe, created in 1993 with the financial support of the SAVE european program, has analysed the barriers that restrain cogeneration development and their solutions. Advantages of cogeneration are undeniable at any scale (from small engines to huge industrial systems) if efficiency of energy used reaches 85%. Opinions of representatives from different industries implied in cogeneration technology are reported. (J.S.). 1 photo

  7. The production of photovoltaic electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The author presents, comments and discusses various data related to photovoltaic energy production in France: evolution of installed power until 2013, installed power, production, hours per year and load factor for different countries (France, Spain, Germany and Italy) and for the different French regions. He highlights and comments the intermittency of photovoltaic production in France. This intermittency is related to the difference between day and night, to the difference between seasons, and to weather conditions. He discusses the possible solutions to this intermittency. In this respect, he outlines that the expansion of the photovoltaic production and the use of interconnection do not solve the problem, and discusses the possibility of massive storage and the possible interest of local consumption

  8. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  9. Electrical energy in France in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2008; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2008 (daily maximum values of National consumption, Hydroelectric generation and non-Hydroelectric generation, Balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-border contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (Global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards); power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2008 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  10. Energy use and planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaon, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Energy planning in France must compensate for a lack of natural resources and a 77% dependence on imports with conservation, an increased use of domestic sources, and diversified supplies. One problem is a high per-capita energy consumption that, although only half that of the US, has been a financial drain in recent years. Current plans to reduce oil consumption 25% by 1990 and energy dependence to less than 50% include conservation goals set for each sector. Nuclear energy is a cost-effective energy source that is compatible with France's energy goals and is the focus of much energy research. The emphasis on realistic goals and continuity are basic to France's continued success in energy planning. 4 figures, 10 tables

  11. Electrical energy in France in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2009; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2009 (daily maximum values of national consumption, thermal generation, hydro-electric generation, wind generation and balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-borders contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards), daily market coupling; power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines owned by RTE (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers owned by RTE (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2009 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  12. Impact of Energy Production on Respiratory Outcomes: Evidence from the Flandres Refinery in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaine, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of sulphur dioxide (SO_2) concentration on respiratory admissions in the north of France at municipal level from 2007 to 2011. The Flandres refinery closure in the north of France, in September 2009, is used as a natural experiment. First, this study shows that the halt in the refinery's operations, followed by its closure in 2010, reduces SO_2 concentration. We then use this exogenous shock to analyse the health impact of the high SO_2 concentration generated by energy production. Our estimates highlight that the reduction in SO_2 concentration has significantly reduced the severity of respiratory outcomes. Additionally, the refinery closure has had statistically significant effects on the revenue of municipalities in the area

  13. Gaz de France annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  14. Nuclear energy education and training in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its continuing use of nuclear power, France faces numerous challenges, including the operation and maintenance of its existing array of reactors, waste management, the decommissioning of obsolete reactors, and research and development for future nuclear systems. All of these efforts must recognize and conform to international requirements. These activities mean that all participants in the French nuclear industry must continually update their approaches and skills, with respect to both domestic and worldwide nuclear power development. This requirement calls for the hiring and training of thousands of scientists and engineers each year in France and its partner or customer countries. Over the next ten years, domestic and international nuclear power activities in France will call for the recruitment of about 13,000 engineers with Master of Science or Ph.D. degrees, and 10,000 science technicians and operators with Bachelor of Science degrees. The chief employers will be EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez, national agencies such as the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA), sub-contractors, and R and D agencies such as the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), and the technical safety organization, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). France has made a commitment to support countries that are ready to create the human, institutional, and technical conditions required to establish a civilian nuclear energy programme that meets all the requirements of safety, security, non-proliferation and environmental protection for present and future generations. These efforts are conducted through the France International Nuclear Agency (AFNI). In response to the need for competence-building in nuclear energy production, France now offers training opportunities in both French and English education programmes. Partnerships created by French nuclear energy participants and by AFNI can provide dedicated programmes

  15. Panorama de la Dendrochronologie en France.

    OpenAIRE

    Astrade, Laurent; Miramont, Cécile

    2010-01-01

    Actes du colloque "Panorama de la dendrochronologie en France", octobre 2009, Digne les Bains. Ce nouveau numéro de la Collection Edytem accueille les contributions du colloque qui s'est déroulé, il y a moins d'un an, à Digne-les-Bains, autour de la dendrochronologie en France. Les différents textes de ce numéro et leur articulation en cinq grands thèmes (dendroécologie, dendroclimatologie, dendrogéomorphologie, dendroarchéologie, méthodes de la dendrochronologie) mettent en avant la diversit...

  16. Oil in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article comments the evolution of oil product prices in France in 2008 and of the global oil product consumption in 2008. This consumption and its evolutions are also analysed with respect to the different consuming sectors: non-energetic uses (petrochemical industry and lubricants), industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, and electricity thermal production. Crude oil imports and their origins are the commented, as well as refined product imports and exports. The evolution of price of imported crude oil, the national oil production, the refining activity in France, and the amount of crude and refined oil stocks are also briefly commented

  17. Nuclear energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities and the differences in the development of nuclear energy in the two neighboring countries are described. The development in France could be promoted more easily which was also due to the government structure. Uncomplicated licensing procedures and other factors permitted a less difficult realisation of the nuclear energy programme. Serious economic consequences in our country are pointed out. In this summary, the most important results and statements of a memorandum worked out by the KWU with the headline 'Germany/France - the electricity supply in comparison' are listed. (UA) [de

  18. General presentation of the biomass in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  19. Key Figures on Climate France and Worldwide 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Each year, CDC Climate Research publishes in partnership with the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing (MEDDTL) the Key Figures on Climate - France and Worldwide, in the Highlights Series. This publication aims at gathering all the relevant data relating the scientific analysis of climate change, greenhouses gas emissions, in particular CO 2 emissions linked to energy use, and the emissions reduction-targeted economic policies. Contents: Part 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect - Humans and the Greenhouse Effect - Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 - Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels - Concentrations and Temperatures - Global Warming - Warming Differentiated by Latitude - Consequences of Global Warming. Part 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions - European Panorama of GHGs - French Panorama of GHGs. Part 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: Energy-related CO 2 emissions - CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants - CO 2 Emission Factors. Part 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 - CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion - Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions - Industry-related CO 2 Emissions - CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors - CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion. Part 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol - The Tradable Permit Market - Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol - Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions - The European Union's Commitment - The European CO 2 Market (EU ETS) - The Carbon Price in the EU ETS - States Climate Policy: The Case of France. Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures - Glossary of Terms - Useful Links

  20. Key figures for climate in France and in the World - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouradou, Frederic; Wong, Florine; Delalande, Daniel; Morel, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Graphs and figures related to different aspects of climate in France and in the World are presented and briefly commented. The different parts respectively address climate change (global warming, consequences, forecasts, greenhouse effect, impact of human activity, carbon reservoirs, evolution and concentrations of greenhouse gases, temperatures), emissions of greenhouse gases (in the world, in Europe, in France), CO 2 emissions due to energy and to electricity production, the shares of sectors in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and in France (energy production and transformation, transports, industry, other sectors, without energy combustion, CO 2 emission factors), and climate policies (international negotiations, Kyoto protocol and its flexibility mechanisms, the European Union commitments, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme and its carbon price, the French climate policy)

  1. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  2. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  4. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central li...

  5. Southern Europeans in France: Invisible Migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremenko, T.; El Qadim, N.; Steichen, E.; Lafleur, J.-M.; Stanek, M.

    2016-01-01

    France fared relatively well at the start of the current economic crisis, but has experienced low economic growth and high unemployment rates in the recent years. As a result it has been a less popular destination with Southern Europeans and EU migrants in general in search of economic

  6. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  7. Lombroso in France. A paradoxical reception

    OpenAIRE

    Renneville, Marc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; La réception paradoxale de Lombroso en France. Initialement positive voire enthousiaste, cette réception est rapidement devenue critique tout en donnant une large audience à la théorie du criminel-né

  8. Medical physics in France, stakes and necessities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    2004-01-01

    This series of slides presents the situation of medical physics in France: - role of the medical physicist with respect to the medical procedures in radiotherapy, radiology and nuclear medicine; - responsibility in the treatment chain; - professional qualification and training; - present day and future situation of the profession; - authorities answer; - a profession in great precariousness situation. (J.S.)

  9. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  10. Gaz de France annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  11. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  12. CERN craftsman named Best in France

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Didier Lombard, metal worker in EST Division, was crowned 'France's Top Craftsman' during the 21st edition of the contest, which covered the period 1997 to 2000. CERN employs some of Europe's top crafts people to work on construction of components for experiments that are designed to a high degree of precision.

  13. Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France Altarelli Guido, CERN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France. Altarelli Guido, CERN, Switzerland. Ananthanarayan Balasubramanian,. IISc, Bangalore, India. Antoniadis Ignatios, CERN, Switzer- land. Aziz T, TIFR, Mumbai, India. Babu K S, Oklahoma State Univ., USA. Bailey Stephen, Harvard/BaBar, USA. Bailin David, University of Sussex, UK.

  14. The wind energy in danger in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The law project of march 2005, concerning the energy policy in France is dangerous for the wind power development. The new regulation favor the big installations in order to protect the environment. In fact this decision will limit the wind turbines installations. (A.L.B.)

  15. Limits to expression on religion in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a

  16. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  17. Tables of energies consumption in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This short paper presents the evolution of the energy consumption by sector (industry, domestic, tertiary industry, transports, agriculture and all sectors together), since 1973. It gives an abstract of a more complete book: tableaux des consommations d'energie en France; edition 1999. (A.L.B.)

  18. 2004 energy bill of the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  19. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  20. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  1. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  2. G8 global partnership. France's contribution; Partenariat mondial du G8. L'action de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    During the G8 summit at Kananaskis (Canada) in June 2002, G8 Leaders decided to launch the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Under this initiative, partners support specific cooperation projects to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues. Since then, thirteen other donor countries have joined the initiative from which the Ukraine may also now benefit. France intends to make an effective contribution, up to 750 million euros, to the implementation of this initiative, giving priority to a genuine partnership between France and Russia covering projects in the nuclear, chemical and biological fields. France intends to be involved in the various fields identified at Kananaskis: in the nuclear field, it is participating in nuclear submarine dismantling actions and contributes to the improvement of nuclear safety and security. It also supports the program for the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes. France is also involved in the destruction of chemical weapons and intends to develop responses to bio-terrorist threats, while promoting reemployment of scientists. To optimise its action, France has committed itself to both multilateral and bilateral programs. In the multilateral framework, France contributes to: - the NDEP fund (Northern Dimension Environment Partnership) which will finance projects related to the dismantling of nuclear submarines and remediation of the sites concerned; - the MPDG (Multilateral Plutonium Disposition Group), whose objective is to enable the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes; - the construction of the new Chernobyl shelter in the Ukraine. France is also developing bilateral cooperation, primarily with Russia: - in the nuclear field, the implementing agreement negotiated in the framework of the Multilateral Environmental

  3. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodzic, A.

    2005-10-01

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  4. The Future of the CEMAC CFA Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Agbor Agbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 currency boards have come into existence at some point since the mid-19th century, but to date only about 15 of them still exist, among which is the CFA franc monetary zone. The future sustainability of the CFA franc zone, to which the CEMAC CFA franc belongs, is increasingly questioned in the light of increasing asymmetries in exposure to external shocks, differential speeds of adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks, differential impacts in economic fundamentals, and low levels of intra-regional trade and financial flows between CEMAC and WAEMU. For the CEMAC bloc of countries in particular, the future sustainability of the fixed exchange regime depends crucially on continued oil exports, which currently represent about 90percent of export revenues and 40 percent of GDP. Should oil reserves deplete in the near future or oil prices decline significantly, a substantial source of foreign reserves would be lost, thereby exposing the regime to collapse. Even without resource depletion, continued volatility in global financial markets is increasing the risks of collapse of the fixed exchange regime as oil and commodity price swings ignite currency speculation as well as render reserves much more volatile. Against this backdrop, the present study examines the stakes facing the CEMAC CFA franc, discusses the exit options from the currency board and makes recommendations towards a sustainable monetary policy framework for CEMAC countries going forward. The analysis points to the imperative of pursuing a full monetary union with a single CEMAC franc pegged to the U.S. dollar and further suggest that, like the experience of the eurozone, the CEMAC monetary arrangement can be best implemented only by complying with the principle of political union.

  5. Recent progress towards climate services in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deandreis, C.; Lemond, J.; Dandin, P.; Braconnot, P.

    2013-01-01

    Important efforts have been made in recent years to develop climate services in France. Many initiatives have emerged to build an adapted System of information. This development is consistent with legislative and regulatory obligations, with a concern for economic advance, or a citizen questioning related to global change. The web portal 'DRIAS, les futurs du climat' provides an easy access to climate scenarios for France, opened to everyone concerned by impact and adaptation to climate change. This achievement results of a close co-operation between the major French climate modelling groups and the operational services of Meteo-France. It has been benefiting from the support of the Ministry in charge of Sustainable Development namely through its GICC program. The next steps with DRIAS will be defined both by a strong consistency with the scientific community work and by the requirements and expectations of users. In this, it is a real service. Following a different approach more focused on the specific and advanced needs of particular users, the French projects INVULNERABLe and SECIF sought to create a relevant and tailored to the industrial sector. This kind of products requires a support to educate operational users to climate change issue, and then to enhance the interface between climatologists and skilled users within the concerned companies. Both approaches are representative of current efforts of the French national scientific community to provide a useful part of the knowledge developed by the Academia and Meteo-France. The various initiatives are carried out with the wish to share and be consistent with research community work. They are mutually enriching, and with all stakeholders involved, they gradually build a real climate service in France. (authors)

  6. Two outbreaks of classical swine fever in wild boar in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, F; Rossi, S; Mesplède, A; Kuntz-Simon, G; Le Potier, M-F

    2008-06-21

    In 2002 and 2003, two successive outbreaks of classical swine fever were declared in wild boar in northern France. The first was in Moselle, near the town of Thionville and the border with Luxembourg, and the second was in the northern Vosges area, near the German border. The outbreaks were investigated by serological and virological diagnosis of dead or shot animals. Hunting restrictions were applied to limit the spread of the outbreaks. The virus was detected eight times between April and July 2002 in the Thionville area, an area well delimited by natural or artificial barriers such as rivers or highways. Cooperation between the authorities concerned was good, and hunting restrictions were applied for one year. No virus was detected after July 2002 and the Thionville outbreak was officially considered over in March 2005. In the northern Vosges the situation was different, with no barriers to animal movements, continuous forest, difficulties in establishing hunting restrictions in this huge area, and the circulation of the virus in Germany close to the frontier. Virus of a different strain from that isolated in the Thionville outbreak was still being isolated in the northern Vosges in 2004, and owing to the failure of the hunting restrictions, the French health authorities decided to vaccinate wild boar.

  7. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  8. Critical acidity loads in France; Charges critiques d`acidite en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, A.; Party, J.P.; Fevrier, C. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UPR 06251 du CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Dambrine, E. [Centre de Recherches Forestieres, INRA, 45 - Orleans (France); Thomas, A.L.; King, D. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomique (INRA), 45 - ORDON (France); Stussi, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Based on results from several systematic forest and surface water monitoring programs, carried out in various parts of France as well as in Europe, acidity critical loads have been calculated for soils and surface waters; critical loads are presented for water and soils in crystalline mountainous regions such as Ardennes, Vosges and Massif Central; links with geochemistry, ecosystems and types of trees are discussed and perspectives are given for the calculation of acid and nitrogen critical loads on the whole France

  9. Inside France: Three Missing Pages from Your Students' Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conniffe, Patricia, Ed.

    This mini-unit seeks to fill the gap in textbooks that exists when teaching about modern France. Many textbooks end their coverage of France with the chapter on World War II. This unit offers high school students a unique introduction to France in the mid-1990s. The mini-unit includes a two-sided poster, teaching tips, and student pages. Student…

  10. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  11. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    the German and French Weather Services (Deutscher Wetterdienst and Météo-France). Historical fire events are taken from Prométhée database. Time series 2000-2010 are used as learning data and data from 2011 is used as the validation data. The resulting model can support real-time fire risk estimation for improved allocation of firefighting resources and planning of other mitigation actions. [1] Keeley, J.E.; Bond, W.J.; Bradstock, R.A.; Pausas, J.G.; Rundel, P.W. (2012): Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems: ecology, evolution and management. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp.515 [2] Lawson, B.D.; Armitage, O.B. (2008): Weather Guide for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. [3] Van Wagner, C.E.; Pickett, T.L. (1985): Equations and FORTRAN Program for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Forestry Technical Report 33. Canadian Forestry Service, Government of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada [4] Syphard, A.D.; Radeloff, V.C.; Keuler, N.S.; Taylor, R.S.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Clayton, M.K. (2008): Predicting spatial patterns of fire on a southern California landscape. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 17, pp.602-613 [5] Papakosta, P.; Klein, F.; König, S.; Straub, D. (2012): Linking spatio-temporal data to the Fire Weather Index to estimate the probability of wildfire in the Mediterranean. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.14, EGU2012-12737, EGU General Assembly 2012

  12. Rayleigh lidar observations of double stratopause structure over three different northern hemisphere stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available observations of double stratopause structure over three different northern hemisphere stations V. Sivakumar1, H. Bencherif1, A. Hauchecorne2, P. Keckhut2, D. N. Rao3, S. Sharma4, H. Chandra4, A. Jayaraman4, and P. B. Rao5 1Laboratoire de l’Atmosphe`re et... des Cyclones, CNRS–UMR 8105, Universite´ de La Re´union, La Reunion, France 2Service d’Ae´ronomie, CNRS, Paris, France 3National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, P. B. No: 123, Tirupati-517 502, India 4Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangapura...

  13. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  14. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, A

    2005-10-15

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  15. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, A

    2005-10-15

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  16. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  17. La propagande anti-britannique en France pendant l’Occupation Anti-British Propaganda in France during the Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Passera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Left to fight alone after France signed the armistice on the 22nd of June 1940, Great Britain became enemy number one in the eyes of the German occupying forces and the Vichy government. This hostility found expression in a considerable quantity of propaganda in the guise of posters, tracts, booklets and brochures meant to denounce British responsibility for the conflict in the eyes of French public opinion. Propaganda was particularly intense from June to December 1940 and from January to June 1944 but the German and French propaganda services waged this psychological warfare against Great Britain throughout the war. In 1940, the anti-British brainwashing campaigns aimed at ridding the defeated French of their guilt by accusing the ex-ally of being the cause of the conflict and of deceit during the Battle of France. In 1941-1942, the Allies’ military setbacks were the subject of tracts and brochures that ridiculed British strategic skills. Propaganda was also based on the painful history of France and Great Britain so as to convince the French that England had always tried to deprive France of her colonies and that it was what she was trying to do by maintaining her presence in Africa. The major part of this propaganda was promoted by the German authorities, only to a lesser degree by the French collaboration parties. Till 1942, the Information Secretariat of the Vichy government distributed few anti-British tracts, concentrating its efforts on the promotion of the National Revolution. On the other hand, the first Anglo-American bombings in the Paris area provoked strong reactions in the Vichy government which then relied on the French population’s confusion and anxiety to denounce British policy. What was the impact of these anti-British speeches on the French population? The prefects’ reports on public opinion show that the plugging of Anglophobic sentiment had little influence on the French who were globally in complete support of the

  18. Range expansion of the Asian native giant resin bee Megachile sculpturalis (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Féon, Violette; Aubert, Matthieu; Genoud, David; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Westrich, Paul; Geslin, Benoît

    2018-02-01

    In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species that is native to East Asia. To our knowledge, it is the first introduced bee species in Europe. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe the history of its range expansion. Besides our own observations, information was compiled from literature and Internet websites, and by contacting naturalist networks. We collected a total of 117 records ( locality  ×  year combinations) for the 2008-2016 period. The geographical range of M. sculpturalis has extended remarkably, now occupying a third of continental France, with the most northern and western records located 335 and 520 km from Allauch, respectively. Information on its phenology, feeding, and nesting behavior is also provided. We report several events of nest occupation or eviction of Osmia sp. and Xylocopa sp. individuals by M. sculpturalis . Our results show that M. sculpturalis is now well established in France. Given its capacity to adapt and rapidly expand its range, we recommend amplifying the monitoring of this species to better anticipate the changes in its geographical range and its potential impacts on native bees.

  19. When and What Meteorological Stresses Will Maize Crops Meet in the future in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is expected to modify overall climatic conditions and therefore, suitability for cropping. Assessment of when and what meteorological stresses will crops meet in the future is highly useful for planners and land managers who can apply adaptation strategies to improve agricultural potentialities. We propose to evaluate the impacts of climate change on suitability for maize cropping in terms of ecophysiology (e.g., heat stress during grain filling), yield quality (e.g., thermal conditions on protein content) and cultural practices performance (e.g., days available for harvest according to risk of waterlogged soil compaction) in two French areas. The Midi-Pyrénées (southern) and Ile-de-France (northern) regions were chosen as representing the two distinct climates when dividing France into southern and northern parts. The Midi-Pyrénées region is a major irrigated maize producer but could become penalizing in the future because of heat and water stress. By contrast, northern France could become a more suitable area thanks to the expected increasing temperature. To confirm our assumptions, we used the method assessment for crop-climate suitability developed in Caubel et al. (2015) and based on the sub-annual analysis of agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. Indicators have been calculated using climatic data from 1950 to 2100 simulated by the global climate ARPEGE at the meso-scale SAFRAN (8 km resolution) for the two areas and forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario (similar to RCP 6.0). The evaluation was done for two distinct varieties in terms of precocity. Agroclimatic indicators characterizing water deficit and water excess impacts on crop were calculated for three soils with contrasting soil water reserves and depths. Finally, the evaluation was performed with a unique sowing date (the current one), and with an optimized sowing date according to water and thermal requirements for emergence

  20. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  1. CO2 and energy. France and the World. Edition 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    While providing many graphs, tables and drawings, this report gives an overview of climate change (greenhouse effect, influence of human activity, greenhouse gases tanks and fluxes, increase of greenhouse gas atmospheric stock, greenhouse gas concentration and temperatures, climate warming and its consequences), of greenhouse gases in Europe and in the world, of CO 2 emissions related to energy production and combustion in the world, in Europe and in France (globally and by transports, industry and buildings). The authors present the different economic tools designed for the struggle against climate change: the Kyoto protocol, the clean development mechanism, the joint implementation mechanism, the negotiable emission permit market, the European Union commitments, the European emission trade system, the emergence of CO 2 ton price, and other emission reduction initiatives

  2. Plant maneuvrability in France: recent developments and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, A.; Guesdon, B.

    1986-06-01

    In the early 1970's, it was correctly anticipated that in 10 year's time PWR's would become major contributors to energy production in France and would therefore have to participate largely in adjustment of supply to demand. A substantial effort was launched between vendor (FRAMATOME), utility (EDF) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to greatly improve PWR's flexibility, resulting in the current situation where both frequency control and load follow are now routinely performed on most plants in operation. Based on rapidly accumulating operational experience and on all expertise acquired in the past decade, a second-generation core control strategy is now being finalized for application on all future 1400 MW plants (with commercial operation scheduled in 1992 for first unit). This core control includes a maximized Reactor Advanced Maneuvrability Package (RAMP or Dispositif maximise de Manoeuvrabilite Accrue DMAX in French) and an automated system control boron concentration (SYCOBOR)

  3. Radiological quality of packaged waters produced in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franques, Nathalie; Perrin, Marie-Line; Godet, Jean-Luc; Pineau, Cyril; Loyen, Jeanne; Brassac, Annette; Gleizes, Marc; Baudry, Michel

    2013-09-01

    Based on radionuclide and uranium analyses performed in 2012 by the IRSN on packaged waters produced in France, this report presents the main results on this national survey. The objectives were a systematic measurement of radioactivity indicators, a systematic measurement of uranium content, and a limited measurement of radon-222 content in some samples. After some recalls on the notions of radioactivity and exposure, on uranium and radon properties, and of the present regulation, this report presents the adopted methodology, and discusses the range and limitation of this study. It presents and comments the results of systematic analyses of spring and natural mineral waters (presence of tritium, global beta and alpha activity, uranium concentration), the results of measurements of radon-222, and the results of additional analyses of spring and natural mineral waters (main radionuclides, radium-226, uranium isotopes, other radionuclides). It reports the calculation of doses and the interpretation of results for waters which have been submitted to additional analyses

  4. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  5. Colbert's shadow: trade liberalisation and France's energy giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The slow pace of liberalisation in France's state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies are examined, and complaints from the British, Austrian, and Spanish power companies that France has failed to implement the EU directives while EdF has not been slow to expand overseas are considered. The climate of change in France illustrated by the hostile takeover battles, and suspicion of spot and futures trading as speculation rather than offsetting risks are noted. (UK)

  6. Radon concentration in a house of Calvados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleyter, L.; Riffault, B.; Mazenc, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados (Normandy region). Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home. (authors)

  7. Acerca de Juana Francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Orgaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la desigual visibilidad de Juana Francés frente al resto de compañeros de su generación, el artículo considera algunos de los factores que provocaron esta injusta situación. Así mismo se aborda un recorrido por la intensa y variada trayectoria creativa de la artista que incluye sus etapas más significativas analizadas.Taking into account the poor visibility of Juana Francés compared to tfie rest of tier generation colleagues, ttie article reflects on some of tfie causes ttiat provoked this unfair situation. In addition to that, tfie article explores the intense and diverse artistic career including her most significant stages.

  8. Second births in western Germany and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Köppen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  9. Postglacial dispersal of Phlebotomus perniciosus into France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrotey S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomus perniciosus was identified morphologically in samples from France and northeast Spain, and individuals were then characterized at three polymorphic isoenzyme loci (by isoelectrofocusing and at the mitochondrial DNA locus (by comparative DNA sequence analysis of a fragment of the Cytochrome b gene. The four polymorphic loci gave conflicting patterns of population relationships, which can be explained by hypothesizing different amounts of gene introgression at each locus when two distinctive lineages met in southern France or northeast Spain after isolation in southern Italy and Spain during the Pleistocene Ice Ages. P. perniciosus is an important vector of Leishmania infantum and so these population differentiation studies are relevant for predicting the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis in relation to environmental changes, including climate.

  10. A study of nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1981-01-01

    It is stated that the purpose of the study is to identify and explain, for a British audience, what the author perceives to be the combination of forces and events that have led France to adopt the most thrustful nuclear programme in the world at the present time. The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear perspectives (energy needs and supplies - forecasts and programmes); the national interest (government policies in relation to energy; reactor types - gas-graphite and LWR); the structure of the French nuclear industry; the State (the French corps of scientists; the existence of an Administrative Elite; the role of the State and its function in industrial management); decision making; the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique); Electricite de France; electricity growth and prices; financing the expansion; the international dimension (cooperation). (author)

  11. Research on hydrogen by Gaz de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, G.; Lecoanet, A.; Roncato, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    With the increasing energy needs of mankind and the earth's necessarily limited resources of fuel, the time will come when the demand for hydrocarbons will exceed the world production capacity. This situation will subsequently get even worse because of the depletion of recoverable reserves. Massive recourse to nuclear and solar energy thus appears indispensable, and the use of hydrogen as a vector for such energies has been under consideration for several years, especially in France where petroleum resources are very limited. Gaz de France has been doing research on the mass production of hydrogen by the decomposition of water and has just come to rather pessimistic conclusions as to the competitiveness of thermochemical processes in comparison with electrolytic methods. However, the electrolysis of water offers interesting prospects providing its efficiency and economics can be improved. Furthermore research on the storage and transportation of hydrogen has already enabled some conclusions to be drawn in these fields where gaseous vectors have very encouraging possibilities [fr

  12. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the milestones of 2001 concerning nuclear safety in France: 1) the new organization of nuclear safety in France, IPSN (institute of protection and nuclear safety) and OPRI (office for protection against ionizing radiation) have merged into an independent organization: IRSN (institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety); 2) a draft bill has been proposed by the government to impose to nuclear operators new obligations concerning the transfer of information to the public; 3) nuclear safety authorities have drafted a new procedure in order to cope with the demand concerning modification of nuclear fuel management particularly the increase of the burn-up; 4) new evolutions concerning the management of a major nuclear crisis as a consequence of the terrorist attack on New-york and the accident at the AZF plant in Toulouse; 5) a point is made concerning the work of the WENRA association about the harmonization of the nuclear safety policies of its different members. (A.C.)

  13. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  14. Irradiation and the food industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on food irradiation. The historical development in France of some industrial applications of food irradiation resulting from efficient technology transfer to the food industry is discussed. The 4 basic steps in successfully marketing any technology transfer, including irradiated foods, are that research must define conditions of the product's application, legislation must specify conditions of its application, consumers must accept the product, and appropriate processing capacity must exist

  15. France's Nuclear Arsenal: What Sort of Renewal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustlein, Corentin

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of the next few years, France will have to renew its nuclear arsenal to ensure that it remains a credible deterrent in the eyes of its potential enemies. This update must occur within an unfavourable context: the strategic environment, marked by the multiplication of Jihadi fronts, has deteriorated, and budgetary discipline is the order of the day. Sacrificing nuclear deterrence at the altar of the fight against terrorism would, however, be a fatal error

  16. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  17. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Spent fuel management in France: Programme status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    France's programme is best characterized as a closed fuel cycle including reprocessing, Plutonium recycling in PWR and use of breeder reactors. The current installed nuclear capacity is 52.5 GWe from 55 units. The spent fuel management scheme chosen is reprocessing. This paper describes the national programme, spent nuclear fuel storage, reprocessing and contracts for reprocessing of spent fuel from various countries. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  19. France's action plan for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first presents the French strategy for energy efficiency which is notably based on several commitments and an energy conservation policy. The second part describes the various policies and measures which have been implemented in France for different sectors: energy demand, housing and office building, transports, industry, exemplary State and local communities, agriculture, wastes, public information and sensitization. Several large appendices complete this report. They address assessment methods, policies and measures, and a European directive

  20. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)

  1. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesson Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  2. Shielding design for PWR in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, G.; Charransol; Le Dieu de Ville, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1983-05-01

    Shielding calculation scheme used in France for PWR is presented here for 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants built by EDF the French utility giving electricity. Neutron dose rate at areas accessible by personnel during the reactor operation is calculated and compared with the measurements which were carried out in 900 MWe units up to now. Measurements on the first French 1300 MWe reactor are foreseen at the end of 1983

  3. A survey of renewable energies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals set by the Grenelle agreement was to reach a ratio of 23% for the part of renewable energies in the final energies consumed in France by 2020. In 2005 this ratio was 10 per cent. In this article the situation in 2010 for wind energy, solar energy, biomass, wood heating and geothermal energy are reported. It appears that the results are promising but the reduction of fiscal incentives might jeopardize the objective for 2020. (A.C.)

  4. Tables of energy consumptions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  5. Limits to expression on religion in France

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a certain religion in society. They often initiate judicial proceedings seeking to prohibit certain kinds of speech on their religion. This practice has resulted in a rich case law on the limits of expre...

  6. Insurance of the Nuclear Risk in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassard, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This March, Japan commemorated the first anniversary of the Fukushima tragedy, when an unhappy combination of natural disasters led to a nuclear accident. The material and human damage was enormous and it will be decades before memories fade and the Japanese can try to forget this tragedy, which attests to the great vulnerability of - even the most advanced - economies to natural and technological risks. In the wake of the accident, there has been much debate on the pertinence of the use of nuclear fission in energy production, particularly in France. Without going over these debates once again, it is nonetheless legitimate to ask not just how well equipped we are to prevent nuclear risks, but also how the consequences of a potential nuclear disaster would be dealt with in this country. It is this question that Guy Brassard latches on to. After reminding us of the limits of the responsibility of EDF (Electricite de France) and the state in France regarding the indemnification of the damage that would ensue from such a disaster, Brassard stresses the inadequacy of the guarantees in force and calls for the creation of a reserve fund for exceptional events. He stresses the need to mitigate the nuclear risk through a clear assessment of power stations on the basis of uniform security parameters, a publicly avail able economic analysis of the electricity mix, and the establishment of measures of efficiency and prudence in the use of France's nuclear resources. He ends by proposing a model, based on a large number of international studies, for calculating the costs of a scheme for insuring against exceptional risks. From these it emerges that a very moderate increase in the price of electricity would make it possible to set aside 100 billion euros over 18 years to meet a risk that would arise only once every century. A relatively negligible investment for the future by comparison with the cost to the public finances of such a disaster occurring. (author)

  7. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  8. Offshore wind power: does France remain ashore?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongrain, T.

    2015-01-01

    France benefits from favorable geographical conditions for offshore wind power but the development of a dedicated industrial sector is slow. 6 projects of wind power farms where turbines are rooted in the seabed are expected to operate progressively from 2018, they represent a cumulated power capacity of 2920 MW. A call for projects has been launched by French authorities for floating offshore wind farms off Brittany and in the mediterranean sea but it will not be sufficient to help to fulfill the declared goal of 40% of the electricity produced in France should be of renewable origin. The main weakness is the cost and countries like Germany benefit from the shallow waters of the North sea to install wind farms at lower costs. The solution could be the development in France of an industrial sector dedicated to floating wind turbines that are easier to install in deep water and can be settled farther off the coast to meet the demand of environmentalists for seascape preservation. More sites could become available for floating wind turbines than for seabed-rooted ones and as the consequence the market for floating systems may become more important. (A.C.)

  9. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  10. A decade of nuclear development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renon, G.

    1984-01-01

    After the first energy crisis, in France depended heavily on oil import, the broad lines of strategy were the improvement of efficiency in energy use, the diversification of energy sources and the development of domestic substitute energy sources. The energy conservation policy achieved in 1983 up to 35 million tons of oil equivalent saving. The coal and natural gas output in France decreased during the last ten years, but the national energy production covered 38.7 % of the national needs in 1983. This result is mainly due to the implementation of electro-nuclear program whose contribution to the total energy consumption was more than 17 % in 1983. In 10 reference years, 29 PWR units of 900 MWe and 17 PWR units of 1300 MWe have been launched, and 27 units of 900 MWe each have been commissioned. The power cost per kWh generated by nuclear energy remained about 2/3 of that by coal. The cumulative production of 900 MWe PWRs is already equivalent to 50 reactor-years at full power. The average availability of the units was 68 % in 1983, which showed that the problems have been solved. Also the state of nuclear fuel cycle in France, the trend of reactor improvement and the long term plan are explained. (Kako, I.)

  11. The history of tidal power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The first known use of tidal power in France concerns the tidal mills in general use during the Middle Age along the French coasts. The first research studies of tidal power plants started at the end of the first world war but it is only in 1940 with the stimulus of Robert Gibrat that was created the Research Society for the use of Tides and the Rance plant project. In 1946, Electricite de France (EdF) started again the studies of this company for a greater size project in the Chausey archipelago which was abandoned for the benefit of the Rance project in the 1960's. The start up of the plant took place in 1967 but the other projects were abandoned during the 1980's. This short paper recalls the historical aspects of the development of tidal power in France and focusses on the research and development studies and on the economical, political and legal factors that led to retain the Rance project among others proposed. (J.S.)

  12. [Increase of Hantavirus infections in France, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V; Haeghebaert, S; Fradet, M R; Capek, I; Zeller, H

    2005-02-01

    Hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in North Eastern France. Humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. In February 2003, the National reference centre (NRC) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. An investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Cases were collected by the NRC. A case was defined as a person living in France with symptoms compatible with hantaviral infection and a positive blood test both for specific Puumala IgM, and IgG. Clinical information and at-risk exposures during the 2 weeks before onset were recorded. In 2003, 128 cases were diagnosed (61 in 2002). The median age of patients was 38, 77% were men and 82% were hospitalized. Patients were living in North-Eastern France. Clusters were detected in the Ardennes and Oise districts. Occupation (35%) (in agriculture, forestry, and construction work), manipulation of firewood (35%), gardening (29%), and outdoors leisure (14%) were identified as at-risk exposures in these cases. An increased number of positive diagnoses of hantaviral infections was confirmed. The location and at-risk exposures of the cases were identical in previous investigations. Exclusion and prevention of rodents' access to houses and avoiding the inhalation of contaminated dust are the only possible prevention measures of hantaviral infections. Information about the disease and its prevention needs to be made widely available to both healthcare professionals and the general population living in endemic areas.

  13. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  14. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  15. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressi, M.; Nicolas, J.B.; Sciare, J.; Feron, A.; Nonnaire, N.; Petit, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris (France) - the second most populated - larger urban zone - in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 examined over 1 year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion fine aerosols to their sources; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate (A.S.)-rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.)-rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metal industry, were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μgm -3 ) respectively on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S.- and A.N.-rich factors have undergone mid- or long-range transport from continental Europe; heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites

  16. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  17. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  18. The potential of liquid biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, Etienne

    1999-01-01

    The objective fixed by the European Commission in 1995 was that 5% of the fuel used for transport in Fance should be produced from renewable energy by 2005. As opposed to some other European countries, there is no environmental tax on fossil fuels in France, but the Government has agreed to a tax incentive system on biofuels. Experimental work on liquid biofuels as a transport fuel started in France in the early 80's, but the use of biofuels on a commercial basis really started to develop when the setaside rules and tax incentives came into force in 1991. Out of the two routes originally considered for development; bioethanol and its ETBE derivative, and vegetable oils and their methyl ester derivatives, priority has now been given to: ETBE produced from sugar beet and wheat and now from sub-products of starch industry, which are widely grown in France; ETBE is blended with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. Production of wheat and beet for energy purposes is very similar to food production. In France, ethanol produce from sugar beet is a traditional industry; this was the first route to be developed. The results of a life cycle analysis made for ETBE produce from sugar beet will be given, showing advantages and limitations. Alcohol produced from wheat is a more recent activity; two industrial plants have been built since beginning of the 90's and other projects are planned like for example a production from starch industry. RME (rapeseed methyl ester) for use in diesel engines at various blend rates. Vegetable oils or their derivatives such as esters can be used directly in diesel engines. Pure, filtered and degummed oils can be used in pre-chamber engines. Relatively advanced knowledge has now been gained about esters; because their characteristics are very similar to those of conventional diesel fuel, they are considered suitable for use in direct injection diesel engines without engine modification. In France, methyl ester is at present produced mainly

  19. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  20. Nuclear safety in France in 2001; La surete nucleaire en France en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  1. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  2. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  3. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  4. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  5. Tracking selenium in the Chalk aquifer of northern France: Sr isotope constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, L.; Benabderraziq, H.; Elkhattabi, J.; Gourcy, L.; Parmentier, M.; Picot, J.; Khaska, M.; Laurent, A.; Négrel, Ph.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the chemistry of the Chalk groundwater affected by Se contamination. • Strontium isotopes were used to identify the groundwater bodies and their mixings. • The spatial and temporal Se variability is mainly linked to the presence of Se-rich clays. • Saturation or desaturation of Se-rich clays control Se mobility. - Abstract: Groundwater at the southern and eastern edges of France’s Paris Basin has a selenium content that at times exceeds the European Framework Directive’s drinking-water limit value of 10 μg/L. To better understand the dynamics of the Chalk groundwater being tapped to supply the city of Lille and the Se origins, we used a combination of geochemical and isotopic tools. Strontium isotopes, coupled with Ca/Sr, Mg/Sr and Se/Sr ratios, were used to identify the main groundwater bodies and their mixings, with the Mg/Sr and Se/Sr ratios constraining a ternary system. Groundwater in the agricultural aquifer-recharge zone represents a first end-member and displays the youngest water ages of the catchment along with the highest Sr isotopic signature (0.70842) and low Se contents. Anaerobic groundwater constitutes a second major end-member affected by water-rock interactions over a long residence time, with the lowest Sr isotopic signature (0.70789) and the lowest Se content, its low SF6 content confirming the contribution of old water. Se-rich groundwater containing up to 30 μg/L of Se represents a third major end-member, with an intermediate Sr isotopic ratio (0.70826), and is mainly constrained by the clayey Se-rich formation overlying the Chalk aquifer. The spatial and temporal Se variability in the groundwater is clearly linked to the presence of this formation identified as Tertiary and also to the hydrological conditions; saturation of the Se-rich clays by oxygenated groundwater enhances Se mobility and also Sr adsorption onto the clays. This multi-tool study including Sr isotopes successfully identified the Se origins in the aquifer and has led to a better understanding of the regional mixing and processes affecting the Chalk groundwater

  6. Modeling Rare Species Distribution at the Edge: The Case for the Vulnerable Endemic Pyrenean Desman in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Williams-Tripp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Pyrenean Desman (Galemys pyrenaicus is an elusive, rare, and vulnerable species declining over its entire and narrow range (Spain, Portugal, France, and Andorra. The principal set of conservation measures in France is a 5-years National Action Plan based on 25 conservation actions. Priority is given to update its present distribution and develop tools for predictive distribution models. We aim at building the first species distribution model and map for the northern edge of the range of the Desman and confronting the outputs of the model to target conservation efforts in the context of environmental change. Contrasting to former comparable studies, we derive a simpler model emphasizing the importance of factors linked to precipitation and not to the temperature. If temperature is one of the climate change key factors, depicted shrinkage in Desman distribution could be lower or null at the northern (French edge suggesting thus a major role for this northern population in terms of conservation of the species. Finally, we question the applied issue of temporal and spatial transferability for such environmental favourability models when it is made at the edge of the distribution range.

  7. General presentation of the biomass in France; Presentation generale de la biomasse en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  8. Activities of Gaz de France Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Directors of Gaz de France approved the Group's consolidated accounts for 2004. In a more dynamic economic environment than in 2003, the Gaz de France Group reports enhanced results and has continued to pursue its growth in Europe. Increase in net sales driven by sustained growth in sales (+ 8.9%): In 2004, net sales rose 8.9% compared with the 2003 financial year to reach a total of euro 18,129 m. This strong increase in business activities was driven by sustained growth in sales volumes both in France and Europe. Total Group sales volumes amounted to 730 TWh (approximately 66 billion cubic metres), equal to growth of 10.3%. Natural gas sales volumes increased by approximately 10% in France, and are almost 18% higher in Europe, notably in the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands. The Group has pursued the profitable development of its activities outside France. As a result, international activities account for 29% of total sales in 2004, against 23% in 2003. The contribution made by international subsidiaries - particularly those specializing in exploration and production - grew by a very substantial 44.3% to reach a total of euro 502 m in 2004. Energy and Services Offering Branch: this core business line, which includes natural gas and oil exploration and production, energy trading and sales, and services associated with the supply of energy, boasts net sales of euro 16,498 m, equal to growth of 10.8% compared with 2003. Infrastructures Branch: this division, which groups together all activities related to the management of transmission and distribution infrastructures in both the French domestic and international markets, generated net sales of euro 6,794 m in 2004, virtually unchanged from the previous year. This situation is the result of higher sales generated by the distribution subsidiaries operating outside France (+9.2%) offset by a decline in the sales performance of the Transmission, Storage and Distribution in France

  9. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km 2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m 3 . (author). 1 fig

  10. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  11. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Amalie V.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Herzke, Dorte; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate whether the amount of ingested plastic affects the concentration of certain plastic-adsorbed toxicants in their tissues. Marine plastic pollution is a field of utmost importance. It is our hope tha...

  12. The study of 226Ra concentration in Teheran's pasteurized milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Sekhavat, A.; Movahed Shari'atpanahi, J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of 226 88 Ra concentration in pasteurized milk distributed in Tehran during 1970-72 was accomplished. The Ash resulting from the milk was 4.5 to 5.5 gr., which might be due to poor nourishment of the animals. These results are compared with the Ra concentration in France and Puerto Rico

  13. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  14. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m -2 ), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  15. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  16. Estimation of the maternal vitamin D intake that maintains circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D in late gestation at a concentration sufficient to keep umbilical cord sera ≥25-30 nmol/L: a dose-response, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in pregnant women at northern latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Karen M; Hennessy, Áine; Hull, George Lj; Healy, Karina; Ritz, Christian; Kenny, Louise C; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead E

    2018-06-06

    In the absence of dose-response data, Dietary Reference Values for vitamin D in nonpregnant adults are extended to pregnancy. The aim was to estimate vitamin D intake needed to maintain maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in late gestation at a concentration sufficient to prevent newborn 25(OH)D D3/d from ≤18 wk of gestation. Vitamin D metabolites at 14, 24, and 36 wk of gestation and in cord sera, including 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3, and 25(OH)D2 were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A curvilinear regression model predicted the total vitamin D intake (from diet and antenatal supplements plus treatment dose) that maintained maternal 25(OH)D in late gestation at a concentration sufficient to maintain cord 25(OH)D at ≥25-30 nmol/L. Mean ± SD baseline 25(OH)D was 54.9 ± 10.7 nmol/L. Total vitamin D intakes at the study endpoint (36 wk of gestation) were 12.1 ± 8.0, 21.9 ± 5.3, and 33.7 ± 5.1 µg/d in the placebo and 10-µg and 20-µg vitamin D3 groups, respectively; and 25(OH)D was 24.3 ± 5.8 and 29.2 ± 5.6 nmol/L higher in the 10- and 20-µg groups, respectively, compared with placebo (P D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L, 95% of cord sera were ≥30 nmol/L and 99% were >25 nmol/L. The estimated vitamin D intake required to maintain serum 25(OH)D at ≥50 nmol/L in 97.5% of women was 28.9 µg/d. Thirty micrograms of vitamin D per day safely maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations at ≥50 nmol/L in almost all white-skinned women during pregnancy at a northern latitude, which kept 25(OH)D at >25 nmol/L in 99% and ≥30 nmol/L in 95% of umbilical cord sera. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02506439.

  17. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  18. The studies of historical seismicity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levret, A.

    1987-11-01

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The method adopted for reviewing historical earthquakes who entails a systematic consultation of the original sources and their critical analysis in order to obtain a new interpretation, led to compile a computer file covering a period of time of about a millenary. The abundant contributions result of continuous researches involve annualy up-date of the file where macroseismic data each one assigned with a degree of reliability are recorded [fr

  19. Status of the methanization sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  20. Nuclear energy research and development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    1981-02-01

    Having described the general organization and main participants in charge of nuclear energy development in France, headed by the C.E.A. since the start of this activity at the end of World War II, the author gives a glimpse of the programmes shared out between four main headings: fundamental research, reactors, fuel cycle and nuclear safety. Two tables sum up the financial means of the C.E.A. in 1981 on the one hand and the personnel strengths on the other. A graph also shows the operational framework of the C.E.A. and its main subsidiaries and participations [fr

  1. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  2. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  3. The production of transplutonium elements in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Sontag, R.; Kertesz, C.

    1980-08-01

    The development of the program for the production of transplutonium elements, 241 Am, 243 Am and 244 Cm, in France, required a major effort from the technological and chemical standpoints. Pre-existing hot cells were reconditioned and others specially built for these production operations. From the chemical standpoint, the development of extractive chromatography on the preparative scale has allowed the definition of simple processes. This type of process, initially developed for the treatment of Pu/Al targets, is ideal for the treatment of industrial wastes for their decontamination and for the production of 241 Am

  4. Energy in France. Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic but comprehensive outlook of the energy situation in France: the importance of energy and its various forms; the production and transformation of energy (energy sources, production means, other sources of energy); the transport and the distribution of energy (transportation systems, energy losses, the case of electric power transportation and distribution systems), energy utilization (demand and supply, energy management), the energy policy (historical aspects, the nowadays energy policy and its transition towards a sustainable and renewable energy policy

  5. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  6. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  7. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  8. EDF - Electricite de France, 2004 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2004. It is made of several reports: The Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2004, the 2004 Half-year results presentation, and The Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2004

  9. Plant upgrading and backfitting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxley, Nigel; Raimondo, Emile

    1992-01-01

    The service life of a nuclear power plant is linked to good operating and maintenance practices and effective management which should begin when the plant starts operating. In France the construction of two series of virtually identical reactors has enabled Framatome to use feedback from early units to modify and improve later ones. The intention is to keep the plants safe and to extend life as far into the next century as is feasible. Remedial measures that can be applied include improvements to plant operation itself, plant modifications and the implementation of effective preventive and corrective maintenance operations which may cover planned provision for the replacement of obsolete or susceptible components. (author)

  10. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation's electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study's methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared

  11. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  12. EDF - Electricite de France, 2005 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2005. It is made of several reports: the 2005 Annual Results presentation, the consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2005, the 2005 Half-year results presentation, and the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2005

  13. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  14. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  15. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport environnement 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  16. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France pour 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  17. The energy in France benchmark; L'energie en France reperes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This book provides data on the following topics, concerning the France: the energy in the economy, the different energies, the petroleum, gas, coal and electric power, the renewable energies, the cogeneration, the rational use of the energy, the prices, the energy and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  18. The international development of Electricite de France; Le developpement international d'Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 2001, Electricite de France (EdF) has pursued and increased its international development with a portfolio of participations in foreign electricity companies (Germany, Italy, UK, Brazil, Argentina etc..) that reached 6 billions of euros. This development has been tainted with poor results in South America and has led to some hostile reactions from the Italian and Spanish governments. (J.S.)

  19. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  20. 2004 energy accounting in France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)