WorldWideScience

Sample records for northern fossa magna

  1. Fossa navicularis magna detection on cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Ali Z. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland(United States); Mupparapu, Mel [Div. of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Herein, we report and discuss the detection of fossa navicularis magna, a close radiographic anatomic variant of canalis basilaris medianus of the basiocciput, as an incidental finding in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The CBCT data of the patients in question were referred for the evaluation of implant sites and to rule out pathology in the maxilla and mandible. CBCT analysis showed osseous, notch-like defects on the inferior aspect of the clivus in all four cases. The appearance of fossa navicularis magna varied among the cases. In some, it was completely within the basiocciput and mimicked a small rounded, corticated, lytic defect, whereas it appeared as a notch in others. Fossa navicularis magna is an anatomical variant that occurs on the inferior aspect of the clivus. The pertinent literature on the anatomical variations occurring in this region was reviewed.

  2. Clival osteomyelitis resulting from spread of infection through the fossa navicularis magna in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Zinkus, Timothy; Cheng, Alan G.; Rahbar, Reza

    2009-01-01

    The fossa navicularis is a notch-like bone defect in the basiocciput that has been hitherto considered as an anatomical variant of the clivus and not previously described as a potential source of clival or skull base pathology. We report the imaging findings in a 5-year-old child who presented acutely with a retropharyngeal abscess and osteomyelitis of the clivus. Imaging after treatment revealed a ''notch-like'' defect in the anterior clivus consistent with a fossa navicularis. Based on these appearances, we postulate that the lymphoid tissue of the pharyngeal tonsil residing in the fossa navicularis served as a route through which infection spread and subsequently developed into clival osteomyelitis, which is a rare diagnosis. This case is unique, and we believe that the presence of this variant in young children may be important and is not merely an anatomical curiosity. (orig.)

  3. Discordant K-Ar ages between hornblende and biotite from the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton in the southern Fossa Magna, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kohei; Shibata, Ken; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    K-Ar ages were determined for hornblende and biotite in three tonalites from the Tanzawa pluton in the southern Fossa Magna, central Japan. The two minerals show discordant ages of 10.1 and 10.7 Ma for hornblende and 4.6 - 5.1 Ma for biotite. The age data and field evidence indicate that the pluton was emplaced in the Tanzawa Group in Middle Miocene time and its slow cooling (ca. 50 deg C/Ma in average) resulted in younger ages of boitites than hornblendes due to lower closure temperature for biotite. (author)

  4. Chemical compositions and Sr, Nd isotope ratios of gabbroic xenoliths in calc-alkali andesites of Naeba and Torikabuto volcanoes, North Fossa Magna, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Mitsuo; Kawano, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Satoshi.

    1991-01-01

    Gabbroic, doleritic and basaltic xenoliths found in calc-alkali andesites of Naeba and Torikabuto volcanoes are geochemically divided into three groups. Gabbro A of the group 1 from Naeba is rich in MgO and Ni, poor in alkalis, and shows depleted REE pattern resembling those of Ichinomegata (Sp. No.2232) and Hakone (HKG1, HKG2) volcanoes. On the basis the REE pattern and high Al IV contents in clinopyroxenes, gabbro A is interpreted to have been cumulate from a primary magma generated by partial melting of upper mantle. From REE pattern, gabbros of the group 2 from Ichinomegata (Sp. No.2218) may have derived from low alkali tholeiite magma which have been formed by removal of material such as the group 1 gabbro at shallow depth. Doleritic and basaltic xenoliths of the group 3 from Naeba, gabbroic xenoliths from Torikabuto and Umikawa are poorer in MgO and richer in alkalis than those of the group 1 and show enriched pattern in REE resembling that of high alkali tholeiite and contain clinopyroxenes having low Al IV . Therefore, these rocks are considered to be differentiates of high alkali tholeiite magma at shallow depth. On εNd- 87 Sr/ 86 Sr diagram, isotope data of gabbro A of the group 1 plot near those of andesites from Asama and Myoko volcanoes of the North Fossa Magna. It is interpreted that these rocks have derived from the same mantle source as the Asama and Myoko volcanoes which are richer in incompatible elements than those of MORB. (author)

  5. Phylogeography of Daphnia magna Straus (Crustacea: Cladocera) in Northern Eurasia: Evidence for a deep longitudinal split between mitochondrial lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Karabanov, Dmitry P; Galimov, Yan R; Haag, Christoph R; Neretina, Tatiana V; Kotov, Alexey A

    2018-01-01

    Species with a large geographic distributions present a challenge for phylogeographic studies due to logistic difficulties of obtaining adequate sampling. For instance, in most species with a Holarctic distribution, the majority of studies has concentrated on the European or North American part of the distribution, with the Eastern Palearctic region being notably understudied. Here, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera), based on partial mitochondrial COI sequences and using specimens from populations spread longitudinally from westernmost Europe to easternmost Asia, with many samples from previously strongly understudied regions in Siberia and Eastern Asia. The results confirm the previously suspected deep split between Eastern and Western mitochondrial haplotype super-clades. We find a narrow contact zone between these two super-clades in the eastern part of Western Siberia, with proven co-occurrence in a single lake in the Novosibirsk region. However, at present there is no evidence suggesting that the two mitochondrial super-clades represent cryptic species. Rather, they may be explained by secondary contact after expansion from different refugia. Interestingly, Central Siberia has previously been found to be an important contact zone also in other cladoceran species, and may thus be a crucial area for understanding the Eurasian phylogeography of freshwater invertebrates. Together, our study provides an unprecedented complete, while still not global, picture of the phylogeography of this important model species.

  6. Remote Sensing and Geodetic Measurements for Volcanic Slope Monitoring: Surface Variations Measured at Northern Flank of La Fossa Cone (Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of recent monitoring activities on potentially unstable areas of the NW volcano flank of La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy are shown here. They are obtained by integration of data by aerial photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and GPS taken in the 1996–2011 time span. A comparison between multi-temporal models built from remote sensing data (photogrammetry and TLS highlights areas characterized by ~7–10 cm/y positive differences (i.e., elevation increase in the upper crown of the slope. The GPS measurements confirm these results. Areas characterized by negative differences, related to both mass collapses or small surface lowering, also exist. The higher differences, positive and negative, are always observed in zones affected by higher fumarolic activity. In the 2010–2012 time span, ground motions in the northern part of the crater rim, immediately above the upper part of observed area, are also observed. The results show different trends for both vertical and horizontal displacements of points distributed along the rim, with a magnitude of some centimeters, thus revealing a complex kinematics. A slope stability analysis shows that the safety factors estimated from these data do not indicate evidence of possible imminent failures. Nevertheless, new time series are needed to detect possible changes with the time of the stability conditions, and the monitoring has to go on.

  7. Posterior fossa epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Luken, M.G. III

    1983-01-01

    CT demonstrated posterior fossa epidural hematoma in three patients with head trauma in whom this diagnosis was not clinically apparent. No patient was in stupor or coma and no patient experienced a lucid interval. Only one patient had signs referable to the posterior fossa. Two patients had occipital skull fracture disclosed by plain radiographs. CT revealed a unilateral biconvex hematoma in two cases, and a bilateral hematoma with supratentorial extension in the third. All patients underwent suboccipital craniectomy and recovered. Therapeutic success in these cases was facilitated by early CT and the rapid disclosure of the unsuspected posterior fossa lesions. CT showing contiguous hematoma below and above the tentorium cerebelli after posterior head trauma is highly suggestive of epidural hematoma arising from the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  8. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2017-01-01

    might be a viable and valuable approach to understand some of the challenges and possibilities found in computer science and ethics. Vita Llull was born in 1232 in Palma de Mallorca, a melting pot for different cul-tures and religions at the time. Being educated at the king’s court, Llull learned...... of belief, life, and God as such. Computer Science? Llull was an inspiration for later scientists, most notably Giordano Bruno, Athanasius Kirchner, Agrippa of Nettesheim and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, whose dissertation De Arte Combinatoria begins with a discussion of Llull’s Ars Magna. Umberto Eco also......-ple of Mallorca have since tried to have Llull canonised as a saint. Ars Magna A few years before his death Llull began to write the most thorough and final version of his Ars Magna, the Ars Generalis Ultima [3]. The books explain the different figures of the Ars, its principles, questions, descriptions...

  9. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2018-01-01

    The Ars Magna of Ramon Llull must be seen as one of the first attempts to formalise language, thought processes, and creating a basis for rational discussions. It consists of so-called principles, concepts, which are defined and combined through the use of four main figures. Llull's contribution...

  10. Computed tomography of the cisterna magna and mega cisterna magna in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Takao; Nakada, Yoshitaka; Maki, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    We studied the cisterna magna (CM) on the computed tomography of children under 15 years of age. The scanners were GE-8800RTX and Hitachi CTH, and scanning was carried out parallel to the orbitomeatal line. Those with artifacts were excluded. 5 slices were needed to cover all the posterior fossa in children, but 4 slices were enough in infants, especially those under 6 months of age. 698 cases were included in the former group, and 69, in the latter. The authors estimated the size of the CM on the basis of the position of its tip. 7.1% of the children and 4% of the infants, especially under 6 months of age, had a CM of the full extent (from the foramen magnum to the 5th slice in children and to the 4th one in infants). If we may define a mega cisterna magna (MCM) as a CM more than 2 SD bigger than the mean, then the MCM are included in the groups described above. The MCM had no relationship with age or underlying disorders. The size of the 4th ventricle was, however, rather bigger in the MCM group than the normal CM group, suggesting that the pathogenesis of MCM might be a physiological hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Therefore, no therapy was indicated for this abnormality. (author)

  11. magna (Straus, 1820.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Parlak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nif Çayi Kirletilmiş Tatli Su ve Sedimentinin Daphnia magna (Strauss, 1820 Üzerine Akut Ve Kronik Toksisitesi. Nif Çayı Endüstriyel, evsel ve tarımsal deşarjlar ile doğrudan kirlenmektedir. Çayın suyunun evsel ve endüstriyel alanlarda sulama ve yıkama suyu olarak kullanılması rahatsızlık verici boyuttadır, bu nedenle doğal populasyonlar için potansiyel toksisitesinin bilinmesi büyük öneme sahiptir. Bu çalışmanın amacı Nif Çayı su ve sediment örneklerinin su piresi Daphnia magna kullanılarak toksisitesinin belirlenmesidir. Su ve sediment örneklerinin letal toksisitesi 48-saat akut test, subletal toksisite ise 7-gün kronik test ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. D.magna kullanılarak yapılan 48 saat Akut test sonuçlarına göre LC 50 değerleri su örnekleri için 6.8 ile 12.67 µl/L arasında sediment örnekleri içn 6.826 ile 38.038 µg/L arasında bulunmuştur. Subletal konsantrasyonlara maruz bırakılarak yapılan kronik testler sonucunda tüm istasyonlardan alınan su ve sediment örneklerin canlının üremesi üzerine negatif etkisi olduğu gözlenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ışığında bu deneme sisteminin rutin kirlilik belirleme çalışmaları için uygunluğu tespit edilmiştir

  12. Medusae Fossae Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  13. Epidural hematomas of posterior fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior fossa epidural hematomas represent 7-14% of all traumatic intracranial epidural hematomas. They are most frequently encountered posttraumatic mass lesions in the posterior fossa. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features that could lead to the early diagnosis of posterior fossa epidural hematoma. Methods. Between 1980 and 2002, 28 patients with epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa were operated on at the Institute for Neurosurgery, Belgrade. Clinical course neuroradiological investigations, and the results of surgical treatment of the patients with posterior fossa epidural hematomas were analyzed retrospectively. Results. Almost two thirds of patients were younger than 16 years of age. In 20 cases injury was caused by a fall, in 6 cases by a traffic accident, and in 2 by the assault. Clinical course was subacute or chronic in two thirds of the patients. On the admission Glasgow Coma Scale was 7 or less in 9 injured, 8-14 in 14 injured, and 15 in 5 injured patients. Linear fracture of the occipital bone was radiographically evident in 19 patients, but was intraoperatively encountered in all the patients except for a 4-year old child. In 25 patients the diagnosis was established by computer assisted tomography (CAT and in 3 by vertebral angiography. All the patients were operated on via suboccipital craniotomy. Four injured patients who were preoperatively comatose were with lethal outcome. Postoperatively, 24 patients were with sufficient neurologic recovery. Conclusion. Posterior fossa epidural hematoma should be suspected in cases of occipital injury, consciousness disturbances, and occipital bone fracture. In such cases urgent CAT-scan is recommended. Early recognition early diagnosis, and prompt treatment are crucial for good neurological recovery after surgery.

  14. Endoscopic approach to the infratemporal fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Youssef

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach is considered one of the most useful surgical solutions to manage selected tumors that involve the infratemporal fossa. A good understanding of the endoscopic anatomy of infratemporal fossa allows safe and complete resection of lesions arising or extending to infratemporal fossa.

  15. Hematomas na fossa craniana posterior Haematomata in the posterior fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. Cademartori

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 6 casos de hematomas sub-tentorias (um de hematoma subdural crônico, quatro de hematomas intra-cerebelares, um de hematoma extra-dural. Salientando a pequena freqüência dos hematomas da fossa craniana posterior, o autor mostra a necessidade de vários exames complementares para o diagnóstico exato, indispensável para a aplicação de terapêutica cirúrgica adequada.Six cases of sub-tentorial haematomata (one chronic sub-dural, four intra-cerebellar, one extra-dural are reported. Emphasizing the relative rarity of haematomata in the posterior cranial fossa, the author claims the necessity of complementary examinations for proper diagnosis, indispensable for adequate surgical treatment.

  16. A morphometric CT study of Down's syndrome showing small posterior fossa and calcification of basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieshima, A.; Yoshino, K.; Takashima, S.; Takeshita, K.; Kisa, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report characteristic and morphometric changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) with increasing age in 56 patients with Down's syndrome aged from 0 month to 37 years. Patients were compared with 142 normal controls aged 0 to 59 years. Width of ventricles, Sylvian fissures, posterior fossa, pons and cisterna magna were measured on CT. The incidences of the cavum septi pellucidi, cavum vergae and cavum veli interpositi and high density in the basal ganglia were examined. There was high incidence (10.7%) of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia in Down's syndrome, although that of pineal body and choroid plexus calcification was similar in Down's syndrome and controls. Basal ganglia calcification is more frequently seen in young Down's syndrome and may be related to the premature aging characteristic of Down's syndrome. The CT in Down's syndrome showed relatively small posterior fossa, small cerebellum, small brain stem and relatively large Sylvian fissures in those under one year of age. There was a high frequency of midline cava and large cisterna magna. There were no significant atrophic changes on CT except after the fifth decade comparing with controls. (orig.)

  17. Diseases of the optic fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, S.; Banno, T.

    1983-01-01

    By using a whole body CT unit for coronal tomography, it is possible to observe the extraocular muscles at the same time. Diseases of the optic fossa that can be investigated by CT include muscular hypertrophy due to toxic goiter, calcification of the sclera in hyperparathyroidismus, foreign bodies, inflammatory pseudotumor, retrobulbar tumor, tumor of the retina, tumor of the choroidea, and tumor of the sclera

  18. Genetic homogeneity of Fascioloides magna in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Christian; Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Ursprung, Josef; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-08-30

    The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes. Interestingly, all 26 individuals revealed one and the same haplotype, namely concatenated haplotype Ha5. This indicates a homogenous population of F. magna in Austria and may argue for a single introduction. Alternatively, genetic homogeneity might also be explained by a bottleneck effect and/or genetic drift. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yamakawa, Kazuomi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Tsuji, Yukihide

    1981-01-01

    In this paper three acute cases and two subacute cases are reported. CT findings in acute cases show two different types. ''Type I'' shows crescent or lenticular high density area which is not enhanced after contrast infusion. ''Type II'' shows lenticular low density area with membranous high density region in its medial side after contrast infusion. In subacute cases plain CT scan shows lenticular iso or low density area with membranous high density region in its medial side. Forty five cases of posterior fossa epidural hematoma in the review of literature of this country are discussed. Disturbances of the consciousness are the most predominant symptoms in acute cases, while in subacute cases cerebellar signs, vomiting, headache and choked disc are noted. Angiographical examinations may not always be valuable in collecting the direct information of the existence of the epidural hematoma. Liquor cavity in the posterior fossa which is thought to serve as a buffer action of hematoma is about 20 ml, so we discuss about the volume of hematoma, especially of 20 ml, associated with clinical course and prognosis. Volume of epidural hematoma is one of the most important factors affecting clinical course and prognosis. In summary of these our experiences, we again emphasize the value of CT scan as the rapid, noninvasive, accurate radiological examination in the diagnosis of traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma. (author)

  20. Hematomas na fossa craniana posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. Cademartori

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 6 casos de hematomas sub-tentorias (um de hematoma subdural crônico, quatro de hematomas intra-cerebelares, um de hematoma extra-dural. Salientando a pequena freqüência dos hematomas da fossa craniana posterior, o autor mostra a necessidade de vários exames complementares para o diagnóstico exato, indispensável para a aplicação de terapêutica cirúrgica adequada.

  1. Cisternography of the posterior fossa with metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, N.; Saito, Y.; Miyashita, T.; Tajika, Y.

    1981-12-01

    Nine patients underwent metrizamide cisternography of the posterior fossa. Excellent opacification of the fourth ventricle resulted when the patient's head was suitably positioned and the contrast material was introduced via a C1-2 puncture. With this technique, a benign aqueductal stenosis can be readily identified and the posterior fossa and fourth ventricle can be studied easily.

  2. Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.

  3. Are Homo sapiens nonsupranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa convergent traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta

    2011-04-01

    The autapomorphic status of the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was recently confirmed. This was a result of a detailed analysis of the internal bone composition in the area of the suprainiac depression on Neanderthal and Homo sapiens specimens. However, while anatomical differences between Neanderthal suprainiac fossa and the depression in the inion region of the occipital bone of fossil and recent Homo sapiens have been discussed in detail, the etiology of these structures has not been resolved. In this article, the hypothesis that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa both formed to maintain the optimal shape of the occipital plane (to minimize strain on the posterior cranial vault) is tested. First, the variation in the expression of the fossa above inion in the crania of recent Homo sapiens from European, African, and Australian samples was examined, and the degree of structural similarity between these depressions and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was assessed. Next, the relationship between the shape of the occipital squama in the midsagittal plane and two particular features (the degree of the occipital torus development and the occurrence of a depression in the inion region that is not the supranuchal fossa) were analyzed. Based on the results, it is suggested that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa are convergent traits. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. RSNA, 2015

  5. Posterior Fossa Tumors and Intellectual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cerebellar damage on intellectual function in 76 children treated surgically for malignant posterior fossa tumor was investigated at the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

  6. [Ultrasound measurement of fetal posterior fossa at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks for screening open spina bifida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng-Zhen; Li, Sheng-Li; Wen, Hua-Xuan; Ouyang, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Qiong; Bi, Jing-Ru

    2014-06-01

    To establish the normal reference ranges of transabdominal ultrasound measurements of the posterior fossa structure in fetuses at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks and explore their clinical value in screening open spina bifida (OSB). Between January, 2013 and September, 541 randomly selected normal fetuses underwent nuchal translucency at the gestational age 11 to 13⁺⁶ weeks. The parameters of the posterior fossa were measured in mid-sagittal view of the fetal face and the axial view of the transverse cerebellum insonated through the anterior fontanel by transabdominal ultrasound to establish the normal reference ranges. The measurements were obtained from 3 fetuses with OSB for comparison with the reference ranges. In normal fetuses, the parameters of the posterior fossa measured in the two views showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Two high echogenic lines were observed in normal fetuses, as compared with one in fetuses with OSB representing the posterior border of the brain stem and the anterior border of the fourth ventricle. The line between the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna was not displayed in fetuses with OSB. The anteroposterior diameters of the brain stem, the fourth ventricle, and cisterna magna all increased in positive correlation with the crown-lump length in normal fetuses. In the 3 OSB fetuses, the anteroposterior diameter of the brain stem exceeded the 95th percentile and the anteroposterior diameter of fourth ventrical-cisterner magena was below the 5th percentile of the reference range for CRL; the brain stem to fourth ventrical-cisterner magena anteroposterior diameter ratio was increased to above 1. The established normal reference ranges of the parameters of fetal posterior fossa may provide assistance in early OSB detection. The absence of the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna and a brainstem to fourth ventrical

  7. Direct sagittal CT scanning in the diagnosis of pituitary fossa tumours and posterior fossa pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlas, H.

    1981-01-01

    Two independent methods are presented for multidirectional CT scanning of the brain using the Philips Tomoscan 300. The advantages in scanning pituitary fossa tumours and pathology of the posterior fossa are discussed. No additional software or modifications are required. Direct sagittal scanning is particularly advantageous for accurate assessment of the size of pituitary tumours and intrasellar lesions requiring surgical intervention or radiation therapy. (Auth.)

  8. Radiographic imaging of the canine intercondylar fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Fitch, R.B.; Hathcock, J.T.; LaPrade, R.F.; Wilson, M.E.; Garrett, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The intercondylar fossa is believed to play an important role in the pathology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and therefore has received considerable attention in the last decade. Accurate radiographic imaging of the intercondylar fossa requires that the central x-ray beam pass through the center of the intercondylar “tunnel”. The anatomy of the canine intercondylar fossa is similar to humans, however, the orientations of the intercondylar fossa's differ. Consequently, the positioning techniques described for humans are not appropriate for the dog. To pass through the center of the dog, intercondylar fossa, the central x-ray beam should be 12° (S.D. 1.7°) caudal from the femoral diaphysis in the sagittal plane and obliqued caudolateral to craniomedial 7° (S.D. 0.60°) (caudo78°proximo7° lateralcraniodistomedial oblique). Cross table positioning was used with the hip flexed and the radiograph cassette placed on the cranial surface of the stifle. However, superimposition of the tuber ischii and soft tissues caudal to the femur made 15° to 20° the best angle obtainable. There was not a significant difference (p = 0.17) in the notch width index between a 12° versus 20° angle of the central x-ray beam caudal to the femoral diaphysis, both with 7° of external rotation of the stifle. The notch width index of 0.252 obtained from radiographic measurements was not significantly different from measurements obtained grossly of 0.254 (n = 26; p = 0.69). Failure to oblique the central x-ray beam caused a significant (p = 0.0008) decrease in the apparent fossa width radiographically

  9. 21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the temporomandibular...

  10. Cardioactive effects of diphenhydramine and curcumin in Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle Erin Romero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although used as a model for examining the cardioactive effects of various compounds, the neuromuscular regulation of the heart of the crustacean Daphnia magna (D. magna is not well understood. In the present study, we sought to determine how the heart rate of D. magna was affected by two previously untested compounds: curcumin and diphenhydramine (DPHM. DPHM produces a number of cardiotoxic side effects in vertebrates, particularly sinus tachycardia. Curcumin acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI and was expected toincrease the heart rate of D. magna. DPHM was found unexpectedly to lower the heart rate of D. magna with time. Curcumin increased heart rate when administered in higher concentrations. However, co-administration of curcumin with DPHM negated this effect. These findings may be explained by the potential role of histamine as a sympathetic cardiac neurotransmitter in D. magna.

  11. Magna-field irradiation: physical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyk, J.

    1983-12-01

    Magna-field radiotherapy in the form of total body, half body and total nodal irradiation is becoming increasingly prominent and involves dosimetric problems that are much more pronounced than they are for conventional field sizes. In this review of the physical considerations of magna-field irradiation, a number of possible alternate methods of producing large radiation fields are outlined, the basic beam dosimetry is reviewed and the factors producing dose variation in the patient are considered. Since the lung contains large regions of low density tissues and has a lower tolerance to radiaiton than most other tissues, special consideration is given to methods of dose determination and dose reduction to this organ. The question of accuracy in dose delivery is briefly discussed and the concept of delivering a radiation dose 'as precisely as readily achievable (APARA), technological and biological factors being taken into account' is introduced.

  12. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  13. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Pyriform Fossa Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Many endoscopists do not inspect the gastrointestinal tract superior to the cricopharyngeus, despite the fact that gastrointestinal symptoms (dysphagia, odynophagia and chest pain can be produced by glottic and supraglottic lesions. A case of incoordinate swallowing secondary to a right-sided pyriform fossa lymphoma diagnosed at gastroscopy is presented.

  14. Temporal fossa hemangiopericytoma: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Marc A; Waldron, James S; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T; Cheung, Steven W

    2009-10-01

    Review clinical experience with temporal fossa hemangiopericytomas (HPCs). Retrospective case series review. Tertiary referral center. Intracranial HPCs within the temporal fossa. Craniotomy for either subtotal or gross total tumor excision. Determination of clinical outcome (alive with no evidence of disease, alive with disease, and died of disease). Five cases of HPC involving the temporal fossa were treated at our tertiary referral center for the period from 1995 to 2008. All but 1 patient were men. The age of presentation ranged from 31 to 62 years, and duration of follow-up ranged from 8 to 153 months. Clinical presentation was protean; headache was the most common symptom. Gross total tumor excision was achieved in 2 patients, whereas subtotal tumor excision was achieved in 3 patients. Reasons for subtotal resection included excessive intraoperative blood loss and inextricable tumor. Histologically, all tumors were composed of tightly packed, randomly oriented (jumbled-up) tumor cells with little intervening collagen. CD34 staining mostly highlighted the vascular background. One patient died of disease, 2 patients were alive with disease, and 2 patients had no evidence of disease. Management of temporal fossa HPC is challenging because clinical presentation is often late, and extent of tumor excision is constrained by vital structures in the cranial base and intracranial contents. A multidisciplinary approach with neurosurgery and neurotology undertaken to achieve the most complete tumor resection possible, whereas minimizing morbidity are likely to confer a longer period of symptom-free survival and improves curability of these difficult lesions.

  15. Extensive Supratentorial Hemorrhages Following Posterior Fossa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote supratentorial hematoma soon after posterior fossa surgery for the removal of a space-occupying lesion is a rare but dramatic and dreaded complication, carrying significant morbidity and mortality. A 47-year-old woman presented with headache of 1-year duration that worsened over last 2 months, progressive ...

  16. Sagittal reconstruction computed tomography in metrizamide cisternography. Useful diagnostic procedure for malformations in craniovertebral junction and posterior fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, H.; Okita, N.; Fujii, T.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    We studied the sagittal reconstruction technique in computed tomography with metrizamide. Ten ml of metrizamide, 170 mg iodine/ml in concentration, were injected by lumbar puncture. After diffusion of the injected metrizamide, axial computed tomograms were taken by thin slice width (5 mm) with overlapped technique. Then electrical sagittal reconstruction was carried out by optioned software. Injection of metrizamide, non-ionic water soluble contrast media, made clear contrasts among bone, brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid with computed tomography. Sagittal reconstruction technique could reveal more precise details and accurate anatomical relations than ordinary axial computed tomography. This technique was applied on 3 cases (Arnold-Chiari malformation, large cisterna magna and partial agenesis cerebellar vermis), which demonstrated a useful diagnostic procedure for abnormalities of craniovertebral junction and posterior fossa. The adverse reactions of metrizamide were negligible in our series.

  17. Internal Occipital Crest Misalignment with Internal Occipital Protuberance: A Case Report of Posterior Cranial Fossa Anatomic Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Ha

    2016-01-01

    During gross anatomy head and neck laboratory session, one dissection group observed an abnormal anatomic variation in the posterior cranial fossa of a 94-year-old male cadaver. The internal occipital crest was not aligned with internal occipital protuberance and groove for superior sagittal sinus. It seemed that the internal occipital protuberance was shifted significantly to the right side. As a result the skull was overly stretched in order to connect with the internal occipital ridge. These internal skull variations of occipital bone landmarks can influence the location of adjacent dural venous sinuses and possibly influence cerebrospinal fluid flow. Similar anatomical anomalies have been attributed to presence of hydrocephalus and abnormalities in cisterna magna. PMID:27648322

  18. Vermian agenesis without posterior fossa cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamsbaum, C.; Moreau, V.; Bulteau, C.; Burstyn, J.; Lair Milan, F.; Kalifa, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report 11 cases of vermian partial agenesis without posterior fossa cyst or hemispheric abnormalities. Characteristic MR signs were: absence of the posterior lobe, hypoplasia of the anterior lobe, a narrow sagittal cleft separating the hemispheres (''buttocks sign'') and fourth ventricle deformity. The main clinical signs were complex oculomotor dysfunction and developmental delay. None of the patients had respiratory symptoms. Consideration is given to the relationship between Joubert syndrome and this entity as well as to embroyological data. (orig.)

  19. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of popliteal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, C.; Camnasio, F.; Fontana, F.; Fraschini, G.; Rizzo, N.; De Cobelli, F.; Peretti, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mammary-type myofibroblastoma is a very rare, benign, spindle cell lesion, arising mainly in the inguinal region. This clinical entity strictly duplicates the features of its breast counterpart. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this particular lesion occurring in the popliteal fossa. We discuss the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of this case, emphasizing the role of incisional biopsy in such an unusual neoplasia. (orig.)

  20. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  1. Computed tomography of lacrimal fossa tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Sup; Kim, Young Goo; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1985-01-01

    The lacrimal fossa can be involved by a wide spectrum of orbital pathology. The correct diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary procedure and to do appropriate management. 14 patients with mass lesions in the lacrimal fossa were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnosis of 14 cases with lacrimal fossa tumors was pleomorphic adenoma in 3 cases, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 1 case, pseudotumor in 5 cases, lymphoma in 2 cases, neurofibroma in 1 case, chloroma in 1 case and metastatic adenocarcinoma in 1 case. 2. The duration of symptoms of pleomorphic adenoma was more than 1 year and characteristic CT findings were globular masses with pressure erosion of the adjacent bone. Patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma had a short history of symptoms. CT showed a fusiform mass but intracranial extension with frank destruction of sphenoid bone. 3. Patients with pseudotumor and lymphoma had symptoms for less than 1 year. The CT findings were ill-defined infiltrative patterns with scleral thickening and the differential diagnosis of them was difficult. 4. The margins of neurofibroma and chloroma were well defined while that of the metastic adenocarcinoma was ill-defined. 5. The degree and the extent of the contrast enhancement gave no benefit in the differential diagnosis of each disease entities and even of the benign and malignant lesions

  2. Benign neurilemmoma in the infratemporal fossa involving maxillary sinus and pterygopalatine fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Jin Koo; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Chang Hyeon [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    Neurilemmoma is a benign tumor of the nerve sheath that arises on cranial and spinal nerve roots as well as along the course of peripheral nerves. A case of a neurilemmoma that arose in the left infratemporal fossa of a 29- year-old male was presented. Plain radiographs, enhanced computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large, well-circumscribed, heterogeneously enhanced mass with extension into the pterygopalatine fossa. Displaced by the large mass, bowing-in of the posterior maxillary antral wall was noted and a provisional diagnosis of a benign soft tissue tumor was made. The mass was completely excised and a diagnosis of neurilemmoma was confirmed.

  3. Pituitary fossa: a correlative anatomic and MR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, L.; Pech, P.; Daniels, D.; Charles, C.; Williams, A.; Haughton, V.

    1984-01-01

    This study characterizes the normal appearance of the pituitary fossa in partial saturation magnetic resonance (MR) images. In sagittal images, the pituitary fossa appears inhomogeneous. Correlation of sagittal MR images in normal subjects with sagittal cryomicrotomic images in cadavers suggests that the highest intensity signal from the posterior-inferior pituitary fossa is due to a fat pad. This conclusion was supported by MR images and postmortem cryotome sections obtained in normal subhuman primates

  4. Appearance of the fetal posterior fossa at 11 + 3 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks on transabdominal ultrasound examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, D; Strobl, I; Weiskopf-Schwendinger, V; Grubinger, E; Kraxner, F; Mutz-Dehbalaie, I S; Strasak, A; Scheier, M

    2011-12-01

    To describe the sonographic appearance of the structures of the posterior cranial fossa in fetuses at 11 + 3 to 13 + 6 weeks of pregnancy and to determine whether abnormal findings of the brain and spine can be detected by sonography at this time. This was a prospective study including 692 fetuses whose mothers attended Innsbruck Medical University Hospital for first-trimester sonography. In 3% (n = 21) of cases, measurement was prevented by fetal position. Of the remaining 671 cases, in 604 there was either a normal anomaly scan at 20 weeks or delivery of a healthy child and in these cases the transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and the anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna (CM), measured at 11 + 3 to 13 + 6 weeks, were analyzed. In 502 fetuses, the anteroposterior diameter of the fourth ventricle (4V) was also measured. In 25 fetuses, intra- and interobserver repeatability was calculated. We observed a linear correlation between crown-rump length (CRL) and CM (CM = 0.0536 × CRL - 1.4701; R2 = 0.688), TCD (TCD = 0.1482 × CRL - 1.2083; R2 = 0.701) and 4V (4V = 0.0181 × CRL + 0.9186; R2 = 0.118). In three patients with posterior fossa cysts, measurements significantly exceeded the reference values. One fetus with spina bifida had an obliterated CM and the posterior border of the 4V could not be visualized. Transabdominal sonographic assessment of the posterior fossa is feasible in the first trimester. Measurements of the 4V, the CM and the TCD performed at this time are reliable. The established reference values assist in detecting fetal anomalies. However, findings must be interpreted carefully, as some supposed malformations might be merely delayed development of brain structures. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ecotoxicity tests based on phototactic behaviour in Daphnia magna; Saggi di ecotossicita` con Daphnia magna basati sul comportamento fototattico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojmi di Delupis, Gianluigi [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1997-03-01

    Zooplankton behaviour depending on light, such as phototaxis, is important, mainly in terms of its ecological significance, as, for example, in the role of phototaxis in the diurnal vertical migration of Daphnia magna, and its possible involvement in predator-prey relations. In Daphnia magna chemicals were found to induce roughly three types of phototaxis alteration: depression, enhancement and sign change. These phenomena are based on mechanisms that require further investigation. In spite of the complex photobehaviour of Daphnia magna and the scarce knowledge of toxic effects, it was possible to set up rapid and easy ecotoxicity tests by fixing certain experimental conditions.

  6. Chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations in posterior fossa abnormalities diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Feng, Jie-Ling; Xie, Ying-Jun; Xie, Hong-Ning; Zheng, Ju; Lin, Mei-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To explore the genetic aetiology of fetal posterior fossa abnormalities (PFAs). This study involved cases of PFAs that were identified by prenatal ultrasonographic screening and confirmed postnatally between January 2012 and January 2016. Conventional cytogenetic analyses and chromosomal microarray analysis were performed, and chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were identified. Among 74 cases included in this study, 8 were of Blake's pouch cyst; 7, Dandy-Walker malformation; 11, vermian hypoplasia; 32, enlarged cisterna magna; and 16, cerebellar hypoplasia. The rates of nonbenign chromosomal aberrations (including chromosomal aneuploidies, pathogenic CNVs, and variants of unknown significance) were 2/8 (25.0%), 2/7 (28.5%), 8/11 (72.7%), 7/32 (21.9%), and 6/16 (37.5%), respectively. Cases were also classified as isolated PFAs (30/74), PFAs with other central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities (13/74), or PFAs with extra-CNS structural abnormalities (31/74). No fetuses with isolated PFAs or PFAs accompanied by other CNS abnormalities exhibited chromosomal aneuploidies or pathogenic CNVs. The rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations in the remaining fetuses was 17/31 (22.9%). The combined use of chromosomal microarray analysis and karyotype analysis might assist the prenatal diagnosis and management of PFAs, with extra-CNS structural abnormalities being detected by ultrasonography. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Acute Spontaneous Posterior Fossa Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute posterior fossa subdural hematomas are rare and most of them are trauma-related. Non-traumatic ones have been reported in patients who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or those who had been receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report on the case of 57-year-old Iranian man who developed sudden severe occipital headache, drowsiness, repeated vomiting, and instability of stance and gait. He was neither hypertensive nor diabetic. No history of head trauma was obtained and he denied illicit drug or alcohol ingestion. A preliminary diagnosis of acute intra-cerebellar hemorrhage was made. His CT brain scan revealed an acute right-sided, extra-axial, crescent-shaped hyperdense area at the posterior fossa. His routine blood tests, platelets count, bleeding time, and coagulation profile were unremarkable. The patient had spontaneous acute infratentorial subdural hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged home well after 5 days. Since then, we could not follow-up him, clinically and radiologically because he went back to Iran. Our patient’s presentation, clinical course, and imaging study have called for conservative management, as the overall presentation was relatively benign. Unless the diagnosis is entertained and the CT brain scan is well-interpreted, the diagnosis may easily escape detection.

  8. MRI diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sakamoto, Yuuji; Kojima, Ryutarou; Bussaka, Hiromasa; Korogi, Yukunori

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 58 patients with posterior fossa tumors were compared with computed tomography (CT). Spin echo (SE) technique and inversion recovery (IR) technique were obtained using 0.22 tesla resistive magnetic resonance unit. MRI was superior to CT in detecting the lesions and showing internal archtecture, hemorrhage, edema of the tumor and displacement of the normal brain. CT was superior to MRI in demonstrating calcification. MRI and CT were comparable in detecting erosions of the skull base, while MRI was superior to CT in showing erosions of the clivus. Most tumors showed hypointensity on T1 weighted images and hyperintensity on T2 weighted images. Meningioma showed equal or almost equal intensity to cerebral gray matter on both SE images. The boundary of intra-axial tumors was unclear in many cases without contrast enhancement using Gd-DTPA, while most extra-axial tumors showed clear margin surrounded by a thin band (rim). In 81.8 % of acoustic neurinomas, signal void rims were demonstrated on both SE images, and they were considered to be vessels around the tumor. The rims of meningioma, on the other hand, were hypointense on T1 weighted images and hyperintense on T2 weighted images. They were considered to be cerebrospinal fluid or capsule around the tumor. It has been concluded that MRI is the most important technique for diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  9. Case of pacemaker pocket infection caused by Finegoldia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Dehkordi, Seyed Hamed; Osorio, Georgina

    2017-10-01

    Finegoldia magna (formerly called Peptostreptococcus magnus) is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus which is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. We present a case of F. magna associated non-valvular cardiovascular device-related infection in an 83 year-old male who received a permanent pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome seven weeks prior to his presentation. Five weeks after the implantation, the pacemaker and leads were explanted because of clinical evidence of pacemaker pocket infection. He was initially treated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim based on the Gram stain results from the removed pacemaker. However, two weeks later, he was readmitted with sepsis and was successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. Culture results from the pacemaker and pocket as well as blood cultures grew F. magna. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of F. magna infection when initial gram stain results show "gram positive cocci". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  11. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  12. 3D CBCT anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Jianu, Adelina Maria; Păduraru, Dumitru

    2013-03-01

    The anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa keeps a traditional level and is viewed as constant, even though a series of structures neighboring the fossa are known to present individual variations. We aimed to evaluate on 3D volume renderizations the anatomical variables of the pterygopalatine fossa, as related to the variable pneumatization patterns of the bones surrounding the fossa. The study was performed retrospectively on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 100 patients. The pterygopalatine fossa was divided into an upper (orbital) and a lower (pterygomaxillary) floor; the medial compartment of the orbital floor lodges the pterygopalatine ganglion. The pneumatization patterns of the pterygopalatine fossa orbital floor walls were variable: (a) the posterior wall pneumatization pattern was determined in 89.5 % by recesses of the sphenoidal sinus related to the maxillary nerve and pterygoid canals; (b) the upper continuation of the pterygopalatine fossa with the orbital apex was narrowed in 79.5 % by ethmoid air cells and/or a maxillary recess of the sphenoidal sinus; (c) according to its pneumatization pattern, the anterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa was a maxillary (40.5 %), maxillo-ethmoidal (46.5 %), or maxillo-sphenoidal (13 %) wall. The logistic regression models showed that the maxillo-ethmoidal type of pterygopalatine fossa anterior wall was significantly associated with a sphenoidal sinus only expanded above the pterygoid canal and a spheno-ethmoidal upper wall. The pterygopalatine fossa viewed as an intersinus space is related to variable pneumatization patterns which can be accurately identified by CBCT and 3DVR studies, for anatomic and preoperatory purposes.

  13. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and posterior fossa tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Federico; Jucá, Carlos Eduardo; Zerah, Michel; Sainte-Rose, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The management of hydrocephalus associated with a posterior fossa tumor is debated. Some authors emphasize the advantages of an immediate tumor removal that may normalize the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. However, in clinical practice, the mere excision of the lesion has been demonstrated to be accompanied by a persisting hydrocephalus in about one third of the cases. Preoperative endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) offers several advantages. It may control the intracranial pressure (ICP), avoid the necessity of an emergency procedure, allow appropriate scheduling of the operation for tumor removal, and eliminate the risks related to the presence of an external drainage. The procedure also reduces the incidence of postoperative hydrocephalus. A final advantage, more difficult to weight, but obvious to the neurosurgeon, is the possibility to remove the lesion with a relaxed brain and normal ICP. In the postoperative phase, ETV can be used in case of persisting hydrocephalus, both in patients who underwent only the excision of the tumor and in those whose preoperative ETV failed as a consequence of intraventricular bleeding with secondary closure of the stoma (redoETV). The main advantage of postoperative ETV is that the procedure is carried out only in case of persisting hydrocephalus; its use is consequently more selective than preoperative ETV. The disadvantage consists in the common use of an external CSF drainage in the first few postoperative days, which is necessary to control the pressure and for ruling out those cases that reach a spontaneous cure of the hydrocephalus. The authors review the criteria for patient selection and the results of ETV performed in case of hydrocephalus secondary to a posterior fossa tumor. Preoperative ETV constitutes an effective procedure for controlling the hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa tumors. It might lower the rate of persistent postoperative hydrocephalus and result in a short hospital stay. Low

  14. Absceso mamario no puerperal por Finegoldia magna Nonpuerperal breast abscess caused by Finegoldia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Finegoldia magna son cocos gram-positivos anaerobios estrictos, cuyas células se disponen en pares, tétradas y acúmulos. Forman parte de la flora normal de la piel, tractos gastrointestinal y genitourinario femeninos, y cavidad oral. La especie se caracteriza por ser asacarolítica y su principal fuente de energía la constituyen aminoácidos y peptonas. Por lo general se la aísla en cultivos polimicrobianos a partir de abscesos y otras infecciones de piel y partes blandas, huesos y articulaciones. En el caso descrito, F. magna fue recuperada en cultivo monomicrobiano, a partir de un absceso mamario no puerperal, que se agrega a los dos casos comunicados en la literatura. La identificación se realizó mediante la determinación de la sensibilidad a los discos de potencia especial, pruebas convencionales, y producción de enzimas sacarolíticas y proteol��ticas. Se efectuó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos por el método epsilométrico. Los agentes ensayados y los valores de CIM (µg/ml obtenidos fueron: penicilina, 0,064; cefalotina, 1; metronidazol, 0,25; minociclina, Finegoldia magna is a species of strictly anaerobic gram-positive cocci, arranged in pairs, tetrads, and clusters. These organisms are components of the normal flora of the skin, gastrointestinal and genitourinary female tracts, and oral cavity. They are asaccharolytic and their major energy sources are aminoacids and peptones. The species is usually isolated in polymicrobial cultures from abscesses, soft tissue infections, bone and joints. In the case herein presented, F. magna was recovered in pure culture from a nonpuerperal breast abscess, which adds to the two reported cases in related literature. Species identification was performed by special potency disks, standard bacteriological anaerobic tests, and production of saccharolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using the epsilometric test. The agents

  15. Bioaccumulation and uptake routes of perfluoroalkyl acids in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhineng; Xia, Xinghui; Guo, Jia; Jiang, Xiaoman

    2013-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs), one kind of emerging contaminants, have attracted great attentions in recent years. However, the study about their bioaccumulation mechanism remains scarce. In this research, the bioaccumulation of six kinds of PFAs in water flea Daphnia magna was studied. The uptake rates of PFAs in D. magna ranged from 178 to 1338 L kg(-1) d(-1), and they increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length; the elimination rates ranged from 0.98 to 2.82 d(-1). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of PFAs ranged from 91 to 380 L kg(-1) in wet weight after 25 d exposure; they increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length and had a significant positive correlation with the n-octanol/water partition coefficients (logK(ow)) of PFAs (pPFAs plays an important role in their bioaccumulation. The BAFs almost kept constant when the PFA concentrations in aqueous phase increased from 1 to 10 μg L(-1). Scenedesmus subspicatus, as the food of D. magna, did not significantly affect the bioaccumulation of PFAs by D. magna. Furthermore, the body burden of PFAs in the dead D. magna was 1.08-2.52 times higher than that in the living ones, inferring that the body surface sorption is a main uptake route of PFAs in D. magna. This study suggested that the bioaccumulation of PFAs in D. magna is mainly controlled by their partition between organisms and water; further research should be conducted to study the intrinsic mechanisms, especially the roles of protein and lipid in organisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sucralose induces biochemical responses in Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Eriksson Wiklund

    Full Text Available The intense artificial sweetener sucralose has no bioconcentration properties, and no adverse acute toxic effects have been observed in standard ecotoxicity tests, suggesting negligible environmental risk. However, significant feeding and behavioural alterations have been reported in non-standard tests using aquatic crustaceans, indicating possible sublethal effects. We hypothesized that these effects are related to alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE and oxidative status in the exposed animals and investigated changes in AChE and oxidative biomarkers (oxygen radical absorbing capacity, ORAC, and lipid peroxidation, TBARS in the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to sucralose (0.0001-5 mg L(-1. The sucralose concentration was a significant positive predictor for ORAC, TBARS and AChE in the daphnids. Moreover, the AChE response was linked to both oxidative biomarkers, with positive and negative relationships for TBARS and ORAC, respectively. These joint responses support our hypothesis and suggest that exposure to sucralose may induce neurological and oxidative mechanisms with potentially important consequences for animal behaviour and physiology.

  17. Infratemporal and temporal fossa abscess complicating dental extraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Diacono, M S; Wass, A R

    1998-01-01

    Abscess formation in the infratemporal and temporal fossae is rare. Their presentation to accident and emergency departments is unusual and consequently may cause problems with diagnosis. Once diagnosed, treatment should be aggressive with intravenous antibiotics and surgical drainage.

  18. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma of the nasal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S; Ironside, J W

    1990-07-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is rarely found arising in the head and neck region. An unusual case arising in the nasal fossa in a young child is reported and the differential diagnosis, pathology and treatment discussed.

  19. EVALUATION OF RIGHT ILIAC FOSSA MASS-A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Billy Graham; Vijayabhasker

    2016-01-01

    Mass in right iliac fossa is one of the common clinical surgical entity with varied etiologies, involving intra peritoneal organs like vermiform appendix, caucus, ileum, retroperitoneal structures like kidneys, blood vessels etc., and abdominal wall masses like desmoids tumor. To know the etiology and the various pattern of presentation of right iliac fossa mass in our institution a retrospective study was designed including all adult patients diagnosed to have a mass in right ili...

  20. Medical-biological aspects of radiation effects in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, E; Ustenko, K; Uskalova, D; Savina, N

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that γ-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna . These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of transgenerational effects in Daphnia . We have also shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia . Our data demonstrated that multicellular crustacean D. magna represent a very useful experimental model for analyse of long-term effects of ionising radiation at the organismal level. (paper)

  1. MRI of the fetal posterior fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, Catherine; Andre, Christine; Merzoug, Valerie; Ferey, Solene [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Moutard, Marie Laure [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Quere, Marie Pierre [CHU, Department of Radiology, Nantes (France); Lewin, Fanny [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Maternity Department, Paris (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Ste Anne Hospital, Department of Neuropathology, Paris (France)

    2005-02-01

    MRI is a useful tool to complement US for imaging of the fetal posterior fossa (PF). In France, the discovery of a PF malformation in the fetus frequently leads to termination of pregnancy (80% in a personal series). However, despite improved accuracy in the diagnosis of PF abnormalities, prognosis remains uncertain. The first objective of this review is to document the normal MRI landmarks of the developing fetal PF. Because of their thinness, the visibility of the cerebellar fissures is dramatically delayed on MRI compared to macroscopic data. An important landmark is identification of the primary fissure of the vermis, normally seen at around 25-26 weeks' gestation (WG) on the sagittal slice, separating the larger posterior lobe from the anterior lobe (volume ratio around 2:1). The prepyramidal and secondary fissures are usually only identifiable after 32 WG and the hemispheric fissures are difficult to see until the end of pregnancy. Considering the signal changes, high signal on T2-weighted (T2-W) sequences is seen from 25 WG in the posterior part of the brain stem (tegmentum and ascending sensory tracts) related to myelination. The low signal intensities seen within the cerebellum on T2-W images correspond to high cellularity of grey matter (deep nuclei), as there is no myelination within the white matter before 38 WG. The second objective is to highlight the signs highly predictive of a poor neurological prognosis. Lack of pontine curvature or vermian agenesis without a PF cyst (small volume of PF) is greatly associated with poor neurological status. The third objective is to propose a diagnostic strategy in difficult cases where prognosis is important, e.g. the Dandy Walker continuum. (orig.)

  2. MRI of the fetal posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamsbaum, Catherine; Andre, Christine; Merzoug, Valerie; Ferey, Solene; Moutard, Marie Laure; Quere, Marie Pierre; Lewin, Fanny; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    MRI is a useful tool to complement US for imaging of the fetal posterior fossa (PF). In France, the discovery of a PF malformation in the fetus frequently leads to termination of pregnancy (80% in a personal series). However, despite improved accuracy in the diagnosis of PF abnormalities, prognosis remains uncertain. The first objective of this review is to document the normal MRI landmarks of the developing fetal PF. Because of their thinness, the visibility of the cerebellar fissures is dramatically delayed on MRI compared to macroscopic data. An important landmark is identification of the primary fissure of the vermis, normally seen at around 25-26 weeks' gestation (WG) on the sagittal slice, separating the larger posterior lobe from the anterior lobe (volume ratio around 2:1). The prepyramidal and secondary fissures are usually only identifiable after 32 WG and the hemispheric fissures are difficult to see until the end of pregnancy. Considering the signal changes, high signal on T2-weighted (T2-W) sequences is seen from 25 WG in the posterior part of the brain stem (tegmentum and ascending sensory tracts) related to myelination. The low signal intensities seen within the cerebellum on T2-W images correspond to high cellularity of grey matter (deep nuclei), as there is no myelination within the white matter before 38 WG. The second objective is to highlight the signs highly predictive of a poor neurological prognosis. Lack of pontine curvature or vermian agenesis without a PF cyst (small volume of PF) is greatly associated with poor neurological status. The third objective is to propose a diagnostic strategy in difficult cases where prognosis is important, e.g. the Dandy Walker continuum. (orig.)

  3. CT findings of posterior fossa venous angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Toru; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Nishimoto, Ken.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of posterior fossa venous angiomas were reported, with some comments on the CT findings. Case 1: A 53-year-old woman was admitted for the further examination of a viral meningitis which had appeared three months before. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality. Vertebral angiography, however, demonstrated numerous fine medullary veins, with an enlarged intraparenchymal draining vein, in the right cerebellum; they drained into the petrosal vein, which was characteristic of venous angioma. On the plain CT, part of the draining vein was identified as a slightly high-density node. A curvilinear draining vein was demonstrated by the enhanced CT. Case 2: A 29-year-old man was admitted complaining of headache, vomiting, and atxia. Neurological examination disclosed truncal ataxia. The enhanced CT demonstrated two distinct nodules on the anterior border of the hematoma in the deep median cerebellum, probably corresponding to the draining veins. On the angiogram, a venous angioma was found in the bilateral cerebellum; it drained into the precentral cerebellar veins and ultimately joined the straight sinus via the precentro-vermo-rectal vein. Case 3: A 4-year-old boy was admitted suffering from headache, vomiting, and ataxia. Neurological examination disclosed a co-ordination disturbance of the left side. The enhanced CT demonstrated a curvilinear structure inside the hematoma. Angiography showed a venous angioma in the left cerebellum which drained into the petrosal vein. Computerized angiotomography delineated the characteristic venous structure on the angiogram as many fine, high-density lines (medullary veins) converging to a large intraparenchymal linear structure (central medullary vein) and then to a superficial cortical vein. In all cases, large intraparenchymal draining veins were identified by the conventional CT. (J.P.N.)

  4. Uptake and depuration of gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Kern, Kristina; Hjorth, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a series of short-term studies (total duration 48 h) of uptake and depuration of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in neonate Daphnia magna. Gold nanoparticles (Au NP) were used to study the influence of size, stabilizing agent and feeding on uptake and depuration kinetics...

  5. Magna Carta: Teaching Medieval Topics for Historical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Scott Alan

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Ages are an immensely important era in the Western experience. Unfortunately, medieval studies are often marginalized or trivialized in school curriculum. With the approach of the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, the famous charter of rights from medieval England, one has a timely and useful example for considering what a focus on…

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis.

  7. Evaluation of Daphnia magna as an indicator of Toxicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance evaluation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with special reference to toxicity reduction using Daphnia magna straus as test organism is very important to study the likely adverse effects of the treated wastewater on the aquatic ecosystem of receiving waters and to detect common environmentally ...

  8. High precision locations of long-period events at La Fossa Crater (Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rapisarda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last eruption in 1888-90, the volcanic activity on Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy has been limited to fumarolic degassing. Fumaroles are mainly concentred at the active cone of La Fossa in the northern sector of the island and are periodically characterized by increases in temperature as well as in the amount of both CO2 and He. Seismic background activity at Vulcano is dominated by micro-seismicity originating at shallow depth (<1-1.5 km under La Fossa cone. This seismicity is related to geothermal system processes and comprises long period (LP events. LPs are generally considered as the resonance of a fluid-filled volume in response to a trigger. We analyzed LP events recorded during an anomalous degassing period (August-October 2006 applying a high precision technique to define the shape of the trigger source. Absolute and high precision locations suggest that LP events recorded at Vulcano during 2006 were produced by a shallow focal zone ca. 200 m long, 40 m wide and N30-40E oriented. Their occurrence is linked to magmatic fluid inputs that by modifying the hydrothermal system cause excitation of a fluid-filled cavity.

  9. Subarachnoid pouches of the posterior fossa with syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B [Midland Centre for Neurosurgery and Neurology, Smethwick (UK)

    1979-01-01

    Three men are presented, all of whom were born with difficulty and later developed severe syringomyelia with collapsing cords on air myelography. Each had hydrocephalus and a sizable subarachnoid pouch in the posterior fossa. The clinical features and investigations are presented with a discussion of the aetiology and possible mechanisms concerned in pathogenesis and treatment. All three men had posterior fossa exploration over fifty years after birth, and the first two were also treated by valved ventriculo-atrial shunts. Each patient has improved a little since operation, but no certainly that this was due to surgery has been proved in any case; none has progressed since the last operation.

  10. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  11. Packing of Renal Fossa: Useful Technique for Intractable Bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no documented study to indicate the role of prolonged packing of renal fossa (24 to 48 hours) to control bleeding in life threating haemorrhage following open pyelolithotomy without compromise in the renal functions. On the contrary emergency nephrectomy was performed for intractable bleeding during renal stone ...

  12. Gliosarcoma of the posterior cranial fossa: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, H.; Hayase, H.; Moriyama, Y.; Yamashima, T.; Yamashita, J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the MR findings of a biopsy-proven gliosarcoma of the posterior cranial fossa. Multiple homogeneously enhancing lesions had shaggy margins and broad-based dural attachments, which may reflect the gliomatous and sarcomatous element of this tumour. (orig.)

  13. Endoscopic endonasal approach for mass resection of the pterygopalatine fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Plzák

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa.

  14. Endoscopic endonasal approach for mass resection of the pterygopalatine fossa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plzák, Jan; Kratochvil, Vít; Kešner, Adam; Šurda, Pavol; Vlasák, Aleš; Zvěřina, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas) and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma) that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa. PMID:29069259

  15. Transpterygoid Approach to a Dermoid Cyst in Pterygopalatine Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordones, Alexandre Beraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe a case of dermoid cyst arising from the pterygopalatine fossa and review the literature. Methods We report a case of a 23-year-old man who suffered a car accident 2 years before otolaryngologic attendance. He had one episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure and developed a reduction of visual acuity of the left side after the accident. Neurologic investigation was performed and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an incidental finding of a heterogeneous ovoid lesion in the pterygopalatine fossa, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. Results Endoscopic sinus surgery with transpterygoid approach was performed. The ovoid lesion was noted in the pterygopalatine fossa. Puncture for intraoperative evaluation showed a transparent thick fluid. Surprisingly, hair and sebaceous glands were found inside the cyst capsule. The cyst was excised completely. Histologic examination revealed a dermoid cyst. The patient currently has no evidence of recurrence at 1 year postoperatively. Conclusion This unique case is a rare report of a dermoid cyst incidentally diagnosed. An endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach may be performed to treat successfully this kind of lesion. Although rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of expansive lesions in the pterygopalatine fossa, including schwannoma, angiofibroma, esthesioneuroblastoma, osteochondroma, cholesterol granuloma, hemangioma, lymphoma, and osteoma.

  16. Piezosurgery for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Aanand N; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the use of a piezosurgery medical device to perform a craniotomy and produce a split calvarial graft for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral hospital. Ten consecutive patients undergoing middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of meningoencephaloceles. Therapeutic. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, success rate as defined by the ability to fashion a split calvarial graft that achieves complete closure of the tegmen defect. As a secondary outcome measure, evidence of integration of the split calvarial bone graft with the adjacent skull base was assessed. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. An appropriately sized calvarial bone graft was produced, and complete closure of the tegmen defect was achieved in all 10 cases. Computed tomography demonstrated evidence of integration of the bone graft in eight cases between 4 and 9 months after surgery. The piezosurgery medical device provides a safe and effective means by which the middle fossa craniotomy and split calvarial bone graft can be produced to repair defects of the middle fossa tegmen, with integration of the bone graft in the majority of cases.

  17. Tumors of the posterior cranial fossa; Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Various types of brain tumor can occur in the region of the posterior fossa. Brain metastases in adults are the most common malignancies at this localization. Ependymomas, medulloblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas occur mostly in children and only rarely in adults. Other tumors that occur in the posterior fossa are meningiomas, schwannomas, hemangioblastomas, brain stem gliomas and epidermoid tumors. Due to the fact that the various tumors of the posterior fossa have different treatment approaches and prognoses, an accurate and specific diagnosis is mandatory. This review discusses the imaging aspects by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the most frequent tumors of the posterior fossa. (orig.) [German] Im Bereich der hinteren Schaedelgrube treten verschiedene Typen von Hirntumoren auf, wobei Hirnmetastasen bei Erwachsenen die haeufigsten Malignitaeten in dieser Region darstellen. Ependymome, Medulloblastome und pilozytische Astrozytome kommen meistens bei Kindern und nur selten bei Erwachsenen vor. Weitere Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube sind Meningeome, Schwannome, Haemangioblastome, Hirnstammgliome und Epidermoide. Da die verschiedenen Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube unterschiedliche Behandlungsansaetze sowie Prognosen haben, ist eine genaue und spezifische Diagnose obligatorisch. Dieser Review diskutiert die bildgebenden CT- und MRT-Aspekte der haeufigsten Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube. (orig.)

  18. Posterior cranial fossa tumours in children at Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The management of children with posterior fossa tumours is a challenge to health care professionals worldwide. Difficulties in diagnosis especially in children less than three years is well documented. Limited diagnostic modalities and lack of awareness of the symptoms and signs as well as societal perception ...

  19. Quantitative imaging analysis of posterior fossa ependymoma location in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Noah D; Merchant, Thomas E; Li, Xingyu; Li, Yimei; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A; Ellison, David W; Ogg, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Imaging descriptions of posterior fossa ependymoma in children have focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal and local anatomic relationships with imaging location only recently used to classify these neoplasms. We developed a quantitative method for analyzing the location of ependymoma in the posterior fossa, tested its effectiveness in distinguishing groups of tumors, and examined potential associations of distinct tumor groups with treatment and prognostic factors. Pre-operative MRI examinations of the brain for 38 children with histopathologically proven posterior fossa ependymoma were analyzed. Tumor margin contours and anatomic landmarks were manually marked and used to calculate the centroid of each tumor. Landmarks were used to calculate a transformation to align, scale, and rotate each patient's image coordinates to a common coordinate space. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the location and morphological variables was performed to detect multivariate patterns in tumor characteristics. The ependymomas were also characterized as "central" or "lateral" based on published radiological criteria. Therapeutic details and demographic, recurrence, and survival information were obtained from medical records and analyzed with the tumor location and morphology to identify prognostic tumor characteristics. Cluster analysis yielded two distinct tumor groups based on centroid location The cluster groups were associated with differences in PFS (p = .044), "central" vs. "lateral" radiological designation (p = .035), and marginally associated with multiple operative interventions (p = .064). Posterior fossa ependymoma can be objectively classified based on quantitative analysis of tumor location, and these classifications are associated with prognostic and treatment factors.

  20. Ecotoxicological testing of gas oils (daphnia magna test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, B.R.; Mueller, J.; Wenzel, A.; Hensel, R.

    2002-02-01

    The Water Accomodated Fractions WAF of 4 diesel fuels no. 2 and 4 domestic heating fuels no. 2 of differing origin were analysed on their effect on the mobility of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia Magna. Five loadings per test substance were tested. After an exposition period of 24 h a relationship between loading rates of the WAF and immobility was found for 3 samples, while after 48 h this was observed for all samples. WAF-generation and gas oil data were documented. (orig.) [German] Von 4 Dieselkraftstoff-Gasoelen und 4 Heizoel-Gasoelen EL wurden die Water Accomodated Fractions WAF auf ihre immobilisierende Wirkung auf den Wasserfloh Daphnia Magna untersucht. Von jeder Probe wurden fuenf unterschiedliche Dosierraten geprueft. Nach einer Expositionszeit von 24 Stunden zeigte sich bei 3 Proben und nach 48 Stunden bei allen Proben eine Beziehung zwischen der Dosierrate der Probe und der Immobilitaet. Die Herstellung der WAF und die Daten der Gasoele wurden dokumentiert. (orig.)

  1. Effects of symbiotic bacteria on chemical sensitivity of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakul, Patcharaporn; Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    The crustacean zooplankton Daphnia magna has been widely used for chemical toxicity tests. Although abiotic factors have been well documented in ecotoxicological test protocols, biotic factors that may affect the sensitivity to chemical compounds remain limited. Recently, we identified symbiotic bacteria that are critical for the growth and reproduction of D. magna. The presence of symbiotic bacteria on Daphnia raised the question as to whether these bacteria have a positive or negative effect on toxicity tests. In order to evaluate the effects of symbiotic bacteria on toxicity tests, bacteria-free Daphnia were prepared, and their chemical sensitivities were compared with that of Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria based on an acute immobilization test. The Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria showed higher chemical resistance to nonylphenol, fenoxycarb, and pentachlorophenol than bacteria-free Daphnia. These results suggested potential roles of symbiotic bacteria in the chemical resistance of its host Daphnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioassay of Phenol and its Intermediate Products Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the most common compounds found in many industrial effluents such as petroleum refining and petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paint and dye industries, organic chemicals manufacturing, etc. The contamination of bodies of water with phenol is a serious problem in terms of environmental considerations due to its high toxicity. In this study, toxicity of phenol and its degradation mixtures by sonochemical, photochemical, and photosonochemical processes were investigated. Toxicity assay tests were carried out using Daphnia magna as a bio-indicator. The sonochemical and photochemical experiments were carried out using a bath sonicator (500 W working at 35 and 130 kHz frequencies and with a 400 W medium pressure mercury lamp, respectively. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 100 mg L-1. Bioassay tests showed that phenol was toxic to D.magna and so resulted in quite low LC50 values. Comparison of toxicity units (TU between phenol and effluent toxicity showed that TU value for photosonochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for phenol, photochemical effluent, and sonochemical effluent. It was found that the toxicity unit of photochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for sonochemical effluent. According to the D.magna acute toxicity test, it is concluded that photosonolysis and photolysis are capable of decreasing the toxicity of by-products formed during the degradation of phenol aqueous solutions. Photosonic and photolytic processes can, therefore, be recommended as a potential approach to the treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  3. CRISPR/Cas-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakanishi

    Full Text Available The water flea Daphnia magna has been used as an animal model in ecology, evolution, and environmental sciences. Thanks to the recent progress in Daphnia genomics, genetic information such as the draft genome sequence and expressed sequence tags (ESTs is now available. To investigate the relationship between phenotypes and the available genetic information about Daphnia, some gene manipulation methods have been developed. However, a technique to induce targeted mutagenesis into Daphnia genome remains elusive. To overcome this problem, we focused on an emerging genome editing technique mediated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas system to introduce genomic mutations. In this study, we targeted a functionally conserved regulator of eye development, the eyeless gene in D. magna. When we injected Cas9 mRNAs and eyeless-targeting guide RNAs into eggs, 18-47% of the survived juveniles exhibited abnormal eye morphology. After maturation, up to 8.2% of the adults produced progenies with deformed eyes, which carried mutations in the eyeless loci. These results showed that CRISPR/Cas system could introduce heritable mutations into the endogenous eyeless gene in D. magna. This is the first report of a targeted gene knockout technique in Daphnia and will be useful in uncovering Daphnia gene functions.

  4. Multigenerational cadmium acclimation and biokinetics in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rui; Wang Wenxiong

    2006-01-01

    A Cd exposure (3 μg L -1 ) experiment was conducted for six successive generations to investigate the responses to chronic Cd stress in Daphnia magna. We observed a biphasic accumulation of Cd in the six generations and suggested a similar pattern with respect to daphnids' tolerance. Cd assimilation efficiencies, daphnid growth, and reproduction corresponded to the changes of tolerance, which was partially accounted for by metallothionein induction. When maternally exposed neonates grew in Cd-free water for one or two generations, their growth, MT concentration and biokinetic parameters partially or totally recovered. The rapid recovery suggests the high potential for ecological restoration from Cd pollution. Our results indicate that the tolerance of sensitive D. magna clones to Cd was dependent on long-term or multigenerational exposure. The tolerance developed within the first several generations might not be maintained, and the animals may become even more sensitive to Cd stress in subsequent generations. - Tolerance of sensitive Daphnia magna clones to cadmium was dependent on long-term or multigenerational exposure

  5. STUDY OF POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMORS BY HIGH RESOLUTION MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging modality used for the assessment of infratentorial neoplasms. Although Computed Tomography (CT provides better demonstration of small or subtle calcifications within tumors. OBJECTIVES Study is done to assess the potential of MRI in characterisation of different tumors in posterior fossa by evaluating various unenhanced and gadolinium enhanced sequences and to compare high resolution FSE MRI sequences with routine FSE MRI sequences in diagnosing posterior fossa brain tumors. Also correlate findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 52 patients were diagnosed by CT brain as having posterior fossa brain for a year of 2 years were included in the study. In all studies MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5 T system (General electrical medical systems. A dedicated phased-array coil was used. RESULTS The age group ranged from 1 year to 60 years, majority were between 1 to 20 years (39%. Slight male preponderance was seen (males 29, females 23. Commonest tumor encountered in our study was vestibular schwannoma. DWI alone can differentiate different pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors. One case of pilocytic astrocytoma showed solid lesion instead of typical cystic lesion with mural nodule. One case AT-RT showed 2 lesions one in cerebrum, one in CP angle. Common feature being intra-axial lesion involving cerebellum. MRI was able to predict diagnosis in 50 of the 52 tumors. CONCLUSION Magnetic Resonance Imaging was found to be a highly sensitive imaging procedure and method of choice for posterior fossa brain tumors.

  6. Sex-related differences in the anteroposterior diameter of the foetal cisterna magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, G. [Department of Ultrasound, Qilu hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Yew, D.T. [Department of Anatomy, Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Gu, T.; Liu, S.; Ma, Z.; Zhan, X.; Cheng, L. [Department of Ultrasound, Qilu hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Li, C. [Department of Ultrasound, Qilu hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)], E-mail: chuanfuli2006@hotmail.com

    2008-09-15

    Aim: To measure the anteroposterior diameter of the foetal cisterna magna and observe whether there are differences according to sex. Materials and methods: Three hundred and thirty-seven Chinese women with low-risk pregnancies and a singleton foetus between 22 and 38 weeks' gestational age were included in this retrospective study. Informed consent of the volunteer subjects and hospital authority approval were first obtained. Double-blinded for gender, the anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of the foetuses was measured by transabdominal sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for those foetuses with mega cisterna magna. All of the foetuses were healthy by prenatal and postnatal examination, including physical and imaging examination. Results: The mean anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of all foetuses was 8.01 {+-} 1.79 mm. The anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna had no obvious correlation with the gestational age. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of 179 male foetuses was 8.63 {+-} 2.16 mm, and the mean anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of 158 female foetuses was 7.87 {+-} 1.74 mm. The size difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In the 33 foetuses with mega cisterna magna, the number of male foetuses was greater than female foetuses, and the proportion of the foetuses with mega cisterna magna in the male group was significantly higher than the foetuses in the female group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Male foetuses had slightly larger anteroposterior diameters of the cisterna magna than female foetuses. The study would be useful for creating normal range values for the cisterna magna of male and female foetuses.

  7. Malignant Transformation of Endometriosis in the Ischioanal Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Klebanoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 28-year-old nulliparous female with malignant transformation of an ectopic focus of endometriosis in the right ischioanal fossa. A 28-year-old nulliparous patient with a past medical history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma in her right ischioanal fossa. Initially, patient presented to an emergency department and underwent a CT scan of the appendix to rule out appendicitis. A multiloculated cystic lesion adjacent to the right obturator internus muscle was found. She underwent surgical resection of the mass, which confirmed FIGO grade 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, followed by localized radiation therapy. Malignancy arising in endometriosis is rare, and the influence of PCOS on the rate of malignant transformation is not well established.

  8. Children's vomiting following posterior fossa surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon Belinda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting is a problem for children after neurosurgery and those requiring posterior fossa procedures appear to have a high incidence. This clinical observation has not been quantified nor have risk factors unique to this group of children been elucidated. Methods A six year retrospective chart audit at two Canadian children's hospitals was conducted. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was extracted. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify risk and protective factors at 120 hours after surgery and early vs. late vomiting. Results The incidence of vomiting over a ten day postoperative period was 76.7%. Documented vomiting ranged from single events to greater than 20 over the same period. In the final multivariable model: adolescents (age 12 to Conclusion The incidence of vomiting in children after posterior fossa surgery is sufficient to consider all children requiring these procedures to be at high risk for POV. Nausea requires better assessment and documentation.

  9. Venous anomalies and abnormalities of the posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulao, A.; Alvarez, H.; Garcia Monaco, R.; Pruvost, P.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report a series of 16 patients with venous anomalies or abnormalities of the posterior fossa studied by angiography, CT and/or MRI. We believe that so-called 'venous angioma' are extreme anatomic variants that drain normal territories, and we prefer to call them developmental venous anomalies (DVA). Posterior fossa DVA, like the supra-tentorial ones are classified according to their drainage into deep and superficial type. They are exclusively located in the cerebellum or tectum. In 4 cases DVA was an incidental finding, in 3 an associated cerebral venous malformation (CVM) was found and felt to be the cause of the symptoms and only in one (Trigeminal pain) was a link between both suspected. Cavernous venous malformation (CVM) were found in frequent association with DVA (27%). 4 cases were single and 2 multiple. 5 CVM were located in the brain stem and 3 in the cerebellum. The clinical and radiological files were reviewed and a direct relationship between symptoms and localization was found in all patients with CVM. In 2 cases venous dysplasia was found: 1 Sturge-Weber and 1 First branchial arch syndrome. Both posterior fossa venous abnormalities were incidental findings. (orig.)

  10. Antecubital Fossa Solitary Osteochondroma with Associated Bicipitoradial Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecubital fossa lesions are uncommon conditions that present to the orthopaedic clinic. Furthermore, the radius bone is an uncommonly reported location for an osteochondroma, especially when presenting with a concurrent reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. Osteochondromas are a type of developmental lesion rather than a true neoplasm. They constitute up to 15% of all bone tumours and up to 50% of benign bone tumours. They may occur as solitary or multiple lesions. Multiple lesions are usually associated with a syndrome known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME. Malignant transformation is known to occur but is rare. Bicipitoradial bursitis is a condition which can occur as primary or secondary (reactive pathology. In our case, the radius bone osteochondroma caused reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. The differential diagnosis of such antecubital fossa masses is vast but may be narrowed down through a targeted history, stepwise radiological investigations, and histological confirmation. Our aim is to ensure that orthopaedic clinicians keep a wide differential in mind when dealing with antecubital fossa mass lesions.

  11. CT and MRI diagnosis of posterior fossa atypical ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bolang; Zhang Ming; Luo Lin; Wang Shijie; Zhu Liping

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the CT and MRI features of posterior fossa atypical ependymoma. Methods: Sixteen cases of posterior fossa atypical ependymoma proved by surgery and pathology had CT and (or) MRI scanning. There were 11 males and 5 females. The age ranged from 17 to 46 (mean, 31.2). Twelve cases ranged from 20 to 40 years old. the main symptoms of all cases were dizziness, unsteady walking and vomiting. Results: The locations of all cases were cerebellum (12 cases), vermis (3 cases) and cerebellopontile angle (1 cases). Fifteen cases were solid with multiple cystic changes and 1 case in the cerebellopontile angle was cystic. The tumor was usually close to the surface of cerebellum with rather extensive connection with dura mater or tentorium. Calcifications were shown in 3 cases. The tumors revealed inhomogeneous density on CT scan and inhomogeneous intensity on MRI. Mild inhomogeneous enhancement was shown in most cases, while intense irregular enhancement in the others. Conclusions: The characteristic findings of the posterior fossa atypical ependymoma ependymoma were cerebellar intraparenchymatous multiple small cystic changes within solid tumor in most cases and inhomogeneous density and intensity on CT and MRI. The differential diagnosis is meningioma, metastasis and acoustic schwannoma

  12. Comet Assay on Daphnia magna in eco-genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegri, Valerio; Gorbi, Gessica; Buschini, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Detection of potentially hazardous compounds in water bodies is a priority in environmental risk assessment. For the evaluation and monitoring of water quality, a series of methodologies may be applied. Among them, the worldwide used toxicity tests with organisms of the genus Daphnia is one of the most powerful. In recent years, some attempts were made to utilize Daphnia magna in genotoxicity testing as many of the new environmental contaminants are described as DNA-damaging agents in aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to develop a highly standardized protocol of the Comet Assay adapted for D. magna, especially regarding the isolation of cells derived from the same tissue (haemolymph) from newborn organisms exposed in vivo. Several methods for haemolymph extraction and different Comet Assay parameters were compared. Electrophoretic conditions were adapted in order to obtain minimum DNA migration in cells derived from untreated organisms and, at the same time, maximum sensitivity in specimens treated with known genotoxicants (CdCl2 and H2O2). Additional tests were performed to investigate if life-history traits of the cladoceran (such as the age of adult organisms that provide newborns, the clutch size of origin, the number of generations reared in standard conditions) and the water composition as well, might influence the response of the assay. This study confirms the potential application of the Comet Assay in D. magna for assessing genotoxic loads in aqueous solution. The newly developed protocol could integrate the acute toxicity bioassay, thus expanding the possibility of using this model species in freshwater monitoring (waters, sediment and soil elutriates) and is in line with the spirit of the EU Water Framework Directive in reducing the number of bioassays that involve medium-sized species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching of Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiromasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Takagaki, Masami; Kadowaki, Tasuku; Nakao, Tatsuya; Amano, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    Severe patient-prosthesis mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.65 cm(2) m(-2), has demonstrated poor long-term survival after aortic valve replacement. Reported rates of severe mismatch involving the Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis range from 4% to 20% in patients with a small annulus. Between June 2008 and August 2011, 251 patients (mean age 70.5 ± 10.2 years; mean body surface area 1.55 ± 0.19 m(2)) underwent aortic valve replacement with a Perimount Magna bioprosthesis, with or without concomitant procedures. We performed our procedure with rigorous patient-prosthesis matching to implant a valve appropriately sized to each patient, and carried out annular enlargement when a 19-mm valve did not fit. The bioprosthetic performance was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography predischarge and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Overall hospital mortality was 1.6%. Only 5 (2.0%) patients required annular enlargement. The mean follow-up period was 19.1 ± 10.7 months with a 98.4% completion rate. Predischarge data showed a mean effective orifice area index of 1.21 ± 0.20 cm(2) m(-2). Moderate mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.85 cm(2) m(-2), developed in 4 (1.6%) patients. None developed severe mismatch. Data at 1 and 2 years showed only two cases of moderate mismatch; neither was severe. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching maximized the performance of the Perimount Magna, and no severe mismatch resulted in this Japanese population of aortic valve replacement patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Interspecific differences between D. pulex and D. magna in tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J Kuster

    Full Text Available It is known that cyanobacteria negatively affect herbivores due to their production of toxins such as protease inhibitors. In the present study we investigated potential interspecific differences between two major herbivores, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, in terms of their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors. Seven clones each of D. magna and of D. pulex were isolated from different habitats in Europe and North America. To test for interspecific differences in the daphnids' tolerance to cyanobacteria, their somatic and population growth rates were determined for each D. magna and D. pulex clone after exposure to varying concentrations of two Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The M. aeruginosa strains NIVA and PCC(- contained either chymotrypsin or trypsin inhibitors, but no microcystins. Mean somatic and population growth rates on a diet with 20% NIVA were significantly more reduced in D. pulex than in D. magna. On a diet with 10% PCC(-, the population growth of D. pulex was significantly more reduced than that of D. magna. This indicates that D. magna is more tolerant to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors than D. pulex. The reduction of growth rates was possibly caused by an interference of cyanobacterial inhibitors with proteases in the gut of Daphnia, as many other conceivable factors, which might have been able to explain the reduced growth, could be excluded as causal factors. Protease assays revealed that the sensitivities of chymotrypsins and trypsins to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors did not differ between D. magna and D. pulex. However, D. magna exhibited a 2.3-fold higher specific chymotrypsin activity than D. pulex, which explains the observed higher tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors of D. magna. The present study suggests that D. magna may control the development of cyanobacterial blooms more efficiently than D. pulex due to differences in their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease

  15. Spectral SAR Ecotoxicology of Ionic Liquids: The Daphnia magna Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putz, M.V.; Lacrama, A.M.; Ostafe, V.; Lacrama, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Aiming to provide a unified theory of ionic liquids eco toxicity, the recent spectral structure activity relationship (S-SAR) algorithm is employed for testing the two additive models of anionic-cationic interaction containing ionic liquid activity: the causal and the endpoint, |0+> and |1+> models, respectively. As a working system, the Daphnia magna eco toxicity was characterized through the formulated and applied spectral chemical-eco biological interaction principles. Specific anionic-cationic-ionic-liquid rules of interaction along the developed mechanistic hypersurface map of the main eco toxicity paths together with the so-called resonance limitation of the standard statistical correlation analysis were revealed.

  16. Life history response of Daphnia magna to a mixotrophic golden alga, Poterioochromonas sp., at different food levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Perlt, Trine Warming

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of Poterioochromonas to Daphnia magna was investigated at different food (Scenedesmus acutus) levels. Poterioochromonas alone of 0.4–20 mg C L-1 was not acutely toxic to D. magna, but did not support D. magna growth, either. When fed mixed diets (2 mg C L-1 in total), D. magna...

  17. Traumatic acute posterior fossa subdural hematoma – A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Manish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic subdural hematomas of the posterior fossa are rare but dangerous neurosurgical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and management to avoid the uniformly poor outcome. We present a case of a teenager with severe TBI and acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa that deteriorated rapidly before surgery but eventually made a good recovery. We also the review the literature concerning traumatic posterior fossa subdural hematomas [PFSDH].

  18. Successfully resisting a pathogen is rarely costly in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Pierrick; Vale, Pedro F; Little, Tom J

    2010-11-17

    A central hypothesis in the evolutionary ecology of parasitism is that trade-offs exist between resistance to parasites and other fitness components such as fecundity, growth, survival, and predator avoidance, or resistance to other parasites. These trade-offs are called costs of resistance. These costs fall into two broad categories: constitutive costs of resistance, which arise from a negative genetic covariance between immunity and other fitness-related traits, and inducible costs of resistance, which are the physiological costs incurred by hosts when mounting an immune response. We sought to study inducible costs in depth using the crustacean Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. We designed specific experiments to study the costs induced by exposure to this parasite, and we re-analysed previously published data in an effort to determine the generality of such costs. However, despite the variety of genetic backgrounds of both hosts and parasites, and the different exposure protocols and environmental conditions used in these experiment, this work showed that costs of exposure can only rarely be detected in the D. magna-P. ramosa system. We discuss possible reasons for this lack of detectable costs, including scenarios where costs of resistance to parasites might not play a major role in the co-evolution of hosts and parasites.

  19. Successfully resisting a pathogen is rarely costly in Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Pedro F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central hypothesis in the evolutionary ecology of parasitism is that trade-offs exist between resistance to parasites and other fitness components such as fecundity, growth, survival, and predator avoidance, or resistance to other parasites. These trade-offs are called costs of resistance. These costs fall into two broad categories: constitutive costs of resistance, which arise from a negative genetic covariance between immunity and other fitness-related traits, and inducible costs of resistance, which are the physiological costs incurred by hosts when mounting an immune response. We sought to study inducible costs in depth using the crustacean Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Results We designed specific experiments to study the costs induced by exposure to this parasite, and we re-analysed previously published data in an effort to determine the generality of such costs. However, despite the variety of genetic backgrounds of both hosts and parasites, and the different exposure protocols and environmental conditions used in these experiment, this work showed that costs of exposure can only rarely be detected in the D. magna-P. ramosa system. Conclusions We discuss possible reasons for this lack of detectable costs, including scenarios where costs of resistance to parasites might not play a major role in the co-evolution of hosts and parasites.

  20. Posterior Fossa Decompression with Duraplasty in Chiari-1 Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, L.; Akbar, H.; Bokhari, I.; Babar, A. K.; Hahim, A. S. M.; Arain, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the symptomatic outcome after PFD (Posterior Fossa Decompression) with duraplasty in Chiari-1 malformations. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurosurgery, JPMC, Karachi, from July 2008 to September 2012. Methodology: This included 21 patients of Chiari 1 malformations admitted in department through OPD with clinical features of headache, neck pain, numbness, neurological deficit, and syringomyelia. Diagnosis was confirmed by MRI. PFD followed by C1 laminectomy with duraplasty was done in all cases and symptomatic outcome was assessed in follow-up clinic. Results: Among 21 patients, 13 were females and 8 were males. Age ranged from 18 to 40 years. All the patients had neck pain and numbness in hands. Only 3 patients had weakness of all four limbs and 12 with weakness of hands. Symptoms evolved over a mean of 12 months. Syringomyelia was present in all cases. All patients underwent posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty with an additional C1 laminectomy and in 2 cases C2 laminectomy was done. Syringo-subarachnoid shunt was placed in one patient and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed in 2 patients. Pain was relieved in all cases. Weakness was improved in all cases and numbness was improved in 19 cases. Syringomyelia was improved in all cases. Postoperative complications included CSF leak in 2 patients and wound infection in one patient. However, there was no mortality. Conclusion: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty is the best treatment option for Chiari-1 malformations because of symptomatic improvement and less chances of complications. (author)

  1. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.

  2. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H M; Shih, H C; Huang, Y C; Wang, Y H [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  3. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  4. Large intradiploic growing skull fracture of the posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamcioglu, M. Kemal; Hicdonmez, Tufan; Kilincer, Cumhur; Cobanoglu, Sebahattin

    2006-01-01

    Growing skull fractures (GSFs) are rare complications of head injury and mostly occur in infancy and early childhood. Location in the posterior fossa and intradiploic development of a GSF is very uncommon. We report a 7-year-old boy with a large, 9 x 7 x 4-cm, occipital intradiploic GSF. The lesion developed progressively over a period of 5 years following a documented occipital linear fracture. This case of a GSF developing from a known occipital linear fracture demonstrates that a GSF may reach a considerable size and, although uncommon, intradiploic development and occipital localization of a GSF is possible. (orig.)

  5. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior Surgical treatment of cysticercosis in posterior cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.Cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic diseases of the nervous system. When located in the posterior fossa, it presents a dramatic picture of intracranial hypertension. Seventy patients of cysticercosis in posterior cranial fossa have been studied, all of them attended at the Neurosurgery Service of the University of São Paulo

  6. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailadda Kaewma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84% was much greater than that of female (1.94% compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type.

  7. Cerebellar Mutism Syndrome and Other Complications After Surgery in the Posterior Fossa in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Morten; Rochat, Per; Juhler, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) is rarely described in adults; however, data on self-assessed linguistic complications after posterior fossa surgery do not exist. METHODS: Through a prospective single-center study, data on 59 tumor operations in the posterior fossa were collected pre...

  8. Schwannoma of the facial nerve involving the middle cranial fossa:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAI Ke; CHEN Zhong-ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Facial nerve schwannoma involving the middle cranial fossa is quite rare,and its accurate diagnosis is very difficult before SUrgery.Here we present a case of schwannoma of the facial nerve at the middle cranial fossa that was misdiagnosed previously at a local hospital and then cured in our hospital.

  9. Preauricular infratemporal fossa approach for advanced malignant parotid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, John P; Benscoter, Brent J; Marzo, Sam J; Borrowdale, Richard W; Pontikis, George C

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate the surgical technique involved in the preauricular infratemporal fossa (ITF) approach, outline the clinical indications for use of this technique, and present the results in using this approach in 159 patients with malignant parotid tumors. At the conclusion of this article, the reader should be able to understand the utility of the preauricular infratemporal fossa approach in the management of patients with advanced malignant parotid tumors. This was a retrospective chart review of 159 patients treated at a tertiary care academic medical center following institutional review board approval. A comprehensive medical records review was performed for all patients with malignant parotid tumors who underwent a preauricular ITF approach between July 1988 and July 2010. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and trismus, whereas the presence of a parotid mass and facial paralysis were the most common clinical signs. Mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinoma accounted for 63% of the tumors, and perineural invasion was found in nearly 71% of the patients. Despite negative surgical margins in 92% of the patients, local or regional tumor recurrence was found in 17% of the cases. The mean follow-up time was 12.8 years. The preauricular ITF approach should be used in the surgical extirpation of advanced malignant parotid neoplasms. This technique provides proximal facial nerve identification, internal carotid artery protection, and negative tumor margins at the skull base. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Ependymomas of the posterior cranial fossa: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortori-Donati, P.; Fondelli, M.P.; Cama, A.; Garre, M.L.; Rossi, A.; Andreussi, L.

    1995-01-01

    We studied nine children with posterior cranial fossa ependymomas to identify specific neuroradiological features. Patients were studied preoperatively with CT and MRI; T1-, T2- and proton-density (PD)-weighted images were obtained. All children underwent surgery and a definite histopathological diagnosis was made. All the tumours grew into the fourth ventricle and caused dilatation of its upper part, which resembled a cap. All but one were separated from the vermis by a cleavage plane. In eight cases there was desmoplastic development through the foramina of the fourth ventricle, and five were heterogeneous due to necrosis and cystic change; one had a haemorrhagic area. In most cases the solid portion was isointense with grey matter on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on PD weighting, and isointense on T2-weighted images. On CT the tumour was isodense in six cases and calcification was detected in four. The presence of both desmoplastic development and a tumour/vermis cleavage plane in a posterior cranial fossa tumour isodense on CT is highly suggestive of ependymoma. (orig.)

  11. [A pediatric case of hydatid cyst in the infratemporal fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroual, A; Elbouihi, M; Fawzi, S; Lahmiti, S; Aimmadeddine, S; Mansouri-Hattab, N

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid cyst or disease is an anthropozoonosis due to the development of the larval form of the taenia Echinococcus granulosus in humans. It is endemic in Morocco. The location of a hydatid cyst in the infratemporal fossa (ITF) is extremely rare. The authors report a pediatric case. An 11 year old child was admitted to hospital with a history of left latero-facial swelling gradually increasing in volume for 2 months, CT scan of the face revealed a cystic formation of 7 cm diameter sitting at the left ITF, hydatid serology was negative. A transzygomatic approach allowed the excision of the cyst. The histopathological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. The location at the infratemporal fossa of an expansive process such as hydatid cyst in children may have a particular impact on adjacent structures and a more meaningful clinical expression. The rate of growth of hydatid cysts is highly variable and ranges from 1 to 5 cm a year. Hydatid serology is often negative. CT examination is the gold-standard radiological examination. Surgical removal of the hydatid cyst is the most effective treatment. The transzygomatic approach allowed a sufficient access to the cyst and a good quality of excision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Serratia sp. Strain DD3, Isolated from the Guts of Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlein, Anja; Freese, Heike M.; Daniel, Rolf; Simeonova, Diliana D.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain DD3, a gammaproteobacterium from the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was isolated from homogenized guts of Daphnia magna. The genome size is 5,274 Mb. peerReviewed

  13. Negative effects of UVB-irradiated phytoplankton on life history traits and fitness of Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Reeuwijk, van P.L.

    2003-01-01

    1. We tested the effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB)-irradiated phytoplankton on life history characteristics of Daphnia magna . Two phytoplankton species were used, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera . The phytoplankton species were cultured under photosynthetically active radiation

  14. Magna Carta Libertatum – osmisté výročí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 6 (2015), s. 449-464 ISSN 0231-6625 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Magna Carta Libertatum * development of constitutionalism * rule of law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  15. Genes mirror geography in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Peter D; Reisser, Céline; Dukić, Marinela; Haag, Christoph R; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the presence and magnitude of population genetic structure remains a major consideration in evolutionary biology as doing so allows one to understand the demographic history of a species as well as make predictions of how the evolutionary process will proceed. Next-generation sequencing methods allow us to reconsider previous ideas and conclusions concerning the distribution of genetic variation, and what this distribution implies about a given species evolutionary history. A previous phylogeographic study of the crustacean Daphnia magna suggested that, despite strong genetic differentiation among populations at a local scale, the species shows only moderate genetic structure across its European range, with a spatially patchy occurrence of individual lineages. We apply RAD sequencing to a sample of D. magna collected across a wide swath of the species' Eurasian range and analyse the data using principle component analysis (PCA) of genetic variation and Procrustes analytical approaches, to quantify spatial genetic structure. We find remarkable consistency between the first two PCA axes and the geographic coordinates of individual sampling points, suggesting that, on a continent-wide scale, genetic differentiation is driven to a large extent by geographic distance. The observed pattern is consistent with unimpeded (i.e. no barriers, landscape or otherwise) migration at large spatial scales, despite the fragmented and patchy nature of favourable habitats at local scales. With high-resolution genetic data similar patterns may be uncovered for other species with wide geographic distributions, allowing an increased understanding of how genetic drift and selection have shaped their evolutionary history. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal schwannomas extending into both the middle and posterior cranial fossa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐启武; 车晓明; 胡杰; 杨伯捷

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) account for 0.1%-0.4% of all intracranial tumors and 1%-8% of intracranial schwannomas.1,2 Yoshida and Kawase3 classified TSs into 6 types according to their locations: M (TS involving the middle cranial fossa), P (TS involving the posterior cranial fossa), E (TS located at extracranial space), MP (TS involving both the middle and the posterior cranial fossa), ME (TS involving the middle cranial fossa and the extracranial space), and MPE (TS involving the the middle and the posterior cranial fossa and the extracranial space). Of these types, MP is the commonest, but is difficult to be totally removed. Between January 1984 and June 2003, we surgically treated 28 patients with TSs of type MP and obtained satisfactory results. To make a correct diagnosis of TS, to select appropriate surgical approach, and to improve surgical outcome of TS of type MP, we analysed the related clinical data and experiences.

  17. Transmission risk assessment of invasive fluke Fascioloides magna using GIS-modelling and multicriteria analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of multicriteria analysis (MCA, particularly analytic hierarchy process (AHP and geographic information system (GIS were applied for transmission risk assessment of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda; Fasciolidae in south-western Slovakia. Based on the details on F. magna life cycle, the following risk factors (RF of parasite transmission were determined: intermediate (RFIH and final hosts (RFFH (biological factors, annual precipitation (RFAP, land use (RFLU, flooded area (RFFA, and annual mean air temperature (RFAT (environmental factors. Two types of risk analyses were modelled: (1 potential risk analysis was focused on the determination of the potential risk of parasite transmission into novel territories (data on F. magna occurrence were excluded; (2 actual risk analysis considered also the summary data on F. magna occurrence in the model region (risk factor parasite occurrence RFPO included in the analysis. The results of the potential risk analysis provided novel distribution pattern and revealed new geographical area as the potential risk zone of F. magna occurrence. Although the actual risk analysis revealed all four risk zones of F. magna transmission (acceptable, moderate, undesirable and unacceptable, its outputs were significantly affected by the data on parasite occurrence what reduced the informative value of the actual transmission risk assessment.

  18. Epidermoid cyst of the posterior fossa: a case report Cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts of the central nervous system are uncommon conditions, which are frequently located in the cerebellopontine angle and around the pons. They are covered with keratinized squamous epithelium and keratin lamella, which give its contents a soft, white-pearly appearance. Epidermoid cysts are mostly originated from malformations, presumably associated with surface elements of the nervous system ectoderm during the closure of the neural groove or formation of secondary cerebral vesicles. The authors describe a case of epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa causing hydrocephalus and review morphologic and diagnostic criteria of this lesion.Os cistos epidermoides do sistema nervoso central (SNC são condições incomuns, estando localizados mais frequentemente no ângulo pontocerebelar e ao redor da ponte. Eles são revestidos por epitélio escamoso queratinizado e lamelas de queratina, tornando seu conteúdo branco-perolado e pastoso. Os cistos epidermoides são, na maioria das vezes, originados de malformações, possivelmente associados ao entremeio de elementos superficiais do ectoderma do SNC durante o fechamento da placa neural, ou formação das vesículas cerebrais secundárias. Os autores descrevem um caso de cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior determinando hidrocefalia e revisam critérios morfológicos e diagnósticos dessa lesão.

  19. Posterior fossa malformations: main features and limits in prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Posterior fossa (PF) malformations are commonly observed during prenatal screening. Their understanding requires knowledge of the main steps of PF development and knowledge of normal patterns in US and MR imaging. The vast majority of PF malformations can be strongly suspected by acquiring a midline sagittal slice and a transverse slice and by systematically scrutinizing the elements of the PF: cerebellar vermis, hemispheres, brainstem, fourth ventricle, PF fluid spaces and tentorium. Analysis of cerebellar echogenicity and biometry is also useful. This review explains how to approach the diagnosis of the main PF malformations by performing these two slices and answering six key questions about the elements of the PF. The main imaging characteristics of PF malformations are also reviewed. (orig.)

  20. The topographic relations of the high jugular fossa to the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadin, K.; Wilbrand, H.

    1986-01-01

    The radioanatomy of high jugular fossae and their topographic relations to the inner ear structures were investigated in 245 unselected temporal bones. One hundred and fifty specimens were submitted to multidirectional and 10 to computed tomography. After careful chemical and fermentative maceration plastic casts were made, using polyester resin and silicone rubber. With the use of vacuum, even minute structures became filled with the casting material. The specimens offered a three-dimensional view of the jugular fossae and surrounding structures. Fifty-eight (24%) of the total 245 specimens had high jugular fossae at a level above the lower border of the round window. Five casts showed a dehiscence of the peripheral portion of the vestibular aqueduct caused by the high jugular fossa. In 2 casts the proximal portion of the cochlear aqueduct was affected. In some casts the posterior semicircular canal, the facial canal, the stapedial muscle and the round window lay so close to the fossa that a dehiscence could not be excluded. In a clinical material of 102 high fossae the radiographic findings were in accordance with the experimental results. High jugular fossae were predominantly found in pyramids with low-grade mastoid bone pneumatization and sparse or no perilabyrinthine air cells. (orig.)

  1. The role of ovarian fossa evaluation in patients with ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cicco Nardone, Carlo; Terranova, Corrado; Plotti, Francesco; Ricciardi, Roberto; Capriglione, Stella; Luvero, Daniela; Caserta, Donatella; Moscarini, Massimo; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Angioli, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively the presence of endometriosis in the peritoneum of the ovarian fossa of patients affected by endometriomas and its correlation with the adhesion between this peritoneum and endometrioma. Patients presenting ovarian endometriomas and candidate to laparoscopy were considered for inclusion in the study. Patients underwent laparoscopic excision of endometriomas. The presence of adherence of the ovarian fossa to endometrioma was investigated. In all patients, the removal of a peritoneum fragment from the ovarian fossa of the affected ovary was carried out. 68 patients were enrolled in the study. 48 patients presented adhesions to the ovarian fossa. Histopathologic examination of the peritoneum of the ovarian fossa revealed the presence of endometriosis in 87 % of patients presenting adhesions of the endometriomas with ovarian fossa; surprisingly it was present only in 15 % of patients not presenting this condition (p endometriosis on the peritoneal surface of the fossa. This condition significantly correlates with pain symptoms and may predict endometrioma recurrence. The removal of this peritoneum in case of adherent endometrioma may potentially reduce the incidence of recurrence.

  2. Effects of a high jugular fossa and jugular bulb diverticulum on the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadin, K.; Thomander, L.; Wilbrand, H.; Uppsala Univ.

    1986-01-01

    From a series of patients undergoing routine radiographic examination, 112 temporal bones with a high jugular fossa were selected. Among these, 43 jugular bulb diverticula were found. The structures affected by a high fossa or diverticulum were recorded and correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patient. The vestibule was suspected to be affected in five patients. Two of these patients had tinnitus and vertigo, and three had hearing loss. In one of the latter the hearing loss was most marked in the supine position. The cochlea was close to the fossa in three patients, all of whom had tinnitus. Four patients had a defect of the posterior semicircular canal. One of them lost his hearing after a severe fit of coughing, became unsteady and showed signs of a fistula. The internal acoustic meatus and the mastoid portion of the facial canal were affected in two and four patients, respectively, who had no recorded symptoms. Twelve of 34 patients with Meniere's disease and a high jugular fossa on the side of the diseased ear had a dehiscence of the vestibular aqueduct caused by the fossa or diverticulum, compared with nine of 58 patients in the unselected material. For comparison and demonstration of topographic relationships, 58 casts of unselected radiograhed temporal bone specimens with high jugular fossae or diverticula were investigated. In patients with a high jugular fossa or jugular bulb diverticulum, tomographic assessment may be of value. (orig.)

  3. Toxicity of three strobilurins (kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Chai, Tingting; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Chengju

    2017-01-01

    Strobilurins constitute a new class of fungicides that is the most widely used in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the aquatic toxicity of 3 common strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) to Daphnia magna. The neonate acute immobilization test showed that the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin were 443.3 µg/L, 20.9 µg/L, and 23.0 µg/L, respectively. In addition, the 3 strobilurins significantly induced activity of the important detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in D. magna, and there was a significant positive relationship between GST activity and immobility of D. magna after acute exposure. The 3 strobilurins showed higher toxicity to D. magna embryos, and the 48-h EC50 were 157.3 µg/L, 3.9 µg/L, and 1.7 µg/L for kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin, respectively. The 21-d chronic test revealed that the strobilurins could also significantly affect the reproduction, development, and growth of D. magna at sublethal concentrations. The lowest-observed-effect concentrations of kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin for reproduction were 20 µg/L, 0.15 µg/L, and 0.2 µg/L, respectively, which were close to environmental concentrations. The findings indicate that strobilurin fungicides are very toxic to D. magna and they are sufficient to cause harm to D. magna at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:182-189. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Assessment of growth dynamics of human cranium middle fossa in foetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomra, Andrzej; Kędzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof; Bogacz, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Available literature analysis demonstrated smallness of studies of cranial base. The goal of the study was to analyse the medial fossa of the human cranium in the foetal period against other fossae. Survey material consisted of 110 human foetuses at a morphological age of 16-28 weeks of foetal life, CRL 98-220 mm. Anthropological, preparation method, reverse method and statistical analysis were utilized. The survey incorporated the following computer programmes: Renishaw, TraceSurf, AutoCAD, CATIA. The reverse method seems especially interesting (impression with polysiloxane (silicone elastomer of high adhesive power used in dentistry) with 18 D 4823 activator. Elicited impression accurately reflected complex shape of cranium base. On assessing the relative rate of cranium medial fossa, the rate was found to be stable (linear model) for the whole of the analysed period and is 0.19%/week, which stands for the gradual and steady growth of the middle fossa in relation to the whole of the cranium base. At the same time, from the 16th till 28th week of foetal life, relative volume of the cranium middle fossa increases more intensively than cranium anterior fossa, whereas the cranium middle fossa volume as compared with the cranium posterior fossa is definitely slower. In the analysed period, the growth rate of the cranium base middle fossa was bigger in the 4th and 5th weeks than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. The investigations revealed cranium base asymmetry of the left side. Furthermore, the anterior fossae volume on the left side is significantly bigger than the one of the fossae on the right side. Volume growth rate is more intensive in the 4th and 5th than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. In the examined period, the relative growth rate of cranium base middle fossa is 0.19%/week and it is stable - linear model. The study revealed correlations in the form of mathematical models, which enabled foetuses age assessment.

  5. Promoting effects on reproduction increase population vulnerability of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatz, Annika; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Gabsi, Faten; Ratte, Hans Toni; Brown, Colin D; Preuss, Thomas G

    2012-07-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is based on single species tests at the individual level with single compounds. However, the protection goal is the sustainability of a population, which faces several natural stressors and mixtures of chemicals in the environment. Therefore, experiments were undertaken to quantify the combined effects of chemicals with different modes of action on Daphnia magna populations. Populations continuously exposed to dispersogen A and at abundance equilibrium were treated with a 2-d pulse of p353-nonylphenol. In previous studies, dispersogen A was shown to act as a natural info-chemical, promoting the reproduction of daphnids (higher offspring quantity) coupled with reduced offspring fitness, whereas nonylphenol in pulsed-exposure caused size-selective mortality. Dispersogen A caused accelerated population growth to maximum abundance, shifted the population structure towards smaller individuals, and increased the population sensitivity to nonylphenol. The authors showed that a positive effect observed at the individual level can be transposed to a negative effect when monitored at the population level. So far, positive effects are not addressed in environmental risk assessment, and even in higher-tier testing, population structure is not quantified. Both factors indicate a potential mismatch between protection aim and risk assessment practice. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  6. Bleach Solution Requirement for Hatching of Daphnia magna Resting Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Retnaningdyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia (water fleas belong to the zooplankton group called Cladocerans have sexual reproduction when conditions less favorable that produce diapausing eggs are enclosed in the ephippium. Hatching ephippial eggs in the laboratory is important in ecological, toxicology, genetical, and evolutionary studies. This study aims to improve the current methods of egg hatching from ephippium. Each of 50 ephippium were treated together by placing them in a glass jar and adding 50 mL bleach solution (sodium hypochlorite. Concentrations of sodium hypochlorite used in this experiment were 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%. These concentration treatments were crossed with the following exposure times (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 minutes. Culturing was done in 80 mL of artificial Daphnia medium, incubated in constant light and temperatures 20°C for 25 days. There were two repetitions in this experiment that were run at the same time. Result of this experiment showed that pretreatment with 0.5-8% bleach solution significantly increases the yield of total hatch rate of Daphnia magna resting eggs by about 21% over unbleached control. However, there was no significant difference among the bleach treatments. Concentration of bleach solution 0.5%, 1% and 4% significantly accelerated the time period until the first hatching (first day hatching. Difference of exposure time (1 - 32 minutes at each concentration treatments were not influence the yield of total hatch and the time period until first hatching.

  7. Mixture toxicity of flubendazole and fenbendazole to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckowski, Alan; Stolte, Stefan; Wagil, Marta; Markiewicz, Marta; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Stepnowski, Piotr; Białk-Bielińska, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, residual amounts of many pharmaceuticals can be found in various environmental compartments including surface and ground waters, soils and sediments as well as biota. Even though they undergo degradability, their environmental discharge is relatively continuous, thus they may be regarded as quasi-persistent contaminants, and are also frequently regarded as emerging organic pollutants. Benzimidazoles, especially flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN), represent two anthelmintic drugs belonging to this group. Although their presence in environmental matrices has been reported, there is relatively little data concerning their (eco)toxicological impact. Furthermore, no data is available on their mixture toxicity. FLU and FEN have been found to have a strong impact on an environmentally important non-target organism - Daphnia magna. Moreover, these compounds are usually present in the environment as a part of pharmaceutical mixtures. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate their mixture toxicity, which was the main aim of this study. Single substance toxicity tests were carried out in parallel with mixture studies of FLU and FEN, with the application of two well established concepts of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA). As a result, both models (CA and IA) were found to underestimate the toxicity of mixtures, however CA yielded more accurate predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Multigenerational contaminant exposures produce non-monotonic, transgenerational responses in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimberly, David A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, ecotoxicologists rely on short-term tests that assume populations to be static. Conversely, natural populations may be exposed to the same stressors for many generations, which can alter tolerance to the same (or other) stressors. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of how multigenerational stressors alter life history traits and stressor tolerance. After continuously exposing Daphnia magna to cadmium for 120 days, we assessed life history traits and conducted a challenge at higher temperature and cadmium concentrations. Predictably, individuals exposed to cadmium showed an overall decrease in reproductive output compared to controls. Interestingly, control D. magna were the most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium, followed by those exposed to high cadmium. Our data suggest that long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. Because we observed effects after one-generation removal from cadmium, transgenerational effects may be possible as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Highlights: • Daphnia magna exposed to cadmium for 120 days. • D. magna exposed to cadmium had decreased reproductive output. • Control D. magna were most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium stress. • Long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. • Transgenerational effects observed as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Adverse effects of long-term cadmium exposure persist into cadmium free conditions, as seen by non-monotonic responses when exposed to novel stress one generation removed.

  9. Decreased Sudomotor Function is Involved in the Formation of Atopic Eczema in the Cubital Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.

  10. Factors affecting outcome in posterior fossa EDH: an analytical study at tertiary referral hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Pateriya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior fossa extradural hematomas (PFEDHs are uncommon as compared to supratentorial EDH and these patients can deteriorate very rapidly due to compression over brainstem. Thus early identification and intervention can save the lives of these patients.

  11. Posterior cranial fossa dimensions in the Chiari I malformation: relation to pathogenesis and clinical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovner, L.J.; Bergan, U.; Nilsen, G.; Sjaastad, O.

    1993-01-01

    Skull dimensions were measured on lateral skull radiographs in 33 adult patients with MRI-verified Chiari I malformations and in 40 controls. The posterior cranial fossa was significantly smaller and shallower in patients than in controls. In the patients, there was a positive correlation between posterior fossa size and the degree of the cerebellar ectopia, which might indicate that a posterior cranial fossa which was originally too small had been expanded by the herniation of hindbrain structures at an early stage. No special clinical presentation was associated with a very small posterior cranial fossa, which may indicate that a small posterior cranial per se has little or no clinical significance, although it may be the primary developmental anomaly. (orig./GD)

  12. Effect of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Glenoid Fossa and Condyle-Fossa Relationship in Growing Patients (MEGP): Study Protocol for a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN

  13. Dislocation of a mandibular condyle in the middle cranial fossa, diagnosed 54 years after trauma

    OpenAIRE

    De Mol, Antoni; Nicolielo, Laura; Ghekiere, Olivier; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Politis, Constantinus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of mandibular trauma. We report the remarkable case of a 63-year-old patient in whom trauma 54 years prior to consultation resulted in intrusion of the right mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa. The diagnosis was missed because of insufficient data provided by conventional radiographies. Failure of timely diagnosis and lack of appropriate treatment resulted in temporomandibular joi...

  14. Radiological imaging detection of tumors localized in fossa cranii posterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin; Ahmetgjekaj, Ilir; Gashi, Sanije; Fazliu, Ilir; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Shala, Nexhmedin

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial tumors are characterized by a variety imaging aspects and their detection is always a challenge. Clinical application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computerized Tomography has provided an earlier detection and treatment of many CNS pathologies. The aim of this study is to estimate the role of CT and MRI in the determination of posterior fossa tumors. During period 2000-2005 in UCCK-Prishtina, 368 patients were diagnosed with intracranial tumors. Fifty-nine of them were found to have tumor localized in fossa crani posterior (FCP) without any significant difference between genders (50.8% female vs. 49.2% male, chi2 test=0.02 p=0.896). The average age of patients with FCP tumors was 33.1 (SD +/- 22.5, rank 1-70). The most of these patients were registered in 2003 (20.3%) whereas the least in 2000 (11.9%). The most affected age-group was 0-9 (25.4%) and 50-59 (23.7%) whereas the incidences was between 30-39 years of age (3.4%). Tumor types that more often were found in young's individuals were: Astrocytomas with a peak incidence in teenagers (average age was 12-year-old SD +/- 7.5, rank 3-23), next was Medulloblastomas (average age was 11-years-old, SD +/- 2.9, rank 6-16 years) and ependymomas (average age was 6.8-years-old, SD +/- 4.6, rank 1-12). Patients with osseous tumors are characterized by older age than median (61.0, SD +/- 4.2, rank 58-64), then metastases (53.0, SD +/- 5.3, rank 45-60) and meningiomas (50.8, SD +/- 7.7, rank 38-63). The overall average mortality was 0.41 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with variations through years from 0.30-0.50/100,000 inhabitants. Comparing with other countries, for some types of FCP tumors, lower morbidity is shown in Kosova, with mean incidence 0.41/100,000. The most frequent tumors in children were medulloblastomas, brainstem gliomas, astrocytomas and ependymomas whereas meningiomas and metastasis were most often found in adults. For FCP tumors detection, MRI had 100% sensitivity, specificity and

  15. Endoscopic transnasal resection of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Divitiis, Enrico; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi M; de Divitiis, Oreste; Esposito, Isabella

    2008-01-01

    The extended transnasal approach, a recent surgical advancements for the ventral skull base, allows excellent midline access to and visibility of the anterior cranial fossa, which was previously thought to be approachable only via a transcranial route. The extended transnasal approach allows early decompression of the optic canals, obviates the need for brain retraction, and reduces neurovascular manipulation. Between 2004 and 2007, 11 consecutive patients underwent transnasal resection of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas--4 olfactory groove (OGM) and 7 tuberculum sellae (TSM) meningiomas. Age at surgery, sex, symptoms, and imaging studies were reviewed. Tumor size and tumor extension were estimated, and the anteroposterior, vertical, and horizontal diameters were measred on MR images. Medical records, surgical complications, and outcomes of the patients were collected. A gross-total removal of the lesion was achieved in 10 patients (91%), and in 1 patient with a TSM only a near-total (> 90%) resection was possible. Four patients with preoperative visual function defect had a complete recovery, whereas 3 patients experienced a transient worsening of vision, fully recovered within few days. In 3 patients (2 with TSMs and 1 with an OGM), a postoperative CSF leak occurred, requiring a endoscopic surgery for skull base defect repair. Another patient (a case involving a TSM) developed transient diabetes insipidus. The operative time ranged from 6 to 10 hours in the OGM group and from 4.5 to 9 hours in the TSM group. The mean duration of the hospital stay was 13.5 and 10 days in the OGM and TSM groups, respectively. Six patients (3 with OGMs and 3 with TSMs) required a blood transfusion. Surgery-related death occurred in 1 patient with TSM, in whom the tumor was successfully removed. The technique offers a minimally invasive route to the midline anterior skull base, allowing the surgeon to avoid using brain retraction and reducing manipulation of the large vessels and

  16. Supratentorial Neurometabolic Alterations in Pediatric Survivors of Posterior Fossa Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckriegel, Stefan M., E-mail: rueckriegel.s@nch.uni-wuerzburg.de [Pediatric Neurooncology Program, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Driever, Pablo Hernaiz [Pediatric Neurooncology Program, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Bruhn, Harald [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiology, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Erlanger (Germany)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Therapy and tumor-related effects such as hypoperfusion, internal hydrocephalus, chemotherapy, and irradiation lead to significant motor and cognitive sequelae in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. A distinct proportion of those factors related to the resulting late effects is hitherto poorly understood. This study aimed at separating the effects of neurotoxic factors on central nervous system metabolism by using H-1 MR spectroscopy to quantify cerebral metabolite concentrations in these patients in comparison to those in age-matched healthy peers. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with World Health Organization (WHO) I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated by resection only, 24 patients with WHO IV medulloblastoma (MB), who additionally received chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, and 43 healthy peers were investigated using single-volume H-1 MR spectroscopy of parietal white matter and gray matter. Results: Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly decreased in white matter (p < 0.0001) and gray matter (p < 0.0001) of MB patients and in gray matter (p = 0.005) of PA patients, compared to healthy peers. Decreased creatine concentrations in parietal gray matter correlated significantly with older age at diagnosis in both patient groups (MB patients, p = 0.009, r = 0.52; PA patients, p = 0.006, r = 0.7). Longer time periods since diagnosis were associated with lower NAA levels in white matter of PA patients (p = 0.008, r = 0.66). Conclusions: Differently decreased NAA concentrations were observed in both PA and MB groups of posterior fossa tumor patients. We conclude that this reflects a disturbance of the neurometabolic steady state of normal-appearing brain tissue due to the tumor itself and to the impact of surgery in both patient groups. Further incremental decreases of metabolite concentrations in MB patients may point to additional harm caused by irradiation and chemotherapy. The stronger decrease of NAA in MB

  17. MRI tight posterior fossa sign for prenatal diagnosis of Chiari type II malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Kumiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Ogawa, Masayo; Takada, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hirota, Shozo [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Shakudo, Miyuki [Osaka City General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Gynecology, Nishinomiya (Japan); Minagawa, Kyoko [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    Chiari type II malformation (CMII) is one of three hindbrain malformations that display hydrocephalus. We have observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal in the posterior fossa, which is always apparent on normal fetal MR images, is not visible in a fetus with CMII. We use the term 'tight posterior fossa' for this MR imaging finding, and evaluate the diagnostic value of this finding on fetal MR images. Included in the study were 21 fetuses which underwent brain MR imaging at 1.5 T using two-dimensional balanced turbo-field-echo (2-D balanced-TFE) in the axial and sagittal planes. Postnatal diagnoses were CMII (n=5), CNS abnormalities other than CMII (n=8), and no abnormality (n=8). A tight posterior fossa was defined as an absent or slit-like water signal space around the hindbrain in the posterior fossa on both sagittal and axial MR images. All CMII fetuses displayed a tight posterior fossa on MR images. Hydrocephalus was visualized in all CMII fetuses and myelomeningocele in four fetuses, but hindbrain herniation was visualized only in two of five fetuses. The CSF signal surrounding the hindbrain was clearly visible in all the other 16 fetuses, including five with hydrocephalus not associated with CMII, although it was slightly narrower in a fetus with a cloverleaf skull than in the normal fetuses. Tight posterior fossa in the presence of hydrocephalus is a useful and characteristic finding of CMII on fetal MRI. (orig.)

  18. MRI tight posterior fossa sign for prenatal diagnosis of Chiari type II malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kumiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Ogawa, Masayo; Takada, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hirota, Shozo; Shakudo, Miyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Minagawa, Kyoko

    2007-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation (CMII) is one of three hindbrain malformations that display hydrocephalus. We have observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal in the posterior fossa, which is always apparent on normal fetal MR images, is not visible in a fetus with CMII. We use the term 'tight posterior fossa' for this MR imaging finding, and evaluate the diagnostic value of this finding on fetal MR images. Included in the study were 21 fetuses which underwent brain MR imaging at 1.5 T using two-dimensional balanced turbo-field-echo (2-D balanced-TFE) in the axial and sagittal planes. Postnatal diagnoses were CMII (n=5), CNS abnormalities other than CMII (n=8), and no abnormality (n=8). A tight posterior fossa was defined as an absent or slit-like water signal space around the hindbrain in the posterior fossa on both sagittal and axial MR images. All CMII fetuses displayed a tight posterior fossa on MR images. Hydrocephalus was visualized in all CMII fetuses and myelomeningocele in four fetuses, but hindbrain herniation was visualized only in two of five fetuses. The CSF signal surrounding the hindbrain was clearly visible in all the other 16 fetuses, including five with hydrocephalus not associated with CMII, although it was slightly narrower in a fetus with a cloverleaf skull than in the normal fetuses. Tight posterior fossa in the presence of hydrocephalus is a useful and characteristic finding of CMII on fetal MRI. (orig.)

  19. Glenoid fossa position in Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Cristina; Giuntini, Veronica; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion to better clarify the role of this craniofacial component in Class III skeletal disharmony. A sample of 30 subjects, aged 8 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a control group of 33 subjects with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class III group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test at P <0.05. Subjects with Class III malocclusion had a significantly more mesial position of the glenoid fossa, when compared with the control group as measured with 3 parameters. An anterior position of the glenoid fossa is a possible diagnostic anatomic feature of Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion. An effective measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position in craniofacial relationships is the cephalometric distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillary-nasal suture.

  20. Glenoid fossa position in Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Veronica; De Toffol, Laura; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-09-01

    To assess the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion and normal mandibular size in the mixed dentition. A sample of 30 subjects (16 male, 14 female), age 9 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a matched group of 37 subjects (18 male, 19 female) with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class II group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed by means of a nonparametric test for independent samples (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < .05). Subjects with Class II malocclusion presented with a significantly more distal position of the glenoid fossa, when compared with the control group as measured by means of three parameters (GF-S on FH, GF-Ptm on FH, and GF-FMN). A posteriorly displaced glenoid fossa is a possible diagnostic feature of Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion. An effective cephalometric measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position is the distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillonasal suture (GF-FMN).

  1. A fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay for quantifying toxic effects of Roundup® to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Roslev, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Daphnia magna is a widely used model organism for aquatic toxicity testing. In the present study, we investigated the hydrolytic enzyme activity of D. magna after exposure to toxicant stress. In vivo enzyme activity was quantified using 15 fluorogenic enzyme probes based on 4-methylumbelliferyl...... or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Probing D. magna enzyme activity was evaluated using short-term exposure (24-48 h) to the reference chemical K2Cr2O7, or the herbicide formulation Roundup®. Toxicant induced changes in hydrolytic enzyme activity were compared to changes in mobility (ISO 6341). The results...... showed that hydrolytic enzyme activity was quantifiable as a combination of whole body fluorescence of D. magna, and fluorescence of the surrounding water. Exposure of D. magna to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Roundup® resulted in loss of whole body enzyme activity, and release of cell...

  2. In vivo biodegradation of colloidal quantum dots by a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dongwook; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Chansik; Park, Jaehong [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyungho [Department of Environmental Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Hyun, E-mail: thyoon@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Impacts of planktonic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, on the speciation of colloidal quantum dots (QD) were investigated using fluorescence spectromicroscopic technique. Well-dispersed {sup GA/TOPO}QD were prepared by forming a supramolecular assembly of hydrophobic {sup TOPO}QD with biomacromolecules (i.e., Gum Arabic, GA). Biological degradation of this nanomaterial was monitored by fluorescence spectromicroscopic methods. Our study confirmed the major uptake pathway of manufactured nanomaterials and in vivo biodegradation processes in a well-known toxicity test organism, D. magna. In addition, we also found that D. magna can induce significant deterioration of aquatic media by releasing fragments of partially degraded QD colloids. These biological processes may significantly change the predicted toxicities of nanomaterials in aquatic environments. Thus, we propose that the impacts of aquatic living organisms on the environmental fate of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) should be carefully taken into account when assessing the risk of MNs to the environment and human health.

  3. Long-term effects to ionizing radiation in crustacean Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapul'tseva, E.I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study have provided strong evidence for the trans generational effects of parental exposure to ionizing radiation in crustacean Daphnia magna. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival, life span and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their non-exposed offspring, D. magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. MTT-assay was first applied for the investigation in vivo of the mechanisms of trans generational low doses effects of radiation and development of stress in Daphnia. Our dates strongly support MTT assay results as a good bio marker of survival and fertility effects at D. magna. (authors)

  4. In-vitro antioxidant activity of crataeva magna lour. dc bark extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant Crataeva magna belonging to family Capparaceae is used in anti spasmodic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti protozoal, analgesic purposes. The present study was carried out to evaluate appropriate animal model. The antioxidative potential of different solvent extracts of Crataeva magna were evaluated using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2 ’-Azino-Bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-Sulphonic acid (ABTS, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Among those solvent extracts, ethanolic extract of C. magna exhibited highest level of antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract also inhibited H 2O2 mediated haemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human RBC.

  5. A Study on the D. magna and V. fischeri Toxicity Relationship of Industrial Wastewater from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, S.; Lee, S.; Chun Sang, H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that high concentration of TDS (total dissolved solid) in industrial effluent gives rise to the toxicity to the Daphnia magna toxicity test. D. magna is vulnerable to relatively low TDS concentration showing the 24-hr EC50 of Salinity 0.6% (as the sea salt concentration). Recently, standard mandatory toxicity testing using Daphnia magna has been used to monitor industrial effluent toxicity according to Korea standard method (Acute Toxicity Test Method of the Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea), ES 04704. 1a) under regulation. Since only one acute toxicity testing is applied in the present, we are trying to introduce microbial battery for more complete toxicity assessment. In this study, the acute toxicities between daphnids and microbes were compared. The results of D. magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity test from 165 industrial wastewater effluents showed high positive correlation. In addition, the possibility of predicting daphnia toxicity from the bacterial toxicity data amounts to 92.6% if we consider salinity effect (>5ppt) together. From this study, we found that the V. fischeri toxicity test is a powerful battery tool to assess the industrial wastewater toxicity. Here, we suggest that luminescent bacteria toxicity test be useful not only for complete toxicity assessment which can't be obtained by daphnia toxicity testing only but also for the reduction cost, time, and labor in the Korean society. Keywords : D. magna, V. fischeri, Industrial waste water, battery test Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  6. Effect of the lipid regulator Gemfibrozil in the Cladocera Daphnia magna at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesa, Beatriz; Ferrando, María D; Villarroel, María J; Sancho, Encarna

    2017-02-23

    In the present study, an ecotoxicological approach to the evaluation of Gemfibrozil (GEM) as an emerging organic pollutant was done. In order to assess its toxicity, tests were conducted using the cladocera Daphnia magna. Experiments were carried out at 22°C and 28°C. EC 50 , feeding behavior, and chronic toxicity tests (21 days) were evaluated in D. magna exposed to GEM as well as cholesterol levels at 21-day chronic exposure. D. magna GEM EC 50 values (24 h) in our experimental conditions were 148.75 and 116.24 mg L -1 at 22°C and 28°C, respectively. Test concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 7.5 mg L -1 were selected for subacute and chronic experiments. Subacute short-term test (feeding study) was assessed after exposure to the toxicant. Filtration and ingestion rates of D. magna exposed animals did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05) with respect to control daphniids neither at 22°C nor at 28°C. Therefore, GEM test concentrations used in the present study did not reduce feeding behavior in D. magna. Temperature increased from 22°C to 28°C, which resulted in a decrease of the daphniids reproductive parameters such as brood size and number of young per female. Other parameters as longevity were not affected. The GEM concentrations used in the chronic test with D. magna did not affect daphniids longevity but some reproductive parameters as number of young per female or brood size were affected. Finally, a significant decreased in cholesterol levels was found in those animals exposed to the highest toxicant concentrations. More studies must be done to determine the possible implications of GEM in aquatic fauna and to derive its possible effects on the environment.

  7. Quality of life in children survivors of posterior fossa tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Climent, J.A.; Castel Sanchez, V.; Esquembre Menor, C.; Ferris Tortajada, J.; Verdeguer Miralles, A.

    1994-01-01

    We have created a numerical scale in order to measure the Quality of Life in children survivors of posterior fossa tumors. We evaluated the long-term sequelae in 39 patients seen during a 20 year period, with a medium follow-up of 9 years. They were 25 Cerebelar Astrocytoma (CA), 6 Medulloblastoma (MDB), 5 Brain-Stem Glioma (BSG) and 3 Ependymoma of IV ventricle (EPD). Sixty-six per cent of children showed neurologic and/or visual sequelae (Bloom's levels I-II in 66%). Psychointellectual dysfunctions were identified in 44%, with an IQ<90 in 39%. Endocrine disorders were found in 26%. Quality of Life (QL) was measured with our Scale, finding that 19 patients (49%) have a good or acceptable QL, eight (20%) a moderate QL that can be acceptable with adequate rehabilitation, and the remaining 12 (36%) a bad QL that can be improved slightly. Unfavorable outcomes were related to age less than 4 years at diagnosis, type of tumor (MDB, EPD, BSG), incomplete tumoral resection, and use of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. We consider that our scale is complete and adequate to measure the QL of children survivors of CNS tumors. (Author) 55 refs

  8. Comparison of posterior fossa and tumor bed boost in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, A C; Saw, C B; Wen, B C

    2000-10-01

    To quantify the difference between the area of brain irradiated using the posterior fossa boost (PFB) and tumor bed boost (TBB) in medulloblastoma, we studied 15 simulation radiographs of patients treated in our institution from 1990 and 1999. The PFB was compared with the TBB, which was defined as the tumor bed plus 2-cm margin as demonstrated by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The PFB field treated a mean area of 9.43 cm2 more brain than the TBB. In 3 patients (20%), the area of the brain in the TBB was larger than the PFB. In 11 patients (73.3%), the PFB field had more than 10% more brain than the TBB. The cochlea was in the PFB and TBB field in all patients. In more than two thirds of patients, the area of brain irradiated with the PFB was at least 10% greater than the TBB. Future studies are needed to determine whether the TBB can replace the PFB in patients with medulloblastoma.

  9. The management of right iliac fossa pain - is timing everything?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCartan, D P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Right iliac fossa (RIF) pain remains the commonest clinical dilemma encountered by general surgeons. We prospectively audited the management of acute RIF pain, examining the relationship between symptom duration, use of pre-operative radiological imaging and patient outcome. METHODS: Over a six-month period, 302 patients, median age 18 years, 59% female, were admitted with RIF pain. Symptoms, clinical findings and laboratory results were documented. Patient management, timing of radiological investigations and operations, and outcome were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: Non-specific abdominal pain (26%), gynaecological (22%) and miscellaneous causes (14%) accounted for most admissions. Ultimately, 119 patients (39%) had appendicitis. Anorexia, tachycardia or rebound tenderness in the RIF significantly predicted a final diagnosis of appendicitis. Patients with perforated appendicitis (n = 29) had a longer duration of pre-hospital symptoms (median 50h) compared to those with simple appendicitis (median 17 h) (p<0.001). The use of pre-operative imaging resulted in an increased time to surgery but was not associated with increased post-operative morbidity or perforated appendicitis. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients presenting to hospital with RIF pain did not have appendicitis. Increased duration of pre-hospital symptoms was the main factor associated with perforated appendicitis. However, increased in-hospital time to theatre was not associated with perforated appendicitis or post-operative morbidity.

  10. Comparative toxicity of leachates from 52 textiles to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Göran; Aspegren, Pia

    2010-10-01

    The environmental aspects of textiles are very complex and include production, processing, transport, usage, and recycling. Textiles are made from a variety of materials and can contain a large number of chemicals. Chemicals are used during production of fibres, for preservation and colouring and they are released during normal wear and during washing. The aim of this study was to investigate the release to water of toxic chemicals from various textiles. Altogether 52 samples of textiles made from cotton (21), linen (4), cotton and linen (7), cellulose (3), synthetic fibres (7), cotton and synthetic fibres (8) and wool (2). Seven were eco-labelled. All textiles were cut into squares and placed into Petri dishes with 50 ml ISO test medium in a concentration series (4-256 cm(2)/50 ml) and tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Estimated EC50s were converted into weight/volume, and 48-h EC50s ranged between 182 g/L. It was not possible to detect any difference between fibre type and toxicity (ANOVA), but a significantly higher toxicity was found for printed versus unprinted cotton and cotton/linen textiles, while the opposite was found for synthetic textiles. Eco-labelled products were evenly distributed on a toxicity scale, which means that eco-labelling in its present form does not necessarily protect users or the environment from exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that bioassays and toxicity tests should become an integrated part of textile environmental quality control programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast abscess due to Finegoldia magna in a non-puerperal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Sampedro, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2017-10-01

    Finegoldia magna is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus involved in a wide variety of infections. We report a unusual case of breast abscess in a non-puerperal patient. A 46-year-old woman presented with pain and a nodular lesion in the left breast. Culture of abscess drainage resulted in isolation of F. magna. Initial treatment with clindamycin was changed to a definitive treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate for 10 days due to resistance to clindamycin, and improvement of this infection was documented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioavailability and effect of pirimicarb on Daphnia magna in a laboratory freshwater/sediment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, K.O.

    1996-01-01

    In tests with newborn and one-week-old Daphnia magna, 48-h EC(50) values of 21-24 mu g/L and 16 mu g/L pirimicarb, respectively, were found. Older animals thus were as sensitive to pirimicarb as newborn animals. In an experiment with sediment included in the test system, all mother animals survived...... not reduced significantly during the experiment, due to the small amount of sediment used. Accumulation in the sediment was found independent of the water concentration used. This was also the case with bioaccumulation in Daphnia magna, where a bioaccumulation factor of 31-37 was found on a dry weight basis...

  13. Free ionic nickel accumulation and localization in the freshwater zooplankter, Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    The processes which lead to the accumulation of free ionic nickel (radioactive) from solution by Daphnia magna were studied and incorporated into a model which describes accummulation at different concentrations. Adsorption proved to be a relatively small component of nickel accummulation. The accummulation rate eventually approached zero, which represented an equilibrium between uptake and loss of nickel. However, elimination experiments did reveal a pool of relatively static nickel. The appearance and distribution of nickel within five body parts (body fluid, carapace, gut, filtering appendages, and eggs) of D. magna supported the accummulation data and added to the understanding of the pathways of nickel through the organism

  14. DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARBLE IN THE GREEK ROMAN HADRIANIC BATHS IN LEPTIS MAGNA, LIBYA

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil.A. ABD EL-TAWAB

    2012-01-01

    The Hadrianic Baths is one of the most important archaeological sites in Leptis Magna- Libya. It was built at the command of Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century CE; they represent some of the most lavish structures of Leptis Magna. It is unique in design and building technique. It was built of limestone, marble and brick. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of marble. The marble in the monuments can be classified into several types, based on its color, texture, chemical composi...

  15. Metrics and textural features of MRI diffusion to improve classification of pediatric posterior fossa tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gutierrez, D; Awwad, A; Meijer, L; Manita, M; Jaspan, T; Dineen, R A; Grundy, R G; Auer, D P

    2014-05-01

    Qualitative radiologic MR imaging review affords limited differentiation among types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors and cannot detect histologic or molecular subtypes, which could help to stratify treatment. This study aimed to improve current posterior fossa discrimination of histologic tumor type by using support vector machine classifiers on quantitative MR imaging features. This retrospective study included preoperative MRI in 40 children with posterior fossa tumors (17 medulloblastomas, 16 pilocytic astrocytomas, and 7 ependymomas). Shape, histogram, and textural features were computed from contrast-enhanced T2WI and T1WI and diffusivity (ADC) maps. Combinations of features were used to train tumor-type-specific classifiers for medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, and ependymoma types in separation and as a joint posterior fossa classifier. A tumor-subtype classifier was also produced for classic medulloblastoma. The performance of different classifiers was assessed and compared by using randomly selected subsets of training and test data. ADC histogram features (25th and 75th percentiles and skewness) yielded the best classification of tumor type (on average >95.8% of medulloblastomas, >96.9% of pilocytic astrocytomas, and >94.3% of ependymomas by using 8 training samples). The resulting joint posterior fossa classifier correctly assigned >91.4% of the posterior fossa tumors. For subtype classification, 89.4% of classic medulloblastomas were correctly classified on the basis of ADC texture features extracted from the Gray-Level Co-Occurence Matrix. Support vector machine-based classifiers using ADC histogram features yielded very good discrimination among pediatric posterior fossa tumor types, and ADC textural features show promise for further subtype discrimination. These findings suggest an added diagnostic value of quantitative feature analysis of diffusion MR imaging in pediatric neuro-oncology. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. A prospective study on fetal posterior cranial fossa assessment for early detection of open spina bifida at 11-13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Semir; Altunyurt, Sabahattin; Keskinoglu, Pembe

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test three measurements: brain stem (BS), intracranial translucency (IT) and brain stem to occipital bone distance (BSOB), as well as one landmark: cisterna magna (CM) visibility, for early diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB) in a low risk population. A prospective observational study was undertaken in a university hospital. A sample of 1479 women consented to participate between 20 September 2013 and 30 June 2015. Measurements were performed from the mid-sagittal view, as is routinely used for nuchal thickness assessment. CM visibility was assessed qualitatively as the third anechoic band in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF). All pregnancies were screened with a combination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and second trimester anomaly scan and followed until delivery. Predictive values were calculated for each marker. We were able to diagnose two OSB cases and highly suspect one Dandy-Walker malformation case at the first trimester scan by the observation of PCF. PCF characteristics of OSB cases were increased BS diameter, increased BS-BSOB ratio and non-visualization of the CM. All the markers demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity but CM visibility reached the highest positive predictive value. Due to relatively high false positive rates, PCF measurements could not reach a satisfactory performance to validate their clinical use as a single marker. CM visibility has the advantage of being a qualitative marker and reduces the need for sophisticated and time-consuming measurements. Intracranial translucency and BS-BSOB ratio measurements should be used when the CM visibility is absent or in doubt. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ruozhen; Li Yuhua; Gong Wuxian; Wu Lebin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

  18. A Percutaneous Transtubular Middle Fossa Approach for Intracanalicular Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Antonio; Evins, Alexander I; Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Stieg, Philip E

    2015-07-01

    In cases of small intracanalicular tumors (≤ 1.5 cm), the middle fossa approach (MFA) provides the ability for adequate tumor removal with preservation of existing auditory function. Application of a minimally invasive tubular retractor in this approach may help mitigate the risk of postoperative seizures, aphasia, and venous complications by minimizing intraoperative retraction of the temporal lobe. We propose a minimally invasive microscopic and/or endoscopic percutaneous transtubular MFA for the management of intracanalicular tumors. Subtemporal keyhole craniectomies were performed on 5 preserved cadaveric heads (10 sides), with 6 sides previously injected with a synthetic tumor model. A ViewSite Brain Access System tubular retractor (Vycor Medical, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA) was used to provide minimal temporal retraction and protection of the surrounding anatomy. An extradural dissection of the internal auditory canal was performed under microscopic and endoscopic visualization with a minimally invasive surgical drill and tube shaft instruments, the intracanalicular tumors were removed, and degree of resection was assessed. All 10 approaches were completed successfully through the tubular retractor with minimal retraction of the temporal lobe. Excellent visualization of the structures within the internal auditory canal was achieved with both the microscope and 3-dimensional endoscope. On the 6 synthetic intracanalicular tumors resected, 5 gross total (Grade I) and 1 near total (Grade II) resections were achieved. A percutaneous transtubular MFA is a feasible minimally invasive option for resection of small intracanalicular tumors with potential preservation of auditory function, reduced temporal retraction, and enhanced protection of surrounding structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecotoxicological effect of ketamine: Evidence of acute, chronic and photolysis toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic organisms remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of ketamine and its metabolite, along with the chronic reproductive toxicity of ketamine (5-100μg/L) to Daphnia magna. Multiple environmental scenarios were also evaluated, including drug mixtures and sunlight irradiation toxicity. Ketamine and norketamine caused acute toxicity to D. magna, with half lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 30.93 and 25.35mg/L, respectively, after 48h of exposure. Irradiated solutions of ketamine (20mg/L) significantly increased the mortality of D. magna; pre-irradiation durations up to 2h rapidly increased the death rate to 100%. A new photolysis byproduct (M.W. 241) of norketamine that accumulates during irradiation was identified for the first time. The relevant environmental concentration of ketamine produced significant reproductive toxicity effects in D. magna, as revealed by the reduction of the number of total live offspring by 33.6-49.8% (p ketamine concentration cannot be ignored and warrant further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic variation in the cellular response of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to its bacterial parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Stuart K J R; Scholefield, Jennifer A; Little, Tom J

    2010-11-07

    Linking measures of immune function with infection, and ultimately, host and parasite fitness is a major goal in the field of ecological immunology. In this study, we tested for the presence and timing of a cellular immune response in the crustacean Daphnia magna following exposure to its sterilizing endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa. We found that D. magna possesses two cell types circulating in the haemolymph: a spherical one, which we call a granulocyte and an irregular-shaped amoeboid cell first described by Metchnikoff over 125 years ago. Daphnia magna mounts a strong cellular response (of the amoeboid cells) just a few hours after parasite exposure. We further tested for, and found, considerable genetic variation for the magnitude of this cellular response. These data fostered a heuristic model of resistance in this naturally coevolving host-parasite interaction. Specifically, the strongest cellular responses were found in the most susceptible hosts, indicating resistance is not always borne from a response that destroys invading parasites, but rather stems from mechanisms that prevent their initial entry. Thus, D. magna may have a two-stage defence--a genetically determined barrier to parasite establishment and a cellular response once establishment has begun.

  1. Effect of an Aspartame-Ethanol Mixture on Daphnia magna Cardiac Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kohn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame in conjunction with alcohol has been shown to increase the blood alcohol level in humans faster than alcohol and sucrose (Wu et al., 2006. To determine the potential effects of various mixtures of ethanol and aspartame on the nervous system, the heart rate of Daphnia magna (D.magna, water flea was measured in deionized water (control, ethanol, aspartame, and five different mixtures of ethanol and aspartame. The heart rate was chosen as a representative measure since it is controlled by the nervous system and the heart rate of D.magna can easily be measured. The results were statistically evaluated by student’s t-test. A significant increase in heart rate was observed for all mixed assays compared to both control and ethanol, but not to aspartame. The data suggests that the aspartame and alcohol mixture have a greater effect on D. magna heart rate than water or ethanol, but not aspartame alone. We propose that alcohol in combination with aspartame has potentially detrimental consequences for the nervous system.

  2. Population structure and dispersal routes of an invasive parasite, Fascioloides magna, in North America and Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juhasova, L.; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Minárik, G.; Štefka, Jan; Mikulíček, P.; Pálková, L.; Pybus, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, OCT 13 (2016), č. článku 547. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microsatellites * parasite * giant liver fluke * Fascioloides magna * genetic interrelationships * migratory routes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  3. EFFECTIVE CONCENTRATIONS OF 6 CONTAMINANTS TO LEMMA MINOR, PIMEPHALES PROMELA, DAPHNIA MAGNA, AND CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here resulted in EC50 and LOEC values for the contaminants copper, cadmium, diazinon, atrazine, and cyanide to the species Lemna Minor, Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Observed values were used as benchmarks for assessing the se...

  4. Food mediated life history strategies in Daphnia magna : their relevance to ecotoxicological evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The waterflea Daphnia magna is a widely used test organism in ecotoxicological studies. Acute and chronic laboratory tests yield basic information for the development of water quality standards, assessment of potential hazards of (new) chemicals, waste water licences and

  5. Trophic transfer of differently functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles from crustaceans (Daphnia magna) to zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Winther-Nielsen, M.; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    ) higher than toxic levels reported for zinc in D. magna. Consequently, the zinc recovered in the animals was not solely due to soluble zinc, but agglomerates/aggregates of ZnO NP or ZnO-octyl NP contributed to the body burdens. The trophic transfer study showed uptake of both ZnO NP and ZnO-octyl NP...

  6. Greek perceptions of frontier in Magna Graecia: literature and archaeology in dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton POLLINI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Greek perceptions of frontier in Magna Graecia, from a historical archaeological, contextual standpoint. Considering the complex relationship between literary and archaeological evidence, the paper uses as a case study the frontier in Southern Italy, discussing the subjective frontier perceptions by Greeks and Natives in interaction.

  7. Sandwich wound closure reduces the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks in posterior fossa surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Heymanns

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Posterior fossa surgery is demanding and hides a significant number of obstacles starting from the approach to the wound closure. The risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage in posterior fossa surgery given in the literature is around 8%. The present study aims to introduce a sandwich closure of the dura in posterior fossa surgery, which reduces significantly the number of CSF leaks (3.8% in the patients treated in our department. Three hundred and ten patients treated in our hospital in the years 2009-2013 for posterior fossa pathologies were retrospectively evaluated. The dura closure method was as following: lyophilized dura put under the dura and sealed with fibrin glue and sutures, dura adapting stitches, TachoSil® (Takeda Pharma A/S, Roskilde, Denmark, Gelfoam® (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA and polymethylmethacrylate (osteoclastic craniotomy. The incidence of postsurgical complications associated with the dural closure like CSF leakage, infections, bleeding is evaluated. Only 3.8% of patients developed CSF leakage and only 0.5% needed a second surgery for CSF leakage closure. Two percent had a cerebellar bleeding with no need for re-operation and 3% had a wound infection treated with antibiotics. The sandwich wound closure we are applying for posterior fossa surgery in our patients correlates with a significant reduction of CSF leaks compared to the literature.

  8. 3D printing the pterygopalatine fossa: a negative space model of a complex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Ross; Parihar, Shivani; Skarparis, Yiannis; Varsou, Ourania; Cezayirli, Enis

    2018-02-01

    The pterygopalatine fossa is one of the most complex anatomical regions to understand. It is poorly visualized in cadaveric dissection and most textbooks rely on schematic depictions. We describe our approach to creating a low-cost, 3D model of the pterygopalatine fossa, including its associated canals and foramina, using an affordable "desktop" 3D printer. We used open source software to create a volume render of the pterygopalatine fossa from axial slices of a head computerised tomography scan. These data were then exported to a 3D printer to produce an anatomically accurate model. The resulting 'negative space' model of the pterygopalatine fossa provides a useful and innovative aid for understanding the complex anatomical relationships of the pterygopalatine fossa. This model was designed primarily for medical students; however, it will also be of interest to postgraduates in ENT, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and radiology. The technical process described may be replicated by other departments wishing to develop their own anatomical models whilst incurring minimal costs.

  9. Congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa with congenital aural atresia and mastoiditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Aziz Mosaad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital cholesteatoma may be expected in abnormally developed ear, it may cause bony erosion of the middle ear cleft and extend to the infratemporal fossa. We present the first case of congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in a patient with congenital aural atresia that has been complicated with acute mastoiditis. Case presentation A sixteen year old Egyptian male patient presented with congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa with congenital aural atresia complicated with acute mastoiditis. Two weeks earlier, the patient suffered pain necessitating hospital admission, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft tissue mass in the right infratemporal fossa. On presentation to our institute, Computerized tomography was done as a routine, it proved the diagnosis of mastoiditis, pure tone audiometry showed an air-bone gap of 60 dB. Cortical mastoidectomy was done for treatment of mastoiditis, removal of congenital cholesteatoma was carried out with reconstruction of external auditory canal. Follow-up of the patient for 2 years and 3 months showed a patent, infection free external auditory canal with an air-bone gap has been reduced to 35db. One year after the operation; MRI was done and it showed no residual or recurrent cholesteatoma. Conclusions Congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in cases of congenital aural atresia can be managed safely even if it was associated with mastoiditis. It is an original case report of interest to the speciality of otolaryngology.

  10. Clinical analysis of surgical treatment of traumatic hematomas of the posterior cranial fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenhua; Zhou Youxin; Zhu Fengqing; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical features and surgical outcome of the traumatic hematomas posterior cranial fossa. Methods: Fifteen patients with traumatic hematomas posterior cranial fossa in authors' hospital during the period from 1995 to 1998 were reviewed. Results: Thirteen patients had an occipital skull fracture, 11 pure epidural hematomas among whom 4 had cerebellar contusion and hematomas 4 posterior cranial fossa hematoma with associated cerebral hematoma or contusion, and 5 acute hydrocephalus. Fifteen patients were treated by emergency surgery, 9 had good recovery and 1 had severe disability in GCS between 9 and 15 marking, 1 had good recovery, 1 had severe disability and 3 died in GCS between 3 and 8. Nine patients had good recovery in 11 patient having pure epidural hematoma of posterior cranial fossa. Conclusions: The clinical course of the traumatic hematomas posterior cranial fossa was acute and severe. The GCS value below 9 predicts the poor out-come for patients. Early diagnosis and appropriately and promptly treatment are crucial for achieving good results

  11. Protein profiling as early detection biomarkers for TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Pereira, Paula; Diniz, Mário S; Moita, Liliana; Pinheiro, Teresa; Mendonça, Elsa; Paixão, Susana M; Picado, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch. The protein profile of individuals exposed to different concentrations showed that 2.8 and 5.6 mg/L TiO 2 -NP concentrations induced an over-expression of the majority of proteins, in particular proteins with molecular weight of ∼120, 85 and 15 kDa, while 11.2 mg/L TiO 2 -NP had an inhibitory effect on protein expression. The Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of these proteins consistently identified them as vitellogenin (Vtg)-like proteins, associated with enzymes involved in redox balance. These results indicate that Vtg-like proteins are up-regulated in D. magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs. Vitellogenesis is associated with the reproduction system, suggesting that TiO 2 -NP exposure can impair reproduction by affecting this process. The precise mode of action of TiO 2 -NPs is still unclear and the results from this study are a first attempt to identify specific proteins as potential markers of TiO 2 -NP toxicity in D. magna, providing useful information for future research.

  12. Rapid changes in water hardness and alkalinity: Calcite formation is lethal to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Sarah J; Woodman, Samuel; Steinkey, Dylan; Meays, Cindy; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-07-15

    There is growing concern that freshwater ecosystems may be negatively affected by ever-increasing anthropogenic inputs of extremely hard, highly alkaline effluent containing large quantities of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3(2-), and HCO3(-) ions. In this study, the toxicity of rapid and extreme shifts in water hardness (38-600mg/L as CaCO3) and alkalinity (30-420mg/L as CaCO3) to Daphnia magna was tested, both independently and in combination. Within these ranges, where no precipitation event occurred, shifts in water hardness and/or alkalinity were not toxic to D. magna. In contrast, 98-100% of D. magna died within 96h after exposure to 600mg/L as CaCO3 water hardness and 420mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity (LT50 of 60h with a 95% CI of 54.2-66.0h). In this treatment, a CaCO3 (calcite) precipitate formed in the water column which was ingested by and thoroughly coated the D. magna. Calcite collected from a mining impacted stream contained embedded organisms, suggesting field streams may also experience similar conditions and possibly increased mortality as observed in the lab tests. Although further investigation is required to determine the exact fate of aquatic organisms exposed to rapid calcite precipitation in the field, we caution that negative effects may occur more quickly or at lower concentrations of water hardness and alkalinity in which we observed effects in D. magna, because some species, such as aquatic insects, are more sensitive than cladocerans to changes in ionic strength. Our results provide evidence that both calcite precipitation and the major ion balance of waters should be managed in industrially affected ecosystems and we support the development of a hardness+alkalinity guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of the canine intercondylar fossa in normal stifles and after notchplasty in stable and unstable stifles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, R.B.; Hathcock, J.T.; Montgomery, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the intercondylar fossa in cranial cruciate ligament injury has gained notable attention in humans and it's role is now being questioned in animals. Controversy exists regarding the accuracy of radiographs and computed tomography (CT) in evaluating the intercondylar fossa. This study compared radiographic and CT evaluation with gross evaluation of the intercondylar fossa. Six greyhounds were evaluated before notchplasty, immediately after notchplasty and 6 months after notchplasty in stable and unstable stifles. A fossa width index was used for comparison because it negates the effects of patient size and radiographic magnification. The fossa width index is calculated by dividing the width of the intercondylar fossa by the total condylar width. The fossa width indices of dogs determined from radiographs and CT were not significantly different before notchplasty except for the cranial fossa width indices which were more inconsistent and tended to underestimate the size when compared to gross measurements. At six months, both stable and unstable stifles had refilling of the notchplasty, but the unstable stifles had significantly greater refilling resulting in no significant enlargement in intercondylar fossa size as compared to the prenotchplasty size. Osteophytes that occurred within the intercondylar fossa were less radiopaque and more easily visualized by computed tomography. Computed tomography provided several advantages, including clearer visualization of the intercondylar fossa, avoiding superimposition of the intercondylar fossa by caudal thigh muscles or tuber ischii and the ability to analyze the cranial and caudal components of the intercondylar fossa separately

  14. Venous hemodynamics of arteriovenous meningeal fistulas in the posterior cranial fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainin, M.; Samec, P.

    1983-01-01

    The etiology of arteriovenous meningeal fistulas (AVMFs) of the posterior fossa often remains unclear. Analyses of three personal cases, however, suggest a change in venous hemodynamics due to a primary lesion, the cases being of sinus thrombosis, intracerebral abcess with oedema and arteriovenous malformation. It is suggested that increase of venous pressure in the posterior fossa leads to increased drainage and, consequently, to dilatation of infratentorial veins and of meningeal branches of the external carotid and vertebral artery. Clinical findings and anatomical facts underlying AVMF lesions tend to confirm the view that the concept of a congenital malformation decompensating with age cannot be upheld for all AVMFs, especially when located in the posterior fossa and when clinical symptoms arise in middle age. It is proposed that a pressure activated mechanism of growth results in widening of normally insignificantly small dural vessels. (orig.)

  15. Ependymoma of the pituitary fossa. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Asa, Sylvia; Gentili, Fred; Shannon, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    The authors describe a case of pituitary fossa ependymoma and discuss its immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics. A 43-year-old man presented with decreased libido and panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-demarcated enhancing lesion of the pituitary fossa that was completely resected via a transsphenoidal approach. Ependymomas rarely occur in the pituitary fossa, and have been reported in this location only three times in humans and once in a horse. This is the first study in which investigators examined the appearance of a pituitary ependymoma by using electron microscopy. Theories of the origin and treatment of these rare tumors are discussed as they relate to other articles on intracranial ependymomas.

  16. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for squamous carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, John T.; Morrison, William H.; Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Peters, Lester J.; Ang, K. Kian

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a concomitant boost fractionation schedule of radiotherapy for treating patients with squamous carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa. Patients and Methods: Between December 1983 and November 1992, 83 patients with squamous carcinoma of the tonsil were treated with concomitant boost fractionation. The distribution of American Joint Committee on Cancer T stages was TX-4, T1-5, T2-29, T3-41, T4-4; N stages were NX-1, N0-26, N1-13, N2-31, N3-12. Patients were treated with standard large fields to 54 Gy in 6 weeks. The boost treatment consisted of a second daily 1.5 Gy fraction for 10-12 fractions, usually delivered during the final phase of treatment. The tumor dose was 69-72 Gy, given over 6 weeks. Twenty-one patients, who all had N2 or N3 regional disease, underwent neck dissections, either before (13 patients) or 6 weeks after radiotherapy (8 patients); the other patients were treated with radiotherapy alone. Results: The 5-year actuarial disease-specific survival and overall survival rates were 71 and 60%, respectively. Patients with T2 and T3 primary tumors had 5-year actuarial local control rates of 96 and 78%, respectively. Patients with T3 disease who received the final-phase boost had a 5-year actuarial local control rate of 82%. Actuarial 5-year regional disease control rates were N0, 92%; N1, 76%; N2, 89%; and N3, 89%. The 21 patients who had neck dissections all had their disease regionally controlled. Patients presenting with nodal disease or after a node excision who were treated with radiation alone had a 5-year actuarial regional disease control rate of 79%. All but five patients had confluent Grade 4 mucositis during treatment. Severe late complications attributable to radiation included mandibular necrosis, in-field osteosarcoma, and chronic dysphagia for solid foods. Conclusions: High rates of local and regional disease control were achieved with the concomitant boost fractionation schedule, with few cases of severe late

  17. The Radiological Spectrum of Orbital Pathologies that Involve the Lacrimal Gland and the Lacrimal Fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Sang; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a nonenhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. Clinically, the lesions of the lacrimal gland and fossa are found as palpable masses in the superior lateral aspect of the orbit, and these lesions constitute about 5-13% of all of the orbital masses confirmed by biopsy. Many different pathological entities arise from the lacrimal gland and fossa, and as each of them requires a different therapeutic approach, the radiological characterization of each lesion is important. Approximately, half of the lacrimal gland masses are tumors of epithelial origin and the rest are lesions that arise from lymphoid or inflammatory diseases. Pseudotumors, metastatic masses and developmental cysts may also occur in the lacrimal fossa. This paper aims to discuss the radiologic findings of the lesions that are found in

  18. The Radiological Spectrum of Orbital Pathologies that Involve the Lacrimal Gland and the Lacrimal Fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Sang; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai

    2007-01-01

    CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a nonenhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. Clinically, the lesions of the lacrimal gland and fossa are found as palpable masses in the superior lateral aspect of the orbit, and these lesions constitute about 5-13% of all of the orbital masses confirmed by biopsy. Many different pathological entities arise from the lacrimal gland and fossa, and as each of them requires a different therapeutic approach, the radiological characterization of each lesion is important. Approximately, half of the lacrimal gland masses are tumors of epithelial origin and the rest are lesions that arise from lymphoid or inflammatory diseases. Pseudotumors, metastatic masses and developmental cysts may also occur in the lacrimal fossa. This paper aims to discuss the radiologic findings of the lesions that are found in

  19. Remote Supratentorial Hemorrhage After Posterior Fossa Surgery: A Brief Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The supratentorial hemorrhage after posterior fossa surgery is an unusual but delicate complication that carries high mortality and morbidity. A 50 year old woman presented vertigo 6 months of evolution, which worsened in the last 2 months accompanied by ataxia. She showed left cerebellar signs, had no focal motor or sensory deficits. A brain MRI identified cerebellopontine angle lesion with mass effect. The patient was treated on suboccipital craniectomy and resection of right posterior fossa tumor, the histopathological diagnosis was consistent with typical meningioma. (WHO Class I.

  20. [Morphometric evaluation of the lateral fossa during the pre-gyrus period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlam, H; Macovei, G N; Antohe, D St

    2002-09-01

    During edification of neocortex, the lateral fossa is involved in the process of development of cerebral hemispheres. It changes its shape and, from a shallow depression at the end of the 3rd month, it becomes a triangular surface with marked borders. Finally, in the same time with the appearance of circumvolutions the opercles that limit it come closer and give rise to the lateral sulcus. The evolution of the lateral fossa can be analysed by linear and surface parameters. Morphometric and statistic analyse of these parameters, compared with those of the cerebral hemisphere, allowed us to establish some original criteria for appreciating the growth of the foetal brain.

  1. Chololesterol granuloma in the middle cranial fossa: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, T.; Fujii, K.; Nishio, S.; Hasuo, K.; Hisashi, K.; Miyagi, Y.; Nagata, S.; Fukui, M.

    1995-01-01

    We report two cases of cholesterol granuloma in the middle cranial fossa. On CT the lesions appeared as a nonspecific, nonenhancing soft-tissue mass with bone erosion. On MRI they were seen as areas of high signal intensity surrounded by a low-intensity peripheral zone on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Cholesterol granuloma is thought to occur when pneumatised cells in the temporal bone become obstructed. Although this lesion usually occurs in the petrous bone, it can extend to the middle cranial fossa. The diagnosis and surgical management are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies associated with posterior fossa exploration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ayman; Clerkin, James; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Green, Sandra; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2016-03-06

    Multiple cranial nerves palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment is a rare clinical presentation. This case report describes a young man who developed a unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment. There are different theories to explain this presentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We propose that this patient cranial nerve palsies developed following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, potentially as a consequence of rapid change in CSF dynamics. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  3. Relationship between external and histologic features of progressive stages of caries in the occlusal fossa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Kuzmina, I; Bjørndal, L

    1995-01-01

    highly correlated (rs = 0.90). Dentinal changes were also highly correlated with enamel changes (rs = 0.85). The histologic classifications in conjunction with the macroscopical observations made it possible to demonstrate a clear relationship between the external degree of caries progression......) and 8 (M) classification criteria, ranging from 'sound' to 'cavitation with dentine involvement'. Six radiographic scores were used in the classification. Sections 250 microns in thickness were cut in buccolingual direction through the central fossa, and the fossa section with the most extensive...

  4. The positively phototactic reaction of daphnia magna straus: A contribution to the understanding of diurnal vertical migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.

    1964-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed at gaining more insight into the physiological mechanism underlying the diurnal vertical migration of planktonic animals. The experiments were carried out on Daphnia magna. Only reactions to decreases in light intensity were studied. Kinetical

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  6. Toxicity and genotoxicity of the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) using Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia as model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Parrella, Alfredo; Isidori, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of the cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride (BAC) were studied using Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia as model systems. Acute and chronic toxicity testing were performed according to the international standard guidelines and the genotoxicity was detected through the comet assay on cells from whole organisms in vivo exposed. Acute effects occurred at concentrations in the order of tens of μg/L in D. magna and hundreds of μg/L in C. dubia. Chronic effects were found at one order of magnitude less than short-term effects maintaining the same difference in sensitivity between D. magna and C. dubia. BAC induced relevant DNA damage, in both cladocerans; the lowest adverse effect levels were 0.4 and 4 ng/L for D. magna and C. dubia, respectively. As these effective concentrations are far lower than BAC occurrence in surface waters (units of μg/L) a concerning environmental risk cannot be excluded. The findings of this study showed that D. magna and C. dubia, could be used as model organisms to detect acute and chronic toxicity as well as genotoxicity at the whole organism level. - Highlights: • Benzalkonium chloride chronic effect in C. dubia was found at dozens of μg/L. • The LOAEC detected by comet assay in D. magna is in the order of hundreds of pg/L. • D. magna and C. dubia are useful model organisms to detect toxicity and genotoxicity. - Benzalkonium chloride showed chronic toxicity and genotoxicity in Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia at concentrations of environmental concern. Daphnids are useful model organisms.

  7. Secreted protein eco-corona mediates uptake and impacts of polystyrene nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Fatima; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as having at least one external dimension between 1 and 100 nm. Due to their small size, NPs have a large surface area to volume ratio giving them unique characteristics that differ from bulk material of the same chemical composition. As a result these novel materials have found numerous applications in medical and industrial fields with the result that environmental exposure to NPs is increasingly likely. Similarly, increased reliance on plastic, which degrades extremely slowly in the environment, is resulting in increased accumulation of micro-/nano-plastics in fresh and marine waters, whose ecotoxicological impacts are as yet poorly understood. Although NPs are well known to adsorb macromolecules from their environment, forming a biomolecule corona which changes the NP identity and how it interacts with organisms, significantly less research has been performed on the ecological corona (eco-corona). Secretion of biomolecules is a well established predator-prey response in aquatic food chains, raising the question of whether NPs interact with secreted proteins, and the impact of such interaction on NP uptake and ecotoxicity. We report here initial studies, including optimisation of protocols using carboxylic-acid and amino modified spherical polystyrene NPs, to assess interaction of NPs with biomolecules secreted by Daphnia magna and the impact of these interactions on NP uptake, retention and toxicity towards Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna are an important environmental indicator species who may be especially sensitive to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of being filter-feeders. This paper demonstrates for the first time that proteins released by Daphnia magna create an eco-corona around polystyrene NPs which causes heightened uptake of the NPs and consequently increases toxicity. The secreted protein eco-corona also causes the NPs to be less efficiently removed from the gut of D. magna and NPs remaining in the gut of D. magna

  8. Teratoma of the posterior fossa CT and MR aspects A case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J.I.; Feijoo, R.; Lasierra, R.; Medrano, J.; Benito, J.L. de

    1994-01-01

    The CT and MR findings are reported for a patient diagnosed as having teratoma of the posterior fossa with onset in the form of intracranial hypertension. The objective of this article is to report the detection of the lesion, as well as its origin in the closure defect of the cranial cavity with the formation of a cutaneous fistula, and review the recent literature

  9. Posterior fossa syndrome in a patient with an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedermeijer, S. C M; Van Den Hout, J.; Geleijns, C.; De Klerk, H.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) is a well-known clinical entity and mainly occurs in children. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC) is the most common urea cycle disorder, which occurs in an estimated 1 per 50.000 live births in Japan. Symptoms are mostly due to hyperammonemia and include

  10. 3DCRT for posterior fossa: Sparing of surrounding organs at risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Radiotherapy of the posterior fossa is routinely delivered using 3DCRT parallel-opposed lateral fields. However high incidence of sensorineural hearing loss, hypothalamic– pituitary dysfunction, thyroid and gonadal dysfunction during radiotherapy makes the need for treatment plan which provides adequate ...

  11. Cysts of the fossa of Rosenmüller: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Simon K W; Di Cuffa, Riccardo A; Seymour, Felicity K; Savy, Lloyd E; Grant, Henry R

    2010-08-01

    Cystic lesions of the nasopharynx are rare. Two cases of mucous retention cysts originating from the fossa of Rosenmüller are described, together with their characteristic radiologic appearance, which allows differentiation from other types of lesions in this region. The differential diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.

  12. Is bacterial colonisation of the tonsillar fossa a factor in post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, J. C.; Georgalas, C.; Kyi, M.; Ghufoor, K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify if there is a link between bacterial colonisation of the tonsillar fossa and post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective non-interventional study of 105 patients who underwent tonsillectomy during a seven-month period. The study took place in a

  13. Traumatic acute subdural haematomas of the posterior fossa: clinicoradiological analysis of 24 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, D. d'; Conti, A.; Cardali, S.; Tomasello, F.; Servadei, F.; Scerrati, M.; Tomei, G.; Brambilla, G.; Massaro, F.; Stefini, R.; Cristofori, L.

    2003-01-01

    We report 24 patients with a traumatic acute subdural haematoma of the posterior fossa managed between 1997 and 1999 at 8 Italian neurosurgical centres. Each centre provided data about patients clinico-radiological findings, management, and outcomes, which were retrospectively reviewed. A poor result occurred in 14 patients (58.3 %). Ten patients (41.7 %) had favourable results. Patients were divided into two groups according to their admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. In Group 1 (12/24 cases; GCS score, 8), the outcome was favourable in 75 % of cases. In Group 2 (12/12 cases; GCS score, <8), the outcome was poor in 91.6 % of cases. Nineteen patients underwent posterior fossa surgery. Factors correlating to outcome were GCS score, status of the basal cisterns and the fourth ventricle, and the presence of supratentorial hydrocephalus. Multivariate analysis showed significant independent prognostic effect only for GCS score (P < 0.05). Acute posterior fossa subdural haematomas can be divided into two distinct groups: those patients admitted in a comatose state and those with a moderate/mild head injury on admission. Comatose patients present usually with signs of posterior fossa mass effect and have a high percentage of bad outcomes. On the contrary, patients admitted with a GCS of 8 or higher are expected to recover. In these patients the thickness of the haematoma (< 1 cm) seems to be a guide to indicate surgical evacuation of the haematoma. (author)

  14. Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa causing an epidural haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struewer, Johannes; Kiriazidis, Ilias; Figiel, Jens; Dukatz, Thomas; Frangen, Thomas; Ziring, Ewgeni

    2012-07-01

    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of mandibular trauma due to anatomical and biomechanical factors. Owing to the proximity of the temporal glenoid fossa to the middle meningeal artery, there is the risk of serious sequelae in case of trauma. The authors report the case of a 36-year-old male patient, who was beaten up in a family dispute and presented with complex mandibular and maxillofacial fractures, including mandibular condyle intrusion into the middle cranial fossa causing extensive meningeal bleeding. The patient underwent immediate surgery, with evacuation of the epidural haematoma via a temporal approach. In addition open reduction and reconstruction of the temporal glenoid fossa via anatomic reduction of the fragments was performed. A functional occlusion was re-established via miniplate reconstruction of the complex mandibular body and ramus fractures. Prompt diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach are essential to minimize the complications. Advanced imaging modalities of computed tomography are indicated. Treatment options should be individualized in particular in case of suspected neurological injury. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporalis myofascial repair of traumatic defects of the anterior fossa. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, R P; Shagets, F W; de los Reyes, R A

    1986-06-01

    Bilateral temporalis myofascial flaps in continuity with frontal periosteum can be used in repairing extensive dural and bone defects of the anterior cranial fossa floor. The technique of preserving and using this flap is described and offers an alternative to the use of frontal pericranial tissue for repair of anterior dural defects.

  16. Posterior fossa midline cryptococcoma in a patient with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL is a rare disorder which is often diagnosed as HIV-negative AIDS in the light of poor immunity and AIDS-defining illnesses. We present a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with a midline posterior fossa tumour with ICL diagnosed as cerebellar cryptococcoma.

  17. The intercondylar fossa of the normal canine stifle: an anatomic and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, Randall B.; Montgomery, Ronald D.; Milton, James L.; Garrett, Phillip D.; Kincaid, Steven A.; Wright, James C.; Terry, Glenn C.

    1995-01-01

    The intercondylar fossa (ICF) in dogs consists of a cranial outlet, intercondylar shelf, caudal arch, caudal outlet, a medial wall, and a lateral wall. The normal cranial outlet is bell-shape and, in mixed-breed dogs (mean body weight 19.2 kg, N = 21), measured 5.8 mm cranially, 8.1 mm centrally, and 10.3 mm caudally. The ICF is oriented 12 degree from the dorsal plane of the femoral diaphysis and obliqued 7 degree , proximolateral to distomedial, in the sagittal plane. To adjust for dog size, a fossa width index (FWI) was calculated by dividing the cranial outlet width by the distance between epicondyles. The normal FWI as determined in this study was 0.18 cranially, 0.25 centrally, and 0.32 caudally. The fossa height index was 0.31. Contact between the ICF and the cranial cruciate ligament began at about 115 degree of extension. The contact area moved cranially in the intercondylar fossa as the stifle was extended. Evaluation of the ICF can be performed radiographically but positioning is critical

  18. Infraorbital Foramen and Pterygopalatine Fossa Location in Dry Skulls: Anatomical Guidelines for Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Masabni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to locate the infraorbital foramen (IOF in relation to the infraorbital margin (IOM for proper injections of local anesthetics in skull specimens. Another aim was to determine the depth of needle penetration into pterygopalatine fossa through the greater palatine canal (GPC. Materials and Methods. 102 skull halves were used to measure the distances between (1 IOF and IOM and (2 IOF and alveolar ridge of maxilla at second premolar. Needles were inserted and bent at a 45° angle, passing through the GPC at the level of hard palate. The depth of the tip of needle emerging out of GPC into pterygopalatine fossa was measured. Results. The mean distance between IOF and IOM was 6.46±1.57 mm on the right side and 6.74±1.72 mm on the left. The mean distance between IOF and alveolar bone process of the maxilla at second premolar was 29.07±3.58 mm on the right side and 29.39±3.78 mm on the left. The mean depth of penetration of the needle into the pterygopalatine fossa was similar on both sides. Conclusions. Proper identification of IOF and pterygopalatine fossa is of great significance during local anesthesia injections, due to their close proximity to vital anatomic structures.

  19. 3DCRT for posterior fossa: Sparing of surrounding organs at risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azza Helal

    2013-06-25

    Jun 25, 2013 ... including non-posterior fossa brain, pituitary, cochlea, eyes, optic nerves, optic chiasm, ... grams; Rt.C, right cochlea; Lt. C, left cochlea; Non P.F, non posterior ... child's cognitive function and quality of life.6 Although the.

  20. Infratemporal fossa extension of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: a rare entity with diagnosis dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaf, J.H.; Gendeh, B.S.; Yunus, M.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of parotid gland is rare but it is an aggressive neoplasm that can have extension into the infratemporal fossa. We report a 60-year-old female presenting with toothache over left lower molar causing a diagnostic dilemma. (author)

  1. Arterial relationships to the nerves and some rigid structures in the posterior cranial fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surchev, N

    2008-09-01

    The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Acute epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa caused by forehead impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S; Furukawa, K; Endo, S; Hoshi, S; Kanaya, H

    1988-03-01

    A rare case of acute epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa caused by forehead impact is reported. This 36-year-old man fell from a truck and hit his face. He was conscious and was brought to our center 30 minutes after the injury. On admission, a contused wound of the right forehead was noticed. He was restless and had severe pain in the neck and upper extremities. Skull X-ray showed a linear fracture of the frontal bone and computed tomography (CT) scan was normal. He continued to be restless and sudden respiratory arrest and pupillary dilation occurred 10 hours after the admission. A CT scan revealed a lenticular high density area in the left posterior fossa which extended to the supratentorial region. The 4th ventricle was compressed and displaced to the right and also the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns were not visualized at all. Immediate surgery disclosed a 30 g epidural hematoma of the left posterior fossa and the supratentorium and the clot was completely evacuated. The source of bleeding could not be identified. Opening of the dura revealed contusion in the occipital lobe. He died on the 17th postoperative day. The possible mechanism in the production of the posterior fossa hematoma in this case is discussed.

  3. PAEDIATRIC POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMORS: A CLIN ICO - PATHOLOGICAL STUDY I N A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sekhar Kennedy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tumors of the Central Nervous S ystem , are the second commonest childhood tumors and are the most common solid paediatric tumors comprising 40% - 50% of all tumors . 1 2 Posterior fossa brain tumors are one of the most devastating forms of human illnesses wh ich are more common in children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the incidence, clinicopathological features and management of paediatric posterior fossa tumors. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This is a prospective study done in the Department of Neurosurgery, Ranga raya Medical College, Government General Hospital, Kakinada from 2012 to 2015. It is a Tertiary Care Hospital. A total of 25 paediatric patients ranging from infants to 15 years were included in the study. DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION: Posterior fossa tumors are the commonest solid brain tumors of children with a rate of 2.4 per lakh of children at risk per year. The predominant symptoms are headache and vomiting followed by cerebellar symptoms (gait disturbances. Posterior fossa tumors are predominantly seen in children with peak incidence in first decade. Commonest presenting symptoms are due to raised intracranial pressure with headache and vomiting followed by cerebellar symptoms. Meticulous microsurgical techniques are to be followed in removing these tum ors. The incidence of recurrence is very less after gross total excision. Prognosis is good in patients with total excision

  4. The effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna exposed to silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Gergs, A.

    ) were performed using 30 nm citric acid stabilized AgNP. The aim of the study was, besides providing data for the chronic toxicity of AgNP, to study the influence of the food availability on the reproductive toxicity of AgNP in Daphnia magna. The exposure concentrations applied ranged from 2 to 50 μg...... to controls, whereas concentrations above 10 μgAg/L resulted in inhibition of growth and reproduction as well as an increased mortality. The addition of higher amounts of food showed a beneficial effect on animal survival, growth and reproduction. Similar as in normal food availability treatment, animals......The number of available studies on the acute effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on aquatic organisms has increased dramatically in recent years, but there is still very limited information available on chronic effects. In this study, a series of Daphnia magna 21-days reproduction test (OECD 211...

  5. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction.

  6. Pontine encephalocele and abnormalities of the posterior fossa following transclival endoscopic endonasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutourousiou, Maria; Filho, Francisco Vaz Guimaraes; Costacou, Tina; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H; Rothfus, William E; Gardner, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    Transclival endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been used for the treatment of posterior fossa tumors. The optimal method of reconstruction of large clival defects following EES has not been established. A morphometric analysis of the posterior fossa was performed in patients who underwent transclival EES to compare those with observed postoperative anatomical changes (study group) to 50 normal individuals (anatomical control group) and 41 matched transclival cases with preserved posterior fossa anatomy (case-control group) using the same parameters. Given the absence of clival bone following transclival EES, the authors used the line between the anterior commissure and the basion as an equivalent to the clival plane to evaluate the location of the pons. Four parameters were studied and compared in the two populations: the pontine location/displacement, the maximum anteroposterior (AP) diameter of the pons, the maximum AP diameter of the fourth ventricle, and the cervicomedullary angle (CMA). All measurements were performed on midsagittal 3-month postoperative MR images in the study group. Among 103 posterior fossa tumors treated with transclival EES, 14 cases (13.6%) with postoperative posterior fossa anatomy changes were identified. The most significant change was anterior displacement of the pons (transclival pontine encephalocele) compared with the normal location in the anatomical control group (p 50% of the clivus) and dura. Nine (64.3%) of the 14 patients were overweight (body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg/m(2)). An association between BMI and the degree of pontine encephalocele was observed, but did not reach statistical significance. The use of a fat graft as part of the reconstruction technique following transclival EES with dural opening was the single significant factor that prevented pontine displacement (p = 0.02), associated with 91% lower odds of pontine encephalocele (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.77). The effect of fat graft reconstruction was

  7. Is The Principle Of Magna Carta Regarding Religious Liberties Applied In Macedonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhija Bekim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human rights were analyzed and described in many writings from older times. If we consider their fame and historical value, most important ones are: Great Charter of Freedoms (Magna Carta Libertatum of 1215, the Law on Rights (Bill of Rights of 1689, the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America (1776 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789.

  8. A comparison of the response of Simocephalus mixtus (Cladocera) and Daphnia magna to contaminated freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Cruz-Cisneros, Jade Lizette; García-Hernández, Leonardo

    2008-09-01

    The southeast region of Mexico is characterized by intensive oil industry activities carried out by the national public enterprise Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). The freshwater lagoon "El Limón", located in the municipality of Macuspana, state of Tabasco, Mexico, has received over 40 years discharges of untreated waste waters from the Petrochemical Complex "Ciudad PEMEX", located on the border of the lagoon. To assess the toxicity of the sediments and, hence, to obtain information on the biological effects of these contaminating discharges, the cladoceran Simocephalus mixtus was used as a test organism in acute (48h) and chronic (12d) toxicity assays. For comparison purposes, bioassays were also conducted with the reference cladoceran Daphnia magna. The sediments of this lagoon contain important amounts of metals and hydrocarbons that have been accumulated over time; however, the acute tests only registered reduced lethal effects on the test organisms (maxima of 10% and 17% mortality for D. magna and S. mixtus, respectively). This may be due to low bioavailability of the pollutants present in the sediments. On the other hand, partial or total inhibition and delay in the start of reproduction, reduction in clutch sizes, reduced survival, as well as reduction in the size of adults and offspring were recorded in the chronic assays. The most evident chronic effects were found in S. mixtus; in this species, reproduction was inhibited up to 72%, whereas D. magna was only affected by 24%. We determined that S. mixtus is a more sensitive test organism than D. magna to assess whole-sediment toxicity in tropical environments, and that chronic exposure bioassays are required for an integrated sediment evaluation. The sediments from "El Limón" lagoon induced chronic intoxication responses and, therefore, remediation measures are urgently needed to recover environmental conditions suitable for the development of its aquatic biota.

  9. Nano-TiO2 enhances the toxicity of copper in natural water to Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wenhong; Cui Minming; Liu Hong; Wang Chuan; Shi Zhiwei; Tan Cheng; Yang Xiuping

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic environments at high concentrations has been well-established. This study demonstrates that, at a concentration generally considered to be safe in the environment, nano-TiO 2 remarkably enhanced the toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna by increasing the copper bioaccumulation. Specifically, at 2 mg L -1 nano-TiO 2 , the (LC 50 ) of Cu 2+ concentration observed to kill half the population, decreased from 111 μg L -1 to 42 μg L -1 . Correspondingly, the level of metallothionein decreased from 135 μg g -1 wet weight to 99 μg g -1 wet weight at a Cu 2+ level of 100 μg L -1 . The copper was found to be adsorbed onto the nano-TiO 2 , and ingested and accumulated in the animals, thereby causing toxic injury. The nano-TiO 2 may compete for free copper ions with sulfhydryl groups, causing the inhibition of the detoxification by metallothioneins. - Research highlights: → This study demonstrates that, at a concentration generally considered to be safe in the environment, nano-TiO 2 remarkably enhanced the toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna. → The copper was found to be adsorbed onto the nano-TiO 2 , and ingested and accumulated in the Daphnia magna, thereby causing toxic injury. → The nano-TiO 2 may compete for free copper ions with sulfhydryl groups, causing the inhibition of the detoxification mechanism of metallothionein. - The nano-TiO 2 remarkably enhanced the toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna. The nano-TiO 2 may compete for free copper ions with sulfhydryl groups, causing the inhibition of the detoxification mechanism of metallothionein.

  10. Trophic transfer of gold nanoparticles from Euglena gracilis or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Shin, Yu-Jin; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the trophic transfer of nanoparticles (NPs) is important because NPs are small enough to easily penetrate into organisms. In this study, we evaluated the trophic transfer of gold NPs (AuNPs) within the aquatic food chain. We observed AuNPs transfer from 2 species of primary producers (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Euglena gracilis) to the primary consumer (Daphnia magna). Also, bioaccumulation of AuNPs in E. gracilis was higher than that in C. reinhardtii. The reasons for the difference in Au accumulation may be the physical structure of these organisms, and the surface area that is available for interaction with NPs. C. reinhardtii has a cell wall that may act as a barrier to the penetration of NPs. The size of E. gracilis is larger than that of C. reinhardtii. This study demonstrates the trophic transfer of AuNPs from a general producer to a consumer in an aquatic environment. - Highlights: • This study evaluated the trophic transfer of AuNPs in an aquatic food chain. • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Euglena gracilis were selected as the primary producers. • Daphnia magna was used as the primary consumer. • The bioaccumulation of AuNPs in E. gracilis was higher than that in C. reinhardtii. • AuNPs were transferred from C. reinhardtii and E. gracilis to D. magna. - Gold nanoparticles can transfer from primary producers (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Euglena gracilis) to the primary consumer (Daphnia magna) in an aquatic environment

  11. Ecotoxicological assessment of Roundup-ready soybean agriculture investigated in a D. magna model

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhra, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Paper III of this thesis is not available i Munin: III: M. Cuhra, T. Traavik & T. Bøhn. 2014. 'Life cycle fitness differences in Daphnia magna fed Roundup-Ready soybean or conventional soybean or organic soybean', available in Aquaculture Nutrition Transgenic glyphosate tolerant soybeans are constituents of an industrial production system with specific agricultural practices and supplementary agrochemicals as interwoven additional elements. Thus the material produced should not be see...

  12. Multi-generational effects of propranolol on Daphnia magna at different environmental concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Tae-Yong; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Sang Don

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of propranolol on Daphnia magna (D. magna), we employed a multi-generational exposure period for eight generations and an environmentally relevant low concentration with 1.5 ng/L, 0.2 μg/L and 26 μg/L to reflect a realistic exposure scenario. Physiological endpoints were checked, including growth, number of neonates, heart rate, frequency of abdominal appendage movement and malformation rate of neonates. In the results, growth and abdominal appendage movement were affected by environmental concentration during several generations, and the responses showed consistent tendencies of response increase with concentration increase. Heart rate was the only endpoint affected throughout all exposure generations. Inhibitory and acceleratory effects on heart rate, growth and abdominal appendage movement suggest that it is necessary to cover sub-lethal endpoints of non-targeted organisms in eco-toxicity study because the physiological responses were detected at much lower concentrations than the results of traditional toxicity tests, including environmental concentration. - Highlights: • Multi-generational exposure was conducted to evaluate the effect of propranolol on Daphnia magna. • Heart rate was the only endpoint affected throughout all exposure generations. • Growth and abdominal appendage movement were affected at environmental concentrations. • Time series fluctuations in responses appeared with no tendencies throughout all generations. • It is necessary to cover sub-organismal endpoints and long-term exposure in ecotoxicity test. - Heart rate, growth and abdominal appendage movement of D. magna were affected by the multigenerational exposure of propranolol at environmental levels.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery from expressed sequence tags in the waterflea Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souche Erika L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera plays a central role in standing aquatic ecosystems, has a well known ecology and is widely used in population studies and environmental risk assessments. Daphnia magna is, especially in Europe, intensively used to study stress responses of natural populations to pollutants, climate change, and antagonistic interactions with predators and parasites, which have all been demonstrated to induce micro-evolutionary and adaptive responses. Although its ecology and evolutionary biology is intensively studied, little is known on the functional genomics underpinning of phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to find genes expressed in presence of environmental stressors, and target such genes for single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP marker development. Results We developed three expressed sequence tag (EST libraries using clonal lineages of D. magna exposed to ecological stressors, namely fish predation, parasite infection and pesticide exposure. We used these newly developed ESTs and other Daphnia ESTs retrieved from NCBI GeneBank to mine for SNP markers targeting synonymous as well as non synonymous genetic variation. We validate the developed SNPs in six natural populations of D. magna distributed at regional scale. Conclusions A large proportion (47% of the produced ESTs are Daphnia lineage specific genes, which are potentially involved in responses to environmental stress rather than to general cellular functions and metabolic activities, or reflect the arthropod's aquatic lifestyle. The characterization of genes expressed under stress and the validation of their SNPs for population genetic study is important for identifying ecologically responsive genes in D. magna.

  14. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  15. Assessment of the effects of the carbamazepine on the endogenous endocrine system of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, A L; Floro, A M; Palma, P

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the endocrine activity of the antiepileptic pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) in the crustacean Daphnia magna was assessed. To assess the hormonal activity of the drug, we exposed maternal daphnids and embryos to environmental relevant concentrations of CBZ (ranging from 10 to 200 μg/L) and to mixtures of CBZ with fenoxycarb (FEN; 1 μg/L). Chronic exposure to CBZ significantly decreased the reproductive output and the number of molts of D. magna at 200 μg/L. This compound induced the production of male offspring (12 ± 1.7 %), in a non-concentration-dependent manner, acting as a weak juvenile hormone analog. Results showed that this substance, at tested concentrations, did not antagonize the juvenoid action of FEN. Further, CBZ has shown to be toxic to daphnid embryos through maternal exposure interfering with their normal gastrulation and organogenesis stages but not producing direct embryo toxicity. These findings suggest that CBZ could act as an endocrine disruptor in D. magna as it decreases the reproductive output, interferes with sex determination, and causes development abnormality in offspring. Therefore, CBZ could directly affect the population sustainability.

  16. Daphnia magna fitness during low food supply under different water temperature and brownification scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of our current knowledge about non-limiting dietary carbon supply for herbivorous zooplankton is based on experimental evidence and typically conducted at ~1 mg C L-1 and ~20°C. Here we ask how low supply of dietary carbon affects somatic growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna and test effects of higher water temperature (+3 °C relative to ambient and brownification (3X higher than natural water color; both predicted effects of climate change during fall cooling. We predicted that even at very low carbon supply (~5µg C L-1, higher water temperature and brownification will allow D. magna to increase its fitness. Neonates (<24 h old were incubated with lake seston for 4 weeks (October-November 2013 in experimental bottles submerged in outdoor mesocosms to explore effects of warmer and darker water. Higher temperature and brownification did not significantly affect food quality, as assessed by its fatty acid composition. Daphnia exposed to both increased temperature and brownification had highest somatic growth and were the only that reproduced, and higher temperature caused the highest Daphnia survival success. These results suggest that even under low temperature and thus lower physiological activity, low food quantity is more important than its quality for D. magna fitness.

  17. High pathogenicity and strong immunogenicity of a Chinese isolate of Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Geru; Wang, Yunzhou; Li, Chao; Gu, Xiaolong; Cui, Ping; Fang, Sufang; Suo, Xun; Liu, Xianyong

    2017-06-01

    Coccidia infection of rabbits with one or several species of parasites of the genus Eimeria causes coccidiosis, a disease leading to huge economic losses in the rabbit industry. Eimeria magna, one of the causal agents of rabbit coccidiosis, was characterized as mildly pathogenic and moderately immunogenic in previous studies. In this study, we identified a Chinese isolate of E. magna by testing its biological features (oocyst morphology and size, prepatent time) and sequencing its internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) DNA fragment. This isolate is highly pathogenic; infection of rabbits with only 1×10 2 oocysts caused a 55% reduction in weight gain in 14days. In addition, immunization with 1×10 2 oocysts prevented body weight loss against re-infection with 5×10 4 oocysts, indicating the high immunogenicity of this isolate. Our study described the distinctive phenotype of the Chinese isolate of E. magna and contributed to the research of geographic variation of rabbit coccidia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Uptake and effects of microplastic textile fibers on freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Horvat, Petra; Kunej, Urban; Bele, Marjan; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic fibers (MP) from textile weathering and washing are increasingly being recognized as environmental pollutants. The majority of studies on the bioavailability and effects of microplastic focused on small polystyrene spherical plastic particles, while less data are available for fibers and for other materials besides polystyrene. We investigated the ingestion and effects of ground polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile microfibers (length range: 62-1400 μm, width 31-528 μm, thickness 1-21.5 μm) on the freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia magna after a 48 h exposure and subsequent 24 h of recovery in MP free medium and algae. The majority of ingested fibers by D. magna were around 300 μm, but also some very large twisted MP fibers around 1400 μm were found inside the gut. Exposure to these fibers results in increased mortality of daphnids after 48 h only in the case where daphnids were not pre-fed with algae prior to experiment, but no effect was found when daphnids were fed before the experiments. Regardless of the feeding regime, daphnids were not able to recover from MP exposure after additional 24 h incubation period in a MP free medium with algae. The uptake and effects of PET textile MP on D. magna are presented here for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a high jugular fossa and jugular bulb diverticulum on the inner ear. A clinical and radiologic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadin, K.; Thomander, L.; Wilbrand, H.

    From a series of patients undergoing routine radiographic examination, 112 temporal bones with a high jugular fossa were selected. Among these, 43 jugular bulb diverticula were found. The structures affected by a high fossa or diverticulum were recorded and correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patient. The vestibule was suspected to be affected in five patients. Two of these patients had tinnitus and vertigo, and three had hearing loss. In one of the latter the hearing loss was most marked in the supine position. The cochlea was close to the fossa in three patients, all of whom had tinnitus. Four patients had a defect of the posterior semicircular canal. One of them lost his hearing after a severe fit of coughing, became unsteady and showed signs of a fistula. The internal acoustic meatus and the mastoid portion of the facial canal were affected in two and four patients, respectively, who had no recorded symptoms. Twelve of 34 patients with Meniere's disease and a high jugular fossa on the side of the diseased ear had a dehiscence of the vestibular aqueduct caused by the fossa or diverticulum, compared with nine of 58 patients in the unselected material. For comparison and demonstration of topographic relationships, 58 casts of unselected radiograhed temporal bone specimens with high jugular fossae or diverticula were investigated. In patients with a high jugular fossa or jugular bulb diverticulum, tomographic assessment may be of value.

  20. Compression of the posterior fossa venous sinuses by epidural hemorrhage simulating venous sinus thrombosis: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sumit; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H.; Hegde, Shilpa V.; Glasier, Charles M. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Pediatric Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Posterior fossa dural venous sinus thrombus is a well-described complication of head trauma, especially when fracture crosses the dural sinus grooves or in association with epidural hemorrhage. We have found that post-traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma compressing a dural venous sinus can mimic dural venous thrombus. To discuss the CT and MRI findings of posterior fossa epidural hemorrhages simulating sinus thrombosis, to make radiologists aware of this important imaging pitfall. We describe radiologic findings in four children in whom a posterior fossa epidural hemorrhage mimicked dural venous sinus thrombus. Routine CT head and CT venography were obtained on Toshiba volume and helical CT scanners. MRI and MR venography were performed on a Philips scanner. In all cases there was medial displacement and compression of the posterior fossa dural venous sinuses without intraluminal thrombosis. The epidural hemorrhage was seen tracking along sinus grooves in the occipital bone, peeling the dura containing the sinuses from the calvarium and compressing the sinus, simulating thrombosis on axial CT views. Both venous sinus thrombosis and posterior fossa epidural hemorrhages in children are well-described complications of head trauma. Posterior fossa epidural hemorrhage can mimic a sinus thrombus by compressing and displacing the sinuses. It is important to recognize this pitfall because treatment of a suspected thrombus with anticoagulation can worsen epidural hemorrhage. (orig.)

  1. Compression of the posterior fossa venous sinuses by epidural hemorrhage simulating venous sinus thrombosis: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sumit; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H.; Hegde, Shilpa V.; Glasier, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior fossa dural venous sinus thrombus is a well-described complication of head trauma, especially when fracture crosses the dural sinus grooves or in association with epidural hemorrhage. We have found that post-traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma compressing a dural venous sinus can mimic dural venous thrombus. To discuss the CT and MRI findings of posterior fossa epidural hemorrhages simulating sinus thrombosis, to make radiologists aware of this important imaging pitfall. We describe radiologic findings in four children in whom a posterior fossa epidural hemorrhage mimicked dural venous sinus thrombus. Routine CT head and CT venography were obtained on Toshiba volume and helical CT scanners. MRI and MR venography were performed on a Philips scanner. In all cases there was medial displacement and compression of the posterior fossa dural venous sinuses without intraluminal thrombosis. The epidural hemorrhage was seen tracking along sinus grooves in the occipital bone, peeling the dura containing the sinuses from the calvarium and compressing the sinus, simulating thrombosis on axial CT views. Both venous sinus thrombosis and posterior fossa epidural hemorrhages in children are well-described complications of head trauma. Posterior fossa epidural hemorrhage can mimic a sinus thrombus by compressing and displacing the sinuses. It is important to recognize this pitfall because treatment of a suspected thrombus with anticoagulation can worsen epidural hemorrhage. (orig.)

  2. Bioaccumulation, stress, and swimming impairment in Daphnia magna exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Amanda M; Maul, Jonathan D; Saed, Mohammad; Shah, Smit A; Green, Micah J; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E

    2017-08-01

    The use of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene, and graphene oxide (GO) is increasing across many applications because of their unique and versatile properties. These CNMs may enter the aquatic environment through many pathways, creating the potential for organism exposure. The present study addresses the bioaccumulation and toxicity seen in Daphnia magna exposed to CNMs dispersed in sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). In study I, D. magna were exposed to varying outer diameters of MWCNTs for 24 h in moderately hard or hard freshwater. Bioaccumulation of MWCNT was found in all treatments, with the highest concentrations (0.53 ± 0.27 μg/g) in D. magna exposed in hard freshwater (p < 0.005). The median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined for D. magna exposed to CNMs in moderately hard and hard freshwater. In study II, D. magna were exposed to CNMs for 72 h in moderately hard freshwater to assess swimming velocity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detected by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. An overall decrease was seen in D. magna swimming velocity after exposure to CNMs. The generation of ROS was significantly higher (1.54 ± 0.38 dichlorofluorescein mM/mg dry wt) in D. magna exposed to MWCNTs of smaller outer diameters than in controls after 72 h (p < 0.05). These results suggest that further investigation of CNM toxicity and behavior in the aquatic environment is needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2199-2204. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Temporal bone encephalocele and cerebrospinal fluid fistula repair utilizing the middle cranial fossa or combined mastoid-middle cranial fossa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Copeland, William R; Driscoll, Colin L; Link, Michael J; Haynes, David S; Thompson, Reid C; Weaver, Kyle D; Wanna, George B

    2013-11-01

    The goals of this study were to report the clinical presentation, radiographic findings, operative strategy, and outcomes among patients with temporal bone encephaloceles and cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (CSFFs) and to identify clinical variables associated with surgical outcome. A retrospective case series including all patients who underwent a middle fossa craniotomy or combined mastoid-middle cranial fossa repair of encephalocele and/or CSFF between 2000 and 2012 was accrued from 2 tertiary academic referral centers. Eighty-nine consecutive surgeries (86 patients, 59.3% women) were included. The mean age at time of surgery was 52.3 years, and the left side was affected in 53.9% of cases. The mean delay between symptom onset and diagnosis was 35.4 months, and the most common presenting symptoms were hearing loss (92.1%) and persistent ipsilateral otorrhea (73.0%). Few reported a history of intracranial infection (6.7%) or seizures (2.2%). Thirteen (14.6%) of 89 cases had a history of major head trauma, 23 (25.8%) were associated with chronic ear disease without prior operation, 17 (19.1%) occurred following tympanomastoidectomy, and 1 (1.1%) developed in a patient with a cerebral aqueduct cyst resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The remaining 35 cases (39.3%) were considered spontaneous. Among all patients, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 35.3 kg/m(2), and 46.4% exhibited empty sella syndrome. Patients with spontaneous lesions were statistically significantly older (p = 0.007) and were more commonly female (p = 0.048) compared with those with nonspontaneous pathology. Additionally, those with spontaneous lesions had a greater BMI than those with nonspontaneous disease (p = 0.102), although this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Thirty-two surgeries (36.0%) involved a middle fossa craniotomy alone, whereas 57 (64.0%) involved a combined mastoid-middle fossa repair. There were 7 recurrences (7.9%); 2 patients with recurrence developed

  4. Bioconcentration of the antidepressant fluoxetine and its effects on the physiological and biochemical status in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiannan; Zou, Hua; Liu, Qingqing; Zhang, Shanshan; Mamitiana Razanajatovo, Roger

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioconcentration potential of fluoxetine and its biological effects in Daphnia magna. After 48h of waterborne exposure, the bioconcentration of fluoxetine in D. magna was determined to be 460.61 and 174.41Lkg -1 for nominal exposure concentrations of 0.5 and 5µgL -1 , respectively. Moreover, various biological endpoints, including physiological responses (filtration and ingestion rates), enzymatic biomarkers related to neurotoxicity [acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] and antioxidant defense [superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and an oxidative stress damage marker [malondialdehyde (MDA)], were assessed. Fluoxetine exposure increased the filtration rate of daphnia, while the ingestion rate was not obviously modified. AChE activity was significantly inhibited, highlighting the neurotoxicity of fluoxetine on D. magna. However, with some alterations in the SOD activity and MDA content, no obvious oxidative damage was observed in D. magna exposed to fluoxetine at the tested concentrations. These results indicate that fluoxetine can be accumulated and consequently induce physiological and biochemical perturbations in D. magna. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparative effects of graphene and graphene oxide on copper toxicity to Daphnia magna: Role of surface oxygenic functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Fan, Wenhong; Xu, Zhizhen; Peng, Weihua; Luo, Shenglian

    2018-05-01

    Although the risk of graphene materials to aquatic organisms has drawn wide attention, the combined effects of graphene materials with other contaminants such as toxic metals, which may bring about more serious effects than graphene materials alone, have seldom been explored. Herein, the effects of graphene (GN) and graphene oxide (GO, an important oxidized derivative of graphene) on copper (Cu) toxicity to Daphnia magna were systematically investigated. The results indicated that GN remarkably increased the Cu accumulation in D. magna and enhanced the oxidative stress injury caused by Cu, whereas did not significantly alter D. magna acute mortality within the tested Cu concentrations (0-200 μg L -1 ). On the contrary, GO significantly decreased the Cu accumulation in D. magna and alleviated the oxidative stress injury caused by Cu. Meanwhile, the presence of GO significantly reduced the mortality of D. magna when Cu concentration exceeded 50 μg L -1 . The different effects of GN and GO on Cu toxicity were possibly dependent on the action of surface oxygenic functional group. Because of the introduction of surface oxygenic functional groups, the adsorption ability to metal ions, stability in water and interaction mode with organisms of GO are quite different from that of GN, causing different effects on Cu toxicity. This study provides important information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals as affected by graphene materials in natural water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The response of European Daphnia magna Straus and Australian Daphnia carinata King to changes in geomagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Viacheslav V; Bolotovskaya, Irina V; Osipova, Elena A

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of lifelong exposure to reversed geomagnetic and zero geomagnetic fields (the latter means absence of geomagnetic field) on the life history of Daphnia carinata King from Australia and Daphnia magna Straus from Europe. Considerable deviation in the geomagnetic field from the usual strength, leads to a decrease in daphnia size and life span. Reduced brood sizes and increased body length of neonates are observed in D. magna exposed to unusual magnetic background. The most apparent effects are induced by zero geomagnetic field in both species of Daphnia. A delay in the first reproduction in zero geomagnetic field is observed only in D. magna. No adaptive maternal effects to reversed geomagnetic field are found in a line of D. magna maintained in these magnetic conditions for eight generations. Integrally, the responses of D. magna to unusual geomagnetic conditions are more extensive than that in D. carinata. We suggest that the mechanism of the effects of geomagnetic field reversal on Daphnia may be related to differences in the pattern of distribution of the particles that have a magnetic moment, or to moving charged organic molecules owing to a change in combined outcome and orientation of the geomagnetic field and Earth's gravitational field. The possibility of modulation of self-oscillating processes with changes in geomagnetic field is also discussed.

  7. The acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ionic liquids on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Tongtong

    2017-10-01

    Given their increasingly widespread application, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) have become the subject of significant attention in recent years. Therefore, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C n mim]NO 3 (n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)) on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The sensitivity of the tested organism Daphnia magna and the investigated IL concentrations in water using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were also evaluated to demonstrate the reliability of the present study. The results illustrated that Daphnia magna is indeed sensitive to the reference toxicant and the investigated ILs were stable in the aquatic environment. The 50% effect concentration (EC 50 ) was used to represent the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. With the increasing alkyl-chain lengths, the toxicity of the investigated ILs increased in both the test organisms. Accordingly, the alkyl-chain lengths can cause significantly toxic effects on aquatic organisms, and Daphnia magna are much more sensitive than Chlorella vulgaris to the imidazolium-based ILs used in the present study. Furthermore, the present study provides more information on the acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  9. Is there a dural wall between the cavernous sinus and the pituitary fossa? Anatomical and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Diniz, R.; Reis, M. Jr.; Neugroschl, C.; Vinclair, L.; Maillot, C.

    1998-01-01

    We compared MRI studies of the sellar area and embryological and adult histological studies of the cavernous sinuses and pituitary fossa. MRI studies were performed in 50 normal subjects with coronal sections using a fast inversion-recovery sequence to demonstrate the dural walls of the cavernous sinus and pituitary fossa. With this sequence, dura mater appears as a high-signal linear structure. The lateral and superior walls of the cavernous sinus was easily identified on all studies, but demonstration of a dural wall separating the cavernous sinus from the pituitary fossa was not possible. These results correlated well with embryological and adult histological studies obtained from 14 specimens. The absence of a strong separation between the pituitary fossa and the cavernous sinus explains the high incidence of extension of pituitary tumours to the cavernous sinuses and vice versa. (orig.) (orig.)

  10. Facial Nerve Schwannoma Involving Middle Cranial Fossa: When the Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Guide to the Correct Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    De Stefano, Alessandro; Dispenza, Francesco; Kulamarva, Gautham

    2011-01-01

    The Facial Nerve Schwannoma is a rare tumor and it seldom involved the middle cranial fossa. Facial nerve schwannoma has various manifestations, including facial palsy but unfortunately facial nerve is very resistant to compression and often facial nerve paralysis or a facial weakness are not present. We present a case of giant facial nerve schwannoma involved the middle cranial fossa without facial nerve paralysis. In these cases the unilateral hearing loss (if present) guide to a correct di...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Matsushita, Hamilton

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  12. Influence of occlusal splints on TMJ condyle-fossa relationship and disc shape

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Barbara Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background. Occlusal splints are nowadays commonly used in dentistry to treat symptoms of myoarthropathies of the masticatory system, but also to treat simple occlusal parafunctions. Still, the exact mechanism by which the treatment works is unknown. The aim of this study was to find out the answers to following questions: 1. is there an immediate change of the minimum condyle-fossa distance and accompanying disc thickness by inserting a Michigan splint and 2. is it possible to displace the m...

  13. A nomenclature for vertebral fossae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs, like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system. Pneumatic signatures in the vertebral column of fossil saurischians include complex branching chambers within the bone (internal pneumaticity and large chambers visible externally that are bounded by neural arch laminae (external pneumaticity. Although general aspects of internal pneumaticity are synapomorphic for saurischian subgroups, the individual internal pneumatic spaces cannot be homologized across species or even along the vertebral column, due to their variability and absence of topographical landmarks. External pneumatic structures, in contrast, are defined by ready topological landmarks (vertebral laminae, but no consistent nomenclatural system exists. This deficiency has fostered confusion and limited their use as character data in phylogenetic analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a simple system for naming external neural arch fossae that parallels the one developed for the vertebral laminae that bound them. The nomenclatural system identifies fossae by pointing to reference landmarks (e.g., neural spine, centrum, costal articulations, zygapophyses. We standardize the naming process by creating tripartite names from "primary landmarks," which form the zygodiapophyseal table, "secondary landmarks," which orient with respect to that table, and "tertiary landmarks," which further delineate a given fossa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed nomenclatural system for lamina-bounded fossae adds clarity to descriptions of complex vertebrae and allows these structures to be sourced as character data for phylogenetic analyses. These anatomical terms denote potentially homologous pneumatic structures within Saurischia, but they could be applied to any vertebrate with vertebral laminae that enclose spaces, regardless of their developmental

  14. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy restricted to the posterior fossa in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes; Lamb, Leslie; Del Carpio-O' Donovan, Raquel, E-mail: goncalves.neuroradio@gmail.com [McGill University Health Center Montreal General Hospital (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a neurological infectious disease caused by the John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCV), an opportunistic agent with worldwide distribution. This disease is frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients and rarely associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. In the central nervous system PML demyelinating lesions occur in the supratentorial compartment. The authors describe a rare case of PML secondary to SLE treatment with atypical presentation restricted to the posterior fossa (author)

  15. Branchial fistula arising from pyriform fossa: CT diagnosis of a case and discussion of radiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Sharma, Yash Paul; Bhagra, Tilak; Sud, Bindu

    2012-01-01

    Anomalies of third or fourth branchial apparatus origin are very uncommon and present as recurrent neck infections or thyroiditis with a predominant left-sided involvement. Radiological diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and is critical for initiation of proper treatment. We describe a case of branchial sinus of pyriform fossa with external fistulization that presented in adulthood and was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The radiological features of this rare anomaly are revisited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary hydatid disease of the infratemporal fossa and the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, I.; Levett, J.; Vlahos, I.; Papavasiliou, C.; Ioannovits, I.

    1985-01-01

    Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions causing swelling of the parotid area or exophthalmos in patients originating from countries where the incidence of the disease is high. An unusual case of hydatid disease located in the infratemporal fossa and the anterior parotid region is presented. Computed Tomography is a valuable tool for establishment of the diagnosis, before any surgical approach to the lesion is initiated and for postoperative follow-up and evaluation. (orig.) [de

  17. Primary hydatid disease of the infratemporal fossa and the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, I.; Levett, J.; Vlahos, I.; Papavasiliou, C.; Ioannovits, I.

    1985-05-01

    Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions causing swelling of the parotid area or exophthalmos in patients originating from countries where the incidence of the disease is high. An unusual case of hydatid disease located in the infratemporal fossa and the anterior parotid region is presented. Computed Tomography is a valuable tool for establishment of the diagnosis, before any surgical approach to the lesion is initiated and for postoperative follow-up and evaluation.

  18. Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollo, C.; Porchet, F.; Meuli, R.

    2003-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  19. Imaging techniques in evaluation of juvenile angiofibroma with lateral extension in the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska, A.; Pietura, R.; Drelich-Zbroja, A.; Trojanowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a benign tumour arising in the nasopharynx and penetrating laterally into the pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and orbit. Precise preoperative evaluation of the presence and extension of its lateral spread is crucial for choosing the best surgical approach and performing radical operation. The aim of the study was to assess usefulness of imaging methods in diagnosis and evaluation of lateral extension of juvenile angiofibroma. In a group of 39 patients operated on from 1973 to 2002 due to juvenile angiofibroma in 21 (54%) cases a lateral extension of the tumor was diagnosed. All patients underwent carotid angiography (CA) and lateral plain skull X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18,and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 4 patients. In all cases the extension of the tumor and its lateral spread was verified during surgery. A widening of the pterygopalatine fossa on lateral plain X-ray was present in 13 (62%) patients. CT and MRI demonstrated the presence of lateral extension in all patients diagnosed with these methods. In 9 cases, lateral CA revealed dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery by the tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa. The presence of big lateral extension of the juvenile angiofibroma is demonstrated on lateral plain X-ray as anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus (Holman-Miller sign). MRI shows better than CT the extent and margins of the tumor in soft tissues. Lateral CA shows dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery and its course in relation to the lateral extension of the tumor, which is important for surgical planning. (author)

  20. A systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes following posterior fossa tumor surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Emily; Woodrome, Stacey E; Abdel-Baki, Mohamed; Geller, Thomas J; Elbabaa, Samer K

    2015-10-01

    Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in the pediatric population. As children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, more research is being focused on the long-term cognitive outcomes of the survivors. This review examines the literature on different cognitive outcomes of survivors of different childhood posterior fossa CNS tumor types. The authors reviewed the literature for articles published from 2000 to 2012 about long-term neuropsychological outcomes of children diagnosed with posterior fossa brain tumors before the age of 18, which distinguished between histological tumor types, and had a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The literature search returned 13 articles, and a descriptive analysis was performed comparing intelligence quotient (IQ), attention/executive function, and memory components of 456 survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors. Four articles directly compared astrocytoma and medulloblastoma survivors and showed medulloblastoma survivors fared worse in IQ, attention/executive function, and memory measurements. Five articles reporting medulloblastomas found IQ, attention, and memory scores to be significantly below the standardized means. Articles examining astrocytoma survivors found IQ scores within the normal range for the population. Survivors of ependymomas reported 2/23 survivors impaired on IQ scores, while a second study reported a significant number of ependymoma survivors lower than the expected population norm. Tumor histopathology and the type of postoperative adjuvant therapy seem to have a significant impact on the long-term neuropsychological complications of pediatric posterior fossa CNS tumor survivors. Age at diagnosis and treatment factors are important variables that affect the outcomes of the survivors.

  1. Lateral posterior fossa encephalocele with associated migrational disorder of the cerebellum in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kimberly M; Wiens, Andrea L; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    Encephaloceles are acquired or congenital defects in which intracranial contents protrude through a defect in the calvaria. The embryogenesis of these lesions is incompletely understood. The vast majority of lesions occur at or near the anatomical midline. The authors present an extremely rare case of a laterally oriented, pathologically proven encephalocele associated with a posterior fossa cyst and cerebellar migrational defect in an infant. The authors review past and current theories of encephalocele formation as it relates to this case.

  2. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, J. [Paediatric Oncology, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krauss, J. [Paediatric Neurosurgery, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural enhancement after posterior cranial fossa neurosurgery in children. We reviewed 53 postoperative spinal MRI studies performed for staging of paediatric malignant brain tumours, mainly infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours 2-40 days after surgery. There was contrast enhancement in the spinal subdural space in seven cases. This was not seen in any of eight patients who had been operated upon for a supratentorial tumour. After resection of 45 posterior cranial fossa tumours the frequency of subdural enhancement was 15.5%. MRI showing subdural enhancement was obtained up to 25 days postoperatively. No patient with subdural enhancement had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations positive for tumour cells or developed dissemination of disease in the CSF. Because the characteristic appearances of subdural contrast enhancement, appropriate interpretation is possible; diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis should rarely be impeded. Because of the striking similarity to that in patients with a low CSF-pressure syndrome and in view of the fact that only resection of tumours of the posterior cranial fossa, usually associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, was followed by this type of enhancement one might suggest that rapid changes in CSF pressure are implicated, rather the effects of blood introduced into the spinal canal at surgery. (orig.)

  3. Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollo, C.; Porchet, F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R. [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2003-08-01

    A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  4. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy restricted to the posterior fossa in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes; Lamb, Leslie; Del Carpio-O'Donovan, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a neurological infectious disease caused by the John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCV), an opportunistic agent with worldwide distribution. This disease is frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients and rarely associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. In the central nervous system PML demyelinating lesions occur in the supratentorial compartment. The authors describe a rare case of PML secondary to SLE treatment with atypical presentation restricted to the posterior fossa (author)

  5. Cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with brain tumours of the posterior fossa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    , the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined.Methods: This observational, prospective, multicentre study will include 500 children with posterior fossa tumours. It opened late 2014 with participation from 20 Nordic and Baltic centres. From 2016, five British centres...... for and the clinical course of CMS - with the ultimate goal of defining strategies for prevention and treatment of this severely disabling condition....

  6. The Lost City Hydrothermal Field: A Spectroscopic and Astrobiological Analogue for Nili Fossae, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Elena S; Bandfield, Joshua L; Brazelton, William J; Kelley, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface. Results from Lost City show a spectrally distinguishable suite of Mg-rich serpentine, Ca carbonates, talc, and amphibole minerals. Aggregated detections of low-grade metamorphic minerals in rocks from Nili Fossae were mapped and yielded a previously undetected serpentine exposure in the region. Direct comparison of the two spectral suites indicates similar mineralogy at both Lost City and in the Noachian (4-3.7 Ga) bedrock of Nili Fossae, Mars. Based on mapping of these spectral phases, the implied mineralogical suite appears to be extensive across the region. These results suggest that serpentinization was once an active process, indicating that water and energy sources were available, as well as a means for prebiotic chemistry during a time period when life was first emerging on Earth. Although the mineralogical assemblages identified on Mars are unlikely to be directly analogous to rocks that underlie the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, related geochemical processes (and associated sources of biologically accessible energy) were once present in the subsurface, making Nili Fossae a compelling candidate for a once-habitable environment on Mars. Key Words: Mars-Habitability-Serpentinization-Analogue. Astrobiology 17, 1138-1160.

  7. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L.; Kuehl, J.; Krauss, J.

    2004-01-01

    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural enhancement after posterior cranial fossa neurosurgery in children. We reviewed 53 postoperative spinal MRI studies performed for staging of paediatric malignant brain tumours, mainly infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours 2-40 days after surgery. There was contrast enhancement in the spinal subdural space in seven cases. This was not seen in any of eight patients who had been operated upon for a supratentorial tumour. After resection of 45 posterior cranial fossa tumours the frequency of subdural enhancement was 15.5%. MRI showing subdural enhancement was obtained up to 25 days postoperatively. No patient with subdural enhancement had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations positive for tumour cells or developed dissemination of disease in the CSF. Because the characteristic appearances of subdural contrast enhancement, appropriate interpretation is possible; diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis should rarely be impeded. Because of the striking similarity to that in patients with a low CSF-pressure syndrome and in view of the fact that only resection of tumours of the posterior cranial fossa, usually associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, was followed by this type of enhancement one might suggest that rapid changes in CSF pressure are implicated, rather the effects of blood introduced into the spinal canal at surgery. (orig.)

  8. Mortality Rates After Emergent Posterior Fossa Decompression for Ischemic or Hemorrhagic Stroke in Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Graffeo, Christopher; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2016-08-01

    Cerebellar stroke causes major morbidity in the aging population. Guidelines from the American Stroke Association recommend emergent decompression in patients who have brainstem compression, hydrocephalus, or clinical deterioration. The objective of this study was to determine 30-day and 1-year mortality rates in patients >60 years old undergoing emergent posterior fossa decompression. Surgical records identified all patients >60 years old who underwent emergent posterior fossa decompression. Mortality rates were calculated at 30 days and 1 year postoperatively, and these rates were compared with patient and procedure characteristics. During 2000-2014, 34 emergent posterior fossa decompressions were performed in patients >60 years old. Mortality rates at 30 days were 0%, 33%, and 25% for age deciles 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years. Increasing age (alive at 30 days 75.2 years ± 1.7 vs. deceased 81.1 years ± 1.7, P = 0.01) and smaller craniectomy dimensions were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality rates at 1 year were 0%, 50%, and 67% for age deciles 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years. Increasing age was significantly associated with mortality at 1 year (alive at 1 year 72.3 years ± 2.0 vs. deceased 81.1 years ± 1.2, P mortality. Age was independent of admission Glasgow Coma Scale score as a predictor of mortality at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year postoperatively. Increasing age and smaller craniectomy size were significantly associated with mortality in patients undergoing emergent posterior fossa decompression. Among patients ≥80 years old, one-quarter were dead within 1 month of the operation, and more than two-thirds were dead within 1 year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactive web-based programs to teach functional anatomy: the pterygopalatine fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinav, Ahmet; Ambron, Richard

    2004-07-01

    Certain areas of the body contain structures that are difficult to envision in their proper spatial orientations and whose functions are complex and difficult to grasp. This is especially true in the head, where many structures are relatively small and inaccessible. To address this problem, we are designing Web-based programs that consist of high-resolution interactive bitmap illustrations, prepared using Adobe Photoshop, and vector-based animations, prepared via Macromedia Flash. Flash action script language is used for the animations. We have used this approach to prepare a program on the pterygopalatine fossa, an important neurovascular junction in the deep face that is especially difficult to approach by dissection and to depict in static images in an atlas. The program can be viewed online at http://cds.osr.columbia.edu/anatomy/ppfossa/. A table of contents simplifies navigation through the program and a menu enables the user to identify each of the vascular and neuronal components and either to insert or to remove each from its position in the fossa. The functional anatomy of the nerves in the fossa is animated. For example, users can activate and subsequently follow action potentials as they course along axons to their targets. This high degree of interactivity helps promote learning.

  10. Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, S.L.; Foreman, N.K.; Albano, E.A.; Dertina, D.M.; Nein, P.K.; Shukert, B.; Cesario, K.B.; Gage, S.; Rumack, C.M.; Strain, J.D. [Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

  11. Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton-Gorges, S.L.; Foreman, N.K.; Albano, E.A.; Dertina, D.M.; Nein, P.K.; Shukert, B.; Cesario, K.B.; Gage, S.; Rumack, C.M.; Strain, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

  12. Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kataria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature.

  13. Effect of Incremental Endoscopic Maxillectomy on Surgical Exposure of the Pterygopalatine and Infratemporal Fossae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Smita; Dolci, Ricardo L L; Buohliqah, Lamia; Fiore, Mariano E; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Prevedello, Daniel M; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2016-02-01

    Objective Access to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae presents a significant surgical challenge, owing to their deep-seated location and complex neurovascular anatomy. This study elucidates the benefits of incremental medial maxillectomies to access this region. We compared access to the medial aspect of the infratemporal fossa provided by medial maxillectomy, anteriorly extended medial maxillectomy, endoscopic Denker approach (i.e., Sturmann-Canfield approach), contralateral transseptal approach, and the sublabial anterior maxillotomy (SAM). Methods We studied 10 cadaveric specimens (20 sides) dissecting the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae bilaterally. Radius of access was calculated using a navigation probe aligned with the endoscopic line of sight. Area of exposure was calculated as the area removed from the posterior wall of maxillary sinus. Surgical freedom was calculated by computing the working area at the proximal end of the instrument with the distal end fixed at a target. Results The endoscopic Denker approach offered a superior area of exposure (8.46 ± 1.56 cm(2)) and superior surgical freedom. Degree of lateral access with the SAM approach was similar to that of the Denker. Conclusion Our study suggests that an anterior extension of the medial maxillectomy or a cross-court approach increases both the area of exposure and surgical freedom. Further increases can be seen upon progression to a Denker approach.

  14. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Management of the stricture of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethral strictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrawan K Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Management of distal anterior urethral stricture is a common problem faced by practicing urologists. Literature on urethral stricture mainly pertains to bulbar urethral stricture and pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect. The present article aims to review the management of the strictures of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethra. Materials and Methods : The literature in English language was searched from the National Library of Medicine database, using the appropriate key words for the period 1985-2010. Out of 475 articles, 115 were selected for the review based on their relevance to the topic. Results : Etiology of stricture is shifting from infective to inflammatory and iatrogenic causes. Stricture of fossa navicularis is most often caused by lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and instrumentation. Direct visual internal urethrotomy is limited to selected cases in the management of pendulous urethral stricture. With experience and identification of various prognostic factors, conservative management by dilatation and internal urethrotomy is being replaced by various reconstructive procedures, using skin flaps and grafts with high success rates. Single-stage urethroplasty is preferred over the 2-stage procedure as the latter disfigures the penis and poses sexual problems temporarily. Conclusions : Flaps or grafts are useful for single-stage reconstruction of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethral strictures. The buccal and lingual mucosa serves as a preferred resource material for providing the inner lining of the urethra. Off-the-shelf materials, such as acellular collagen matrix, are promising.

  16. Management of the stricture of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethral strictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shrawan K.; Agrawal, Santosh K.; Mavuduru, Ravimohan S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Management of distal anterior urethral stricture is a common problem faced by practicing urologists. Literature on urethral stricture mainly pertains to bulbar urethral stricture and pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect. The present article aims to review the management of the strictures of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethra. Materials and Methods: The literature in English language was searched from the National Library of Medicine database, using the appropriate key words for the period 1985-2010. Out of 475 articles, 115 were selected for the review based on their relevance to the topic. Results: Etiology of stricture is shifting from infective to inflammatory and iatrogenic causes. Stricture of fossa navicularis is most often caused by lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and instrumentation. Direct visual internal urethrotomy is limited to selected cases in the management of pendulous urethral stricture. With experience and identification of various prognostic factors, conservative management by dilatation and internal urethrotomy is being replaced by various reconstructive procedures, using skin flaps and grafts with high success rates. Single-stage urethroplasty is preferred over the 2-stage procedure as the latter disfigures the penis and poses sexual problems temporarily. Conclusions: Flaps or grafts are useful for single-stage reconstruction of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethral strictures. The buccal and lingual mucosa serves as a preferred resource material for providing the inner lining of the urethra. Off-the-shelf materials, such as acellular collagen matrix, are promising. PMID:22022062

  17. Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Kamal; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Manish; Yadav, Rajni

    2012-01-01

    Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature. PMID:29181131

  18. Packing of renal fossa: Useful technique for intractable bleeding after open pyelolithotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohinder Kumar Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no documented study to indicate the role of prolonged packing of renal fossa (24 to 48 hours to control bleeding in life threating haemorrhage following open pyelolithotomy without compromise in the renal functions. On the contrary emergency nephrectomy was performed for intractable bleeding during renal stone surgery in peripheral hospitals. Several studies have shown the usefulness of temporary packing to control bleeding in liver injuries and following open heart operations. Packing of the renal fossa with laparotomy pads in unstable patients, and transferring the patient to the surgical intensive care unit (ICU is also described in trauma but not in controlling bleeding after open pyelolithotomy .This study comprises of three such patients whose kidneys were salvaged by a simple procedure of temporary packing of renal fossa for period of 24-48 hours who had developed life threatening haemorrhage after open pyelolithotomy. This technique is simple and worth trying especially for surgeons who are contemplating nephrectomy as prolonged packing has not lead to any compromise in renal functions. The aim of this manuscript is very limited and clear. Packing is not a licence to carry out open pyelolithotomy without proper expertise and local backup or resources. Principles of safe and ethical surgical practice should never be violated as it can lead to medico legal complications.

  19. Delayed effect of radiation therapy on extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Mori, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of a case with extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa which had received radiation therapy. Follow-up study with serial computed tomography during and after irradiation were presented. A 62-year-old housewife complained of vertigo. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the left middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Left carotid angiography demonstrated a large avascular mass in the left middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. Irradiation with a total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. At the end of radiation, CT scan revealed a slight decrease in size and CT number of the tumor. Follow-up CT scans 5 months later showed 50 % regression of the tumor and 19 months later were negative for tumor. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous angioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 30 - 50 Gy was a method of choice. The treatment results in the possibility of eliminating surgery and the benefit of irradiation may not become evident until the first year. (author)

  20. 3D Super-Resolution Motion-Corrected MRI: Validation of Fetal Posterior Fossa Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Danielle B; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Clancy, Sean; Kapur, Kush; Estroff, Judy A; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-09-01

    Current diagnosis of fetal posterior fossa anomalies by sonography and conventional MRI is limited by fetal position, motion, and by two-dimensional (2D), rather than three-dimensional (3D), representation. In this study, we aimed to validate the use of a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, 3D super-resolution motion-corrected MRI, to image the fetal posterior fossa. From a database of pregnant women who received fetal MRIs at our institution, images of 49 normal fetal brains were reconstructed. Six measurements of the cerebellum, vermis, and pons were obtained for all cases on 2D conventional and 3D reconstructed MRI, and the agreement between the two methods was determined using concordance correlation coefficients. Concordance of axial and coronal measurements of the transcerebellar diameter was also assessed within each method. Between the two methods, the concordance of measurements was high for all six structures (P fetal motion and orthogonal slice acquisition. This technique will facilitate further study of fetal abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. The use of wavelet filters for reducing noise in posterior fossa Computed Tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Machado, Reinado; Perez-Diaz, Marlen; Lorenzo-Ginori, Juan V.; Bravo-Pino, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Wavelet transform based de-noising like wavelet shrinkage, gives the good results in CT. This procedure affects very little the spatial resolution. Some applications are reconstruction methods, while others are a posteriori de-noising methods. De-noising after reconstruction is very difficult because the noise is non-stationary and has unknown distribution. Therefore, methods which work on the sinogram-space don’t have this problem, because they always work over a known noise distribution at this point. On the other hand, the posterior fossa in a head CT is a very complex region for physicians, because it is commonly affected by artifacts and noise which are not eliminated during the reconstruction procedure. This can leads to some false positive evaluations. The purpose of our present work is to compare different wavelet shrinkage de-noising filters to reduce noise, particularly in images of the posterior fossa within CT scans in the sinogram-space. This work describes an experimental search for the best wavelets, to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Results showed that de-noising with wavelet filters improved the quality of posterior fossa region in terms of an increased CNR, without noticeable structural distortions

  2. Bare spot of the glenoid fossa in children: incidence and MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Emery, Kathleen H. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Salisbury, Shelia R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Centers for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The bare spot of the glenoid fossa is a normal cartilage defect seen frequently in adults. It has been used on arthroscopy as a landmark for the center of the glenoid fossa. There are no reports of this variant in children, but we have noted it on some pediatric clinical shoulder MRI studies. Our main purpose is to evaluate the incidence of the bare spot in children and define location and MRI features. Shoulder MRI studies (total 570) from 2004 to 2008 were reviewed. Children were divided into two age groups: group 1, 0-10 years (n=200), group 2, 11-20 years (n=370). A total of 12 bare spots (2.1%) were identified; all were seen in group 2. Eight (67%) were central and four were eccentric in the glenoid fossa. All showed a well-marginated focal cartilage defect containing hyperintense joint fluid or contrast agent. Three also had air. The bare spot is seen in children. The absence in children younger than 10 years and the low incidence in the second decade support the proposed acquired nature. Familiarity with this finding is important so as not to misinterpret it as a pathologic condition. (orig.)

  3. Chronic Expanding Hematoma in the Popliteal Fossa after Pseudoaneurysm Surgery because of Nail Puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematomas caused by surgery or trauma that persist and expand slowly for more than a month are defined as chronic expanding hematomas (CEH. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is useful for the diagnosis. Total excision with the pseudocapsule is the treatment method. Pseudoaneurysms result from arterial wall disruptions and can be mistaken for CEH. We present a rare case report of a 45-year-old man with a large, painful swelling in his left popliteal fossa. He had a puncture wound by a nail 11 years ago and a gradually expanding mass occurred in his popliteal fossa. A pseudoaneurysm was detected and operated a year later. After surgery, a gradually expanding mass recurred in his popliteal fossa. On the arteriography, the popliteal artery was occluded and the blood flow was maintained with collateral vessels. On MRI, an enormous swelling of 115 × 107 × 196 cm in diameter was seen. It was diagnosed as CEH and was excised completely protecting the collateral vessels and there was no recurrence after a year from the surgery.

  4. Neurinomas of the facial nerve extending to the middle cranial fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Akimichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Matsumura, Kenichiro; Takeda, Norio; Ishii, Ryoji; Ito, Jusuke.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases with neurinomas of the facial nerve are reported, especially with regard to the computerized tomographic (CT) findings. All of them had a long history of facial-nerve dysfunction, associated with hearing loss over periods from several to twenty-five years. Intraoperative findings demonstrated that these tumors arose from the intrapetrous portion, the horizontal portion, or the geniculate portion of the facial nerve and that they were located in the middle cranial fossa. The histological diagnoses were neurinomas. CT scans of three cases demonstrated round and low-density masses with marginal high-density areas in the middle cranial fossa, in one associated with diffuse low-density areas in the left temporal and parietal lobes. The low-density areas on CT were thought to be cysts; this was confirmed by surgery. Enhanced CT scans showed irregular enhancement in one case and ring-like enhancement in two cases. High-resolution CT scans of the temporal bone in two cases revealed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear, a well-circumscribed irregular destruction of the anterior aspect of the petrous bone, and calcifications. These findings seemed to be significant features of the neurinomas of the facial nerve extending to the middle cranial fossa. We emphasize that bone-window CT of the temporal bone is most useful in detecting a neurinoma of the facial nerve in its early stage in order to preserve the facial- and acoustic-nerve functions. (author)

  5. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  6. Obesogens beyond Vertebrates: Lipid Perturbation by Tributyltin in the Crustacean Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Rita; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Campos, Bruno; Piña, Benjamín; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Tauler, Romà

    2015-01-01

    Background The analysis of obesogenic effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the regulatory pathways of lipid metabolism. Recent data from the crustacean Daphnia magna points to three signaling hormonal pathways related to the molting and reproductive cycles [retinoic X receptor (RXR), juvenile hormone (JH), and ecdysone] as putative targets for exogenous obesogens. Objective The present study addresses the disruptive effects of the model obesogen tributyltin (TBT) on the lipid homeostasis in Daphnia during the molting and reproductive cycle, its genetic control, and health consequences of its disruption. Methods D. magna individuals were exposed to low and high levels of TBT. Reproductive effects were assessed by Life History analysis methods. Quantitative and qualitative changes in lipid droplets during molting and the reproductive cycle were studied using Nile red staining. Lipid composition and dynamics were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Relative abundances of mRNA from different genes related to RXR, ecdysone, and JH signaling pathways were studied by qRT-PCR. Results and Conclusions TBT disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids, impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in adult individuals. TBT’s disruptive effects translated into a lower fitness for offspring and adults. Co-regulation of gene transcripts suggests that TBT activates the ecdysone, JH, and RXR receptor signaling pathways, presumably through the already proposed interaction with RXR. These findings indicate the presence of obesogenic effects in a nonvertebrate species. Citation Jordão R, Casas J, Fabrias G, Campos B, Piña B, Lemos MF, Soares AM, Tauler R, Barata C. 2015. Obesogens beyond vertebrates: lipid perturbation by tributyltin in the crustacean Daphnia magna. Environ Health Perspect 123:813–819; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409163 PMID

  7. Silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate induce high toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fabianne; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Crossley, Alison; Hassellöv, Martin; Taylor, Cameron; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained attention over the years due to the antimicrobial function of silver, which has been exploited industrially to produce consumer goods that vary in type and application. Undoubtedly the increase of production and consumption of these silver-containing products will lead to the entry of silver compounds into the environment. In this study we have used Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio as model organisms to investigate the toxicity of AgNP and AgNO 3 by assessing different biological endpoints and exposure periods. Organisms were exposed following specific and standardized protocols for each species/endpoints, with modifications when necessary. AgNP were characterized in each test-media by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and experiments were performed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to investigate the aggregation and agglomeration behavior of AgNP under different media chemical composition and test-period. TEM images of AgNP in the different test-media showed dissimilar patterns of agglomeration, with some agglomerates inside an organic layer, some loosely associated particles and also the presence of some individual particles. The toxicity of both AgNO 3 and AgNP differ significantly based on the test species: we found no differences in toxicity for algae, a small difference for zebrafish and a major difference in toxicity for Daphnia magna. - Highlights: •Effects of silver nanoparticles and nitrate were compared in three aquatic species. •The presence of food on the immobilization assay for Daphnia magna significantly decreased AgNP toxicity. •AgNP and AgNO 3 differ in toxicity according to the test species and endpoint. •AgNP and AgNO 3 induced dissimilar abnormalities on zebrafish embryos' development. •AgNP behavior in the test media will rule its bioavailability and uptake and therefore toxicity

  8. Multigenerational effects evaluation of the flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) using Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Maeva; Dubé, Maxime; Lépine, Mélanie; Gagnon, Pierre; Douville, Mélanie; Houde, Magali

    2017-09-01

    Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an organophosphate ester used as substitute following the phase-out of brominated flamed retardants. Because of its high production volume and its use in a broad range of applications, this chemical is now frequently detected in the environment and biota. However, limited information is available on the long-term effects of TBOEP in aquatic organisms. In this study, Daphnia magna were exposed over three 21d generations to an environmentally relevant concentration of TBOEP (10μg/L) and effects were evaluated at the gene transcription, protein, and life-history (i.e., survival, reproduction and growth) levels. Chronic exposure to TBEOP did not impact survival or reproduction of D. magna but affected the growth output. The mean number of molts was also found to be lower in daphnids exposed to the chemical compared to control for a given generation, however there were no significant differences over the three generations. Molecular responses indicated significant differences in the transcription of genes related to growth, molting, ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone signaling, proteolysis, oxidative stress, and oxygen transport within generations. Levels of mRNA were also found to be significantly different for genes known to be involved in endocrine-mediated mechanisms such as reproduction and growth between generations F0, F1, and F2, indicating effects of parental exposure on offspring. Transcription results were supported by protein analyses with the significant decreased in catalase (CAT) activity in F1 generation, following the decreased transcription of cat in the parental generation. Taken together, these multi-biological level results suggest long-term potential endocrine disruption effects of TBOEP in D. magna exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration. This study highlights the importance of using chronic and multigenerational biological evaluation to assess risks of emerging chemicals. Crown Copyright

  9. Silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate induce high toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fabianne, E-mail: ribeiro.f@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro. Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193. Aveiro (Portugal); Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biologyx, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 4, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jurkschat, Kerstin; Crossley, Alison [Department of Materials, Oxford University Begbroke Science Park OX5 1PF (United Kingdom); Hassellöv, Martin [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biologyx, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 4, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Taylor, Cameron [Department of Materials, Oxford University Begbroke Science Park OX5 1PF (United Kingdom); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro. Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193. Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained attention over the years due to the antimicrobial function of silver, which has been exploited industrially to produce consumer goods that vary in type and application. Undoubtedly the increase of production and consumption of these silver-containing products will lead to the entry of silver compounds into the environment. In this study we have used Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio as model organisms to investigate the toxicity of AgNP and AgNO{sub 3} by assessing different biological endpoints and exposure periods. Organisms were exposed following specific and standardized protocols for each species/endpoints, with modifications when necessary. AgNP were characterized in each test-media by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and experiments were performed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to investigate the aggregation and agglomeration behavior of AgNP under different media chemical composition and test-period. TEM images of AgNP in the different test-media showed dissimilar patterns of agglomeration, with some agglomerates inside an organic layer, some loosely associated particles and also the presence of some individual particles. The toxicity of both AgNO{sub 3} and AgNP differ significantly based on the test species: we found no differences in toxicity for algae, a small difference for zebrafish and a major difference in toxicity for Daphnia magna. - Highlights: •Effects of silver nanoparticles and nitrate were compared in three aquatic species. •The presence of food on the immobilization assay for Daphnia magna significantly decreased AgNP toxicity. •AgNP and AgNO{sub 3} differ in toxicity according to the test species and endpoint. •AgNP and AgNO{sub 3} induced dissimilar abnormalities on zebrafish embryos' development. •AgNP behavior in the test media will rule its bioavailability and uptake and therefore toxicity.

  10. Phenoloxidase but not lytic activity reflects resistance against Pasteuria ramosa in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Kevin; De Meester, Luc; Decaestecker, Ellen; Stoks, Robby

    2011-02-23

    The field of ecological immunology strongly relies on indicators of immunocompetence. Two major indicators in invertebrates, the activity of phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity have recently been questioned in studies showing that, across a natural range of baseline levels, these indicators did not predict resistance against a manipulated challenge with natural parasites. We confirmed this finding by showing that baseline levels of PO and lytic activity in the host Daphnia magna were not related to spore load of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Yet, PO levels in infected hosts did predict spore load, indicating PO activity can be useful as an indicator of immunocompetence in this model parasite-host system.

  11. Copper regulation and homeostasis of Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: influence of acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossuyt, Bart T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate (1) the capacity of the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the waterflea Daphnia magna to regulate copper when exposed to environmentally realistic copper concentrations and (2) the influence of multi-generation acclimation to these copper concentrations on copper bioaccumulation and homeostasis. Based on bioconcentration factors, active copper regulation was observed in algae up to 5 μg Cu L -1 and in daphnids up to 35 μg Cu L -1 . Constant body copper concentrations (13 ± 4 μg Cu g DW -1 ) were observed in algae exposed to 1 through 5 μg Cu L -1 and in daphnids exposed to 1 through 12 μg Cu L -1 . At higher exposure concentrations, there was an increase in internal body copper concentration, while no increase was observed in bioconcentration factors, suggesting the presence of a storage mechanism. At copper concentrations of 100 μg Cu L -1 (P. subcapitata) and 150 μg Cu L -1 (D. magna), the significant increases observed in body copper concentrations and in bioconcentration factors may be related to a failure of this regulation mechanism. For both organisms, internal body copper concentrations lower than 13 μg Cu g DW -1 may result in copper deficiency. For P. subcapitata acclimated to 0.5 and 100 μg Cu L -1 , body copper concentrations ranged (mean ± standard deviation) between 5 ± 2 μg Cu g DW -1 and 1300 ± 197 μg Cu g DW -1 , respectively. For D. magna, this value ranged between 9 ± 2 μg Cu g DW -1 and 175 ± 17 μg Cu g DW -1 for daphnids acclimated to 0.5 and 150 μg Cu L -1 . Multi-generation acclimation to copper concentrations ≥12 μg Cu L -1 resulted in a decrease (up to 40%) in body copper concentrations for both organisms compared to the body copper concentration of the first generation. It can be concluded that there is an indication that P. subcapitata and D. magna can regulate their whole body copper concentration to maintain copper homeostasis within their optimal copper range and

  12. Acute and chronic effects from pulse exposure of D. magna to silver and copper oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Rasmussen, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs...... is an environmentally relevant exposure scenario for NPs, which for AgNPs and CuONPs enables more stable exposures and cause acute immobility of D. magna comparable to continuous 24 h exposures. Pulse exposure is likely relevant and applicable for other toxic and dissolving metal NPs, but this requires further research....

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time.

  14. Classification of solid industrial waste based on ecotoxicology tests using Daphnia magna: an alternative

    OpenAIRE

    William Gerson Matias; Vanessa Guimarães Machado; Cátia Regina Silva de Carvalho-Pinto; Débora Monteiro Brentano; Letícia Flohr

    2005-01-01

    The adequate treatment and final disposal of solid industrial wastes depends on their classification into class I or II. This classification is proposed by NBR 10.004; however, it is complex and time-consuming. With a view to facilitating this classification, the use of assays with Daphnia magna is proposed. These assays make possible the identification of toxic chemicals in the leach, which denotes the presence of one of the characteristics described by NBR 10.004, the toxicity, which is a s...

  15. Mandibular fossa morphology during therapy with a fixed functional orthodontic appliance : A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero Stefan Michael; Hourfar, Jan; Kober, Cornelia; Lisson, Jörg Alexander

    2018-03-01

    During therapy of distoclusion entailing a rigid, fixed orthodontic appliance, the mandibular fossa and condyle are ideally remodeled, while dentoalveolar effects occur through adaptive mechanisms. Adaptive processes, especially in the fossa region, have not been adequately investigated. Our magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation aimed to assess the effects of therapy with a functional mandibular advancer (FMA) on mandibular fossa morphology. We monitored via MRI the therapeutic course of 25 patients at three time points. Visual findings and metric assessments were carried out in the sagittal plane. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the joint structure of two exemplary patients were also made. Visual examinations of the MRI slices at the three time points revealed no changes in fossa shape in any of the 50 temporomandibular joints. Lateral comparisons showed that the morphology of the fossae of all 25 patients was identical. Metric analysis demonstrated no significant alterations in width, depth, or in their ratio, not even laterally. Nine measurements of the distances between the porion, mandibular fossa, and articular eminence revealed no significant changes in total or on the left and right sides, or intralaterally. The visual findings and metric analyses of parasagittal MRI slices did not indicate any morphological changes in the mandibular fossa or articular eminence in patients with distoclusion treated via a rigid, fixed orthodontic appliance. However, special reworking of the MRI data facilitated reconstruction of the surfaces of joint structures in 3D. This new method makes it possible to depict more accurately and noninvasively the adaptive mechanisms not ascertainable via metric methods and to assess them as 3D structures.

  16. AAV9-mediated central nervous system–targeted gene delivery via cisterna magna route in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lukashchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current barriers to the use of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9 in clinical trials for treating neurological disorders are its high expression in many off-target tissues such as liver and heart, and lack of cell specificity within the central nervous system (CNS when using ubiquitous promoters such as human cytomegalovirus (CMV or chicken-β-actin hybrid (CAG. To enhance targeting the transgene expression in CNS cells, self-complementary (sc AAV9 vectors, scAAV9-GFP vectors carrying neuronal Hb9 and synapsin 1, and nonspecific CMV and CAG promoters were constructed. We demonstrate that synapsin 1 and Hb9 promoters exclusively targeted neurons in vitro, although their strengths were up to 10-fold lower than that of CMV. In vivo analyses of mouse tissue after scAAV9-GFP vector delivery via the cisterna magna revealed a significant advantage of synapsin 1 promoter over both Hb9 variants in targeting neurons throughout the brain, since Hb9 promoters were driving gene expression mainly within the motor-related areas of the brain stem. In summary, this study demonstrates that cisterna magna administration is a safe alternative to intracranial or intracerebroventricular vector delivery route using scAAV9, and introduces a novel utility of the Hb9 promoter for the targeted gene expression for both in vivo and in vitro applications.

  17. Assessing mandated credit programs: Case study of the Magna Carta in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Jacildo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of a mandated credit program to small and medium enterprises in the Philippines (Magna Carta Law using a panel dataset compiled from official data published by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. The final sample of 109 financial institutions represented over 90% of total finance sector assets in the Philippines. We highlight three important findings. First, although the total lending levels to micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs grew slightly, the percentage shares of loans allocated to MSMEs declined drastically from a peak of 30% of total loans in 2002 to 16.4% in 2010. Second, following the upwards revision of the loan target (from 6% to 8% for smaller firms in 2008, there was a sharp increase in noncompliance especially amongst universal and commercial banks. On the other hand, total loans to medium enterprises were still more than threefold larger than the targeted 2%. Third, there is an increased heterogeneity in optimal loan portfolio across banks. Most surprisingly, the absolute level of MSME lending by rural and cooperative banks declined since 2008. Direct compliance amongst universal and commercial banks decreased beginning in the late 2007, while that of thrift banks increased to almost 100%. Abolishing the Magna Carta targets for medium-sized enterprise loans would most likely yield little adverse effects. Meanwhile, efforts to improve financial access to MSMEs should focus on alternative nondistortionary ways to increase financing supply, such as improving institutional framework for informational availability and development of equity and bond markets for MSMEs.

  18. Resistance to a bacterial parasite in the crustacean Daphnia magna shows Mendelian segregation with dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijckx, P; Fienberg, H; Duneau, D; Ebert, D

    2012-05-01

    The influence of host and parasite genetic background on infection outcome is a topic of great interest because of its pertinence to theoretical issues in evolutionary biology. In the present study, we use a classical genetics approach to examine the mode of inheritance of infection outcome in the crustacean Daphnia magna when exposed to the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. In contrast to previous studies in this system, we use a clone of P. ramosa, not field isolates, which allows for a more definitive interpretation of results. We test parental, F1, F2, backcross and selfed parental clones (total 284 genotypes) for susceptibility against a clone of P. ramosa using two different methods, infection trials and the recently developed attachment test. We find that D. magna clones reliably exhibit either complete resistance or complete susceptibility to P. ramosa clone C1 and that resistance is dominant, and inherited in a pattern consistent with Mendelian segregation of a single-locus with two alleles. The finding of a single host locus controlling susceptibility to P. ramosa suggests that the previously observed genotype-genotype interactions in this system have a simple genetic basis. This has important implications for the outcome of host-parasite co-evolution. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that resistance to parasites in invertebrates is mostly coded by one or few loci with dominance.

  19. Parasitism drives host genome evolution: Insights from the Pasteuria ramosa-Daphnia magna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Yann; Roulin, Anne C; Müller, Kristina; Ebert, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    Because parasitism is thought to play a major role in shaping host genomes, it has been predicted that genomic regions associated with resistance to parasites should stand out in genome scans, revealing signals of selection above the genomic background. To test whether parasitism is indeed such a major factor in host evolution and to better understand host-parasite interaction at the molecular level, we studied genome-wide polymorphisms in 97 genotypes of the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna originating from three localities across Europe. Daphnia magna is known to coevolve with the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa for which host genotypes (clonal lines) are either resistant or susceptible. Using association mapping, we identified two genomic regions involved in resistance to P. ramosa, one of which was already known from a previous QTL analysis. We then performed a naïve genome scan to test for signatures of positive selection and found that the two regions identified with the association mapping further stood out as outliers. Several other regions with evidence for selection were also found, but no link between these regions and phenotypic variation could be established. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that parasitism is driving host genome evolution. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Effects of various metals on survival, growth, reproduction, and metabolism of Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesinger, K E; Christensen, G M

    1972-01-01

    The toxicities of various metals to Daphnia magna were evaluated on the basis of a 48-hr 50% lethal concentration (lc50) 3-week 16% reproductive impairment concentrations (In micrograms per liter) for the metal ions tested were: Na(I), 680,000; Ca(II), 116,000; Mg(II), 82,000; K(I), 53,000; Sr(II), 42,000; Ba(II), 5,800; Fe(III), 4,380; Mn(II), 4,100; As(V), 520; Sn(II), 350; Cr(III), 330; Al(III), 320; Zn(II), 70; Au(III), 60; Ni(II), 30; Pb(II), 30; Cu(II), 22; Pt(IV), 14; Co(II), 10; Hg(II), 3.4; and Cd(II), 0.17. At mental concentrations permitting survival but impairing reproduction, daphnids weighed less than control animals. Amounts of total protein and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase activity varied with the different metals. The negative logarithm of the solubility product constant 8 pksp of the metal sulfides, electronegativity, and the logarithm of the equilibrium constant (log keg) of the metal-ATP complex were positively correlated with toxicity to D. magna. Other physicochemical properties were considered, but no additional correlations were found.

  1. A Case with Mega Cisterna Magna Renal and Ear Anomalies: Is This a New Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çapan Konca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extrarenal pathologies may be associated with renal position and fusion anomalies. According to the literature, our patient is the first horseshoe kidney case that had mega cisterna magna, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. Case Report. A 9-year-old boy admitted because of the myoclonic jerks. He had a dysmorphic face, low-set and cup-shaped ears, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. The patient’s laboratory findings were normal except for a mild leucocytosis and hypochromic microcytic anemia. His cerebrospinal fluid was cytologically and biochemically normal. Cranial MRI revealed 1.5 cm diametered mega cisterna magna in the retrocerebellar region. Although there were no significant epileptical discharges in the electroencephalography, there were slow wave discharges arising from the anterior regions of both hemispheres. Because he had stomachache, abdominal ultrasonography was performed, and horseshoe kidney was determined. Abdominal CT did not reveal any abnormalities except the horseshoe kidney. There were not any cardiac pathologies in echocardiography. He had normal 46XY karyotype and there were no repeated chromosomal derangements, but we could not evaluate for molecular and submicroscopic somatic changes. He was treated with valproic acid and myoclonic jerks did not repeat. Conclusion. We suggest that the presence of these novel findings may represent a newly recognized, separate syndrome.

  2. Is acetylcholinesterase a biomarker of susceptibility in Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) after deltamethrin exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos; Felten, Vincent; Férard, Jean François

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we explored the possibility of using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker after deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) exposure with three strains of the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four calculated time-weighted deltamethrin concentrations (20.1, 40.3, 80.6 and 161.3 ng L(-1)) were compared against control acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of deltamethrin exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the three considered strains. However, diverse responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 80.6 ng L(-1) for strain 1 and 20.1 ng L(-1) for strains 2 and 3) revealing differences in sensitivity among the three tested strains of D. magna. Our results suggest that after deltamethrin exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility (i.e., variation of strain specific response). Moreover, our results show that strain 1 is the less sensitive in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE, whereas it became the most sensitive when considering the EC50-48 h estimated in the standard ecotoxicity test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2012-03-15

    In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of temperature on the sensitivity of Daphnia magna to cyanobacteria is genus dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of 6 different genera of cyanobacteria on multiple endpoints of Daphnia magna in a 21-d life table experiment conducted at 3 different temperatures (15 °C, 19 °C, and 23 °C). The specific aims were to test if the effect of temperature on Daphnia's sensitivity to cyanobacteria differed among different cyanobacteria and if the rank order from most to least harmful cyanobacteria to Daphnia reproduction changed or remained the same across the studied temperature range. Overall, the authors observed a decrease in harmful effects on reproduction with increasing temperature for Microcystis, Nodularia, and Aphanizomenon, and an increase in harmful effects with increasing temperature for Anabaena and Oscillatoria. No effect of temperature was observed on Daphnia sensitivity to Cylindrospermopsis. Harmful effects of Microcystis and Nodularia on reproduction appear to be mirrored by a decrease in length. On the other hand, harmful effects of Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Oscillatoria on reproduction were correlated with a decrease in intrinsic rate of natural increase, which was matched by a later onset of reproduction in exposures to Oscillatoria. In addition, the results suggest that the cyanobacteria rank order of harmfulness may change with temperature. Higher temperatures may increase the sensitivity of D. magna to the presence of some cyanobacteria (Anabaena and Oscillatoria) in their diet, whereas the harmful effects of others (Microcystis, Nodularia, and Aphanizomenon) may be reduced by higher temperatures. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. The Principle Of Justice In Magna Carta Libertatum And Its Influence On The Law In General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zendeli Emine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to expound the principle of justice, as a fundamental value and as an immanent category of law, as well as one of the fundamental human rights, prescribed and guaranteed by a myriad of international instruments and documents. After a brief historical account, by focusing on Article 40 of the Magna Carta Libertatum, which states that: “To No One Will we Sell, To No One Will we refuse or delay, right or justice”, this article claims to show the importance of incorporation of this principle in the provisions of the Magna Carta and its impact on the development of theory and legislation in the past and present. Moreover, the article intends to explore the extent of influence that the priciple of justice has on the functioning of the law in general. Since justice implicates the permanent and constant will to render each person his due, and this achieved through equality, it results that justice means being equal. In this context, the article will explore the concept of equality as a precondition of justice, as well as the conditions and modalities for its implementation.

  6. Symbiotic bacteria contribute to increasing the population size of a freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Tsukada, Koji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    The filter-feeding crustacean Daphnia is a key organism in freshwater ecosystems. Here, we report the effect of symbiotic bacteria on ecologically important life history traits, such as population dynamics and longevity, in Daphnia magna. By disinfection of the daphniid embryos with glutaraldehyde, aposymbiotic daphniids were prepared and cultured under bacteria-free conditions. Removal of bacteria from the daphniids was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The population of aposymbiotic daphniids was reduced 10-folds compared with that of the control daphniids. Importantly, re-infection with symbiotic bacteria caused daphniids to regain bacteria and increase their fecundity to the level of the control daphniids, suggesting that symbiotic bacteria regulate Daphnia fecundity. To identify the species of symbiotic bacteria, 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in daphniids were sequenced. This revealed that 50% of sequences belonged to the Limnohabitans sp. of the Betaproteobacteria class and that the diversity of bacterial taxa was relatively low. These results suggested that symbiotic bacteria have a beneficial effect on D. magna, and that aposymbiotic Daphnia are useful tools in understanding the role of symbiotic bacteria in the environmental responses and evolution of their hosts. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cisterna magna microdialysis of 22Na to evaluate ion transport and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuckey, N.W.; Fowler, A.G.; Johanson, C.E.; Nashold, J.R.; Epstein, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Microdialysis is used in vivo for measuring compounds in brain interstitial fluid. The authors describe another application of this technique to the central nervous system, namely microprobe dialysis in the cisterna magna to study the dynamics of ion transport and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) formation in the rat. The choroid plexus is the major source of CSF, which is produced by active transport of Na from blood into the cerebral ventricles. Formation of CSF is directly proportional to the blood-to-CSF transport of Na. By injecting 22 Na into the systemic circulation and quantifying its movement into CSF by microdialysis, one can reliably estimate alterations in the rate of CSF formation. The sensitivity of this system was determined by administering acetazolamide, a standard inhibitor of CSF production. Because acetazolamide is known to decrease CSF formation by 40% to 50%, the cisternal microdialysis system in animals treated with this drug should detect a corresponding decrease in the amount of 22 Na dialyzed. This hypothesis is supported by the 22 Na uptake curves for control versus treated animals: that is, by the acetazolamide-induced average diminution of about 45% in both the rate and extent of tracer accession to dialysate. Bumetanide, a loop diuretic, reduced by 30% the 22 Na entry into dialysate. Microprobe dialysis of fluid in the cisterna magna is thus a minimally invasive and economical method for evaluating effects of drugs and hormones on the choroid plexus-CSF system

  8. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir [Institute of Limnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task.

  9. Genomic integration and germline transmission of plasmid injected into crustacean Daphnia magna eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Kato

    Full Text Available The water flea, Daphnia, has been the subject of study in ecology, evolution, and environmental sciences for decades. Over the last few years, expressed sequence tags and a genome sequence have been determined. In addition, functional approaches of overexpression and gene silencing based on microinjection of RNAs into eggs have been established. However, the transient nature of these approaches prevents us from analyzing gene functions in later stages of development. To overcome this limitation, transgenesis would become a key tool. Here we report establishment of a transgenic line using microinjection of plasmid into Daphnia magna eggs. The green fluorescent protein (GFP gene fused with the D. magna histone H2B gene under the control of a promoter/enhancer region of the elongation factor 1α-1 (EF1α-1 gene, EF1α-1::H2B-GFP, was used as a reporter providing high resolution visualization of active chromatin. Transgenic lines were obtained from 0.67% of the total fertile adults that survived the injections. One of the transgenic animals, which exhibited fluorescence in the nuclei of cells during embryogenesis and oogenesis, had two copies of EF1α-1::H2B-GFP in a head-to-tail array. This is the first report of a transgenesis technique in Daphnia and, together with emerging genome sequences, will be useful for advancing knowledge of the molecular biology of Daphnia.

  10. Effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on acetylcholinesterase activity of two strains of Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hela; Bejaoui, Mustapha; Touaylia, Samir; Burga Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean François

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on the acetylcholinesterase activity in two strains (same clone A) of the crustacean cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four carbaryl concentrations (0.4, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1)) were compared against control AChE activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of carbaryl exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the two considered strains. However, different responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 0.4 µg L(-1) for strain 1 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strains 2) revealing differences in sensitivity among the two tested strains of D. magna. These results suggest that after carbaryl exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility. Moreover, our results show that strain1 is less sensitive than strain 2 in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE activity. Comparing the EC50-48 h of standard ecotoxicity test and IC50-48 h of AChE inhibition, there is the same order of sensitivity with both strains.

  11. Presentation and management of lateral sinus thrombosis following posterior fossa surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Kotbi, Owais; Turc, Guillaume; Corns, Robert; Pagès, Mélanie; Souillard-Scémama, Raphaëlle; Dezamis, Edouard; Parraga, Eduardo; Meder, Jean-François; Sauvageon, Xavier; Devaux, Bertrand; Oppenheim, Catherine; Pallud, Johan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE There are no guidelines for the management of postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis following posterior fossa surgery. Introducing treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy during the immediate postoperative period increases the risk of intracranial bleeding. This study assessed the incidence of and risk factors associated with postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis and the complications related to thrombosis and/or anticoagulation. METHODS This study was a retrospective monocentric analysis of adult patients who underwent surgical removal of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion with available postoperative imaging. Postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis was defined as a T2 * hypointensity within the venous sinus and/or a filling defect on postcontrast MRI or CT scan. RESULTS Among 180 patients, 12 (6.7%; 95% CI 3.0-10.4) were found to have lateral sinus thrombosis on postoperative imaging, none of whom were symptomatic. Unadjusted risk factors for postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis were a history of deep venous thrombosis (p = 0.016), oral contraceptive pill (p = 0.004), midline surgical approach (p = 0.035), and surgical exposure of the sinus (p < 0.001). Seven of the patients (58.3%) with a postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis received immediate treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy. Lateral sinus recanalization occurred radiologically at a mean time of 272 ± 23 days in 85.7% of patients (6 of 7) undergoing treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy and in 20% of patients (1 of 5) not receiving treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy. Postoperative complications occurred in 56.2% of patients (9 of 16) who received treatment-dose curative anticoagulant therapy and in 27% of patients (45 of 164) who did not. CONCLUSIONS Incidental radiological lateral sinus thrombosis following posterior fossa surgery has an incidence of 6.7%. To further define the benefit-to-risk ratio of a treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy, a prospective trial should be considered.

  12. Condyle-fossa modifications and muscle interactions during herbst treatment, part 1. New technological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, John C; Woodside, Donald G; Altuna, Gurkan; Kuftinec, Mladen M; Angelopoulos, Gerassimos; Bourque, Paul J

    2003-06-01

    Changes in the condyle, the glenoid fossa, and the muscles of mastication were investigated in subjects undergoing continuous orthopedic advancement of the mandible with a Herbst-block appliance. The total sample consisted of 56 subjects and included 15 nonhuman primates (in the middle mixed, early permanent, and permanent dentitions), 17 human Herbst patients in the early permanent dentition, and 24 human controls from the Burlington Growth Center. The 8 nonhuman primates in the middle mixed dentition were the focus of this study. Mandibular advancement was obtained progressively in 5 animals by adding stops to the telescopic arms of fixed functional Herbst appliances with occlusal coverage; activations of 5.0 mm, 7.0 mm, and 8.0 mm were achieved. Two primates served as controls, and the third was a sham control. Two experimental animals and the 2 controls also wore surgically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the superior and inferior heads of the lateral pterygoid muscles and in the superficial masseter and anterior digastric muscles. Changes in condylar growth direction and amount were assessed with the Björk method from measurements made on serial cephalometric tracings superimposed on metallic implants. Undecalcified sections, treated with intravenous tetracycline vital staining, were viewed with fluorescence microscopy to examine histologic changes in the condyle and the glenoid fossa. New bone formation in the fossa associated with continuous mandibular protrusion was quantified by using computerized histomorphometric analysis of decalcified histological sections and polarized light. The unique combination of permanently implanted electromyographic electrodes, tetracycline vital staining, and histomorphometry represents a significant technological advancement in methods and materials. Together, they demonstrated different muscle-bone interaction results for functional appliances than those reported in previous studies. In Part 1 of this study, we

  13. Postoperative intraspinal subdural collections after pediatric posterior fossa tumor resection: incidence, imaging, and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harreld, J H; Mohammed, N; Goldsberry, G; Li, X; Li, Y; Boop, F; Patay, Z

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative intraspinal subdural collections in children after posterior fossa tumor resection may temporarily hinder metastasis detection by MR imaging or CSF analysis, potentially impacting therapy. We investigated the incidence, imaging and clinical features, predisposing factors, and time course of these collections after posterior fossa tumor resection. Retrospective review of postoperative spine MRI in 243 children (5.5 ± 4.6 years of age) from our clinical data base postresection of posterior fossa tumors from October 1994 to August 2010 yielded 37 (6.0 ± 4.8 years of age) subjects positive for postoperative intraspinal subdural collections. Their extent and signal properties were recorded for postoperative (37/37), preoperative (15/37), and follow-up spine (35/37) MRI. Risk factors were compared with age-matched internal controls (n = 37, 5.9 ± 4.5 years of age). Associations of histology, hydrocephalus and cerebellar tonsillar herniation, and postoperative intracranial subdural collections with postoperative intraspinal subdural collections were assessed by the Fisher exact test or χ(2) test. The association between preoperative tumor volume and postoperative intraspinal subdural collections was assessed by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The overall incidence of postoperative intraspinal subdural collections was 37/243 (15.2%), greatest ≤7 days postoperatively (36%); 97% were seen 0-41 days postoperatively (12.9 ± 11.0 days). They were T2 hyperintense and isointense to CSF on T1WI, homogeneously enhanced, and resolved on follow-up MR imaging (35/35). None were symptomatic. They were associated with intracranial subdural collections (P = .0011) and preoperative tonsillar herniation (P = .0228). Postoperative intraspinal subdural collections are infrequent and clinically silent, resolve spontaneously, and have a distinctive appearance. Preoperative tonsillar herniation appears to be a predisposing factor. In this series, repeat MR imaging by 4 weeks

  14. Preoperative irradiation of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Kurihara, Masaki; Mori, Kazuo; Amamoto, Yuhei.

    1981-01-01

    This is a report of case with the extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa in which total removal was carried out after radiotherapy. Follow-up study with computed tomography during and after irradiation are presented. A 44-year-old house-wife complained of a decreased vision of the both eyes and paresis of the left upper and lower limbs. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the right middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Right carotid angio-graphy demonstrated a large avascular mass in the right middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. An attempt to total removal of the tumor had failed to success because of extensive hemorrhage from the tumor. Histological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. Irradiation with a total dose of 5000 rads was delivered. After irradiation. CT scan revealed a marked decrease of size and EMI number of the tumor. At this stage, hypervascular mass lesion with feeding arteries was noted in conventional angiography. Tumor stain in prolonged injection angiography was also visualized. In the second operation, removal of the tumor was performed without any difficulty and hemorrhage was controlled easily by electrocoagulation. Histology revealed a marked narrowing of vessels with an increase in the connective tissues. In the central part of specimen, there noted findings of coagulation necrosis, intraluminal thrombus formations and so on, which were attributed to the influence of radiation. It is concluded that in case of a extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3000 - 5000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increase of probability of total removal of the tumor. (author)

  15. [Comparison of manual and automated (MagNA Pure) nucleic acid isolation methods in molecular diagnosis of HIV infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Alpaslan; Us, Dürdal; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2004-01-01

    Rapid quantitative molecular methods are very important for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, assessment of prognosis and follow up. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the performances of conventional manual extraction method and automated MagNA Pure system, for the nucleic acid isolation step which is the first and most important step in molecular diagnosis of HIV infections. Plasma samples of 35 patients in which anti-HIV antibodies were found as positive by microparticule enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by immunoblotting method, were included in the study. The nucleic acids obtained simultaneously by manual isolation kit (Cobas Amplicor, HIV-1 Monitor Test, version 1.5, Roche Diagnostics) and automated system (MagNA Pure LC Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit, Roche Diagnostics), were amplified and detected in Cobas Amplicor (Roche Diagnostics) instrument. Twenty three of 35 samples (65.7%) were found to be positive, and 9 (25.7%) were negative by both of the methods. The agreement between the methods were detected as 91.4%, for qualitative results. Viral RNA copies detected by manual and MagNA Pure isolation methods were found between 76.0-7.590.000 (mean: 487.143) and 113.0-20.300.0000 (mean: 2.174.097) copies/ml, respectively. When both of the overall and individual results were evaluated, the number of RNA copies obtained with automatized system, were found higher than the manual method (p<0.05). Three samples which had low numbers of nucleic acids (113, 773, 857, respectively) with MagNA Pure, yielded negative results with manual method. In conclusion, the automatized MagNA Pure system was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method for the isolation of HIV-RNA.

  16. ModFossa: A library for modeling ion channels using Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneyhough, Gareth B; Thibealut, Corey M; Dascalu, Sergiu M; Harris, Frederick C

    2016-06-01

    The creation and simulation of ion channel models using continuous-time Markov processes is a powerful and well-used tool in the field of electrophysiology and ion channel research. While several software packages exist for the purpose of ion channel modeling, most are GUI based, and none are available as a Python library. In an attempt to provide an easy-to-use, yet powerful Markov model-based ion channel simulator, we have developed ModFossa, a Python library supporting easy model creation and stimulus definition, complete with a fast numerical solver, and attractive vector graphics plotting.

  17. Congenital piriform fossa sinus tract presenting as an asymptomatic neck mass in an infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, David A.; Adler, Brent H.; Forsythe, Robert C.; Mutabagani, Khaled; Teich, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A 5-month-old girl with an asymptomatic left-sided neck mass was demonstrated by ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal series (UGI), and confirmed at surgery, to have a congenital piriform fossa sinus tract (CPFST) that communicated with an intrathyroidal cyst. To demonstrate a case of CPFST presenting as an asymptomatic neck mass. Nearly all cases of CPFST present with infection or pain, making this case unique. Case report and review of the literature. CPFST with an associated cyst should be added to the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic cystic neck masses in infants, especially if the cyst is intrathyroidal by ultrasound. (orig.)

  18. Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Hephaestus Fossae Cratered Cones, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapremont, A.; Wray, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hephaestus Fossae are a system of sub-parallel fractures on Mars (> 500 km long) interpreted as near-surface tensional cracks [1]. Images of the Martian surface from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have revealed cratered cones within the Hephaestus Fossae region. A volcanic origin (cinder/tuff cones) has been proposed for these features based on morphometric measurements and fine-scale surface characteristics [2]. In an effort to further constrain the origin of these cones as the products of igneous or sedimentary volcanism, we use data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). We take advantage of CRISM's S (0.4 - 1.0 microns) and L (1.0 - 3.9 microns) detector wavelength ranges to investigate the presence or absence of spectral signatures consistent with previous identifications of igneous and mud volcanism products on Mars [3,4]. Hephaestus Fossae cratered cone rims exhibit a consistent nanophase ferric oxide signature. We also identify ferrous phases and 3-micron absorptions (attributed to fundamental vibrational stretch frequencies in H2O) on the crater rims of several cones. Mafic signatures on cratered cone rims support an igneous provenance for these features. The 3-micron absorptions are consistent with the presence of structurally bound or adsorbed water. Our CRISM observations are similar to those of small edifice features in Chryse Planitia, which were interpreted as mud volcanism products based on their enrichment of nanophase ferric minerals and 3-micron absorptions on summit crater rims [3]. Hydrothermal activity was invoked for a Coprates Chasma pitted cone (scoria/tuff cone) based on CRISM identification of partially dehydrated opaline silica, which we do not observe in Hephaestus Fossae [4]. Our spectral observations are more consistent with mud volcanism, but we do not definitively rule out an igneous volcanic origin for the cones in our study region. We demonstrate that VNIR spectroscopy is a valuable

  19. Superolateral dislocation of an intact mandibular condyle into the temporal fossa: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divashree; Khasgiwala, Ankit; Maheshwari, Bharat; Singh, Charanpreet; Shakya, Neelam

    2017-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint dislocation refers to the dislodgement of mandibular condyle from the glenoid fossa. Anterior and anteromedial dislocations of the mandibular condyle are frequently reported in the literature, but superolateral dislocation is a rare presentation. This report outlines a case of superolateral dislocation of an intact mandibular condyle that occurred in conjunction with an ipsilateral mandibular parasymphysis fracture. A review of the clinical features of superolateral dislocation of the mandibular condyle and the possible techniques of its reduction ranging from the most conservative means to extensive surgical interventions is presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Surgery for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with lateral extension to the infratemporal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masato; Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Tokumaru, Takao; Aoyagi, Masaru; Kawano, Yoshihisa; Yano, Tomoyuki; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to assess the usefulness of skull base surgery for large juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) with lateral extension to the infratemporal fossa. Eleven cases were enrolled for this study, and the mean age was 17.7 years old (range: 8-32). Six out of 11 cases underwent surgery as an initial treatment, and the other five underwent secondary surgery after initial surgery or radiotherapy in other institutions. The range of extension of tumor, feeding arteries, surgical approach, and treatment outcome were estimated. All tumors originated from the sphenopalatine foramen. Based on the imaging study, there was extension to the cavernous sinus observed in eight cases, as well as to the middle cranial fossa (8), orbit (4), and anterior cranial fossa (1). These tumors were diagnosed as Andrews' Stage IVa (3) and IVb (8). However, infiltration into the cavernous sinus was observed in one case only during surgery. Ten tumors were separated carefully from the cavernous sinus or dura and were accurately diagnosed as Stage IIIb. In all cases, the main arterial feeders of the JNAs were branches of the external carotid artery, which were embolized prior to surgery. However, 10 cases were also fed by branches of the internal carotid artery (branches of the ophthalmic artery), in which these arteries could not be embolized. Coronal skin incision (1) and a facial dismasking flap (9) were used, and in one case, wide lateral skin incision with temporary incision of the facial nerve was applied. The orbito-zygomatic approach and its modification was applied to all the cases. Fronto-lateral craniotomy was applied in four cases and lateral craniotomy in seven cases. Total resection was achieved in 10 cases and subtotal resection in one case. No mortality was noted in this series. Temporal trismus was observed in all cases which subsided gradually. Cheek numbness and facial palsy were observed in three and two cases, respectively. Coupled with craniotomy, tumor removal

  1. Trans-generational effects induced by alpha and gamma ionizing radiations at Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities related to the nuclear industry contribute to continuous discharges of radionuclides into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Over the past decades, the ecological risk of ionizing radiation has become a growing public, regulatory and scientific concern for ecosystems protection. Until recently, only few studies focus on exposure situations at low doses of irradiation, although these situations are representative of realistic environmental conditions. Understanding how ionizing radiation affects species over several generations and at various levels of biological organization is a major research goal in radioecology. The aim of this PhD was to bring new knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation during a multi-generational expose of the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna. A two-step strategy was implemented. First, an external gamma radiation at environmentally relevant dose rates was performed on D. magna over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2). The objective of this experiment was to examine whether low dose rates of radiation induced increasing effects on survival, growth and reproduction of daphnids over generations and to test a possible accumulation and transmission of DNA alterations from adults to offspring. Results showed an accumulation and a transmission of DNA alterations over generations, together with an increase in effect severity on growth and reproduction from generation F0 to generation F2. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in generation F1. Second, data from the external gamma irradiation and those from an earlier study of internal alpha contamination were analyzed with DEBtox models (Dynamic Energy Budget applied to toxicology), to identify and compare the causes of the trans-generational increase in effect severity between the two types of radiation. In each case, two distinct metabolic modes of action were necessary to explain effects on

  2. Posterior fossa reconstruction using titanium plate for the treatment of cerebellar ptosis after decompression for Chiari malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vikram; Holly, Langston T; Chow, Daniel; Batzdorf, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    We describe our use of a perforated titanium plate to perform a partial posterior fossa cranioplasty in the treatment of cerebellar ptosis and dural ectasia after posterior fossa decompression (PFD). Twelve patients who had undergone PFD underwent posterior fossa reconstruction using a titanium plate. Symptoms were related to either descent of the cerebellum into the decompression or to dural ectasia into the craniectomy defect. Twelve patients who had undergone large suboccipital craniectomies and who presented with persistent headaches and some with neurological symptoms related to syringomyelia, underwent reoperation with placement of a small titanium plate. Ten of 12 patients showed symptomatic improvement after reoperation. Placement of a titanium plate appears to be an effective method of treatment of cerebellar ptosis and dural ectasia after PFD for Chiari malformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intramedullary femoral nailing through the trochanteric fossa versus greater trochanter tip : a randomized controlled study with in-depth functional outcome results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, C. M. Ansari; ten Duis, H. J.; Oey, P. L.; de Kort, G. A. P.; van der Meulen, W.; van der Werken, Chr

    2011-01-01

    In a level 1 university trauma center, an explorative randomized controlled study was performed to compare soft tissue damage and functional outcome after antegrade femoral nailing through a trochanteric fossa (also known as piriform fossa) entry point to a greater trochanter entry point in patients

  4. Fetal MRI for characterising a variety of posterior fossa anomalies suspected on 3rd trimester ultrasound examination – a short series of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaresh Indravadan Ranchod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to more accurately assess abnormalities detected on screening ultrasound. This procedure is more pertinent when the initial ultrasound is done late in the third trimester and when the abnormality involves the posterior fossa of the brain. Four cases with a variety of unusual posterior fossa anomalies are presented.

  5. Daphnia magna shows reduced infection upon secondary exposure to a pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Seanna J; Wilson, Philip J; Little, Tom J

    2012-12-23

    Previous pathogen exposure is an important predictor of the probability of becoming infected. This is deeply understood for vertebrate hosts, and increasingly so for invertebrate hosts. Here, we test if an initial pathogen exposure changes the infection outcome to a secondary pathogen exposure in the natural host-pathogen system Daphnia magna and Pasteuria ramosa. Hosts were initially exposed to an infective pathogen strain, a non-infective pathogen strain or a control. The same hosts underwent a second exposure, this time to an infective pathogen strain, either immediately after the initial encounter or 48 h later. We observed that an initial encounter with a pathogen always conferred protection against infection compared with controls.

  6. Infections by Pasteuria do not protect its natural host Daphnia magna from subsequent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter; Du Pasquier, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The existence of immunological memory in invertebrates remains a contentious topic. Exposure of Daphnia magna crustaceans to a noninfectious dose of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa has been reported to reduce the chance of future infection upon exposure to higher doses. Using clonal hosts and parasites, we tested whether initial exposure of the host to the parasite (priming), followed by clearing of the parasite with antibiotic, protects the host from a second exposure (challenge). Our experiments included three treatments: priming and challenge with the same or with a different parasite clone, or no priming. Two independent experiments showed that both the likelihood of infection and the degree of parasite proliferation did not differ between treatments, supporting the conclusion that there is no immunological memory in this system. We discuss the possibility that previous discordant reports could result from immune or stress responses that did not fade following initial priming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Claudia Quinta (Pro Caelio 34 and an altar to Magna Mater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Winsor Leach

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the items of sculpture from the Capitoline collection now housed in the Museum of the Power Station Montemartini is a marble relief altar of the Claudian Period (E. Simon's dating dedicated to the mater deorum and the navis salvia and depicting the arrival of the goddess Cybele at Rome by ship. The dedicator is one Claudia Syntyche and the sculpture alludes to the legends attached to a much honored woman of the Claudian family whom Cicero, in his oration pro Caelio brought on stage in a cameo appearance to bolster his case against the controversial contemporary woman Clodia Metelli as one of the accusers of his client M. Caelius Rufus. This paper will consider questions raised by the iconography of the altar with reference to the development of Claudia's legend in Roman mythology and subsequently ask who was this Claudia the dedicator and why did she choose Magna Mater for her vow?

  8. Long-term outcomes of gamma knife surgery for posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Shigeo; Shuto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The long-term outcomes of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in patients with posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were retrospectively analyzed in 82 patients followed up for more than 5 years to evaluate the efficacy and safety. The median AVM volume at GKS was 0.95 cm 3 . The prescribed dose to the AVM margin was median 18 Gy with 1-18 isocenters. The actual complete AVM obliteration rate was 58.5% at 3 years and 78.0% at 5 years. The significant factors for higher complete obliteration rate were younger patient age and smaller maximum/minimum nidus diameter ratio. Two patients experienced hemorrhage caused by residual AVM rupture at 4 and 49 months. Twenty patients developed peri-nidal edema as an adverse radiation-induced reaction at median 13 months. One patient developed radiation-induced necrosis at 6.8 years. Neurological complication was observed in 12 patients and 6 patients remained with neurological dysfunction permanently. Larger nidus volume and location adjacent to an eloquent area significantly increased the risk of neurological complication. Pittsburgh radiosurgery-based AVM grading scale was significantly correlated with the outcome of neurological symptoms after GKS. GKS achieved acceptable and complete obliteration rate for posterior fossa AVM with relatively low risk of morbidity on neuroimaging and neurological symptoms for the long-term period after treatment. We recommend conformable and selective treatment planning to achieve both obliteration of the AVM nidus and preservation of neurological function. (author)

  9. Branchial sinus of the piriform fossa: reappraisal of third and fourth branchial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Stewart, Craig; Warrick, Paul; Tzifa, Constance; Forte, Vito

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to review clinical and embryologic aspects of third and fourth branchial anomalies. Retrospective study. We reviewed the institutional and departmental databases at our institution to identify all cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies encountered from 1992 to 2006. All patient records were examined with respect to demographics, clinical history, and radiologic and pathologic reports. We identified 17 cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies, the largest series of its kind reported to date. The lesions were predominantly left sided, all presenting with neck infection. Fistula formation was iatrogenic, secondary to incision and drainage. Preoperative direct laryngoscopy always revealed a pit within the apex of the piriform fossa. Surgical excision involved ipsilateral thyroidectomy as the lesion passed through the thyroid gland. No lesions following the classical course of a either a third or fourth branchial anomaly were identified. The clinical presentation of branchial sinuses arising from the piriform fossa is more in keeping with derivation from the thymopharyngeal duct (of the third pouch) than the hypothetical course of third and fourth branchial fistulae.

  10. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO 2 laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references

  11. Expansion of Chiari I-associated syringomyelia after posterior-fossa decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Z; Rao, S; Constantini, S

    2000-09-01

    Chiari I malformation (CMI) is an abnormality that involves caudal herniation of the cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum. CMI has been shown to be closely associated with the development of syringomyelia (SM). Several theories have emerged to explain the apparent correlation between the existence of CMI with subsequent development of SM. However, the exact mechanism of the evolution of SM is still subject to controversy. We report here the case of a 12-year-old girl admitted to hospital with headache, vomiting, ataxia, and moderate pyramidal signs. Radiological evaluation revealed the presence of CMI, accompanied by a small SM. The patient underwent posterior fossa decompression and improved significantly. She was re-admitted 6 months later with clinical evidence of progressive spinal cord dysfunction. MR revealed gross expansion of the syrinx. This case raises questions regarding the pathophysiology of CMI and its association with SM. The case indicates the need for neurological and radiological follow-up for patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression due to CMI, even for those without an initial syrinx. This is the first report known to us of expansion of a syrinx following decompression of an associated CMI.

  12. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings in Schistosomiasis mansoni: expanded gallbladder fossa and fatty hilum signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina dos Santos Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is no study relating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to ultrasound (US findings in patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Our aim was to describe MRI findings inpatients with schistosomal liver disease identified by US. METHODS: Fifty-four patients (mean age 41.6±13.5years from an area endemic for Schistosomiasis mansoni were selected for this study.All had US indicating liver schistosomal fibrosis and were evaluated with MRI performed witha 1.5-T superconducting magnet unit (Sigma. RESULTS: Forty-seven (87% of the 54 patientsshowing signs of periportal fibrosis identified through US investigation had confirmed diagnosesby MRI. In the seven discordant cases (13%, MRI revealed fat tissue filling in the hilar periportalspace where US indicated isolated thickening around the main portal vein at its point of entryto the liver. We named this the fatty hilum sign. One of the 47 patients with MRI evidence ofperiportal fibrosis had had his gallbladder removed previously. Thirty-five (76.1% of the other46 patients had an expanded gallbladder fossa filled with fat tissue, whereas MRI of the remainingeleven showed pericholecystic signs of fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Echogenic thickening of thegallbladder wall and of the main portal vein wall heretofore attributed to fibrosis were frequentlyidentified as fat tissue in MRI. However, the gallbladder wall thickening shown in US (expandedgallbladder fossa in MRI is probably secondary to combined hepatic morphologic changes inschistosomiasis, representing severe liver involvement.

  13. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  14. Transzygomatic approach with intraoperative neuromonitoring for resection of middle cranial fossa tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byung Chul; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Sung, Jae Hoon; Yang, Seung-Ho

    2012-02-01

    The authors reviewed the surgical experience and operative technique in a series of 11 patients with middle fossa tumors who underwent surgery using the transzygomatic approach and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IOM) at a single institution. This approach was applied to trigeminal schwannomas (n = 3), cavernous angiomas (n = 3), sphenoid wing meningiomas (n = 3), a petroclival meningioma (n = 1), and a hemangiopericytoma (n = 1). An osteotomy of the zygoma, a low-positioned frontotemporal craniotomy, removal of the remaining squamous temporal bone, and extradural drilling of the sphenoid wing made a flat trajectory to the skull base. Total resection was achieved in 9 of 11 patients. Significant motor pathway damage can be avoided using a change in motor-evoked potentials as an early warning sign. Four patients experienced cranial nerve palsies postoperatively, even though free-running electromyography of cranial nerves showed normal responses during the surgical procedure. A simple transzygomatic approach provides a wide surgical corridor for accessing the cavernous sinus, petrous apex, and subtemporal regions. Knowledge of the middle fossa structures is essential for anatomic orientation and avoiding injuries to neurovascular structures, although a neuronavigation system and IOM helps orient neurosurgeons.

  15. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J.; Bruine, F.T. de; Wezel-Meijler, G. van

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  16. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma Presenting as a Solitary Mass in the Intracranial Posterior Fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Shimia, Mohammad; Mazaheri-Khamene, Ramin; Daghighi, Shadi

    2012-01-01

    A patient with a 3-month history of headache refractory to pain medication was admitted. The CT scan and MRI showed evidence of a posterior fossa mass. This was pathologically confirmed as an extra medullary plasmacytoma (EMP). He had a pathologic fracture of the left humerus 7 years ago while the radiologist was unaware at the time of diagnosis. A solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) was the cause of the pathologic fracture. This report includes the first description of MRI findings in a patient with a rare-incidence intracranial solitary extra medullary plasmacytoma (SEP) in Iran. There is a striking similarity between the features of intracranial SEP and meningiomas. Intracranial SEP, although rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors in areas where meningiomas commonly arise. The MRI findings and differential diagnosis of plasmacytoma are reviewed. Before this case report, only few cases have been reported in the literature. Nonetheless, this is the first report of posterior fossa EMP from Iran

  17. Muscular Variation In The Neck Region With Narrowing Of The Minor And Major Supraclavicular Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sternocleidomastoideus muscle is the most prominent landmarks of the surface anatomy of the neck, separates the anterior part of the neck (anterior triangle from the posterior part of the neck (posterior triangle. An accessory head of sternocleidomastoideus muscle may cause complications while trying to access vital neurovascular structures that are located in the minor and major supraclavicular fossa. The purpose of this study is to describe an anatomical variation of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and clinical impact. Methods and Findings: The anatomical variations described were found during routine dissection conducted in the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona in two male cadavers of 47 and 75 years respectively. Measurements were taken using a Vernier caliper. Topographic details of the variations were examined, recorded and photographed. The morphological variations in the number of heads (three and four of origin of sternocleidomastoideus muscle was found in two male subjects in right and left neck, bilaterally.  The posterior cervical triangle was diminished. The bilateral narrowing of the minor and major supraclavicular fossa minimizing space needed for potential surgical access. The branching patterns of the spinal accessory nerve and arterial patterns were normal. Conclusions: The Knowledge of the presence of additional heads of sternocleidomastoideus muscle it might cause difficulties in subclavian or external jugular vein catheterization, and in surgical interventions involving structures lying under the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. These variations must be kept in mind while approaching the region to avoid complications as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse.

  18. Late effects of treatment on the intelligence of children with posterior fossa tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Thomas, P.

    1983-01-01

    This retrospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the late effects of treatment on intelligence in a population of children with posterior fossa tumors. Ten children with posterior fossa tumors treated with radiation and chemotherapy received intellectual evaluations at least one year following diagnosis. Six children had medulloblastomas, one child had a fourth ventricular ependymoma, two children had brainstem gliomas, and one child had a recurrent cerebellar astrocytoma. Children with supratentorial tumors were specifically excluded from the study in order to eliminate the possible influence of the tumor on intellectual functioning. Four children had had intelligence testing in school prior to treatment of their tumor. In each case results following treatment revealed a deterioration of full scale IQ of at least 25 points. Six children did not have prior testing; of these, two had IQ's less than 20. Overall, 50% of the patients had IQ's of less than 80 and 20% had IQ's of greater than 100. Furthermore, four children with normal intelligence (IQ greater than 80) have learning problems requiring special classes. Thus, of the ten children evaluated, all have either dementia, learning disabilities, or evidence of intellectual retardation. This study suggests that aggressive treatment of children with brain tumors may improve survivals but may be associated with significant long-term disabilities

  19. Quantifying sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup® to Daphnia magna using a fluorescence based enzyme activity assay and video tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslev, Peter; R. Hansen, Lone; Ørsted, Michael

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the active ingredient in a range of popular broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide formulations. The toxicity of this herbicide to non-target aquatic organisms such as Daphnia magna is often evaluated using conventional toxicity assays that focus...... on endpoints such as immobility and mortality. In this study, we investigated sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup® to D. magna using video tracking for quantifying behavioral changes, and a novel fluorescence based assay for measuring in vivo hydrolytic enzyme activity (FLEA assay). Roundup® exposure...... resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity in D. magna. The inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by Roundup® was temperature-dependent with lowest inhibition at 14 °C and greater inhibition at 20 and 26 °C. Exposure of D. magna to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate...

  20. Filming of zooplankton: a case study of rotifer males and Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Colangeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Filming live organisms can give new insights into the hidden life of plankton. Accessibly priced digital cameras are now available for a large range of users. Here, we demonstrate the technical setup and workflow of using a single-lens reflex (DSLR camera to film the behaviour of males of two rotifer species, Brachionus angularis Gosse (1851 and Keratella cochlearis Gosse (1851, and of the cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus (1820. Rotifers are cyclical parthenogens that produce males only under certain environmental conditions. Thus, knowledge on rotifer males is still limited because of their ephemeral nature and because they are often smaller than females. We filmed males of B. angularis and K. cochlearis with a DSLR camera connected to a compound microscope to better understand their morphology and behaviour in comparison to conspecific females. While written descriptions have their scientific value, seeing is complementary because everyone can verify what has been described. We made our videos publicly accessible through links connected to the paper. Our videos are, to our best knowledge, the first on males of B. angularis and K. cochlearis. Furthermore, we filmed the behavioural response of D. magna to ultraviolet (UV radiation with a macro lens attached to the DSLR camera. Approaches like this are valuable tools in environmental teaching. To see live organisms with one’s own eyes may contribute to raising public awareness about the value of water resources and their hidden communities. In summary, filming can be a valuable tool to ignite scientific discussion, but the videos need an open-access platform where they can be referenced in a topic-related order.

  1. Multi-generation cadmium acclimation and tolerance in Daphnia magna Straus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyssen, Brita T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna was acclimated for seven generations to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 250 μg/l Cd (corresponding to a free ion activity of 4.60 nM Cd 2+ ). Acute and chronic cadmium tolerance as well as cadmium accumulation were monitored as a function of acclimation time. After two to three generations of acclimation to concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.11 nM Cd 2+ increases in acute tolerance were maximal (factor 7.2) and significant. Acclimation for seven generations to the same acclimation concentrations did result in an increased chronic cadmium tolerance (21 days EC 50 values increased). Organisms acclimated to 1.93 nM Cd 2+ were equally or more sensitive than non-acclimated daphnids in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Cadmium contents in D. magna increased significantly as a function of the acclimation concentration. Maximum body burdens of 236±30 μg Cd/g dry weight were measured in organisms exposed to 4.60 nM Cd 2+ , but detoxification mechanisms were only successful up to 82±20 μg Cd/g dry weight as this concentration did not cause major decreases in survival and reproduction in chronic toxicity tests. As the potential positive effect of acclimation on cadmium tolerance disappeared with successive acclimation generations and increasing acclimation concentrations, it is concluded that multi-generation acclimation studies are important for the evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental toxicants. - Multi-generation acclimation studies are important for evaluating long-term effects of aquatic pollutants

  2. Magna Carta And Its Significant Role For Rule Of Law In The Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanovska-Spasovska Ivana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and famous historical documents from the English legal and constitutional legacy is the Magna Carta Libertatum. Signed and sealed in the year 1215 the Magna Carta is further on viewed as the sole inception of the idea of limiting the power of the ruler trough legal rules. That limitation is to be made with legal rules that are binding for everyone, even the monarch. Therefore, the Great Charter is viewed as the first document signed by a monarch with which, the principle of supremacy of the law is set out. That supremacy of the law has been further on developed by eminent scholars and practitioners, eventually leading to the development of the concept of rule of law. Rule of law, as a concept, means that the royal authority (or the executive branch of power is going to be inferior to the law. However, this concept means a lot more than simply that. Unlike the principle of legal state, the rule of law is closely linked to justice, separation of powers and legal certainty. All of these concepts are actually prerequisites for its existence. That is why each of them is separately examined and elaborated. Furthermore, as one of the most important principles the rule of law had a great influence on the constitutional (and legal systems around the world. Since the Republic of Macedonia strives to become a democratic state where the rule of law is established and developed it is important to elaborate the influence of this principle in it. Therefore, the research gravitates over the principle of rule of law in the Republic of Macedonia.

  3. The critical importance of defined media conditions in Daphnia magna nanotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Isabella; Gavin, Alex J; White, Thomas A; Merrifield, Ruth C; Chipman, James K; Viant, Mark R; Lead, Jamie R

    2013-10-23

    Due to the widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the likelihood of them entering the environment has increased and they are known to be potentially toxic. Currently, there is little information on the dynamic changes of AgNPs in ecotoxicity exposure media and how this may affect toxicity. Here, the colloidal stability of three different sizes of citrate-stabilized AgNPs was assessed in standard strength OECD ISO exposure media, and in 2-fold (media2) and 10-fold (media10) dilutions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and these characteristics were related to their toxicity towards Daphnia magna. Aggregation in undiluted media (media1) was rapid, and after diluting the medium by a factor of 2 or 10, aggregation was reduced, with minimal aggregation over 24h occurring in media10. Acute toxicity measurements were performed using 7nm diameter particles in media1 and media10. In media10 the EC50 of the 7nm particles for D. magna neonates was calculated to be 7.46μgL(-1) with upper and lower 95% confidence intervals of 6.84μgL(-1) and 8.13μgL(-1) respectively. For media1, an EC50 could not be calculated, the lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of 11.25μgL(-1) indicating a significant reduction in toxicity compared to that in media10. The data suggest the increased dispersion of nanoparticles leads to enhanced toxicity, emphasising the importance of appropriate media composition to fully assess nanoparticle toxicity in aquatic ecotoxicity tests. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of the uranium effects on energy budget and population dynamics in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarin, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study effects of uranium on energy budget and population dynamics in Daphnia magna a representative micro-crustacean of freshwater ecosystems. An experimental study of uranium toxicity on physiology (nutrition, respiration) and life history (survival, growth and reproduction) of D. magna was carried out, based on exposures over one, two or three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) started with neonates from 1. or 5. brood, at 0, 10, 25 and 75 μg U.L -1 . Results showed that toxic effects increased across generations (partially due to daphnid exposure during embryogenesis) and that individuals from 1. brood were more sensitive than individuals from 5. brood. Significant reductions in assimilation rates, measured using a radio-tracing method with 14 C-labelled food, allowed us to identify an effect on assimilation as the mode of action for uranium, in agreement with important damages in the integrity of intestinal epithelium observed by optic microscopy. Integrating results in a dynamic energy budget model (DEBtox) yielded estimated no effect concentrations (NEC) of 9.37, 8.21 and 2.31 μg U.L -1 above which organism functions were altered in generations F0, F1 and F2, respectively. Combining DEBtox with matrix models allowed us to extrapolate consequences on asymptotic population growth rate (λ), a relevant endpoint in an ecological context. Simulations predicted an increase in uranium impact across generations with reduction of λ in F0 and population extinctions at 51-59 μg U.L -1 in F1 and 39-41 μg U.L -1 in F2. Simulations emphasized the importance of considering the most sensitive individuals while determining population response. (author)

  5. Modification of metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in Daphnia magna by titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Cheng; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles are widely used in water treatments, yet their influences on other contaminants in the water are not well studied. In this study, the aqueous uptake, assimilation efficiency, and toxicity of two ionic metals (cadmium-Cd, and zinc-Zn) in a freshwater zooplankton, Daphnia magna, were investigated following 2 days pre-exposure to nano-TiO 2 . Pre-exposure to 1 mg/L nano-TiO 2 resulted in a significant increase in Cd and Zn uptake from the dissolved phase. After the nano-TiO 2 in the guts were cleared, the uptake rates immediately recovered to the normal levels. Concurrent measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metallothioneins (MTs) suggested that the increased metal uptake was mainly due to the increased number of binding sites provided by nano-TiO 2 presented in the guts. Consistently, pre-exposure to nano-TiO 2 increased the toxicity of aqueous Cd and Zn due to enhanced uptake. Our study provides the evidence that nano-TiO 2 in the guts of animals could increase the uptake and toxicity of other contaminants. -- Highlights: • Dissolved Cd and Zn uptake in daphnids increased significantly after nano-TiO 2 pre-exposure. • Aqueous toxicity of Cd and Zn also increased after nano-TiO 2 pre-exposure. • Dietary assimilation of Cd and Zn was not affected after nano-TiO 2 pre-exposure. • Metal uptake recovered to normal levels after nano-TiO 2 in the guts were removed. • Nano-TiO 2 in the guts of animals could increase the uptake and toxicity of other contaminants. -- Nano-TiO 2 accumulation in Daphnia magna facilitated the uptake and toxicity of metal contaminants

  6. Interclonal proteomic responses to predator exposure in Daphnia magna may depend on predator composition of habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Kathrin A; Schrank, Isabella; Fröhlich, Thomas; Arnold, Georg J; Laforsch, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of one genotype to express different phenotypes in response to changing environmental conditions, is one of the most common phenomena characterizing the living world and is not only relevant for the ecology but also for the evolution of species. Daphnia, the water flea, is a textbook example for predator-induced phenotypic plastic defences; however, the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying these inducible defences is still in its early stages. We exposed Daphnia magna to chemical cues of the predator Triops cancriformis to identify key processes underlying plastic defensive trait formation. To get a more comprehensive idea of this phenomenon, we studied four genotypes with five biological replicates each, originating from habitats characterized by different predator composition, ranging from predator-free habitats to habitats containing T. cancriformis. We analysed the morphologies as well as proteomes of predator-exposed and control animals. Three genotypes showed morphological changes when the predator was present. Using a high-throughput proteomics approach, we found 294 proteins which were significantly altered in their abundance after predator exposure in a general or genotype-dependent manner. Proteins connected to genotype-dependent responses were related to the cuticle, protein synthesis and calcium binding, whereas the yolk protein vitellogenin increased in abundance in all genotypes, indicating their involvement in a more general response. Furthermore, genotype-dependent responses at the proteome level were most distinct for the only genotype that shares its habitat with Triops. Altogether, our study provides new insights concerning genotype-dependent and general molecular processes involved in predator-induced phenotypic plasticity in D. magna. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Fluid Dynamical Performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Marx

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of the fluid dynamical performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease depending on the prosthetic size (21, 23, and 25 mm and the cardiac output (3.6–6.4 L/min. A self-constructed flow channel in combination with particle image velocimetry (PIV enabled precise results with high reproducibility, focus on maximal and local peek velocities, strain, and velocity gradients. These flow parameters allow insights into the generation of forces that act on blood cells and the aortic wall. The results showed that the 21 and 23 mm valves have a quite similar performance. Maximal velocities were 3.03±0.1 and 2.87±0.13 m/s; maximal strain Exx, 913.81±173.25 and 896.15±88.16 1/s; maximal velocity gradient Eyx, 1203.14±221.84 1/s and 1200.81±61.83 1/s. The 25 mm size revealed significantly lower values: maximal velocity, 2.47±0.15 m/s; maximal strain Exx, 592.98±155.80 1/s; maximal velocity gradient Eyx, 823.71±38.64 1/s. In summary, the 25 mm Magna Ease was able to create a wider, more homogenous flow with lower peak velocities especially for higher flow rates. Despite the wider flow, the velocity values close to the aortic walls did not exceed the level of the smaller valves.

  8. Evaluation of Baffle Fixes Film up Flow Sludge Blanket Filtration (BFUSBF) System in Treatment of Wastewaters from Phenol and 2,4-Dinitrophenol Using Daphnia Magna Bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Ghannadzadeh; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Abbas Rezaee; Fatemeh Eftekharian; Ali Koolivand

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phenol and nitrophenol are common compounds found in different types of industrial wastewater known as serious threats to human health and natural environment. In this study, Daphnia magna was used to evaluate the effectiveness of "baffle fixes film up flow sludge blanket filtration" (BFUSBF) system in elimination of phenolic compounds from water. Methods: D. magna cultures were used as toxicity index of phenol and 2,4-DNP mixtures after treatment by a pilot BFUSBF system which...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Manual and Automated (MagNA Pure Nucleic Acid Isolation in HPV Detection and Genotyping Using Roche Linear Array HPV Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Chranioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids of human papillomavirus (HPV isolated by manual extraction method (AmpliLute and automated MagNA pure system were compared and evaluated with cytohistological findings in 253 women. The concordance level between AmpliLute and MagNA was very good 93.3% (=0.864, <.0001. Overall HPVpositivity detected by AmpliLute was 57.3% (30.4% as single and 27% as multiple infections in contrast to MagNA 54.5% (32% and 23%, resp.. Discrepant results observed in 25 cases: 11 MagNA(−/AmpliLute(+, 10 of which had positive histology; 5 MagNA(+/AmpliLute(− with negative histology; 8 MagNA(+/AmpliLute(+: in 7 of which AmpliLute detected extra HPV genotypes and 1 MagNA(invalid/AmpliLute(+ with positive histology. Both methods performed well when compared against cytological (area under curve (AUC of AmpliLute 0.712 versus 0.672 of MagNA and histological diagnoses (AUC of AmpliLute 0.935 versus 0.877 of MagNA, with AmpliLute showing a slightly predominance over MagNA. However, higher sensitivities, specificities, and positive/negative predictive values were obtained by AmpliLute.

  10. MR-Guided Laser-Induced Thermotherapy of the Infratemporal Fossa and Orbit in Malignant Chondrosarcoma via a Modified Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Mack, Martin G.; Straub, Ralf; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    A 76-year-old patient presented with a recurrent mass of a malignant chondrosarcoma in the right infratemporal fossa and in the left maxillary sinus with orbital invasion. The patient was treated with a palliative intention with MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy using a modified applicator technique. Following treatment clinical symptoms improved and MRI revealed complete laser-induced tumor necrosis

  11. Bone changes in the condylar head and mandibular fossa in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Helical CT observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimahara, Satoru; Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Shimahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether bone changes are present in sites impossible to observe by panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination, namely the medial of the condylar head and mandibular fossa, in patients with type IV temporomandibular joint disorders. We observed the articular fossa using computed tomography, which is able to obtain detailed 3-dimensional information, in patients with type IV temporomandibular disorders. We examined 120 joints of 60 patiens who visited the Department of Oral Surgery, Osaka Medical College Hospital. Each condylar head was clearly visualized in panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination findings, and shown to have possible changes unilaterally. Each joint was diagnosed as type IV, according to the diagnostic guidelines set by Japanese Society for Temporomandibular Joint, and further examined using helical CT. Changes in condylar head; We concluded that bone changes were present with considerable probability in the medial of condylar head in a manner similar to those found in the lateral and center of joints with type IV temporomandibular disorders. Changes in mandibular fossa; The bone changes occurred in various locations of the mandibular fossa, while they appeared significantly more frequently in the condylar head. We think that our finding will contribute to development of treatment strategies for temporomandibular disorders, as they clarify bone changes in sites previously unreported. (author)

  12. Role of Cerebellum in Fine Speech Control in Childhood: Persistent Dysarthria after Surgical Treatment for Posterior Fossa Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. T.; Liegeois, F.; Liederkerke, C.; Vogel, A. P.; Hayward, R.; Harkness, W.; Chong, K.; Vargha-Khadem, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dysarthria following surgical resection of childhood posterior fossa tumour (PFT) is most commonly documented in a select group of participants with mutism in the acute recovery phase, thus limiting knowledge of post-operative prognosis for this population of children as a whole. Here we report on the speech characteristics of 13 cases seen…

  13. A method of posterior fossa dural incision to minimize hemorrhage from the occipital sinus: the "mosquito" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Ryu, Seul Ki; Lim, Jang Mi; Chong, Sangjoon; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2016-12-01

    The posterior fossa dural opening requires the ligation of the occipital sinus to gain successful exposure. However, there could be a prominent occipital sinus which is functioning as the main drainage route and is harboring the risk of unpredictable massive hemorrhage during the dural opening. We introduce a safe method of posterior fossa dural incision to minimize hemorrhage from the occipital sinus using four curved hemostat clamps. For the dural incision at the midline part of the posterior cranial fossa, we used four curved hemostat clamps to occlude the prominent occipital sinus: one pair of clamps at the proximal part and the other pair at the distal part to occlude the occipital sinus. Dural incision was made between the two pairs of the curved hemostat clamps. By clamping of the sinus, it allows observation of possible brain swelling after occlusion of the occipital sinus as well as minimizes hemorrhage during incision of the midline dura of the posterior fossa. This method allows observation of brain swelling after occipital sinus occlusion and is an easy and safe incision of the midline dura minimizing hemorrhage in selected cases with a prominent occipital sinus.

  14. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tumours of posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, Aline.

    1976-01-01

    The present work concerns 38 posterior cranial fossa tumour cases subjected to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy between May 1974 and June 1976. 33 of these patients have undergone an anatomical check while for the remaining 5, the existence of a posterior fossa tumour is established from the conjunction of clinical signs and other paraclinical examinations. The procedure was the same for all these 38 patients: after a 300 μC/kg injection of tracer, an immediate angioscintigraphic period, an early set of pictures (half an hour after the tracer injection) then delayed set (4 to 5 hours later) taken from 4 angles: front, back and two profiles. The examination was performed with an OHIO NUCLEAR SIEMENS gamma camera and sometimes a conventional scanner as well (the latter giving no better a diagnosis than the former). In 75% of the cases a hyperfixation of the injected tracer was observed and its site located quite accurately in the posterior fossa tumour. The etiology of the lesion could be diagnosed in 'most probable' or 'least probable' terms. Examination of work by other authors, who obtained similar results, leads to the conclusion that this method is very helpful in the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumours when used as a means of early detection, before the undertaking of more complex neuroradiological explorations [fr

  15. Long-term evaluation of lethal and sublethal toxicity of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianliang; Kang, Sung-Wook; Jung, Jinho

    2010-06-15

    Acute toxicity and feeding rate inhibition of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and its adjacent stream water on Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa were comparatively studied. The acute toxicity of the final effluent (FE) fluctuated greatly over the sampling period from January to August 2009. Toxicity identification results of the FE in July 2009 showed that Cu originating from the Fenton's reagent was likely a key toxicant. In addition, the feeding rate of both species was still inhibited by the FEs in which acute toxicity was not observed. These findings indicate that the feeding response would be a useful tool for monitoring sublethal effects of industrial effluents. For the acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was more sensitive than D. magna, but the opposite result was true in the case of the feeding rate inhibition. These suggest that different species have different sensitivities to toxic chemicals and to the test methods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (cyanobacteria) ingestion on Daphnia magna midgut and associated diverticula epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Isabel C.G.; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a light and electron microscopy investigation of the effects of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum ingestion on midgut and associated digestive diverticula of Daphnia magna. Additionally, survivorship and growth effects caused by feeding on cyanobacteria were assessed. Three cyanobacteria were used in the experiments: cylindrospermopsin (CYN)-producing C. raciborskii, CYN-producing A. ovalisporum and non-CYN-producing C. raciborskii. In order to discriminate between the alterations due to the low nutritional value of cyanobacteria and toxic effects, a control group was fed on the chlorophyte Ankistrodesmus falcatus and another control group was not fed. In the chlorophyte fed control, the epithelium lining the midgut and associated diverticula is mainly formed by strongly stained cells with an apical microvilli border. Nevertheless, unstained areas in which cell lyses had occurred were also observed. In the unfed control, the unstained areas became predominant due to an increment of cell lyses. All individuals fed on CYN-producing A. ovalisporum and some of those fed on non-CYN-producing C. raciborskii appear similar to the unfed control. However, some individuals fed on non-CYN-producing C. raciborskii showed similarities with the fed control. In contrast, the midgut and digestive diverticula of D. magna fed on CYN-producing C. raciborskii showed a widespread dissociation of epithelial cells, associated with severe intracellular disorganization, but cell lysis was less evident than in controls. These alterations cannot be attributed to CYN, because those effects were not induced by CYN-producing A. ovalisporum. Therefore, data suggest the production of another unidentified active metabolite by CYN-producing C. raciborskii, responsible for the disruption of cell adhesion in the epithelium of D. magna digestive tract. Data also show that the tested cyanobacteria are inadequate as food to D. magna, due to low nutritional

  17. Comparative ovarian microarray analysis of juvenile hormone-responsive genes in water flea Daphnia magna: potential targets for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kenji; Williams, Timothy D; Sato, Tomomi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2017-03-01

    The freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna has been extensively employed in chemical toxicity tests such as OECD Test Guidelines 202 and 211. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the treatment of juvenile hormones (JHs) or their analogues to female daphnids can induce male offspring production. Based on this finding, a rapid screening method for detection of chemicals with JH-activity was recently developed using adult D. magna. This screening system determines whether a chemical has JH-activity by investigating the male offspring inducibility. Although this is an efficient high-throughput short-term screening system, much remains to be discovered about JH-responsive pathways in the ovary, and whether different JH-activators act via the same mechanism. JH-responsive genes in the ovary including developing oocytes are still largely undescribed. Here, we conducted comparative microarray analyses using ovaries from Daphnia magna treated with fenoxycarb (Fx; artificial JH agonist) or methyl farnesoate (MF; a putative innate JH in daphnids) to elucidate responses to JH agonists in the ovary, including developing oocytes, at a JH-sensitive period for male sex determination. We demonstrate that induction of hemoglobin genes is a well-conserved response to JH even in the ovary, and a potential adverse effect of JH agonist is suppression of vitellogenin gene expression, that might cause reduction of offspring number. This is the first report demonstrating different transcriptomics profiles from MF and an artificial JH agonist in D. magna ovary, improving understanding the tissue-specific mode-of-action of JH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  19. The efficacy of intraoperative ultrasonography-assisted microinvasive cisterna magna reconstruction for Chiari malformation typeⅠwith syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Peng-chao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report the method and effect of intraoperative ultrasonography-assisted microinvasive cisterna magna reconstruction for Chiari malformation type Ⅰ with syringomyelia. Methods Ninty-three patients suffered from Chiari malformation typeⅠwith syringomyelia were treated by microinvasive cisterna magna reconstruction. The skin incision was 1.50-3.00 cm. The bone removal of foramen magnum was 1.50 cm × 2.00 cm with C1 reserved. Dura and arachnoid were incised and sutured linearly. All of the patients underwent cerebellar tonsillar resection and exploration of median aperture of fourth ventricle. Intraoperative ultrasonography was performed both before and after cerebellar tonsillar resection to judge the effect of cisterna magna reconstruction. According to Tator method, the curative effect was divided into 3 groups, improved, stable and worsen. MRI were reviewed at the same time, and the result was divided into syrinx disappeared, reduced, no change and expanded. Results The operation was successful in all patients. Postoperative complications included cerebellum hemorrhage (n = 1, cerebral infarction (n = 1, hydrocephalus (n = 1, subcutaneous dropsy (n = 2 and were recovered after specific treatment. All patients were followed up for 6 months to 12 months after operation. Thirty-six cases were improved, 55 cases were stable, and 2 cases got worse. The MRI showed that the syringomyelia shrinked or disappeared in 90 cases, no change in 3 cases and no expansion. Eighty cases were followed up for 30 months to 36 months after operation, 12 stable cases improved, 1 stable case got worse, while the others remained unchanged. The MRI showed no change was compared with previous follow-up imaging. Conclusion Microinvasive cisterna magna reconstruction is a surgical procedure with mininal injury, quick recovery, stable effect, fewer complications, and high security. Intraoperative ultrasonography provides reliable data and is easy to perform.

  20. CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end-joining in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas) is widely used for mediating the knock-in of foreign DNA into the genomes of various organisms. Here, we report a process of CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining by the direct injection of Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which is a model organism for studies on toxicology, ecology, and evolution. First, we confirmed the cleavage activity of Cas9 RNPs comprising purified Cas9 proteins and gRNAs in D. magna. We used a gRNA that targets exon 10 of the eyeless gene. Cas9 proteins were incubated with the gRNAs and the resulting Cas9 RNPs were injected into D. magna eggs, which led to a typical phenotype of the eyeless mutant, i.e., eye deformity. The somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies were up to 96% and 40%, respectively. Second, we tested the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in of a plasmid by the injection of Cas9 RNPs. The donor DNA plasmid harboring the fluorescent reporter gene was designed to contain the gRNA recognition site. The co-injection of Cas9 RNPs together with the donor DNAs resulted in generation of one founder animal that produced fluorescent progenies. This transgenic Daphnia had donor DNA at the targeted genomic site, which suggested the concurrent cleavage of the injected plasmid DNA and genomic DNA. Owing to its simplicity and ease of experimental design, we suggest that the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in method represents a promising tool for studying functional genomics in D. magna.

  1. Ultrasound guided double injection of blood into cisterna magna: a rabbit model for treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongchao; Zhu, Youzhi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zixuan; Lian, Juan; Luo, Fucheng; Deng, Xuefei; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-02-06

    Double injection of blood into cisterna magna using a rabbit model results in cerebral vasospasm. An unacceptably high mortality rate tends to limit the application of model. Ultrasound guided puncture can provide real-time imaging guidance for operation. The aim of this paper is to establish a safe and effective rabbit model of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage with the assistance of ultrasound medical imaging. A total of 160 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of 40 each: (1) manual control group, (2) manual model group, (3) ultrasound guided control group, and (4) ultrasound guided model group. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was intentionally caused by double injection of blood into their cisterna magna. Then, basilar artery diameters were measured using magnetic resonance angiography before modeling and 5 days after modeling. The depth of needle entering into cisterna magna was determined during the process of ultrasound guided puncture. The mortality rates in manual control group and model group were 15 and 23 %, respectively. No rabbits were sacrificed in those two ultrasound guided groups. We found that the mortality rate in ultrasound guided groups decreased significantly compared to manual groups. Compared with diameters before modeling, the basilar artery diameters after modeling were significantly lower in manual and ultrasound guided model groups. The vasospasm aggravated and the proportion of severe vasospasms was greater in ultrasound guided model group than that of manual group. In manual model group, no vasospasm was found in 8 % of rabbits. The ultrasound guided double injection of blood into cisterna magna is a safe and effective rabbit model for treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

  2. Correlation of Acute and Late Brainstem Toxicities With Dose-Volume Data for Pediatric Patients With Posterior Fossa Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Ronica H., E-mail: rhazari@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Ganju, Rohit G.; Schreibmann, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chen, Zhengjia; Zhang, Chao [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Jegadeesh, Naresh; Cassidy, Richard; Deng, Claudia; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced brainstem toxicity after treatment of pediatric posterior fossa malignancies is incompletely understood, especially in the era of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The rates of, and predictive factors for, brainstem toxicity after photon RT for posterior fossa tumors were examined. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval, 60 pediatric patients treated at our institution for nonmetastatic infratentorial ependymoma and medulloblastoma with IMRT were included in the present analysis. Dosimetric variables, including the mean and maximum dose to the brainstem, the dose to 10% to 90% of the brainstem (in 10% increments), and the volume of the brainstem receiving 40, 45, 50, and 55 Gy were recorded for each patient. Acute (onset within 3 months) and late (>3 months of RT completion) RT-induced brainstem toxicities with clinical and radiographic correlates were scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Results: Patients aged 1.4 to 21.8 years underwent IMRT or volumetric arc therapy postoperatively to the posterior fossa or tumor bed. At a median clinical follow-up period of 2.8 years, 14 patients had developed symptomatic brainstem toxicity (crude incidence 23.3%). No correlation was found between the dosimetric variables examined and brainstem toxicity. Vascular injury or ischemia showed a strong trend toward predicting brainstem toxicity (P=.054). Patients with grade 3 to 5 brainstem toxicity had undergone treatment to significant volumes of the posterior fossa. Conclusion: The results of the present series demonstrate a low, but not negligible, risk of brainstem radiation necrosis for pediatric patients with posterior fossa malignancies treated with IMRT. No specific dose-volume correlations were identified; however, modern treatment volumes might help limit the incidence of severe toxicity. Additional work investigating inherent biologic sensitivity might also provide

  3. Silent internal sinus of the pyriform fossa: a rare adult manifestation of a branchial anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Lee, Jin-Chin

    2003-03-01

    Branchial anomalies present with a wide range of pathologic characteristics, including cysts, fistulas, and sinuses of the head and neck region. Branchial cysts are most commonly diagnosed during the second through fourth decades of life, while branchial sinuses and fistulas are diagnosed almost exclusively in children with infection episodes. Only rarely has an internal sinus of a third or fourth branchial anomaly manifested in adults as a noninfectious swelling in the neck during swallowing. In this report, we describe our experience treating a 21-year-old man with a left-sided swallowing-induced neck protrusion of 10 years' duration. Findings of physical examination, videolaryngoscopy, and a pharyngoesophagogram confirmed the diagnosis of internal sinus of the pyriform fossa, with uncertain origin of a third or fourth branchial anomaly. The patient underwent regular follow-up as an outpatient and experienced no further infectious episodes.

  4. A branchial cyst of the pyriform fossa transoral laser resection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Hesham Mostafa; Ahmed, Mohammed Elrabie; Ahmed, Mona El-Rabie; Ahmed, Mohamed Abd El-Kader; Moussa, Abd-Elmateen

    2016-02-01

    Pyriform sinus malformations represent rare third and fourth branchial anomalies. Fistulae at the latter site were initially described and make up less than 1 % of all brachial anomalies. They may be discovered incidentally, or may present as a neck mass with recurrent infection, dysphagia, or airway compromise, and can be an unusual cause of dysphonia in infant and children. Here, we present a case of third branchial cyst located in pharyngeal wall of the left pyriform sinus which presented with dysphonia since birth in a 6-year-old girl. Transoral CO2 laser excision was carried out successfully with no communicating tract. The patient's dysphonia showed progressive regression at 1-year follow-up. Third branchial cyst in the left pyriform sinus (Bailey's type IV) is an unusual cause of dysphonia in pediatric. Our present case report is the first brachial cyst to be reported in the pyriform fossa and the second branchial anomalies to be excised transorally with CO2 laser.

  5. Acoustic neurinoma and posterior fossa meningioma - clinical and CT radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catz, A.; Reider-Groswasser, I.; Ichilov Hospital, Tel Aviv; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Clinical and computed tomography (CT) findings of twenty-three patients with acoustig neurinoma (AN) and eleven patients with posterior fossa meningioma (PFM) are described. AN frequently (94%) presents with the complaint of hearing loss, while PFM often (60%) presents with non-specific pains in the head or neck. The CT characteristics of AN and PFM in this series were similar to those found in most previous publications. The maximal measured mean diamter of PFM (40.2 mm) was significantly larger than that of AN (26.4 mm). Hydrocephalus was apparently influenced by tumor location rather than by its size. It is concluded that diagnostic ability has been improved in cases of CPA tumors, but not in those of non-CPA PFM, probably because of the earlier clinical presentation of the former. Clinical efforts are still necessary to detect the smaller tumors. (orig.)

  6. Giant posterior fossa arachnoid cyst causing tonsillar herniation and cervical syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay P Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired cerebellar tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia associated with posterior fossa mass lesions is an exception rather than the rule. In the present article, we describe the neuroimaging findings in a case of 28-year-old female patient presented with a history of paraesthesia involving right upper limb of 8-month duration. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a giant retrocerebellar arachnoid causing tonsillar herniation with cervical syringomyelia. The findings in the present case supports that the one of the primary mechanism for the development of syringomyelia may be the obstruction to the flow of cerebrospinal fluid causing alterations in the passage of extracellular fluid in the spinal cord and leading to syringomyelia.

  7. Infraorbital nerve block within the Pterygopalatine fossa of the horse: anatomical landmarks defined by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, S.; Hagen, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide anaesthesia of the equine maxillary cheek teeth, a local nerve block of the infraorbital nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa had been proposed, which is referred to as the 'Palatine Bone Insertion' (PBI). As several complications with this method were reported, our study was designed to recommend a modified injection technique which avoids the risk of puncturing of relevant anatomical structures. Five cadaver heads and two living horses were examined by contrast medium injections and subsequent computed tomography (CT). Spinal needles were inserted using two different insertion techniques: The above mentioned (PBI), and a modification called 'Extraperiorbital Fat Body Insertion' (EFBI). Both techniques (PBI and EFBI) provide a consistent distribution of contrast medium around the infraorbital nerve. However, only the EFBI technique is appropriate to minimize the risk of complications. This study is an example for the permanent challenge of anatomists to supply a basis for clinical and surgical procedures

  8. Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty in Chiari surgery: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferreira Sabba

    Full Text Available Summary Chiari malformation (CM is the most common and prevalent symptomatic congenital craniocervical malformation. Radiological diagnosis is established when the cerebellar tonsils are located 5 mm or more below the level of the foramen magnum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Surgical treatment is indicated whenever there is symptomatic tonsillar herniation or syringomyelia/hydrocephalus. The main surgical treatment for CM without craniocervical instability (such as atlantoaxial luxation is posterior fossa decompression, with or without duraplasty. The authors describe in details and in a stepwise fashion the surgical approach of patients with CM as performed at the State University of Campinas, emphasizing technical nuances for minimizing the risks of the procedure and potentially improving patient outcome.

  9. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, Sanjit O., E-mail: tewaris@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Department of Radiology (United States); Petre, Elena N., E-mail: petree@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States); Osborne, Joseph, E-mail: osbornej@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Department of Radiology (United States); Sofocleous, Constantinos T., E-mail: sofoclec@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day.

  10. Life-threatening macroglossia after posterior fossa surgery: a surgical positioning problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, G; Menovsky, T; De Ridder, D; De Bodt, M; Saldien, V; Van de Heyning, P

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was operated in the lateral park bench position with significant neck flexion and oral packing. Macroglossia was noticed immediately postoperatively after endotracheal extubation. The patient was reintubated for 13 days and subsequently required a tracheostoma. After the placement of the tracheostoma and the removal of the endotracheal tube, the congestion of the tongue decreased markedly within 24 hours. Macroglossia is a rare complication following posterior fossa procedures with few cases reported so far. It can cause airway obstruction, which could be a life-threatening complication, and it therefore requires prompt treatment. The aetiology of postoperative macroglossia remains uncertain and has been attributed to arterial, venous and lymphatic compression, mechanical compression, or neurogenic causes. This article describes new insights into aetiology and also describes preventive measures and possible treatment.

  11. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of communication between middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts and cisterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Takahiko; Nikaido, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuaki; Fujimoto, Takatoshi; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Taoka, Toshiaki.

    1996-01-01

    Cine-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations were performed in 10 patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts to evaluate communication between the cysts and the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Eight of 10 patients were evaluated by time of flight cine-MR imaging, and two by phase contrast cine-MR imaging. Two patients underwent membranectomy of the cysts, and were evaluated both pre-and postoperatively. Computed tomography cisternography was used to confirm communication between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns. Pulsatile fluid motion within the cysts was present in all patients. However, marked fluid motion and jet flow between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns were only observed in communicating cysts. In the two patients who underwent membranectomy, postoperative examination found greater fluid motion and jet flow not previously present. Cine-MR imaging demonstration of marked pulsatile fluid motion accompanied by jet flow suggests that a cyst communicates with the normal CSF space. (author)

  12. Genetically modified rice Bt-Shanyou63 expressing Cry1Ab/c protein does not harm Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Ruqing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice Bt-ShanYou63 (Bt-SY63) received an official biosafety certificate while its safety remained in dispute. In a lifelong study, Daphnia magna were experimentally fed a basal diet of rice flours from Bt-SY63 or its parental rice ShanYou63 (SY63) at concentrations of 0.2mg, 0.3mg, or 0.4mgC (per individual per day). Overall the survival, body size, and reproduction of the animals were comparable between Bt-SY63 and ShanYou63.. The results showed that no significant differences were observed in growth and reproduction parameters between D. magna fed GM and non-GM flour and no dose-related changes occurred in all the values. Based on the different parameters assessed, the GM rice Bt-SY63 is a safe food source for D. magna that does not differ in quality from non-GM rice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Relationship between trans-generational effects of tetracycline on Daphnia magna at the physiological and whole organism level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Yu, Seungho; Jeong, Tae-yong; Kim, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pharmaceuticals have been underestimated during single generation exposure. Therefore, in this study, we investigated toxic responses at the physiological and whole organism level in tetracycline-exposed Daphnia magna over four consecutive generational lifecycles. The results showed that tetracycline affected energy-related physiological functions in concentration- and generation-dependent manners, and especially maintenance costs increased. Consequently, multigenerational exposure to tetracycline induced changes in energy balance, resulting in the change of higher levels of biological responses. In contrast, D. magna acclimated to tetracycline exposure over multiple generations, as evidenced by the increased LC 50 values. Transgenerational adaptation was related to the neonatal sensitivity and energy reserves of the organism. The results also emphasized the idea that the number of generation is an important factor for toxicity. The present study confirmed that toxic stress induces metabolic changes in an organism, thereby leading to increased energy consumption that results in adverse effects on reproduction. - Highlights: • Transgenerational adaptation of D. magna to tetracycline was observed. • TCN affected energy-related physiological function and increased maintenance energy. • LC 50 value of TCN increased with increasing concentration and generation. • The number of exposure generation may be an important factor for toxicity. - The change in internal energy balance in daphnids during multigenerational exposure to tetracycline may explain whole organism responses

  14. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Yena; Choi, Kyungho

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 ± 1.0 μW cm -2 d -1 ), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of α-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna

  15. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungkon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: koguma@snu.ac.kr; Park, Yena [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: elohim@snu.ac.kr; Choi, Kyungho [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 {+-} 1.0 {mu}W cm{sup -2} d{sup -1}), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of {alpha}-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna.

  16. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Flohr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3 induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h=2.21%. A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min=12.08%. All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2 induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method.

  17. Treatment and diagnosis of middle fossa arachnoid cyst. Ventriculofiberscopy and cine-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamikawa, Shuji; Kuwamura, Keiichi [Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Hospital, Sumoto (Japan); Tamaki, Norihiko

    1998-07-01

    The treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts is controversial regarding its surgical indication and operative procedures. Conventional surgical approaches such as fenestration, membranectomy, and shunting operation are invasive. Also CT cisternography and/or RI cisternography are invasive, when it has been performed to evaluate the possible CSF communications between the arachnoid cyst and subarachnoid space. Between July 1994 and February 1997, 10 patients with intracranial middle fossa arachnoid cysts were treated with a newly developed ventriculofiberscope which is characterized by splendid mechanical flexibility and high resolution. The cine-MRI, which is a non-invasive diagnostic tool, is used to evaluate the CSF circulation around the cyst fenestration. The patients` ages ranged from 4 months to 10 years, with a mean of 4.46 years. The cyst locations were left middle fossa (9), and right (1). Eight patients presented with macrocrania, 4 with developmental delay, three with seizure, two with headache, and one with subdural hematoma. The patients were preoperatively evaluated by means of MRI and cine-MR images. In all patients ventriculofiberscopic procedures including cyst fenestration, membranous dissection, cyst puncture and shriveling were successfully performed. Postoperative MR and cine-MR studies have shown reduction of the cyst size and appropriate CSF circulation. Neuroendoscopic procedures seem to be the first choice for children with arachnoid cysts and the ventriculofiberscope proved to be very useful not only for cyst fenestration but also for cyst dissection. In addition, the non-invasive cine-MR studies are useful for long follow-up at OPD. (author)

  18. Topographical anatomy of superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, and arteries at venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuni, Yuko; Chiba, Shoji; Tonosaki, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated correlations among the superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, arteries, and venous valves in 128 cadaveric arms in order to choose safe venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa. The running patterns of the superficial veins were classified into four types (I-IV) and two subtypes (a and b). In types I and II, the median cubital vein (MCV) was connected obliquely between the cephalic and basilic veins in an N-shape, while the median antebrachial vein (MAV) opened into the MCV in type I and into the basilic vein in type II. In type III, the MCV did not exist. In type IV, additional superficial veins above the cephalic and basilic veins were developed around the cubital fossa. In types Ib-IVb, the accessory cephalic vein was developed under the same conditions as seen in types Ia-IVa, respectively. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended deeply along the cephalic vein in 124 cases (97 %), while the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended superficially along the basilic vein in 94 (73 %). A superficial brachial artery was found in 27 cases (21 %) and passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV. A median superficial antebrachial artery was found in 1 case (1 %), which passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV and ran along the MAV. Venous valves were found at 239 points in 28 cases with superficial veins, with a single valve seen at 79 points (33 %) and double valves at 160 points (67 %). At the time of intravenous injection, caution is needed regarding the locations of cutaneous nerves, brachial and superficial brachial arteries, and venous valves. The area ranging from the middle segment of the MCV to the confluence between the MCV and cephalic vein appears to be a relatively safe venipuncture site.

  19. Mechanistic study of the toxicity of ionizing radiation in Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisot, F.; Alonzo, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie des Radionucleides, Cadarache (France); Bourdineaud, J.P. [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC - OASU Station Marine d' Arcachon Universite Bordeaux 1, Arcachon (France); Poggiale, J.C. [Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography - MIO - UMR 7294 Pytheas Institute - OSU, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, the ecological impact of ionizing radiation has emerged as a growing scientific concern for ecosystems protection. However, the assessment of potential radiological effects on the environment is hampered by both a gap of available scientific data and a lack in proven methods. Understanding how ionizing radiation affects wildlife at biologically and ecologically relevant scales is a major issue in environmental protection. This issue is one of the objectives of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) developed in the framework of the European program STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology). In this context, the present PhD project aims to evaluate chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation at low doses on a representative species of aquatic ecosystems, the cladoceran crustacean Daphnia magna. More precisely, the objectives of this study are to evaluate multi-generational effects of irradiation on: (i) genotoxic effects and their potential consequences on survival, somatic growth and fecundity, (ii) the energy budget and (iii) the population dynamics of Daphnia. An experimental design was developed to expose daphnids to low doses of ionizing radiation ranging from 0,008 to 32 mGy.h{sup -1} across 3 successive generations (75 days). DNA damages were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA and real time PCR (RAPD - PCR). Effects on survival, somatic growth and fecundity were monitored for 21-25 days in each generation, from hatching to release of brood 5. Our aim is to: examine a potential correlation between molecular (DNA) damage and effects observed at the individual level (survival, somatic growth and fecundity) across generations and test the suitability of DNA damage as an early indice of future trans-generational effects. As a future perspective, individual and molecular effects data will be analysed using a DEBtox model (Dynamic Energy Budget Applied to Toxicology) in order to identify the metabolic modes of action of ionizing

  20. DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARBLE IN THE GREEK ROMAN HADRIANIC BATHS IN LEPTIS MAGNA, LIBYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil.A. ABD EL-TAWAB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hadrianic Baths is one of the most important archaeological sites in Leptis Magna- Libya. It was built at the command of Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century CE; they represent some of the most lavish structures of Leptis Magna. It is unique in design and building technique. It was built of limestone, marble and brick. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of marble. The marble in the monuments can be classified into several types, based on its color, texture, chemical composition and the constituent mineral. The Hadrianic Baths is subjected to severe degradation, due to the climate, which is typically marine. This site suffered from different weathering forms, for example, disintegration of grains, pitting, chipping, frequent flaking, multiple-flaking, fissures and biodeterioration. These weathering forms were produced by many deterioration factors, such as moisture, salt weathering, biological and micro-biological factors, changes in temperature and wind erosion. The aim of this study is to characterize the building materials at the Hadrianic Baths, especially marble, and to evaluate the role of groundwater and sea weathering on the strength of the marble exposed to the coastline of the Mediterranean. Many samples were collected from limestone, marble, mortar, plaster and salts, for analysis and investigation. Several scientific techniques were used in the study of the morphology and texture. Those methods include microscopy, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized light microscopy (PLM and stereo microscopy. A qualitative identification of organic and inorganic chemical species was performed by using techniques such as energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD and microbial investigation were also done. Our results indicated that the deterioration of marble was caused by the aggressive action of environmental agents. SEM observations indicated the occurrence of microcracks and particle aggregates

  1. Reducing Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch With Edwards Magna Prosthesis for Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Yuta; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Fukushima, Satsuki; Hata, Hiroki; Shimahara, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Yorihiko; Yamashita, Kizuku; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2017-03-24

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is associated with increased mid-term and long-term mortality rates after aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna and Magna Ease (CEPMs) aortic bioprostheses to reduce the incidence of PPM.Methods and Results:Altogether, 282 consecutive patients (113 women, mean age 69.9±9.9 years) underwent AVR with a CEPMs between 2008 and 2015. They were divided into 3 groups based on the risk of PPM as a result of their body surface area and aortic annular diameter (BSA/AnnD ratio): low-risk (LR) group: 0.64±0.05 m 2 /cm (n=94); medium-risk (MR) group: 0.73±0.02 m 2 /cm (n=94); high-risk (HR) group: 0.83±0.05 m 2 /cm (n=94). The 30-day mortality rate was 0.4%. The 5-year actuarial survival rates were 93.2%, 92.3%, and 94.8% for groups LR, MR, and HR, respectively. No explants as a result of structural valve deterioration occurred. No patients showed severe PPM, defined as a measured effective orifice area index (EOAI) <0.65 cm 2 /m 2 . Although there were significant (P<0.05) differences in EOAI (0.98±0.2, 0.90±0.21, and 0.88±0.1 cm 2 /m 2 among the LR, MR, and HR groups, respectively), the corresponding transvalvular mean pressure gradients (13.0±5.5, 12.3±4.0, 12.7±5.3 mmHg) and regression rates of the left ventricular mass (29.8%, 28.7%, 28.9%) were similar among groups. CEPMs provide low surgical risk and reduce the risks of PPM, even in HR patients, with excellent hemodynamics.

  2. How cyclophosphamide at environmentally relevant concentration influences Daphnia magna life history and its proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grzesiuk

    Full Text Available The waste of commonly used medicines is known to contaminate freshwater ecosystems. Pharmaceuticals can be toxic, mutagenic, or modifying to freshwater organisms even at low concentrations if consider their permanent presence in the environment. Chemotherapeutics used to treat cancer, and in particular alkylating agents, contribute significantly to this form of pollution, the latter introducing cytotoxic and/or mutagenic lesions to the DNA and RNA of organisms which can be disruptive to their cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the alkylating anticancer agent cyclophosphamide (CP on Daphnia magna clones. We evaluated the life history parameters and protein profiles of this crustacean following exposure to environmentally relevant CP concentration of 10 ng L-1. Even at this low concentration, the alkylating agent caused modification of the life history parameters and proteome profile of the Daphnia. These changes were clone-specific and involved growth rate, age at first reproduction, neonate number, and proteins related to cell cycle and redox state regulation. The disturbance caused by pharmaceuticals contaminating freshwater ecosystem is probably weaker and unlikely to be cytotoxic in character due to the high dilution of these substances in the water. However, our results indicate that prolonged exposure of organisms to these toxins may lead to modifications on the organismal and molecular levels with unpredictable significance for the entire ecosystem.

  3. Classification of solid industrial waste based on ecotoxicology tests using Daphnia magna: an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The adequate treatment and final disposal of solid industrial wastes depends on their classification into class I or II. This classification is proposed by NBR 10.004; however, it is complex and time-consuming. With a view to facilitating this classification, the use of assays with Daphnia magna is proposed. These assays make possible the identification of toxic chemicals in the leach, which denotes the presence of one of the characteristics described by NBR 10.004, the toxicity, which is a sufficient argument to put the waste into class I. Ecotoxicological tests were carried out with ten samples of solid wastes of frequent production and, on the basis of the results from EC(I50/48h of those samples in comparison with the official classification of NBR 10.004, limits were established for the classification of wastes into class I or II. A coincidence in the classification of 50% of the analyzed samples was observed. In cases in which there is no coherence between the methods, the method proposed in this work classifies the waste into class I. These data are preliminary, but they reveal that the classification system proposed here is promising because of its quickness and economic viability.

  4. Long-range crystalline order in spicules from the calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna (Porifera, Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andre L; Campos, Andrea P C; Barroso, Madalena M S; Klautau, Michelle; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Borojevic, Radovan; Farina, Marcos; Werckmann, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the ultrastructure and crystallographic orientation of spicules from the calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna (subclass Calcaronea) by transmission and scanning electron microscopy using two different methods of sample preparation: ultramicrotomy and focused ion beam (FIB). It was found that the unpaired actine from the spicules was oriented in the [211] zone axis. The plane that contains the unpaired actine and divides symmetrically the paired actines is the (-120). This plane is a mirror plane of the hexagonal lattice system. All the spicule types analyzed presented the same crystallographic orientation. Electron nanodiffraction maps from 4μm×4μm regions prepared by FIB showed disorientation of <2° between diffraction patterns obtained from neighbor regions, indicating the presence of a unique, highly aligned calcite crystalline phase. Among the eight FIB sections obtained, four presented high pore density. In one section perpendicular to the actine axis pores were observed only in the center of the spicule aligned in a circular pattern and surrounded by a faint circular contour with a larger radius. The presence of amorphous carbon representative of organic molecules detected by electron energy loss spectroscopy was correlated neither with porosity nor with specific lattice planes. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The infection rate of Daphnia magna by Pasteuria ramosa conforms with the mass-action principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoes, R R; Hottinger, J W; Sygnarski, L; Ebert, D

    2003-10-01

    In simple epidemiological models that describe the interaction between hosts with their parasites, the infection process is commonly assumed to be governed by the law of mass action, i.e. it is assumed that the infection rate depends linearly on the densities of the host and the parasite. The mass-action assumption, however, can be problematic if certain aspects of the host-parasite interaction are very pronounced, such as spatial compartmentalization, host immunity which may protect from infection with low doses, or host heterogeneity with regard to susceptibility to infection. As deviations from a mass-action infection rate have consequences for the dynamics of the host-parasite system, it is important to test for the appropriateness of the mass-action assumption in a given host-parasite system. In this paper, we examine the relationship between the infection rate and the parasite inoculum for the water flee Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. We measured the fraction of infected hosts after exposure to 14 different doses of the parasite. We find that the observed relationship between the fraction of infected hosts and the parasite dose is largely consistent with an infection process governed by the mass-action principle. However, we have evidence for a subtle but significant deviation from a simple mass-action infection model, which can be explained either by some antagonistic effects of the parasite spores during the infection process, or by heterogeneity in the hosts' susceptibility with regard to infection.

  6. Hazard assessment for a pharmaceutical mixture detected in the upper Tennessee River using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wolfe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of pharmaceuticals has resulted in mixture concentrations ranging from mg/L in effluent to µg/L concentrations in surface water. In a 2008 study, 13 pharmaceuticals, ranging in amounts from 0.0028 to 0.1757 µg/l, were identified in the Tennessee River, USA and its tributaries. In order to address the need for risk assessment of environmentally relevant pharmaceutical mixtures, Daphnia magna 21-d life cycle tests were performed on a mixture of 11 of the 13 pharmaceuticals as well as on the individual components of the mixture. Mixture exposures were based on the same initial ratios of individual compounds, up to 1000x the initial mixture concentrations.  The endpoints of mortality, time to first brood, size, and fecundity were the assessed.  The LOEC of the 11- pharmaceutical mixture was determined to be 100x greater than the measured mixture concentration detected in the Tennessee River, with the NOEC being 75x that of the measured mixture.  Single concentrations of pharmaceuticals within the mixture up to the 100x LOEC were not statistically different from control for any of the assessed endpoints.  Thus, no single pharmaceutical was deemed predominately responsible for the mixture toxicity at the concentrations tested. While mixtures of pharmaceuticals are common in many systems, based on the findings of the present study, they may not pose a significant acute or chronic hazard to aquatic invertebrates at current concentrations.

  7. Analysis of the swimming velocity of cadmium-stressed Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillieul, M.; Blust, R.

    1999-01-01

    The swimming velocity of the waterflea Daphnia magna is dependent on its body size. Therefore, environmental factors like toxic stress that influence growth also influence swimming velocity. An experiment was set up to test whether exposure to cadmium would reduce only growth, with a concomitant decrease in velocity, or whether it would reduce velocity below the swimming velocity of similarly-sized control animals. Daphnids were exposed for 10 days to free cadmium ion concentrations ranging from 1x10 -8 to 1x10 -7 M Cd 2+ , and body size and swimming velocity were measured every 2 days. The results showed that cadmium decreased both growth and velocity, i.e. exposed daphnids swam slower than similarly-sized control daphnids. Swimming velocity provided no indication of successful acclimation in any cadmium treatment. Food consumption and assimilation were reduced by exposure to cadmium. This reduced food intake may have, at least partially, caused the decreased growth rates. However, since reduced food intake does not affect swimming velocity, the reduced swimming velocity must be attributed to toxic effects of cadmium, other than those on food intake. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Do microplastic particles affect Daphnia magna at the morphological, life history and molecular level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes K Imhof

    Full Text Available Microplastic particles are ubiquitous not only in marine but also in freshwater ecosystems. However, the impacts of microplastics, consisting of a large variety of synthetic polymers, on freshwater organisms remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of two polymer mixtures on the morphology, life history and on the molecular level of the waterflea Daphnia magna (three different clones. Microplastic particles of ~40 μm were supplied at a low concentration (1% of the food particles leading to an average of ~30 particles in the digestive tract which reflects a high microplastic contamination but still resembles a natural situation. Neither increased mortality nor changes on the morphological (body length, width and tail spine length or reproductive parameters were observed for adult Daphnia. The analyses of juvenile Daphnia revealed a variety of small and rather subtle responses of morphological traits (body length, width and tail spine length. For adult Daphnia, alterations in expression of genes related to stress responses (i.e. HSP60, HSP70 & GST as well as of other genes involved in body function and body composition (i.e. SERCA were observed already 48h after exposure. We anticipate that the adverse effects of microplastic might be influenced by many additional factors like size, shape, type and even age of the particles and that the rather weak effects, as detected in a laboratory, may lead to reduced fitness in a natural multi-stressor environment.

  9. Temperature-dependent effect of filamentous cyanobacteria on Daphnia magna life history traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr DAWIDOWICZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous cyanobacteria are unsuitable food for Daphnia due to their poor manageability, poor nutritional value and, in some cases, toxicity. As the strength of harmful effects of cyanobacteria on filter-feeding zooplankton is temperature dependent, the global warming scenarios for eutrophic lakes in temperate zone might include an escalated suppression of Daphnia populations caused by the presence of cyanobacterial filaments. To test this assumption, we conducted life-table experiments with four clones of Daphnia magna fed either a green alga Scenedesmus obliquus or a non-toxic strain of filamentous cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in two temperatures (20 °C and 24 °C. Key life history parameters of Daphnia, i.e., age and size at first reproduction, fecundity, and individual growth rate, were measured. Both food and temperature significantly affected Daphnia performance, however, the effect of interaction of these two factors was ambiguous and highly genotype-dependent. We conclude that the temperature increase within the studied range will not necessarily strengthen the suppression of Daphnia growth by filamentous cyanobacteria, but may affect clonal selection within population of Daphnia, thus possibly triggering microevolutionary changes within affected populations.

  10. Toxicity assessment of polluted sediments using swimming behavior alteration test with Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, O. V.; Nasyrova, E. I.; Nuriakhmetova, V. R.; Stepanova, N. Yu; Danilova, N. V.; Latypova, V. Z.

    2018-01-01

    Recently behavioral responses of organisms are increasingly used as a reliable and sensitive tool in aquatic toxicology. Behavior-related endpoints allow efficiently studying the effects of sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. At present behavioural parameters frequently are determined with the use of digital analysis of video recording by computer vision technology. However, most studies evaluate the toxicity of aqueous solutions. Due to methodological difficulties associated with sample preparation not a lot of examples of the studies related to the assessment of toxicity of other environmental objects (wastes, sewage sludges, soils, sediments etc.) by computer vision technology. This paper presents the results of assessment of the swimming behavior alterations of Daphnia magna in elutriates from both uncontaminated natural and artificially chromium-contaminated bottom sediments. It was shown, that in elutriate from chromium contaminated bottom sediments (chromium concentration 115±5.7 μg l-1) the swimming speed of daphnids was decreases from 0.61 cm s-1 (median speed over the period) to 0.50 cm s-1 (median speed at the last minute of the experiment). The relocation of Daphnia from the culture medium to the extract from the non-polluted sediments does not essential changes the swimming activity.

  11. Relationship between the energy status of Daphnia magna and its sensitivity to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, Roel; Baillieul, Marc; Blust, Ronny

    2005-01-01

    This work tested the hypothesis that animals with a high energy status are more successful in dealing with stress than animals with a low energy status. Daphnids (Daphnia magna) were reared for 2 weeks in four different concentrations of food. Survival was not affected by food supply, and growth and reproduction increased with increasing food ration. This increase correlated well with the energy status, as was measured by scope for growth on day 15. After 2 weeks, the daphnids in the four different food ration groups were exposed for another 2 weeks to a range of increased salinities or cadmium concentrations, while remaining in their respective food concentrations. In the salinity groups, survival, growth, or reproduction were not influenced at low salinities. Exposure to higher salinity significantly decreased survival and reproduction, but this decrease was more pronounced in the highest food concentrations. In the cadmium exposed daphnids, cadmium content increased with increasing exposure concentrations, but accumulation was independent of food rations. Cadmium exposure significantly decreased survival, growth, and reproduction and this decrease again was more pronounced with increasing food concentration. Thus, the high energy status of the daphnids from the high food concentrations at the start of the exposure did not provide an increased capacity to cope with additional stress. Instead, the sensitivity of the daphnids to stress increased with increasing food ration. This increased sensitivity is likely to be the result of a change in life history from emphasizing survival at low food supply to stressing reproduction at high food supply

  12. Behavior and chronic toxicity of two differently stabilized silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakka, Yvonne; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Mackevica, Aiga

    2016-01-01

    While differences in silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloidal stability, surface potential, or acute aquatic toxicity for differently stabilized AgNP have often been reported, these have rarely been studied in long-term ecotoxicity tests. In the current study, we investigated the chronic toxicity of Ag...... types of AgNP during a typical media exchange period in the D. magna test for chronic toxicity. As expected, the sterically stabilized AgNP were more stable in the test medium, also in the presence of food; however, a higher uptake of silver after 24 h exposure of the charge stabilized AgNP was found...... compared to the detergent-stabilized AgNP (0.046 ± 0.006 μg Ag μg DW−1 and 0.023 ± 0.005 μg Ag μg DW−1, respectively). In accordance with this, the higher reproductive effects and mortality were found for the charge-stabilized than for the sterically-stabilized silver nanoparticles in 21-d tests...

  13. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase sensitivity in the next generation of the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Bundschuh

    Full Text Available The nanoparticle industry is expected to become a trillion dollar business in the near future. Therefore, the unintentional introduction of nanoparticles into the environment is increasingly likely. However, currently applied risk-assessment practices require further adaptation to accommodate the intrinsic nature of engineered nanoparticles. Combining a chronic flow-through exposure system with subsequent acute toxicity tests for the standard test organism Daphnia magna, we found that juvenile offspring of adults that were previously exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit a significantly increased sensitivity to titanium dioxide nanoparticles compared with the offspring of unexposed adults, as displayed by lower 96 h-EC(50 values. This observation is particularly remarkable because adults exhibited no differences among treatments in terms of typically assessed endpoints, such as sensitivity, number of offspring, or energy reserves. Hence, the present study suggests that ecotoxicological research requires further development to include the assessment of the environmental risks of nanoparticles for the next and hence not directly exposed generation, which is currently not included in standard test protocols.

  14. Effect of pH on the toxicity and bioconcentration of sulfadiazine on Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt; Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial sulfonamide sulfadiazine has in the last decades been detected in environmental water bodies, both surface and ground water. Since pH in the environment may vary considerably, this study examined the toxicity of the amphoter sulfadiazine towards Daphnia magna at pH levels of 6.......0, 7.5 and 8.5, thus taking the impact of speciation into consideration, contrary to earlier eco-toxicity studies conducted at standard conditions. Toxicity tests were performed using the standard ISO 6341 test procedure modified to accommodate the three pH levels and the toxicity was expressed as EC50....... After 48h the EC50 was determined to be 27.2, 188 and 310mgL−1 at pH 6.0, 7.5 and 8.5, respectively, thus demonstrating a significant effect of pH on the toxicity of sulfadiazine. Furthermore, the bioconcentration factor (dry weight) was determined to be 50 and 36 at pH 6.0 and 8.5, respectively...

  15. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in a patient with cerebellar mutism after operation in posterior fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Kara Gedik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar mutism is a transient period of speechlessness that evolves after posterior fossa surgery in children. Although direct cerebellar and brain stem injury and supratentorial dysfunction have been implicated in the mediation of mutism, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the evolution of this kind of mutism remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dentatothalamocortical tract injuries and single photon emission computed tomography showed cerebellar and cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with cerebellar mutism. However, findings with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT in this group of patients have not been documented previously. In this clinical case, we report a patient who experienced cerebellar mutism after undergoing a posterior fossa surgery. Right cerebellar and left frontal lobe hypometabolism was shown using FDG PET/CT. The FDG metabolism of both the cerebellum and the frontal lobe returned to normal levels after the resolution of the mutism symptoms.

  16. Curative analysis of different surgical treatments for non-solid hemangioblastoma in posterior cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xiang MA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective  The article analyzed the curative effect of different surgical treatments for non-solid hemangioblastoma in posterior cranial fossa to explore reasonable operation method.  Methods  Clinical data of 61 patients with non-solid hemangioblastoma who underwent surgeries in Tianjin Huanhu Hospital during July 2007 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. According to surgical approaches and the situation of foramen magnum and atlas, these patients were divided into 5 groups: midline approach opening foramen magnum and atlas (Group A, midline approach without opening foramen magnum and atlas (Group B, paramedian approach opening foramen magnum and atlas (Group C, paramedian approach without opening foramen magnum and atlas (Group D, retrosigmoid approach (Group E. By collecting clinical symptoms, imaging findings, surgical records and postoperative complications, the surgical results and occurrence of postoperative complications were summarized and reasonable operation method was discussed.  Results  Among 61 patients, total resection was achieved in 56 cases (91.80%, and partial resection was achieved in 5 cases (8.20% . The postoperative remission rate of 43 cases with hydrocephalus was 79.07% (34/43. Intracranial infection was the most common postoperative complication, accounting for 22.95% (14/61. There was significant difference in occurrence rate of intracranial infection among 4 subgroups: opening or not opening the foramen magnum and atlas with or without restoring bone flap (Z = 16.269, P = 0.001. In the subgroup of not opening foramen magnum and atlas with restoring bone flap, the infection rate, which accounted for 6.90% (2/29, was the lowest.  Conclusions  The surgical treatment options for non-solid hemangioblastoma in posterior fossa should be done according to patients' condition, and performed by a professional group. If conditions allow, not to open the foramen magnum and atlas, as well as intraoperative

  17. [Efficacies of arthroscopic debridement and olecranon fossa plasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis and posterior elbow impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-jie; Wang, Jun-liang; Li, Hai-feng; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ning

    2012-07-17

    To evaluate the efficacies of arthroscopic debridement and removal of osteophyma for olecroanon and olecranon fossa plasty for posterior impingement of elbow joint. Between 1999 and 2008, a total of 21 cases were diagnosed with osteoarthritis and posterior elbow impingement. There were 15 males and 6 females. And there were 16 right and 15 left cases. They included volleyball players (n = 7), tennis players (n = 7), golf enthusiasts (n = 4) and fencers (n = 3). The average duration of onset-operation was 3.5 years (range: 2.5 - 8). Arthroscopic exploration revealed synovial hyperplasia hypertrophy, cartilage degeneration and olecranon fossa hyperplasia with deformed olecranon fossa. Debridement and plasty were performed. Loose bodies were removed from elbow joint in 6 patients. Partial resection of posterior olecranon tip was performed and osteophytes or fibrous tissue removed in this area. Dynamic observation showed no posterior elbow impingement. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 19 cases and 2 cases became lost to follow-up. The average follow-up period was 25.3 months (range: 18 - 42). All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with the Hospital for Special Surgery Elbow Assessment Scale. The outcomes were excellent (n = 12), good (n = 7) and fair (n = 2). Postoperative patients elbow swelling and pain relieve, sports and life function returns to normal, elbow flexion and rotating mobility obviously improved. With the elbow radiological films to measure the range of motion, the average range of motion was 90.5° preoperatively and improved to 130° postoperatively. There was significant improvement in all cases. Posterior elbow impingement is caused by hyperextension trauma and elbow overuse during specific sporting activities. Arthroscopic debridement and olecroanon or olecranon fossa plasty demonstrates excellent results for posterior impingement of elbow joint.

  18. Longitudinal MRI assessment: the identification of relevant features in the development of Posterior Fossa Syndrome in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, M.; Lewis, E.; Windridge, D.; Avula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Up to 25% of children who undergo brain tumour resection surgery in the posterior fossa develop posterior fossa syndrome (PFS). This syndrome is characterised by mutism and disturbance in speech. Our hypothesis is that there is a correlation between PFS and the occurrence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) in lobes within the posterior fossa, known as the inferior olivary nuclei (ION). HOD is exhibited as an increase in size and intensity of the ION on an MR image. Intra-operative MRI (IoMRI) is used during surgical procedures at the Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liver- pool, England, in the treatment of Posterior Fossa tumours and allows visualisation of the brain during surgery. The final MR scan on the IoMRI allows early assessment of the ION immediately after the surgical procedure. The longitudinal MRI data of 28 patients was analysed in a collaborative study with Alder Hey Children's Hospital, in order to identify the most relevant imaging features that relate to the development of PFS, specifically related to HOD. A semi-automated segmentation process was carried out to delineate the ION on each MRI. Feature selection techniques were used to identify the most relevant features amongst the MRI data, demographics and clinical data provided by the hospital. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to analyse the discriminative ability of the selected features. The results indicate the presence of HOD as the most efficient feature that correlates with the development of PFS, followed by the change in intensity and size of the ION and whether HOD occurred bilaterally or unilaterally.

  19. Therapeutic Impact of Cytoreductive Surgery and Irradiation of Posterior Fossa Ependymoma in the Molecular Era: A Retrospective Multicohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Hielscher, Thomas; Mack, Stephen C; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Lin, Tong; Pajtler, Kristian W; Jones, David T W; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence M G; Aldape, Kenneth; Remke, Marc; Mynarek, Martin; Rutkowski, Stefan; Gururangan, Sridharan; McLendon, Roger E; Lipp, Eric S; Dunham, Christopher; Hukin, Juliette; Eisenstat, David D; Fulton, Dorcas; van Landeghem, Frank K H; Santi, Mariarita; van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Van Meir, Erwin G; Osuka, Satoru; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Marie, Suely K N; Carlotti, Carlos G; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Rao, Amulya A Nageswara; Giannini, Caterina; Faria, Claudia C; Nunes, Sofia; Mora, Jaume; Hamilton, Ronald L; Hauser, Peter; Jabado, Nada; Petrecca, Kevin; Jung, Shin; Massimi, Luca; Zollo, Massimo; Cinalli, Giuseppe; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Leary, Sarah; Ermoian, Ralph P; Olson, James M; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Gardner, Corrine; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Chambless, Lola B; Cain, Jason; Eberhart, Charles G; Ahsan, Sama; Massimino, Maura; Giangaspero, Felice; Buttarelli, Francesca R; Packer, Roger J; Emery, Lyndsey; Yong, William H; Soto, Horacio; Liau, Linda M; Everson, Richard; Grossbach, Andrew; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Karajannis, Matthias A; Zagzag, David; Wheeler, Helen; von Hoff, Katja; Alonso, Marta M; Tuñon, Teresa; Schüller, Ulrich; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Chan, Jennifer A; Guzman, Miguel; Elbabaa, Samer K; Colman, Howard; Dhall, Girish; Fisher, Paul G; Fouladi, Maryam; Gajjar, Amar; Goldman, Stewart; Hwang, Eugene; Kool, Marcel; Ladha, Harshad; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Wani, Khalida; Lieberman, Frank; Mikkelsen, Tom; Omuro, Antonio M; Pollack, Ian F; Prados, Michael; Robins, H Ian; Soffietti, Riccardo; Wu, Jing; Metellus, Phillipe; Tabori, Uri; Bartels, Ute; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Rutka, James T; Dirks, Peter; Pfister, Stefan M; Merchant, Thomas E; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S; Korshunov, Andrey; Ellison, David W; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-07-20

    Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular variants termed EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB that have a distinct biology and natural history. The therapeutic value of cytoreductive surgery and radiation therapy for posterior fossa ependymoma after accounting for molecular subgroup is not known. Four independent nonoverlapping retrospective cohorts of posterior fossa ependymomas (n = 820) were profiled using genome-wide methylation arrays. Risk stratification models were designed based on known clinical and newly described molecular biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Molecular subgroup is a powerful independent predictor of outcome even when accounting for age or treatment regimen. Incompletely resected EPN_PFA ependymomas have a dismal prognosis, with a 5-year progression-free survival ranging from 26.1% to 56.8% across all four cohorts. Although first-line (adjuvant) radiation is clearly beneficial for completely resected EPN_PFA, a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB can be cured with surgery alone, and patients with relapsed EPN_PFB can often be treated successfully with delayed external-beam irradiation. The most impactful biomarker for posterior fossa ependymoma is molecular subgroup affiliation, independent of other demographic or treatment variables. However, both EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB still benefit from increased extent of resection, with the survival rates being particularly poor for subtotally resected EPN_PFA, even with adjuvant radiation therapy. Patients with EPN_PFB who undergo gross total resection are at lower risk for relapse and should be considered for inclusion in a randomized clinical trial of observation alone with radiation reserved for those who experience recurrence. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Cranial CT with 64-, 16-, 4- and single-slice CT systems-comparison of image quality and posterior fossa artifacts in routine brain imaging with standard protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Eftimov, Lara; Becker, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian [University of Munich, Grosshadern (Germany). Institute of Clinical Radiology; Blume, Jeffrey; Cormack, Jean [Brown University, Center for Statistical Sciences, Providence, RI (United States); Bruening, Roland; Brueckmann, Hartmut [University of Munich, Grosshadern (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology

    2008-08-15

    Posterior fossa artifacts constitute a characteristic limitation of cranial CT. To identify practical benefits and drawbacks of newer CT systems with reduced collimation in routine cranial imaging, we aimed to investigate image quality, posterior fossa artifacts and parenchymal delineation in non-enhanced CT (NECT) with 1-, 4-, 16- and 64-slice scanners using standard scan protocols. We prospectively enrolled 25 consecutive patients undergoing NECT on a 64-slice CT. Three groups with 25 patients having undergone NECT on 1-, 4- and 16-slice CT machines were matched regarding age and sex. Standard routine CT parameters were used on each CT system with helical acquisition in the posterior fossa; the parameters varied regarding collimation and radiation dose. Three blinded readers independently assessed the cases regarding image quality, infra- and supratentorial artifacts and delineation of brain parenchymal structures on a five-point ordinal scale. Reading orders were randomized. A proportional odds model that accounted for the correlated nature of the data was fit using generalized estimating equations. Posterior fossa artifacts were significantly reduced, and the delineation of infratentorial brain structures was significantly improved with the thinner collimation used for the newer CT systems (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed for midbrain structures (p>0.5). The thinner collimation available on modern CT systems leads to reduced posterior fossa artifacts and to a better delineation of brain parenchyma in the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging in evaluation of posterior fossa tumors in children on a 3T MRI scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Zarina Abdul; Saini, Jitender; Ranjan, Manish; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Sabharwal, Paramveer; Naidu, Purushotham R

    2015-01-01

    Primary intracranial tumors in children are commonly located in the posterior fossa. Conventional MRI offers limited information regarding the histopathological type of tumor which is essential for better patient management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of advanced MR imaging techniques like diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in distinguishing the various histopathological types of posterior fossa tumors in children. DTI was performed on a 3T MRI scanner in 34 untreated children found to have posterior fossa lesions. Using third party software, various DTI parameters [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity, planar index, spherical index, and linear index] were calculated for the lesion. Data were subjected to statistical analysis [analysis of variance (ANOVA)] using SPSS 15.0 software. We observed significant correlation (P < 0.01) between ADC mean and maximum, followed by radial diffusivity (RD) with the histopathological types of the lesions. Rest of the DTI parameters did not show any significant correlation in our study. The results of our study support the hypothesis that most cellular tumors and those with greater nuclear area like medulloblastoma would have the lowest ADC values, as compared to less cellular tumors like pilocytic astrocytoma

  2. [CLINICAL STUDIES ON EFFECT OF ARTHROSCOPIC INTERCONDYLAR FOSSA ANGIOPLASTY ON ABILITY OF NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingmin; Wang, Haijiao; Wu, Jiang; Li, Dongchao; Li, Yuhong

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of arthroscopic intercondylar fossa angioplasty on the ability of neuromuscular control of the knee joint in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Between June 2012 and March 2013, 20 elderly patients with KOA and in accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent arthroscopic intercondylar fossa angioplasty (operation group), and 20 healthy elderly people served as control group. There was no significant difference in age, height, weight, and body mass index between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The proprioception capability (using passive regeneration test at measurement angles of 15, 30, and 60°) and quadriceps mobilization [including maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), central activation ratio (CAR), and activation deficit (AD)] were measured to avaluate the neuromuscular control of the knee; the Lysholm score was used to evaluate knee function. The above indexes were measured to assess the knee neuromuscular control and recovery of joint function in patients of operation group at 3, 6, and 9 months after operation. Compared with the control group, MVC, CAR, and Lysholm scores were significantly decreased, and the AD and passive knee angle difference were significantly increased in operation group (P 0.05). Arthroscopic intercondylar fossa angioplasty can relieve ACL pressure, abrasion, and impact, which will recover the ability of neuromuscular control, increase proprioception and quadriceps mobilization capacity, and improve the joint function.

  3. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli [University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  4. I-gel Laryngeal Mask Airway Combined with Tracheal Intubation Attenuate Systemic Stress Response in Patients Undergoing Posterior Fossa Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoliang Tang

    2015-01-01

    patients. In this study, we proposed that I-gel combined with tracheal intubation could reduce the stress response of posterior fossa surgery patients. Methods. Sixty-six posterior fossa surgery patients were randomly allocated to receive either tracheal tube intubation (Group TT or I-gel facilitated endotracheal tube intubation (Group TI. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables, stress and inflammatory response, oxidative stress, anesthesia recovery parameters, and adverse events during emergence were compared. Results. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were lower in Group TI during intubation and extubation (P<0.05 versus Group TT. Respiratory variables including peak airway pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension were similar intraoperative, while plasma β-endorphin, cortisol, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde concentrations, and blood glucose were significantly lower in Group TI during emergence relative to Group TT. Postoperative bucking and serious hypertensions were seen in Group TT but not in Group TI. Conclusion. Utilization of I-gel combined with endotracheal tube in posterior fossa surgery patients is safe which can yield more stable hemodynamic profile during intubation and emergence and lower inflammatory and oxidative response, leading to uneventful recovery.

  5. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes; Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  6. Estenose da fossa intercondilar após estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata em cães Intercondylar fossa stenosis after joint stabilization using a fascial strip in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Selmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os índices de largura da fossa intercondilar (FI, após transecção do ligamento cruzado cranial em nove cães adultos submetidos à estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata. Os joelhos foram alocados em dois grupos, sendo o joelho direito (GI submetido à incisuroplastia troclear (ITR e posterior estabilização articular, e o joelho esquerdo submetido somente à substituição ligamentar (GC. Cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos correspondentes aos momentos de eutanásia aos 30, 90 e 180 dias de pós-operatório. Os índices de largura da FI foram determinados, macroscópica e radiograficamente, pela mensuração da abertura cranial da FI nos terços cranial, médio e caudal, e indexados em relação à largura epicondilar. Observou-se aumento significativo dos índices macroscópicos e radiográficos nas articulações do GI, sendo estes estatisticamente diferentes daqueles das articulações de GC. Não foi observada estenose intercondilar nos joelhos de GC após a estabilização articular. Conclui-se que a estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata preveniu a estenose da fossa intercondilar, e que a ITR promoveu o alargamento permanente dessa estrutura.Intercondylar fossa width indexes (IFWI were determined in nine adult dogs submitted to intercondylar notchplasty (IN after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL followed by a fascial strip stabilization. The right stifle was submitted to IN followed by fascial strip reconstruction of the CCL (GI while in the left stifle IN was not performed (GC. Each group was then divided into three subgroups which corresponded to time of euthanasia at 30, 90 and 180 days after surgery. IFWI were determined, both macroscopically and radiographically, by measuring the cranial outlet of the intercondylar fossa in relation to the epicondylar width. A significant increase was observed in indexes of GI following IN, and these differed from indexes of

  7. To flee or not to flee: detection, avoidance and attraction of profitable resources by Daphnia magna studied with olfactometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann P. Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cladoceran herbivore Daphnia magna is a major consumer of phytoplankton in lakes. Therefore, this organism may control the phytoplankton community and the proliferation of some algae or cyanobacteria. Cladoceran behaviour and migration in relation to temperature, light or presence of planktivorous fishes have been well studied. In particular, it is known that the detection of kairomones produced by predators may induce avoidance. Avoidance could also occur with other semiochemicals such as cyanotoxins. In order to explore this hypothesis, we used an olfactometer to observe and measure the exploratory behaviour of D. magna individuals based on the motivation for food. Daphnids were allowed to choose between different compounds: water, a pure cyanotoxin, i.e. the microcystin-RR [(MC-RR], extracts of one MC-producing strain (PMC 75.02 and one MC-free strain (PMC 87.02 of Planktothrix agardhii, or a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus. With this experimental design, we observed that i cladocerans are able to detect resources with different qualities, ii they can explore before exhibiting preferences, and iii daphnids are able to avoid compounds that are potentially toxic (e.g., microcystins. First, daphnids explored the environment, subsequently (after about 1.5 h, they showed a significant tendency to stay where there is a profitable resource such as S. obliquus. These results also suggest that specimens of D. magna cannot detect MC compounds from P. agardhii, but they respond to it as a food resource. The study of zooplankton ability to explore the environment when exposed to semiochemicals needs further investigation. 

  8. The development of pathogen resistance in Daphnia magna: implications for disease spread in age-structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jennie S; O'Donoghue, Anna J P; McTaggart, Seanna J; Wilson, Philip J; Little, Tom J

    2014-11-01

    Immunity in vertebrates is well established to develop with time, but the ontogeny of defence in invertebrates is markedly less studied. Yet, age-specific capacity for defence against pathogens, coupled with age structure in populations, has widespread implications for disease spread. Thus, we sought to determine the susceptibility of hosts of different ages in an experimental invertebrate host-pathogen system. In a series of experiments, we show that the ability of Daphnia magna to resist its natural bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa changes with host age. Clonal differences make it difficult to draw general conclusions, but the majority of observations indicate that resistance increases early in the life of D. magna, consistent with the idea that the defence system develops with time. Immediately following this, at about the time when a daphnid would be most heavily investing in reproduction, resistance tends to decline. Because many ecological factors influence the age structure of Daphnia populations, our results highlight a broad mechanism by which ecological context can affect disease epidemiology. We also show that a previously observed protective effect of restricted maternal food persists throughout the entire juvenile period, and that the protective effect of prior treatment with a small dose of the pathogen ('priming') persists for 7 days, observations that reinforce the idea that immunity in D. magna can change over time. Together, our experiments lead us to conclude that invertebrate defence capabilities have an ontogeny that merits consideration with respect to both their immune systems and the epidemic spread of infection. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Arginine kinase in the cladoceran Daphnia magna: cDNA sequencing and expression is associated with resistance to toxic Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Kai; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Xuexia; Cui, Guilian; Wilson, Alan E; Yang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient loading derived from anthropogenic activities into lakes have increased the frequency, severity and duration of toxic cyanobacterial blooms around the world. Although herbivorous zooplankton are generally considered to be unable to control toxic cyanobacteria, populations of some zooplankton, including Daphnia, have been shown to locally adapt to toxic cyanobacteria and suppress cyanobacterial bloom formation. However, little is known about the physiology of zooplankton behind this phenomenon. One possible explanation is that some zooplankton may induce more tolerance by elevating energy production, thereby adding more energy allocation to detoxification expenditure. It is assumed that arginine kinase (AK) serves as a core in temporal and spatial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering in cells with high fluctuating energy requirements. To test this hypothesis, we studied the energetic response of a single Daphnia magna clone exposed to a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, PCC7806. Arginine kinase of D. magna (Dm-AK) was successfully cloned. An ATP-gua PtransN domain which was described as a guanidine substrate specificity domain and an ATP-gua Ptrans domain which was responsible for binding ATP were both identified in the Dm-AK. Phylogenetic analysis of AKs in a range of arthropod taxa suggested that Dm-AK was as dissimilar to other crustaceans as it was to insects. Dm-AK transcript level and ATP content in the presence of M. aeruginosa were significantly lower than those in the control diet containing only the nutritious chlorophyte, Scenedesmus obliquus, whereas the two parameters in the neonates whose mothers had been previously exposed to M. aeruginosa were significantly higher than those of mothers fed with pure S. obliquus. These findings suggest that Dm-AK might play an essential role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the tolerance of D. magna to toxic cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of four frequently used UV filter substances for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Kaiser, Dominic; Behr, Maximilian; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of growing public concern about UV radiation effects on human health chemical and physical UV filters are increasingly used in personal care and other products. The release of these lipophilic and often persistent compounds into surface waters may pose a risk for aquatic organisms. The aim of the study was to determine effects of four frequently used UV filters on primary aquatic producers and consumers, the green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Exposure to benzophenone 3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) resulted in growth inhibition of D. subspicatus with 72 h IC(10) values of 0.56 mg/L (BP 3), 0.24 mg/L (EHMC), 0.27 mg/L (3-BC) and 0.21 mg/L (4-MBC). EC(50) concentrations in the acute test with D. magna were 1.67, 0.57, 3.61 and 0.80 mg/L for BP3, EHMC, 3-BC and 4-MBC, respectively. Chronic exposure of D. magna resulted in NOECs of 0.04 mg/L (EHMC) and 0.1 mg/L (3-BC and 4-MBC). BP 3 showed no effects on neonate production or the length of adults. Rapid dissipation of these substances from the water phase was observed indicating the need for more frequent test medium renewal in chronic tests or the use of flow-through test systems.

  11. The protective roles of TiO2 nanoparticles against UV-B toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Aquatic environments are increasingly under environmental stress due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and potential inputs of nanoparticles with intense application of nanotechnology. In this study, we investigated the interaction between UV-B radiation and titanium nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) in a model freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. UV-B toxicity to Daphnia magna was examined when the daphnids were exposed to a range of TiO 2 -NPs concentrations with an initial 5 or 10min of 200μW/cm 2 UV-B radiation. In addition, UV-B toxicity was also examined in the presence of TiO 2 -NPs in the body of daphnids. Our results demonstrated that the daphnid mortality under UV-B radiation decreased significantly in the presence of TiO 2 -NPs both in the water and in the body, indicating that TiO 2 -NPs had some protective effects on D. magna against UV-B. Such protective effect was mainly caused by the blockage of UV-B by TiO 2 -NPs adsorption. UV-B produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the water and in the daphnids, which was not sufficient to cause mortality of daphnids over short periods of radiation. Previous studies focused on the effects of TiO 2 -NPs on the toxicity of total UV radiation, and did not attempt to differentiate the potential diverse roles of UV-A and UV-B. Our study indicated that TiO 2 -NPs may conversely protect the UV-B toxicity to daphnids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene transcription in Daphnia magna: effects of acute exposure to a carbamate insecticide and an acetanilide herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Hill, Christopher J; Sibly, Richard M; Bolshakov, Viacheslav N; Gonçalves, Fernando; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Callaghan, Amanda

    2010-05-05

    Daphnia magna is a key invertebrate in the freshwater environment and is used widely as a model in ecotoxicological measurements and risk assessment. Understanding the genomic responses of D. magna to chemical challenges will be of value to regulatory authorities worldwide. Here we exposed D. magna to the insecticide methomyl and the herbicide propanil to compare phenotypic effects with changes in mRNA expression levels. Both pesticides are found in drainage ditches and surface water bodies standing adjacent to crops. Methomyl, a carbamate insecticide widely used in agriculture, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in nerve transmission. Propanil, an acetanilide herbicide, is used to control grass and broad-leaf weeds. The phenotypic effects of single doses of each chemical were evaluated using a standard immobilisation assay. Immobilisation was linked to global mRNA expression levels using the previously estimated 48h-EC(1)s, followed by hybridization to a cDNA microarray with more than 13,000 redundant cDNA clones representing >5000 unique genes. Following exposure to methomyl and propanil, differential expression was found for 624 and 551 cDNAs, respectively (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, P

  13. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  14. Effects of aqueous stable fullerene nanocrystals (nC60) on the food conversion from Daphnia magna to Danio rerio in a simplified freshwater food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xianji; Li, Cuilan; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the nanomaterial potential to the food conversion of two food chain levels is important in the ecosystem assessment as manufactured nanomaterials are being released into the environment. In this investigation, the food conversion from Daphnia magna (D. magna) (prey) to Danio rerio (D. rerio) (predator) was used as the study object of aqueous stable fullerene nanocrystals (nC60). Accumulated nC60 of D. magna was determined as the nominal initial exposure concentration for D. rerio. The results of 21-d dietary exposure experiment demonstrate that nC60 in D. magna decreased the body weight growths and condition factors of D. rerio, and reduced the food conversion ratio by 20% (from D. magna to D. rerio). Further, the experiments present that nC60 decrease three digestive enzymes activities of trypsinase, lipase, and amylase by 30, 29, and 55% in vivo, and by 60, 90, and 42% in vitro, respectively. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that nC60 was involved with the decrements of digestive enzymes activities. These decrements in digestive enzymes activities may be due to the deactivation caused by the adsorption of nC60 particles onto the surface or active center of digestive enzymes. Sum up, these results not only describe the nC60 deleterious effects on the food conversion from D. magna to D. rerio, but also provide some information regarding a probable food conversion inhibition mechanism of nC60. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: "1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of "1H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by changes in the

  16. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of {sup 1}H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by

  17. The Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Microparticles on Individual Fitness in Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ogonowski

    Full Text Available Concerns are being raised that microplastic pollution can have detrimental effects on the feeding of aquatic invertebrates, including zooplankton. Both small plastic fragments (microplastics, MPs produced by degradation of larger plastic waste (secondary MPs; SMPs and microscopic plastic spheres used in cosmetic products and industry (primary MPs; PMPs are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, despite the fact that most environmental MPs consist of weathered plastic debris with irregular shape and broad size distribution, experimental studies of organism responses to MP exposure have largely used uniformly sized spherical PMPs. Therefore, effects observed for PMPs in such experiments may not be representative for MP-effects in situ. Moreover, invertebrate filter-feeders are generally well adapted to the presence of refractory material in seston, which questions the potential of MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations to measurably affect digestion in these organisms. Here, we compared responses to MPs (PMPs and SMPs and naturally occurring particles (kaolin clay using the cladoceran Daphnia magna as a model organism. We manipulated food levels (0.4 and 9 μg C mL-1 and MP or kaolin contribution to the feeding suspension (<1 to 74% and evaluated effects of MPs and kaolin on food uptake, growth, reproductive capacity of the daphnids, and maternal effects on offspring survival and feeding. Exposure to SMPs caused elevated mortality, increased inter-brood period and decreased reproduction albeit only at high MP levels in the feeding suspension (74% by particle count. No such effects were observed in either PMP or kaolin treatments. In daphnids exposed to any particle type at the low algal concentration, individual growth decreased by ~15%. By contrast, positive growth response to all particle types was observed at the high algal concentration with 17%, 54% and 40% increase for kaolin, PMP and SMP, respectively. When test particles

  18. Lumbar meningeal enhancement after surgery in the posterior cranial fossa: a normal finding in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampla, W.; Urban, M.; Newrkla, S.; Hruby, W.; Schatzer, R.; Knosp, E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Spinal meningeal Gd-DTPA enhancement after cranial surgery is a known observation of a not well understood underlying mechanism. This paper demonstrates that this MRI finding is a normal meningeal reaction to subarachnoid hemorrhage, which should not be mistaken for metastatic spread. Material and methods: Three pediatric patients were examined by MRI for metastatic spread of malignant infratentorial tumors along the spinal canal two to nine days after the removal of the primary cerebral lesion. The findings were compared with a control group that underwent cranial surgery (cyst resection or fenestration of the posterior cranial fossa) without major bleeding into the subarachnoid space. Unenhanced and enhanced sequences were obtained to prove that the high singal within the CSF is caused by an abnormal Gd-DTPA uptake and not by methemoglobin. Results: Meningeal enhancement was observed in all patients with intraoperative bleeding resembling subarachnoid masses on enhanced T 1 -weighted images. This was not present in any patient of the control group. This finding lasts for approximately two weeks. Conclusion: The meningeal enhancement renders immediate postoperative studies inconclusive for the detection of metastatic spread. Consequently, the obligatory tumor staging along the spinal canal should ideally be done prior to the resection of a cerebral tumor. (orig.) [de

  19. The value of metrizamide CT cisternography in the diagnosis of suprasellar and posterior fossa tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Makoto; Suwa, Jun; Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the diagnostic value of metrizamide CT cisternography (MCTC) in 22 patients. Six patients received metrizamide for the delineation of suprasellar tumors, 8 for posterior fossa tumors, and 8 for miscellaneous lesions, such as congenital cystic lesions and subdural fluid collections. Metrizamide with a concentration of 170 mgI/ml was used; 10 ml of it was introduced through the lumbar intrathecal route in every case. The patients were kept in a 15-degree Trendelenburg position, and Computed Tomography with an ACTA scanner (ACTA 200FS) was performed in principle one hour after the intrathecal injection and, if necessary, serially thereafter. The morphology of the subarachnoid space was well visualized in detail by CSF enhancement with metrizamide in all cases. The contours of the tumors in and around the basal cisterns were clearly shown; their relationship to the adjacent structures became more evident upon direct coronal section or upon coronal and sagittal reconstruction. It is suggested that the differential diagnosis in the suprasellar tumors and the C-P angle tumors can be made by means of the exact representation of the contours and extension of these tumors. MCTC can delineate the brain-stem glioma more accurately than the conventional CT scan: thus, it offers a definite advantage for the diagnosis and evaluation of those tumors which show isodensity on precontrast and no enhancement on postcontrast conventional CT scan. An arachnoid cyst or a porencephalic cyst can be diagnosed by the evaluation of the CSF-flow pattern. (author)

  20. Progressive tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion of the infratemporal fossa treated by radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O’Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion (TFIL is a rare benign tumor in the head and neck region. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with a benign but progressive lesion of the infratemporal fossa, which was diagnosed as TFIL. Patient responded briefly to a course of steroid treatment but eventually showed progression and was unresponsive to further steroids. She was then treated with external beam radiation to a dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. After radiation a slow, gradual decrease in tumor size was noted over the course of years and she is free of disease after more than 11 years of follow-up. The major longterm side effect this patient developed was an expected unilateral radiation-induced retinopathy, due to the close proximity of the lesion to the orbit. The dilemma of treatment of benign disease with radiation with potential long-term complications is discussed and a review of the literature on TFIL is presented.

  1. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4±17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7±2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0±1.7% versus 92.1±2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice

  2. Indirect computerized tomography sign of chronic subdural hematoma demonstrated in the posterior fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Takao; Fukui, Masashi; Maeyama, Ryutaro; Takaki, Tosuke; Yoshiura, Shogo; Kamoi, Itsuma

    1985-03-01

    In cases of chronic subdural hematoma (CSH), brain computerized tomography (CT) scans frequently disclose a low density band in the posterior fossa (LDBP) between the lateral margin of the cerebellum and the adjacent petrous bone/tentorium cerebelli. Out of 121 cases of CSH, 56 (46%) showed the LDBP. The LDBP was mostly ipsilateral to the side of the CSH or bilateral. The frequency of the LDBP had no correlation with the severity of the cerebral midline shift or the thickness of the hematoma. As normal controls, CT scans of 257 cases in which no organic lesions were detected were used. Also 30 cases with dementing diseases, 2 cases with spinocerebellar degeneration and 428 cases of other neurological diseases such as head trauma other than CSH, brain tumor, cerebrovascular disease etc. were studied as disease controls. The incidence of the LDBP in both controls was significantly lower than in CSH. Therefore, the LDBP in cases of CSH was considered to be a significant associated finding of CT scans. The mechanism of the LDBP is discussed.

  3. Subtemporal-anterior transtentoral approach to middle cranial fossa microsurgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiming; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yugong; Li, Gang

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the topography of inferior and external dura mater of the middle cranial fossa through subtemporal-anterior transpetrosal approach and discuss the feasibility of improving the approach. Eight formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were studied, with the bones milled away in the lateral triangle region of the petrous bone, Kawase rhombus region, and inner triangle region of the petrous apex. The distances between the targets in these regions, as well as the angles after the dissection of zygomatic arch, were measured, and then the exposed petroclival and retrochiasmatic areas were observed under the microscope. There were significant variations in the distances between targets in the 3 milled regions among the specimens. After the dissection of zygomatic arch, the surgical view got an average increase of 12 degrees. The subtemporal anterior transpetrosal approach, as an improved subtemporal approach, can expose the lesions optimally, causing no injury to the hearing and reducing injuries to temporal lobe. On the other hand, the lateral bone of the petrous parts of the temporal bone is removed so as to improve the view to the retrochiasmatic area and expand the operative field.

  4. Outcomes of urethral calculi patients in an endemic region and an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Ayhan; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Unal, Dogan; Yeni, Ercan; Kaya, Mete

    2006-02-01

    Urethral calculus is a rare form of urolithiasis with an incidence lower than 0.3%. We determined the outcomes of 15 patients with urethral stone, of which 8 were pediatric, including an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus. Fifteen consecutive male patients, of whom eight were children, with urethral calculi were assessed between 2000 and 2005 with a mean of 19 months' follow-up. All stones were fusiform in shape and solitary. Acute urinary retention, interrupted or weak stream, pain (penile, urethral, perineal) and gross hematuria were the main presenting symptoms in 7 (46.7%), 4 (26.7%), 3 (20%) and 1 (6.6%) patient, respectively. Six of them had accompanying urethral pathologies such as stenosis (primary or with hypospadias) and diverticulum. Two patients were associated with upper urinary tract calculi but none of them secondary to bladder calculi. A 50-year-old patient with a primary urethral stone disease had urethral meatal stenosis accompanied by lifelong lower urinary tract symptoms. Unlike the past reports, urethral stones secondary to bladder calculi were decreasing, especially in the pediatric population. However, the pediatric patients in their first decade are still under risk secondary to the upper urinary tract calculi or the primary ones.

  5. A report of the anesthesia in posterior fossa operations in the sitting position in 55 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanguiri B

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 55 patients were studied in a period of six years for having the anesthesia in the sitting position. In this position, the surgeon will had a better access to the location, whose damages have been sustained, so less damages would be given to the healthy tissues. For the patients, due to their critical general conditions, one week prior to giving anesthesia to the posterior fossa, operation in the sitting position the right ventriculoatiral shunt was placed. For preventing the fall of blood pressure, a bandage was placed in the lower limbs after inducing anesthesia and changing supine position to sitting position. Before the induction, central venous pressure was measured for treating the air embolism. The head of catheter was placed inside the right atrial. Premedications such as atropine, pethidine, and inductive agents like thiopenton, and muscle relaxants, maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide. All of the patients endured this condition without the fall of blood pressure and air embolism

  6. Medial Cranial Fossa Meningioma Diagnosed as Mixed Anxiety Disorder with Dissociative Symptoms and Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Mehmet Ceylan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are mostly benign tumors of the meninges that may stay clinically silent or present first with psychiatric symptoms only. We present a case of medial cranial fossa meningioma that was first diagnosed as mixed anxiety disorder with dissociative symptoms and vertigo. In light of the intact neurological and vestibular system examination, our patient’s vertigo and depersonalization were firstly addressed as psychosomatic symptoms of the psychiatric syndrome. Despite decreased anxiety and improved mood, dissociative symptoms and vertigo were resistant to treatment which prompted further research yielding a left hemisphere localized meningioma. Resection of meningioma resulted in full remission of the patient proving it to be responsible for the etiology of the psychiatric syndrome and vertigo. We suggest that brain imaging should be performed for patients with late-onset (>50 years psychiatric symptoms and those with treatment resistance. It is important to keep in mind always that medically unexplained symptoms may become explicable with detailed assessment and regular follow-up of the patient.

  7. Effect of radiation therapy on extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Fukushima, Masaaki; Mori, Kazuo; Tsujimura, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hiroaki.

    1987-01-01

    We report three cases of extracerebral cavernous hemangiomas in the middle fossa all of which had received radiotherapy. Follow-up study with serial computed tomography during and after irradiation were presented. In Case 1, radiotherapy after partial removal of the tumor reduced the tumor's size and CT number, and facilitated total removal. In Case 2 as well, irradiation was started before the operation. The tumor responded very well to irradiation and showed significant reduction in the size and CT number of the tumor with a dose of about 3,000 rads. Subtotal romoval was possible. In Case 3, the tumor responded very well clinically to irradiation, and vertigo were much improved with a dose of about 3,000 rads, and CT scan at that time showed significant reduction in the size and CT number of the tumor, therefore she only received radiation therapy, no surgical intervention. It is concluded that in cases of extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3,000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increased probability of total removal of the tumor, and moreover the possibility of eliminating surgery. (author)

  8. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiology and Neurological Inst.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4{+-}17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7{+-}2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0{+-}1.7% versus 92.1{+-}2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice.

  9. Excision versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemocauterization for branchial sinus of the pyriform fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jihee; Kim, Seong Chul; Kim, Dae Yeon; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the outcomes of open surgical excision and endoscopic trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemocauterization for the treatment of branchial sinus of the pyriform fossa (BSPF). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 27 patients (16 males and 11 females) who were treated for BSPF at the Asan Medical Center between 1996 and 2013. The median age of the 27 patients was 4.5years (range, 0 to 15years). Before definitive surgery, 19 (70.3%) of the patients had histories of neck infection, and 16 (59.2%) patients had neck abscesses that were drained. The lesions were predominantly located on the left side (26 of 27; 96.2%). Excisions were performed for 14 (48.1%) patients. TCA chemocauterizations were performed for 13 patients. After a median follow-up period of 5.5years, 11 patients developed recurrence. The recurrence rates were not significantly different between the excision and chemocauterization groups (35.7% vs 46.1%, respectively, p=0.704). All of the recurred patients were successfully treated with repeated chemocauterization or reexcision. Analyses of the risk factors for recurrence revealed that a previous infection history tended to increase the rate of recurrence (90.9% vs 56.2%, p=0.090). Our experience suggests that the outcomes of excision and TCA chemocauterization are not significantly different. Additional studies are needed to reach a consensus regarding the best treatment strategy for BSPF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. "CEPHALIC VEIN ANATOMY IN ANTECUBITAL FOSSA DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Alamshah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to create an effective arteriovenous fistula (AVF in patients with sustained chronic renal failure (CRF, surgeons need to become familiar with various anatomical variations of venous structures in the operating field. Because of variety and different types of cubital venous anatomies, there is more than a 90% possibility of creating suitable AVFs in the cubital fossa , but in the wrist and forearm, due to old injections and thrombophlebitis, there is less chance to do so. Since cephalic vein is the main venous conduit for constructing an AVF in the antecubital region, this study focuses on the various anatomical variations of cephalic vein and its communicating branches. We studied the cubital cephalic anatomy of 103 patients with CRF during construction of an AVF from July 1999 to June 2001. Five types of cephalic vein anatomy were seen: type A (44.66%, type B (30.1%, type C (18.44%, type D (3.88% and type E (2.29% in 39 right and 64 left arms. Seventy-six anastomoses were performed to brachial trunk, 25 to the radial and 2 to the ulnar artery. Eleven cases with progressive swelling after AVF were uneventfully cured by hand elevation. No infection, false aneurysm, venous hypertension or steal syndrome was detected. In order to obtain the best results and select appropriate operative technique for reliable vascular access in CRF, it is necessary to understand the anatomical variety of cephalic vein.

  11. Endoscopic Endonasal Transturbinate Approach to the Pterygopalatine Fossa in the Management of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterygopalatine fossa (PPF is a difficult-to-access anatomic area located behind the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA often affects this area, and the management of feeding artery to the tumor is important in the surgery. Endoscopic endonasal approach to the PPF without endangering all other nasal structures is useful in the management of JNA. We describe a new approach to the PPF, endoscopic transturbinate approach, which is effective in the management of JNA. Submucous inferior turbinoplasty was performed, and sphenopalatine artery, the feeder to the tumor, was identified at the sphenopalatine foramen. The posterior wall of maxillary sinus was removed. Internal maxillary artery was identified in the PPF and was ligated with a hemoclip. The tumor in the PPF was pushed into the nasal cavity. These procedures were all performed via submucous turbinate tunnel. Then, the tumor was successfully removed in en bloc from the nasal cavity by transnasal approach without ethmoidectomy. This approach improves accessibility and visualization in the PPF and potential to reduce intraoperative bleeding due to ligation of the feeder safely without touching the tumor. Endoscopic transturbinate approach is effective in the management of early stage of JNA.

  12. Declarative and procedural learning in children and adolescents with posterior fossa tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casares Encarnación

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This quasi-experimental study was designed to assess two important learning types – procedural and declarative – in children and adolescents affected by posterior fossa tumours (astrocytoma vs. medulloblastoma, given that memory has an important impact on the child's academic achievement and personal development. Methods We had three groups: two clinical (eighteen subjects and one control (twelve subjects. The learning types in these groups were assessed by two experimental tasks evaluating procedural-implicit and declarative memory. A Serial Reaction-Time Task was used to measure procedural sequence learning, and the Spanish version 1 of the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version- CVLT- 2 to measure declarative-explicit learning. The learning capacity was assessed considering only the blocks that represent learning, and were compared with MANOVA in clinical and normal subjects. The Raven, simple reaction-time, finger-tapping test, and grooved pegboard tests were used to assess the overall functioning of subjects. The results were compared with those from a control group of the same age, and with Spanish norm-referenced tools where available Results The results indicate the absence of procedural-implicit learning in both clinical groups, whereas declarative-explicit learning is maintained in both groups. Conclusion The clinical groups showed a conservation of declarative learning and a clear impairment of procedural learning. The results support the role of the cerebellum in the early phase of procedural learning.

  13. Imaging of lesions in the posterior cranial fossa using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Michiro; Uesugi, Yasuo; Higashikawa, Masahiko; Ochi, Mari; Makimoto, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Shin, Akinori; Utsunomiya, Keita; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1988-01-01

    Lesions in the posterior cranial fossa were visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-IMP (N-isopropyl-p- 123 I-iodoamphetamine) and 99m Tc-HM-PAO ( 99m Tc-hexametylpropyleneamine oxime). It is generally held that these radiopharmaceuticals penetrate the walls of cerebral blood vessels and that their accumulations in the brain tissue may reflect the cerebral blood flow. Six patients with lesions in the central nervous system all showed wider areas of abnormality in SPECT than in X-ray CT, indicating a larger lesion of blood flow disturbance. In the next series of 11 patients with vertigo or dizziness of unknown etiology, eight had abnormal findings in the scan with 123 I-IMP as did four of the nine in the scan with 99m Tc-HM-PAO. Thus, most patients with dizziness of unknown etiology may have some vertebral blood flow disorder, which in some cases is not clearly diagnosed by conventional vestibular examinations or even by X-ray CT scan. The accuracy of the diagnostic measures for otoneurological problems awaits further studies of their sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  14. Total spine and posterior fossa MRI screening in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (177 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: MRI screening for idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Considering our clinical experiences, the results of MRI in all patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. Methods: In a prospective clinical study, all neurologically normal patients with idiopathic scoliosis screened by posterior fossa and total spine MRI. Results: After excluding 9 patients for mild neurological findings, in other 177 patients (132 female, 45 male, the average age and curve angle was 15±2 years and 59±17º (30 to 135º, respectively. Convexity was to right in 146 and to left in 31 cases. MRI was positive in 12 cases (6.8%. In 5 cases (2.8%, neurosurgical intervention was necessary prior to scoliosis surgery. There was no relation between age, sex, presence of pain or curve angle and positive MRI findings (P>0.05. Left convexity was significantly related to positive MRI findings (P=0.013. In males with left convex curves, the probability of positive MRI findings was 8.8 folds other patients. Conclusion: Considering our results and other reported articles, it seems that routine MRI screening of all patients presenting as idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for detection of underlying pathologies. Key words: Idiopathic Scoliosis, MRI, Spine Syrinx, Chiari

  15. High-resolution MRI of cranial nerves in posterior fossa at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zi-Yi; Chen, Jing; Liang, Qi-Zhou; Liao, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Qiong-Yue; Fu, Shui-Xi; Chen, Cai-Xiang; Yu, Dan

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-resolution imaging obtainable with the higher field strength of 3.0 T on the visualization of the brain nerves in the posterior fossa. In total, 20 nerves were investigated on MRI of 12 volunteers each and selected for comparison, respectively, with the FSE sequences with 5 mm and 2 mm section thicknesses and gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequences acquired with a 3.0-T scanner. The MR images were evaluated by three independent readers who rated image quality according to depiction of anatomic detail and contrast with use of a rating scale. In general, decrease of the slice thickness showed a significant increase in the detection of nerves as well as in the image quality characteristics. Comparing FSE and GRE imaging, the course of brain nerves and brainstem vessels was visualized best with use of the three-dimensional (3D) pulse sequence. The comparison revealed the clear advantage of a thin section. The increased resolution enabled immediate identification of all brainstem nerves. GRE sequence most distinctly and confidently depicted pertinent structures and enables 3D reconstruction to illustrate complex relations of the brainstem. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks to the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Xabier; Navarro, Juan José; García, Leire; Ugarte, Ane; Thomas, Izaskun

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks to the middle ear due to tegmen tympani defects can result in hearing loss or hypoacusis and predispose to meningitis as well as other neurological complications. Surgical repair of the defect can be performed through a middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach or a transmastoid approach. We conducted a retrospective study of the patients in our Department due to a spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear treated using a MCF approach during a 6-year period (2009-2014). Thirteen patients with spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear were treated with this approach. The primary and first symptom in all of them was conductive hearing loss. In all cases, the defect or defects were closed in a multilayer manner using muscle, temporalis fascia and cortical bone. Minimum follow-up in this series was 14 months, with successful closure in all but one patient (who required reintervention). We found no intra- or postoperative complications due to the craniotomy, and the audiometry improved and normalised in all cases except for the failed case. The MCF approach with a multilayer closure of the defect is an effective technique for repairing spontaneous CSF leaks to the middle ear and for restoring hearing in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  17. Volcanic emissions from soils at the base of La Fossa volcano, Vulcano island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenholzner, J. H.; Parks, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    A top-sealed plastic tube with a diameter of ca. 15 cm had been buried vertically at the base of La Fossa volcano, Volcano island, Italy, next to the front of the obsidian flow. The tube had been filled with quartz wool to condense vapors emanating from the soil. At ca. 75 cm below the surface the sample had been exposed to vapors from Sept. 2005 to April 2006. The leached sample had not been in touch with the ground. Another glass wool cushion (ca. 3 cm thick) had been underneath to minimize capillary effects. Leaching of the quartz wool and ICP-MS analysis documented positive values for: Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb. Leaching with nitric acid documented also V and Fe. Acid leaching produced higher values for all elements, except K and Sn, than leaching with deionized water. Negative values had been obtained for As, Se, Mo. Influence from soil breathing can be excluded as the active fumaroles contain As and Se. This experiment documents for the first time an unknown element transport by vapors/gases through a volcanic edifice interacting with hydrothermal and magmatic gases. It remains unknown if elements detected are entering the atmosphere or are getting adsorbed onto the volcanic ash soil particles derived from reworked surge beds. This question is very important as soils might be an unknown filter medium to filter volcanically polluted air in case of major volcanic crises. Data can be obtained from the authors.

  18. High-resolution MRI of cranial nerves in posterior fossa at 3.0 T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Yi Guo; Jing Chen; Qi-Zhou Liang; Hai-Yan Liao; Qiong-Yue Cheng; Shui-Xi Fu; Cai-Xiang Chen; Dan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the influence of high-resolution imaging obtainable with the higher field strength of3.0T on the visualization of the brain nerves in the posterior fossa.Methods:In total,20 nerves were investigated onMRI of12 volunteers each and selected for comparison, respectively, with theFSE sequences with5 mm and2 mm section thicknesses and gradient recalled echo(GRE) sequences acquired with a3.0-T scanner.TheMR images were evaluated by three independent readers who rated image quality according to depiction of anatomic detail and contrast with use of a rating scale.Results:In general, decrease of the slice thickness showed a significant increase in the detection of nerves as well as in the image quality characteristics. ComparingFSE andGRE imaging, the course of brain nerves and brainstem vessels was visualized best with use of the three-dimensional(3D) pulse sequence.Conclusions:The comparison revealed the clear advantage of a thin section.The increased resolution enabled immediate identification of all brainstem nerves.GRE sequence most distinctly and confidently depicted pertinent structures and enables3D reconstruction to illustrate complex relations of the brainstem.

  19. Nickel and binary metal mixture responses in Daphnia magna: Molecular fingerprints and (sub)organismal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbrouck, Tine; Soetaert, Anneleen; Ven, Karlijn van der; Blust, Ronny; Coen, Wim de

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of a custom cDNA microarray platform for one of the standard organisms in aquatic toxicology, Daphnia magna, opened up new ways to mechanistic insights of toxicological responses. In this study, the mRNA expression of several genes and (sub)organismal responses (Cellular Energy Allocation, growth) were assayed after short-term waterborne metal exposure. Microarray analysis of Ni-exposed daphnids revealed several affected functional gene classes, of which the largest ones were involved in different metabolic processes (mainly protein and chitin related processes), cuticula turnover, transport and signal transduction. Furthermore, transcription of genes involved in oxygen transport and heme metabolism (haemoglobin, δ-aminolevilunate synthase) was down-regulated. Applying a Partial Least Squares regression on nickel fingerprints and biochemical (sub)organismal parameters revealed a set of co-varying genes (haemoglobin, RNA terminal phosphate cyclase, a ribosomal protein and an 'unknown' gene fragment). An inverse relationship was seen between the mRNA expression levels of different cuticula proteins and available energy reserves. In addition to the nickel exposure, daphnids were exposed to binary mixtures of nickel and cadmium or nickel and lead. Using multivariate analysis techniques, the mixture mRNA expression fingerprints (Ni 2+ + Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ + Pb 2+ ) were compared to those of the single metal treatments (Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ ). It was hypothesized that the molecular fingerprints of the mixtures would be additive combinations of the gene transcription profiles of the individual compounds present in the mixture. However, our results clearly showed additionally affected pathways after mixture treatment (e.g. additional affected genes involved in carbohydrate catabolic processes and proteolysis), indicating interactive molecular responses which are not merely the additive sum of the individual metals. These findings, although indicative of

  20. Tax and the Forgotten Classes: from the Magna Carta to the English Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at three key early events in English tax history, the 1215 Magna Carta, the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and the English Revolution from 1640 to 1649. It uses these events to explore the relationship between tax, ward, democracy and rebellion. Tax is both an expression of and a cause of class divisions that is can, and does as these events show, spark revolts against the state imposing the taxes. These revolts can be between members of the ruling elite, or between the people outside the ruling elite and that group of rulers both political and economic, or a mixture of both. The aim is to reintroduce class into tax history and show over time the crucial role ordinary people (for example peasants, artisans and workers play in the history of taxation. Thus the people of London played a role in the successful rebellion of the Barons against the kings' imposition of excessive tax and the establishment of a common counsel of the elite to approve future extractions. This gain became the bedrock for future democratic demands, for example no taxation without representation. Peasants drove the revolt of 1381 against poll taxes but could not make demands that transcended their particular class position although they gave hints of an alternative non-class divided society. In 1629 Ship Money enabled the King to rule without parliamentary and this eventually sparked the rebellion and then revolution from 1640 in the context of a society changing from feudal to capitalist relations. In all three cases the actions of the masses of ordinary people are a key to understanding the events and the intertwining of war, tax, democracy and rebellion that becomes evident during this investigation.

  1. Gene expression profiling of three different stressors in the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vandenbrouck, Tine; Knapen, Dries; Dom, Nathalie; Spanier, Katina I; Cielen, Anke; De Meester, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Microarrays are an ideal tool to screen for differences in gene expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. However, often commercial arrays are not available. In this study, we performed microarray analyses to evaluate patterns of gene transcription following exposure to two natural and one anthropogenic stressor. cDNA microarrays compiled of three life stage specific and three stressor-specific EST libraries, yielding 1734 different EST sequences, were used. We exposed juveniles of the water flea Daphnia magna for 48, 96 and 144 h to three stressors known to exert strong selection in natural populations of this species i.e. a sublethal concentration of the pesticide carbaryl, infective spores of the endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa, and fish predation risk mimicked by exposure to fish kairomones. A total of 148 gene fragments were differentially expressed compared to the control. Based on a PCA, the exposure treatments were separated into two main groups based on the extent of the transcriptional response: a low and a high (144 h of fish or carbaryl exposure and 96 h of parasite exposure) stress group. Firstly, we observed a general stress-related transcriptional expression profile independent of the treatment characterized by repression of transcripts involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction and energy metabolism. Secondly, we observed treatment-specific responses including signs of migration to deeper water layers in response to fish predation, structural challenge of the cuticle in response to carbaryl exposure, and disturbance of the ATP production in parasite exposure. A third important conclusion is that transcription expression patterns exhibit stress-specific changes over time. Parasite exposure shows the most differentially expressed gene fragments after 96 h. The peak of differentially expressed transcripts came only after 144 h of fish exposure, while carbaryl exposure induced a more stable number of differently expressed gene

  2. Impact of polystyrene microplastics on Daphnia magna mortality and reproduction in relation to food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaibachi, Rana

    2018-01-01

    Microplastics (MPs) in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris), with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae. Daphnia were exposed to varied concentrations of MPs and algae. When exposed to a single concentration of MPs Daphnia almost immediately ate them in large quantities. However, the presence of algae, even at low concentrations, had a significant negative impact on MP uptake that was not in proportion to relative availability. As MP concentrations increased, intake did not if algae were present, even at higher concentrations of MPs. This suggests that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating plastics. Adult Daphnia exposed to MPs for 21 days showed mortality after seven days of exposure in all treatments compared to the control. However significant differences were all related to algal concentration rather than to MP concentration. This suggests that where ample food is present, MPs have little effect on adults. There was also no impact on their reproduction. The neonate toxicity test confirmed previous results that mortality and reproduction was linked to availability of food rather than MP concentrations. This would make sense in light of our suggestion that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating microplastics. PMID:29686944

  3. Haemoglobin-mediated response to hyper-thermal stress in the keystone species Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Zeis, Bettina; Orsini, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms. A central regulatory element compensating for changes in oxygen supply and ambient temperature is the respiratory protein haemoglobin (Hb). Here, we quantify Hb plastic and evolutionary response in Daphnia magna subpopulations resurrected from the sedimentary archive of a lake with known history of increase in average temperature and recurrence of heat waves. By measuring constitutive changes in crude Hb protein content among subpopulations, we assessed evolution of the Hb gene family in response to temperature increase. To quantify the contribution of plasticity in the response of this gene family to hyper-thermal stress, we quantified changes in Hb content in all subpopulations under hyper-thermal stress as compared to nonstressful temperature. Further, we tested competitive abilities of genotypes as a function of their Hb content, constitutive and induced. We found that Hb-rich genotypes have superior competitive abilities as compared to Hb-poor genotypes under hyper-thermal stress after a period of acclimation. These findings suggest that whereas long-term adjustment to higher occurrence of heat waves may require a combination of plasticity and genetic adaptation, plasticity is most likely the coping mechanism to hyper-thermal stress in the short term. Our study suggests that with higher occurrence of heat waves, Hb-rich genotypes may be favoured with potential long-term impact on population genetic diversity.

  4. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Hong, Li [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States); LeBlanc, Gerald A., E-mail: Gerald_LeBlanc@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  5. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Li Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  6. The influence of bacteria-dominated diets on Daphnia magna somatic growth, reproduction, and lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Brett, Michael T; Pulkkinen, Katja; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    We explored how dietary bacteria affect the life history traits and biochemical composition of Daphnia magna, using three bacteria taxa with very different lipid composition. Our objectives were to (1) examine whether and how bacteria-dominated diets affect Daphnia survival, growth, and fecundity, (2) see whether bacteria-specific fatty acid (FA) biomarkers accrued in Daphnia lipids, and (3) explore the quantitative relationship between bacteria availability in Daphnia diets and the amounts of bacterial FA in their lipids. Daphnia were fed monospecific and mixed diets of heterotrophic (Micrococcus luteus) or methanotrophic bacteria (Methylomonas methanica and Methylosinus trichosporium) and two phytoplankton species (Cryptomonas ozolinii and Scenedesmus obliquus). Daphnia neonates fed pure bacteria diets died after 6-12 days and produced no viable offspring, whereas those fed pure phytoplankton diets had high survival, growth, and reproduction success. Daphnia fed a mixed diet with 80% M. luteus and 20% of either phytoplankton had high somatic growth, but low reproduction. Conversely, Daphnia fed mixed diets including 80% of either methane-oxidizing bacteria and 20% Cryptomonas had high reproduction rates, but low somatic growth. All Daphnia fed mixed bacteria and phytoplankton diets had strong evidence of both bacteria- and phytoplankton-specific FA biomarkers in their lipids. FA mixing model calculations indicated that Daphnia that received 80% of their carbon from bacteria assimilated 46 ± 25% of their FA from this source. A bacteria-phytoplankton gradient experiment showed a strong positive correlation between the proportions of the bacterial FA in the Daphnia and their diet, indicating that bacterial utilization can be traced in this keystone consumer using FA biomarkers. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of polystyrene microplastics on Daphnia magna mortality and reproduction in relation to food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Aljaibachi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (MPs in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris, with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae. Daphnia were exposed to varied concentrations of MPs and algae. When exposed to a single concentration of MPs Daphnia almost immediately ate them in large quantities. However, the presence of algae, even at low concentrations, had a significant negative impact on MP uptake that was not in proportion to relative availability. As MP concentrations increased, intake did not if algae were present, even at higher concentrations of MPs. This suggests that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating plastics. Adult Daphnia exposed to MPs for 21 days showed mortality after seven days of exposure in all treatments compared to the control. However significant differences were all related to algal concentration rather than to MP concentration. This suggests that where ample food is present, MPs have little effect on adults. There was also no impact on their reproduction. The neonate toxicity test confirmed previous results that mortality and reproduction was linked to availability of food rather than MP concentrations. This would make sense in light of our suggestion that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating microplastics.

  8. Responses of alkaline phosphatase activity to phosphorus stress in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, S D S; Rafferty, S P; Frost, P C

    2010-01-15

    We examined how alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity within the bodies and in the materials released by the crustacean Daphnia magna responds to variable algal food phosphorus (P)-content. We found that Daphnia eating P-poor food (C:P approximately 700) had significantly higher AP activity in their bodies on a mass-specific basis compared with individuals eating P-rich food (C:P approximately 100). This dietary P effect on AP activity was not altered by Daphnia starvation but was partially related to differences in the P concentration of animal body homogenates. By contrast, poor P-nutrition of Daphnia lowered AP activity in released materials compared with that measured from their P-sufficient conspecifics. Moreover, AP activity in Daphnia release was lowest in animals consuming P-poor food for longer time periods. Our results support the hypothesis that AP activity increases inside P-limited Daphnia as a mechanism to increase P-acquisition and retention from ingested algae in these nutritionally stressed animals. The lower level of AP activity present in the water of P-deprived animals could reflect a change from largely free to membrane-bound AP isotypes in the digestive tracts of P-starved animals or a decrease in the shedding of membrane-anchored AP from their intestinal lining. These results supplement accumulating evidence that P-poor algal food reduces the dietary mineral P available to Daphnia. In addition, animal body AP activity measurements, with some refinement, may prove useful as an in situ indicator of P-stress in aquatic consumers.

  9. A Novel Newborn Rat Kernicterus Model Created by Injecting a Bilirubin Solution into the Cisterna Magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sijie; Hu, Ying; Gu, Xianfang; Si, Feifei; Hua, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Kernicterus still occurs around the world; however, the mechanism of bilirubin neurotoxicity remains unclear, and effective treatment strategies are lacking. To solve these problems, several kernicterus (or acute bilirubin encephalopathy) animal models have been established, but these models are difficult and expensive. Therefore, the present study was performed to establish a novel kernicterus model that is simple and affordable by injecting unconjugated bilirubin solution into the cisterna magna (CM) of ordinary newborn Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods On postnatal day 5, SD rat pups were randomly divided into bilirubin and control groups. Then, either bilirubin solution or ddH2O (pH = 8.5) was injected into the CM at 10 µg/g (bodyweight). For model characterization, neurobehavioral outcomes were observed, mortality was calculated, and bodyweight was recorded after bilirubin injection and weaning. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected by H&E staining, TUNEL, flow cytometry and Western blotting. When the rats were 28 days old, learning and memory ability were evaluated using the Morris water maze test. Results The bilirubin-treated rats showed apparently abnormal neurological manifestations, such as clenched fists, opisthotonos and torsion spasms. Bodyweight gain in the bilirubin-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the controls (Pbilirubin-treated rats were both dramatically higher than those of the controls (P = 0.004 and 0.017, respectively). Apoptosis and necrosis in the hippocampal nerve cells in the bilirubin-treated rats were observed. The bilirubin-treated rats performed worse than the controls on the Morris water maze test. Conclusion By injecting bilirubin into the CM, we successfully created a new kernicterus model using ordinary SD rats; the model mimics both the acute clinical manifestations and the chronic sequelae. In particular, CM injection is easy to perform; thus, more stable models for follow-up study are

  10. Toxicity of platinum, palladium and rhodium to Daphnia magna in single and binary metal exposure experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Sonja; Wolff, Carolina; Sures, Bernd

    2017-05-01

    Mainly due to automobile traffic, but also due to other sources, the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) are introduced into aquatic biotopes where they accumulate in sediments of lakes and rivers. However, the toxicity of these noble metals to aquatic organisms is not well understood and especially toxicity studies under standardized condition are lacking. Thus, the toxicity of Pt, Pd and Rh to Daphnia magna was tested in single metal exposure experiments according to OECD guideline 202. Immobility and lethality was recorded after 24 h and 48 h of exposure and EC 50 and LC 50 , respectively, were determined. As the nominal exposure concentration of Pd differed significantly from the quantified concentration, the control of the real exposure concentration by chemical analysis is mandatory, especially for Pd. The toxicity decreased in the order Pd > Pt ≫ Rh with e.g. LC 50 (48 h) values of 14 μg/L for Pd, 157 μg/L for Pt and 56,800 μg/L for Rh. The exposure period had a clear effect on the toxicity of Pt, Pd and Rh. For Pt and Rh the endpoint immobility was more sensitive than the endpoint lethality whereas Pd toxicity was similar for both endpoints. The Hill slopes, which are a measure for the steepness of the concentration-response curves, showed no significant discrepancies between the different metals. The binary metal exposure to Pt and Pd revealed a more-than-additive, i.e. a synergistic toxicity using the toxic unit approach. The present study is a start to understand the toxicity of interacting PGE. The modes of action behind the synergistic effect are unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Propulsion of the Water Flea, Daphnia magna: Experiments, Scaling, and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, A. N.; Murphy, D.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2016-02-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is a widely studied zooplankton in relation to food webs, predator-prey interactions, and other biological/ecological considerations; however, their locomotion is poorly quantified and understood. These water fleas utilize a hop-and-sink mechanism that consists of making quick, impulsive jumps by beating their antennae to propel themselves forward ( 1 body length). The animals then sink for a period, during which they stretch out their antennae to increase drag and thereby reduce their sinking velocity. Time-resolved three-dimensional flow fields surrounding the animals were quantified with a unique infrared tomographic particle image velocity (tomo-PIV) system. Three-dimensional kinematics data were also extracted from the image sequences. In the current work, we compared body kinematics and flow disturbance among organisms of size in the range of 1.3 to 2.8 mm. The stroke cycle averaged 150 ms in duration, ranging from 100 to 180 ms; this period is generally evenly split between the power and recovery strokes. The range of peak hop velocity was 27.2 to 32.5 mm/s, and peak acceleration was in the range of 0.68 to 1.8 m/s2. The results showed a distinct relationship between peak hop speed (Vmax 14 BL/s) and body size; these data collapsed onto a single time-record curve during the power stroke when properly non-dimensionalized. The fluid flow induced by each antennae consisted of a viscous vortex ring that demonstrated a slow decay in the wake. The strength, size, and decay of the induced viscous vortex rings were compared as a function of organism size. Finally, the viscous vortex rings were analyzed in the context of a double Stokeslet model that consisted of two impulsively applied point forces separated by the animal width.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of cartap and cypermethrin to different life stages of Daphnia magna and Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-01-01

    Cartap and cypermethrin, which are among the most widely used pesticides in many countries, are considered safe because of their low mammalian toxicity and their low persistence in the environment. However, recent findings of endocrine-disrupting effects and developmental neurotoxicity have raised concerns about the potential ecological impacts of these pesticides. We evaluated the aquatic toxicity of cartap [S,S'-(2-dimethylaminotrimethylene) bis(thiocarbamate), unspecified hydrochloride] and cypermethrin [(RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS,3RS,1RS,3SR)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate], both individually and combined, on different life stages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna and a freshwater teleost, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 96-hr Daphnia median effective concentrations (EC50s) for cartap and cypermethrin were 91.0 microg/L and 0.00061 microg/L, respectively. Rapid recovery of Daphnia was observed after short-term pulsed exposure to cartap and cypermethrin; there were no adverse effects on reproduction or survival 20 d after a 24 hr exposure to cartap up to 1240 microg/L and cypermethrin up to 1.9 microg/L. Chronic continuous exposure (for 21 d) of 7-d-old Daphnia to cypermethrin significantly reduced the intrinsic population growth rate in a concentration-dependent manner. However, because the intrinsic population growth rates were all above zero, populations did not decrease even at the highest experimental concentration of 200 ng/L. Exposure of Daphnia neonates (cartap or 40 microg/L of cypermethrin. The mixture of both compounds showed no synergistic toxicity. The extremely high acute-to-chronic ratio suggests that the standard acute lethal toxicity assessment might not reflect the true environmental hazards of these frequently used pesticides. Ecological hazard assessments of long-term low dose or pulsed exposures to cartap and cypermethrin may reveal more realistic consequences of these compounds in

  13. Study on the Effect of Heavy metals toxicity according to changing Hardness concentration using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun Sang, H.

    2016-12-01

    n order to determine and prevent the number of ecological effects of heavy metals in the materials, we have to accurately measure the heavy metals present in the water-based protection ecosystems and may determine the effects to humans. Heavy metals occurred in the industrial effluent which is a state in which the monitor, based on the emission standards are made by the Ministry of Environment and managed and waste water contained Copper, Zinc, lead, etc. These heavy metals are able to express the toxic effects only when present in the free-ions in the aqueous condition, which appears differently affected by the degree to hardness change in accordance with the season, precipitation. Generally changing hardness concentration can not precisely evaluate toxic effects of heavy metals in the water system. Anderson announced a study on bioassay for heavy metals from industrial waste water using Daphnia magna(Anderson, 1944, 1948). Breukelman published study the resitivity difference for the mercury Chloride(HgCl2). Braudouin(1974) compared the zooplankton(Daphnia sp.) acute toxicity of the different heavy metals and confirmed the sensitivity. Shcherban(1979) presented for toxicity evaluation results for the heavy metal of the Daphnia magna according to different temperature conditions. In the United States Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) established a standard test method for water fleas, managed and supervised water ecosystems, and announced the adoption of a bioassay standard method. This study was performed to evaluate acute inhibition using the Daphnia magna for the biological effect of heavy metal ions in water-based toxicity in the hardness change. Evaluation methods were conducted in EPA Water Quality process test criteria. TU(Toxic Unit), NOEC (No Observable Effect Concentration), LOEC (Lowest Observable Effect Concentration), EC50 (Median Effective Concentration) was calculated by Toxcalc 5.0 Program. Keywords : D. magna, Hardness, Toxic Unit, Heavy metal

  14. Not all that glitters is gold - Electron microscopy study on uptake of gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna and related artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Thit, Amalie

    2017-01-01

    techniques are used to investigate internalization of 10 nm gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna gut lumen and gut epithelial cells upon 24h exposure and outline potential artefacts, i.e. high contract precipitates from sample preparation related to these techniques. Light sheet microscopy confirmed...... accumulation of gold nanoparticles in the gut lumen. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed gold nanoparticles attached to the microvilli of gut cells. Interestingly, the peritrophic membrane appeared to act as a semipermeable barrier between the lumen and the gut epithelium...

  15. Pharmacological and morphological characteristics of the muscular system of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna - Bassi 1875).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, Saša M; Marinković, Darko; Trailović, Jelena Nedeljković; Milovanović, Mirjana; Marjanović, Djordje S; Aničić, Milan R

    2015-12-01

    Motility is required for feeding, reproduction and maintenance of the fluke in the host's liver. According to that, the neuromuscular system can be an attractive drugable target for chemotherapy. Musculature of the Fascioloides magna is organized into three layers, an outer circular layer, beneath this layer the longitudinal layer, and third, the oblique, or diagonal layer underlies the longitudinal layer. In our study, the administration of atropine or caffeine did not cause classic muscle contractions of F. magna muscle strips. However, the Electrical Field Stimulation (EFS) induced stable and repeatable contractions, which enabled us to examine their sensitivity to the various substances. Acetylcholine (ACh) (300 μM and 1 mM), caused only a slight relaxation, without affecting the amplitude of spontaneous contractions or the amplitude of contractions induced by EFS. Contrary to that, atropine (100 μM) caused a significant increase in the basal tone and an increase of EFS-induced contractions. If acetylcholine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in trematodes, the described effects of atropine are achieved by the blockade of inhibitory neurotransmission. On the other hand, with respect to the process of excitation-contraction coupling, the plant alkaloid ryanodine (30 μM) significantly reduced the basal tone, as well as EFS-induced contractions of F. magna muscle strips. Ryanodine inhibited the potentiating effect of atropine on the basal tone and contractions caused by EFS, which indicates that the contractile effect of atropine is dependent on Ca(++) release from intracellular stores. Caffeine (500 μM) caused relaxation of fluke muscle strips and at the same time significantly enhanced the EFS-induced contractions. Both effects of caffeine can be explained by entry of extracellular Ca(++) into muscle cells. The muscle contractility of F. magna depends both on the entry of extracellular calcium, and calcium release from intracellular stores, which are

  16. Automated Extraction of Genomic DNA from Medically Important Yeast Species and Filamentous Fungi by Using the MagNA Pure LC System

    OpenAIRE

    Loeffler, Juergen; Schmidt, Kathrin; Hebart, Holger; Schumacher, Ulrike; Einsele, Hermann

    2002-01-01

    A fully automated assay was established for the extraction of DNA from clinically important fungi by using the MagNA Pure LC instrument. The test was evaluated by DNA isolation from 23 species of yeast and filamentous fungi and by extractions (n = 28) of serially diluted Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (105 to 0 CFU/ml). Additionally, DNA from 67 clinical specimens was extracted and compared to the manual protocol. The detection limit of the MagNA Pure LC assay of 10 CFU corresponded to the sen...

  17. Transgenerational effects and recovery of microplastics exposure in model populations of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alexandra; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-08-01

    The environmental contamination by microplastics is a global challenge to ecosystem and human health, and the knowledge on the long-term effects of such particles is limited. Thus, the effects of microplastics and post-exposure recovery were investigated over 4 generations (F 0 , F 1 , F 2 , F 3 ) using Daphnia magna as model. Effect criteria were parental mortality, growth, several reproductive parameters, and population growth rate. Microplastics exposure (0.1mg/l of pristine polymer microspheres 1-5μm diameter) caused parental mortality (10-100%), and significantly (p≤0.05) decreased growth, reproduction, and population growth rate leading to the extinction of the microplastics-exposed model population in the F 1 generation. Females descending from those exposed to microplastics in F 0 and exposed to clean medium presented some recovery but up to the F 3 generation they still had significantly (p≤0.05) reduced growth, reproduction, and population growth rate. Overall, these results indicate that D. magna recovery from chronic exposure to microplastics may take several generations, and that the continuous exposure over generations to microplastics may cause population extinction. These findings have implications to aquatic ecosystem functioning and services, and raise concern on the long-term animal and human exposure to microplastics through diverse routes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Widespread gene transfer in the central nervous system of cynomolgus macaques following delivery of AAV9 into the cisterna magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hinderer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9 vectors have recently been shown to transduce cells throughout the central nervous system of nonhuman primates when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, a finding which could lead to a minimally invasive approach to treat genetic and acquired diseases affecting the entire CNS. We characterized the transduction efficiency of two routes of vector administration into the CSF of cynomolgus macaques—lumbar puncture, which is typically used in clinical practice, and suboccipital puncture, which is more commonly used in veterinary medicine. We found that delivery of vector into the cisterna magna via suboccipital puncture is up to 100-fold more efficient for achieving gene transfer to the brain. In addition, we evaluated the inflammatory response to AAV9-mediated GFP expression in the nonhuman primate CNS. We found that while CSF lymphocyte counts increased following gene transfer, there were no clinical or histological signs of immune toxicity. Together these data indicate that delivery of AAV9 into the cisterna magna is an effective method for achieving gene transfer in the CNS, and suggest that adapting this uncommon injection method for human trials could vastly increase the efficiency of gene delivery.

  19. Combined acute ecotoxicity of malathion and deltamethrin to Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera): comparison of different data analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos; Camara, Baba Issa; Felten, Vincent; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Férard, Jean-François

    2018-04-19

    We studied the combined acute effect (i.e., after 48 h) of deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) on Daphnia magna. Two approaches were used to examine the potential interaction effects of eight mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion: (i) calculation of mixture toxicity index (MTI) and safety factor index (SFI) and (ii) response surface methodology coupled with isobole-based statistical model (using generalized linear model). According to the calculation of MTI and SFI, one tested mixture was found additive while the two other tested mixtures were found no additive (MTI) or antagonistic (SFI), but these differences between index responses are only due to differences in terminology related to these two indexes. Through the surface response approach and isobologram analysis, we concluded that there was a significant antagonistic effect of the binary mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion that occurs on D. magna immobilization, after 48 h of exposure. Index approaches and surface response approach with isobologram analysis are complementary. Calculation of mixture toxicity index and safety factor index allows identifying punctually the type of interaction for several tested mixtures, while the surface response approach with isobologram analysis integrates all the data providing a global outcome about the type of interactive effect. Only the surface response approach and isobologram analysis allowed the statistical assessment of the ecotoxicological interaction. Nevertheless, we recommend the use of both approaches (i) to identify the combined effects of contaminants and (ii) to improve risk assessment and environmental management.

  20. Integrated analysis of the ecotoxicological and genotoxic effects of the antimicrobial peptide melittin on Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdiero, Emilia; Maselli, Valeria; Falanga, Annarita; Gesuele, Renato; Galdiero, Stefania; Fulgione, Domenico; Guida, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Melittin is a major constituent of the bee venom of Apis mellifera with a broad spectrum of activities. Melittin therapeutical potential is subject to its toxicity and the assessment of ecotoxicity and genotoxicity is of particular interest for therapeutic use. Here we analyzed the biological effects of melittin on two aquatic species, which are representative of two different levels of the aquatic trophic chain: the invertebrate Daphnia magna and the unicellular microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The attention was focused on the determination of: i) ecotoxicity; ii) genotoxicity; iii) antigenotoxicity. Our main finding is that melittin is detrimental to D. magna reproduction and its sub-lethal concentrations create an accumulation dependent on exposition times and a negative effect on DNA. We also observed that melittin significantly delayed time to first eggs. Moreover, results showed that melittin exerted its toxic and genotoxic effects in both species, being a bit more aggressive towards P. subcapitata. - Highlights: • We examine ecotoxicity to study how AMPs affect the environment. • We examine genotoxicity in order to analyze the damages to the DNA. • We examine the antigenotoxicity in order to verify DNA repair ability of the cells. • Possible therapeutical applications of AMPs depend on assessment of ecotoxicity. - Melittin exerts its dose dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on both indicators; no toxicity is found at concentrations that may typically reach the environment

  1. Gene transcription profiles, global DNA methylation and potential transgenerational epigenetic effects related to Zn exposure history in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B.; De Coninck, Dieter; Vandenbrouck, Tine; De Coen, Wim M.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A reduced level of DNA methylation has recently been described in both Zn-exposed and non-exposed offspring of Daphnia magna exposed to Zn. The hypothesis examined in this study is that DNA hypomethylation has an effect on gene transcription. A second hypothesis is that accumulative epigenetic effects can affect gene transcription in non-exposed offspring from parents with an exposure history of more than one generation. Transcriptional gene regulation was studied with a cDNA microarray. In the exposed and non-exposed hypomethylated daphnids, a large proportion of common genes were similarly up- or down-regulated, indicating a possible effect of the DNA hypomethylation. Two of these genes can be mechanistically involved in DNA methylation reduction. The similar transcriptional regulation of two and three genes in the F 0 and F 1 exposed daphnids on one hand and their non-exposed offspring on the other hand, could be the result of a one-generation temporary transgenerational epigenetic effect, which was not accumulative. - Zn-induced DNA hypomethylation is related to gene transcription in Daphnia magna and Zn exposure potentially induced limited temporary transgenerational effects on gene transcription.

  2. Cadmium tolerance in seven Daphnia magna clones is associated with reduced hsp70 baseline levels and induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haap, Timo; Koehler, Heinz-R.

    2009-01-01

    The stress protein hsp70 is part of the intracellular alarm and repair system which enables organisms to counteract negative effects of toxicants on protein integrity. Under long-term selection pressure exerted by environmental pollution, in particular heavy metals, this system may be expected to play a major role in the course of local, microevolutionary events leading to the acquisition of toxicant resistance. Seven clones of Daphnia magna from different geographical regions were characterized regarding their sensitivity to Cd, their hsp70 expression, and Cd accumulation. In an acute immobilisation assay, the tested clones showed remarkable differences in their sensitivity to Cd. The highest EC 50 values by far were obtained for the clone displaying lowest hsp70 expression. In general, hsp70 levels reflected the order of sensitivity to Cd among the seven clones reciprocally. Clonal variations in sensitivity and hsp70 expression could not be related to differential accumulation of Cd, though. In summary, the association of stress insensitivity with low hsp70 induction which has been exemplarily reported for populations of different invertebrates under strong selection pressure could be affirmed for a largely parthenogenetic species for the first time. Furthermore, our observation has serious consequences for the interpretation of toxicological assays using a single D. magna clone solely.

  3. Quantitative approach to the posterior cranial fossa and craniocervical junction in asymptomatic children with achondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calandrelli, Rosalinda; Panfili, Marco; D'Apolito, Gabriella; Pedicelli, Alessandro; Colosimo, Cesare; Zampino, Giuseppe; Pilato, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    We propose an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based quantitative morphovolumetric approach to the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and craniocervical junction (CCJ) changes in achondroplastic patients investigating possible associations with ventriculomegaly and medullary compression. We analyzed MRI of 13 achondroplastic children not treated by surgery. 3D FSPGR T1-weighted images were used to analyze (1) PCF synchondroses; (2) PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV), PCFV/PCFBV ratio, cerebellar volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces volume, and IV ventricle volume; (3) PCF (clivus, supraocciput, exocciput lengths, tentorial angle) and CCJ (AP and LL diameters of foramen magnum (FM)) morphometry; (4) measurements of FM and jugular foramina (JF) areas; and (5) supratentorial ventricular volume. All patients showed synostosis of spheno-occipital synchondroses, eight showed synostosis of intra-occipital synchondroses, nine showed CCJ impingement on the cervical cord but only three had cervical myelopathy. Compared to controls, clivus and exocciput lengths, LL and AP diameters of FM, FM area and JF area were significantly reduced, supraocciput length, tentorial angle, PCFV, PCFBV, cerebellar volume, supratentorial ventricular system volume were significantly increased. A correlation was found between clivus length and supratentorial ventricular volume, premature closure of intra-occipital synchondroses and FM area while a trend was found between FM area and supraocciput length. Our analysis demonstrates a relationship between the shortening of the clivus and the ventriculomegaly. On the other hand the premature closure of PCF synchondroses, the shape, and the growth direction of supraocciput bone contribute to reduce the FM area, causing in some patients medullary compression. (orig.)

  4. Quantitative approach to the posterior cranial fossa and craniocervical junction in asymptomatic children with achondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calandrelli, Rosalinda; Panfili, Marco; D' Apolito, Gabriella; Pedicelli, Alessandro; Colosimo, Cesare [Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Area Diagnostica per Immagini, Roma (Italy); Zampino, Giuseppe [Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Area Salute del Bambino, Roma (Italy); Pilato, Fabio [Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Area Neuroscienze, Roma (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    We propose an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based quantitative morphovolumetric approach to the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and craniocervical junction (CCJ) changes in achondroplastic patients investigating possible associations with ventriculomegaly and medullary compression. We analyzed MRI of 13 achondroplastic children not treated by surgery. 3D FSPGR T1-weighted images were used to analyze (1) PCF synchondroses; (2) PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV), PCFV/PCFBV ratio, cerebellar volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces volume, and IV ventricle volume; (3) PCF (clivus, supraocciput, exocciput lengths, tentorial angle) and CCJ (AP and LL diameters of foramen magnum (FM)) morphometry; (4) measurements of FM and jugular foramina (JF) areas; and (5) supratentorial ventricular volume. All patients showed synostosis of spheno-occipital synchondroses, eight showed synostosis of intra-occipital synchondroses, nine showed CCJ impingement on the cervical cord but only three had cervical myelopathy. Compared to controls, clivus and exocciput lengths, LL and AP diameters of FM, FM area and JF area were significantly reduced, supraocciput length, tentorial angle, PCFV, PCFBV, cerebellar volume, supratentorial ventricular system volume were significantly increased. A correlation was found between clivus length and supratentorial ventricular volume, premature closure of intra-occipital synchondroses and FM area while a trend was found between FM area and supraocciput length. Our analysis demonstrates a relationship between the shortening of the clivus and the ventriculomegaly. On the other hand the premature closure of PCF synchondroses, the shape, and the growth direction of supraocciput bone contribute to reduce the FM area, causing in some patients medullary compression. (orig.)

  5. Shallow radar (SHARAD) sounding observations of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L.M.; Campbell, B.A.; Watters, T.R.; Phillips, R.J.; Putzig, N.E.; Safaeinili, A.; Plaut, J.J.; Okubo, C.H.; Egan, A.F.; Seu, R.; Biccari, D.; Orosei, R.

    2009-01-01

    The SHARAD (shallow radar) sounding radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter detects subsurface reflections in the eastern and western parts of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF). The radar waves penetrate up to 580 m of the MFF and detect clear subsurface interfaces in two locations: west MFF between 150 and 155?? E and east MFF between 209 and 213?? E. Analysis of SHARAD radargrams suggests that the real part of the permittivity is ???3.0, which falls within the range of permittivity values inferred from MARSIS data for thicker parts of the MFF. The SHARAD data cannot uniquely determine the composition of the MFF material, but the low permittivity implies that the upper few hundred meters of the MFF material has a high porosity. One possibility is that the MFF is comprised of low-density welded or interlocked pyroclastic deposits that are capable of sustaining the steep-sided yardangs and ridges seen in imagery. The SHARAD surface echo power across the MFF is low relative to typical martian plains, and completely disappears in parts of the east MFF that correspond to the radar-dark Stealth region. These areas are extremely rough at centimeter to meter scales, and the lack of echo power is most likely due to a combination of surface roughness and a low near-surface permittivity that reduces the echo strength from any locally flat regions. There is also no radar evidence for internal layering in any of the SHARAD data for the MFF, despite the fact that tens-of-meters scale layering is apparent in infrared and visible wavelength images of nearby areas. These interfaces may not be detected in SHARAD data if their permittivity contrasts are low, or if the layers are discontinuous. The lack of closely spaced internal radar reflectors suggests that the MFF is not an equatorial analog to the current martian polar deposits, which show clear evidence of multiple internal layers in SHARAD data. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Retrospective comparison of three-dimensional imaging sequences in the visualization of posterior fossa cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, Suna; Inci, Ercan; Turkay, Rustu; Kokurcan, Atilla; Hocaoglu, Elif

    2017-12-01

    To compare efficancy of three-dimentional SPACE (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions) and CISS (constructive interference in steady state) sequences in the imaging of the cisternal segments of cranial nerves V-XII. Temporal MRI scans from 50 patients (F:M ratio, 27:23; mean age, 44.5±15.9 years) admitted to our hospital with vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had both CISS and SPACE sequences. Quantitative analysis of SPACE and CISS sequences was performed by measuring the ventricle-to-parenchyma contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Qualitative analysis of differences in visualization capability, image quality, and severity of artifacts was also conducted. A score ranging 'no artefact' to 'severe artefacts and unreadable' was used for the assessment of artifacts and from 'not visualized' to 'completely visualized' for the assesment of image quality, respectively. The distribution of variables was controlled by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Samples t-test and McNemar's test were used to determine statistical significance. Rates of visualization of posterior fossa cranial nerves in cases of complete visualization were as follows: nerve V (100% for both sequences), nerve VI (94% in SPACE, 86% in CISS sequences), nerves VII-VIII (100% for both sequences), IX-XI nerve complex (96%, 88%); nerve XII (58%, 46%) (p<0.05). SPACE sequences showed fewer artifacts than CISS sequences (p<0.002). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Teratoma of the rhinopharynx and the infratemporal fossa in neonates: report of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlyazid, A; Lescanne, E; Marque, A; Robier, A; Beutter, P; Ployet, M J

    2001-02-01

    Teratomas are tumors which develop in childhood or early adulthood, generally in the gonads. More rarely these tumors may be found in an axial localization, notably in cervicofacial forms. We report three cases of teratomas observed in rhinopharynx of three neonates operated at the Clocheville General Hospital. We present the main anatomoclinical features of these tumors, focusing on the cervicofacial forms in neonates. All three cases occurred in female neonates presenting acute dyspnea within the first hours of life, requiring intubation in two cases. The first two tumors invaded the infratemoral region and the third was a pediculated tumor of the velum exteriorized via the mouth. In one case antenatal ultrasound had suggested the diagnosis of a right temporomaxillary tumor. Rapid excision of the rhinopharngyeal component allow extubation for the two intubated infants and pathology diagnosis. In the first infant operated at 2 months, the lateral route was adapted to age, with mandibulotomy with section of the coronoid process but preserving the mandibular condyle. The second infant was operated at the age of 3 weeks using a wide frontotemporoperitonial approach then at the age of 3.5 months for recurrence extending to the floor of the temporal fossa and the middle ear. A type C infratemporal approach was used with lost-bone temporal craniectomy. Per-buccal excision was possible in the third infant with resection at the base of implantation. No recurrence has been observed in the first two cases at 3.5 and 2.5 months follow-up in the first two cases. The third infant was lost to follow-up.

  8. Linear solvation energy relationships for toxicity of selected organic chemicals to Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R.M.; Hickey, James P.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1988-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, more than 300 contaminants have been identified in fish, other biota, water, and sediment. Current hazard assessment of these chemicals by the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes is based on their toxicity, occurrence in the environment, and source. Although scientists at the Center have tested over 70 chemicals with the crustacean Daphnia pulex, the number of experimental data needed to screen the huge array of chemicals in the Great Lakes exceeds the practical capabilities of conducting bioassays. This limitation can be partly circumvented, however, by using mathematical models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to provide rapid, inexpensive estimates of toxicity. Many properties of chemicals, including toxicity, bioaccumulation and water solubility are well correlated and can be predicted by equations of the generalized linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The equation we used to model solute toxicity is Toxicity = constant + mVI/100 + s (π* + dδ) + bβm + aαm where VI = intrinsic (Van der Waals) molar volume; π* = molecular dipolarity/polarizability; δ = polarizability 'correction term'; βm = solute hydrogen bond acceptor basicity; and αm = solute hydrogen bond donor acidity. The subscript m designates solute monomer values for α and β. We applied the LSER model to 48-h acute toxicity data (measured as immobilization) for six classes of chemicals detected in Great Lakes fish. The following regression was obtained for Daphnia pulex (concentration = μM): log EC50 = 4.86 - 4.35 VI/100; N = 38, r2 = 0.867, sd = 0.403 We also used the LSER modeling approach to analyze to a large published data set of 24-h acute toxicity for Daphnia magna; the following regression resulted, for eight classes of compounds (concentration = mM): log EC50 = 3.88 - 4.52 VI/100 - 1.62 π* + 1.66 βm - 0.916 αm; N = 62, r2 = 0.859, sd = 0.375 In addition we developed computer software that identifies

  9. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  10. Supra-orbital keyhole removal of anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas Minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar no tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Antonio de Paiva-Neto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of surgical techniques as well as the introduction of new surgical instruments promoted the use of keyhole craniotomies in neurosurgery. We evaluated the technical aspects of the supra-orbital keyhole approach considering the indications, limitations, and complications of this approach to treat anterior cranial fossa and parasellar meningiomas. Twenty-four patients (21 females; mean age, 53±8.6 years operated on between 2002 and 2006 through a supra-orbital eyebrow approach were studied. Maximal tumor diameter ranged from 1.6 to 6 cm. Gross total resection was done in 20 (83.3%. All tumors were histologically benign. Two patients (8% experienced CSF rinorhea and another two patients suffered transitory diabetes insipidus (8%. One patient experienced transitory hemiparesis. There was one case of meningitis and one mortality. Follow-up ranged between 6 to 66 months (mean 31.5±20.1 months, with no recurrence. The supra-orbital keyhole craniotomy is a useful minimally invasive approach to treat selected anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas.A evolução técnica e a introdução de instrumentais cirúrgicos mais delicados proporcionaram o uso de craniotomias menores no tratamento de patologias intracranianas. Avaliamos os aspectos técnicos da minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar, considerando as indicações, limitações e complicações no tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares. Vinte e quarto pacientes (21 mulheres; idade média, 53±8,6 anos operados entre 2002 e 2006 foram estudados. O diâmetro tumoral máximo variou de 1,6 a 6 cm. Ressecção total foi obtida em 20 (83,3%. Todos os tumores eram histologicamente benignos. Dois pacientes (8% apresentaram fistula liquórica pós-operatória e outros dois diabetes insipido transitórioa (8%. Um paciente evoluiu com hemiparesia transitória. Houve um caso de meningite e um de evolução fatal. O seguimento variou de 6 a 66 meses (m

  11. Avaliação textural por ressonância magnética dos tumores da fossa posterior em crianças Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelson Alves dos Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Possibilitar a distinção entre tecidos sãos e patológicos em pacientes da faixa etária pediátrica portadores de tumores da fossa posterior, por meio da análise de parâmetros texturais calculados a partir de imagens de ressonância magnética. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 14 pacientes da faixa etária pediátrica, portadores de tumores da fossa posterior, através da definição dos valores texturais das regiões de interesse representando tecidos sãos e patológicos, com base em imagens de ressonância magnética pesadas em T2 pelo "software" MaZda. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os tecidos normal e tumoral, bem como entre os tecidos presumidamente normais adjacentes e distantes da lesão. Não foi possível a distinção entre edema e tumor. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação textural por ressonância magnética é uma técnica útil para a determinação de diferenças entre diversos tipos de tecidos, inclusive entre áreas de tecidos presumidamente normais à análise visual.OBJECTIVE: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis.

  12. The effect of pH on the uptake and toxicity of the bivalent weak base chloroquine tested on Salix viminalis and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    , and therefore a higher toxicity can be expected. The current study examines the pHdependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of the bivalent weak base chloroquine (pKa: 10.47 and 6.33, log KOW 4.67) tested on Salix viminalis (basket willow) and Daphnia magna (water flea). The transpiration rates of hydroponically...

  13. Development and characterization of multiplex panels of polymorphic microsatellite loci in giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), using next-generation sequencing approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minárik, G.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Zvijáková, Ĺ.; Štefka, Jan; Pálková, L.; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2014), s. 30-33 ISSN 0166-6851 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Short tandem repeats * Population genetics * Invasive parasite * Microsatellites * Fascioloides magna Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2014

  14. Effects of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin B-N-methylamino-L-alamine (BMAA) on the survival, mobility and reproduction of Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Faassen, E.J.; Eenennaam, van J.S.

    2011-01-01

    In short-term tests and chronic life table assays, Daphnia magna was exposed to the cyanobacterial neurotoxic non-protein amino acid ß-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA). BMAA was not acutely lethal to Daphnia (LC50–48h > 10 000 µg L-1), but reduced mobility (IC50–48h 40 µg L-1) and affected life

  15. Better Alone or in Ill Company? The Effect of Migration and Inter-Species Comingling on Fascioloides magna Infection in Elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvot, Mathieu; Lejeune, Manigandan; Kutz, Susan; Hutchins, Wendy; Musiani, Marco; Massolo, Alessandro; Orsel, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Migratory movements and alteration of host communities through livestock production are examples of ecological processes that may have consequences on wildlife pathogens. We studied the effect of co-grazing of cattle and wild elk, and of elk migratory behaviour on the occurrence of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in elk. Migratory elk and elk herds with a higher proportion of migratory individuals were significantly less likely to be infected with F. magna. This may indicate a decreased risk of infection for migratory individuals, known as the "migratory escape" hypothesis. Elk herds overlapping with higher cattle densities also had a lower prevalence of this parasite, even after adjustment for landscape and climate variables known to influence its life cycle. Serological evidence suggests that even in low-prevalence areas, F. magna is circulating in both elk and cattle. Cattle are "dead-end" hosts for F. magna, and this may, therefore, indicate a dilution effect where cattle and elk are co-grazing. Migratory behaviour and host community composition have significant effects on the dynamics of this wildlife parasite; emphasizing the potential impacts of decisions regarding the management of migratory corridors and livestock-wildlife interface.

  16. Better Alone or in Ill Company? The Effect of Migration and Inter-Species Comingling on Fascioloides magna Infection in Elk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Pruvot

    Full Text Available Migratory movements and alteration of host communities through livestock production are examples of ecological processes that may have consequences on wildlife pathogens. We studied the effect of co-grazing of cattle and wild elk, and of elk migratory behaviour on the occurrence of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in elk. Migratory elk and elk herds with a higher proportion of migratory individuals were significantly less likely to be infected with F. magna. This may indicate a decreased risk of infection for migratory individuals, known as the "migratory escape" hypothesis. Elk herds overlapping with higher cattle densities also had a lower prevalence of this parasite, even after adjustment for landscape and climate variables known to influence its life cycle. Serological evidence suggests that even in low-prevalence areas, F. magna is circulating in both elk and cattle. Cattle are "dead-end" hosts for F. magna, and this may, therefore, indicate a dilution effect where cattle and elk are co-grazing. Migratory behaviour and host community composition have significant effects on the dynamics of this wildlife parasite; emphasizing the potential impacts of decisions regarding the management of migratory corridors and livestock-wildlife interface.

  17. Automated extraction of genomic DNA from medically important yeast species and filamentous fungi by using the MagNA Pure LC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Juergen; Schmidt, Kathrin; Hebart, Holger; Schumacher, Ulrike; Einsele, Hermann

    2002-06-01

    A fully automated assay was established for the extraction of DNA from clinically important fungi by using the MagNA Pure LC instrument. The test was evaluated by DNA isolation from 23 species of yeast and filamentous fungi and by extractions (n = 28) of serially diluted Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (10(5) to 0 CFU/ml). Additionally, DNA from 67 clinical specimens was extracted and compared to the manual protocol. The detection limit of the MagNA Pure LC assay of 10 CFU corresponded to the sensitivity when DNA was extracted manually; in 9 of 28 runs, we could achieve a higher sensitivity of 1 CFU/ml blood, which was found to be significant (p DNA from all fungal species analyzed could be extracted and amplified by real-time PCR. Negative controls from all MagNA Pure isolations remained negative. Sixty-three clinical samples showed identical results by both methods, whereas in 4 of 67 samples, discordant results were obtained. Thus, the MagNA Pure LC technique offers a fast protocol for automated DNA isolation from numerous fungi, revealing high sensitivity and purity.

  18. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  19. Effects of an anionic surfactant (FFD-6) on the energy and information flow between a primary producer (Scenedesmus obliquus) and a consumer (Daphnia magna)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; de Lange, H.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a commercially available anionic surfactant solution (FFD-6) on growth and morphology of a common green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) and on survival and clearance rates of the water flea Daphnia magna were studied. The surfactant-solution elicited a morphological response (formation of

  20. Toxicity of noradrenaline, a novel anti-biofouling component, to two non-target zooplankton species, Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, C L; Wormington, A M; Blythe, K N; Gohad, N V; Mount, A S; Roberts, A P

    2015-05-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is the active component of novel antifouling agents and acts by preventing attachment of fouling organisms. The goal of this study was to examine the toxicity of NA to the non-target zooplankton D. magna and C. dubia. Neonates were exposed to one of five concentrations of NA and effects on survival, reproduction and molting were determined. Calculated LC50 values were determined to be 46 and 38 μM in C. dubia and D. magna, respectively. A 10-day C. dubia study found that reproduction metrics were significantly impacted at non-lethal concentrations. In D. magna, concentrations greater than 40 μM significantly impacted molting. A toxicity test was conducted with D. magna using oxidized NA, which yielded similar results. These data indicate that both NA and oxidized NA are toxic to non-target zooplankton. Results obtained from this study can be used to guide future ecological risk assessments of catecholamine-based antifouling agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Effect of Fermentation Time with Probiotic Bacteria on Organic Fertilizer as Daphnia magna Cultured Medium towards Nutrient Quality, Biomass Production and Growth Performance Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Agung Nugroho, Ristiawan; Pinandoyo; Darmanto, YS; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    The nutrient quality and growth performance of D. magna are highly depend on the organic fertilizer which is used in its culture medium. The objective of this study was to identify the best fermentation time by using probiotic bacteria on organic fertilizer as mass culture medium to improve its nutrient quality, biomass production, and growth performance. This study was conducted using completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and three repetitions. Organic fertilizers used cultured medium with chicken manure, rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The results showed that medium which used 25% chicken manure, 25% tofu waste and 50% rejected bread cultured for 28 days created the highest biomass production, population density and nutrient content of D. magna those are 233,980 ind/L for population density; 134.60 grams for biomass production, 0.574% specific growth rate; 68.06% protein content and 6.91% fat. The highest fatty acid profile is 4.83% linoleic and 3.54% linolenic acid. The highest essential amino acid is 53.94 ppm lysine. In general, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna life. The conclusion of this research is medium which used 25% chicken manure, 25% tofu waste and 50% rejected bread cultured for 28 days created the highest biomass production, population and nutrient content of D. magna.

  2. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Americamysis bahia, Chironomus riparius and Gammarus pulex and implications of new EU requirenments for the aquatic effect assessment of insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold concentrations for treatment related effects of 31 insecticides, as derived from aquatic micro-/mesocosm tests, were used to calibrate the predictive value of the European Tier-1 acute effect assessment on basis of laboratory toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Chironomus spp., Americamysis

  3. Selected endocrine disrupting compounds (vinclozolin, flutamide, ketoconazole and dicofol): Effects on survival, occurrence of males, growth, molting and reproduction of Daphnia magna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haeba, M. H.; Hilscherová, Klára; Mazurová, E.; Bláha, Luděk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2008), s. 222-227 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Daphnia magna * dicofol * endocrine disruption Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.492, year: 2008

  4. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchet, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Caquet, Th. [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Franquet, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Saint Jerome, C31, Marseille F-13397 (France); Lagneau, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); Lagadic, L., E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.f [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 mug L{sup -1}) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 muL L{sup -1}) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  5. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  6. Lethal/sublethal responses of Daphnia magna to acute norfloxacin contamination and changes in phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions induced by this antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Yan, Shi-Wei; Li, Ruo-Zhu; Hu, Yi-Wen; Chang, Xue-Xiu

    2017-01-01

    Although the well-known antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) is recognized as an important environmental pollutant, little is known about its impacts on ecological processes, particularly on species interactions. In this paper, we quantified Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) responses in mortality rate at lethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1), and in heartbeat rate, swimming behavior and feeding rate (on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa) at sublethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) to determine the effects of this antibiotic in plankton systems. In 96-h-long lethal experiment, mortality rates of D. magna increased significantly with increasing NOR concentration and exposure time. In sublethal experiments, heartbeat rate decreased, while time ratio of vertical to horizontal swimming (TVH) and the duration of quiescence increased in D. magna individuals exposed to increasing NOR concentrations after 4 and 12 h of exposure. These collectively led to decreases in both average swimming ability and feeding rate, consistent with the positive relationship between average swimming ability and feeding rate. Overall, results indicate that, by affecting zooplankton heartbeat rate and behavior, NOR decreased feeding efficiency of D. magna even at low doses, therefore, it might seriously compromise ecosystem health and function.

  7. The acetabular fossa hot spot on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: epidemiology, natural history, and proposed etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicki, Shelby L. [Trinity University, San Antonio, TX (United States); Richardson, Michael L. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Martin, Thomas [X-Ray Associates of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohren, Eric [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Wei, Wei [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Amini, Behrang [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To describe a benign focus of increased activity in the acetabular fossa (the acetabular fossa hot spot, AFHS) on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT that can mimic a neoplasm. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images from four patient populations were examined. Group 1 (n = 13) was collected from a search of radiology reports and used to define the AFHS and for hypothesis generation. Group 2 (n = 1,150) was used for prevalence of AFHS. Group 3 (n = 1,213) had PET/CT and MRI pelvis within a week of each other and was used to correlate metabolic and anatomic findings. Group 4 (n = 100) was used to generate the control group. Data were collected on demographics, common comorbidities, underlying cancer diagnosis and status, and hip symptoms. Prevalence of AFHS was 0.36 % (95 % CI 0.10-0.91 %). None progressed to malignancy or was associated with cancer status. The majority (71 %) were on the left, and 6 % were bilateral. Mean SUV{sub max} of the AFHS was 4.8 (range, 2.7-7.8). Male patients were more likely to have the AFHS (OR = 8.69, 95 % CI 1.88-40.13). There was no difference with respect to other collected data, including hip symptoms. Average minimum duration of AFHS was 346 days (range, 50-1,010 days). Readers did not detect corresponding hip abnormalities on MRIs. AFHS is a benign finding that may be caused by subclinical ligamentum teres injury, focal synovitis, or degeneration of acetabular fossa fat. Despite uncertainty regarding its etiology, recognition of AFHS as a benign finding can prevent morbidity associated with unnecessary biopsy or initiation of therapy. (orig.)

  8. Middle cranial fossa approach to repair tegmen defects assisted by three-dimensionally printed temporal bone models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameer; VanKoevering, Kyle K; Kline, Stephanie; Green, Glenn E; Arts, H Alexander

    2017-10-01

    To explore the perioperative utility of three-dimensionally (3D)-printed temporal bone models of patients undergoing repair of lateral skull base defects and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks with the middle cranial fossa approach. Case series. 3D-printed temporal bone models-based on patient-specific, high-resolution computed tomographic imaging-were constructed using inexpensive polymer materials. Preoperatively, the models demonstrated the extent of temporal lobe retraction necessary to visualize the proposed defects in the lateral skull base. Also preoperatively, Silastic sheeting was arranged across the modeled tegmen, marked, and cut to cover all of the proposed defect sites. The Silastic sheeting was then sterilized and subsequently served as a precise intraoperative template for a synthetic dural replacement graft. Of note, these grafts were customized without needing to retract the temporal lobe. Five patients underwent the middle cranial fossa approach assisted by 3D-printed temporal bone models to repair tegmen defects and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. No complications were encountered. The prefabricated dural repair grafts were easily placed and fit precisely onto the middle fossa floor without any additional modifications. All defects were covered as predicted by the 3D temporal bone models. At their postoperative visits, all five patients maintained resolution of their spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Inexpensive 3D-printed temporal bone models of tegmen defects can serve as beneficial adjuncts during lateral skull base repair. The models provide a panoramic preoperative view of all tegmen defects and allow for custom templating of dural grafts without temporal lobe retraction. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:2347-2351, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Preoperative irradiation of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa. Follow-up study with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, S; Kurihara, M; Mori, K [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Amamoto, Y

    1981-02-01

    This is a report of case with the extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa in which total removal was carried out after radiotherapy. Follow-up study with computed tomography during and after irradiation are presented. A 44-year-old house-wife complained of a decreased vision of the both eyes and paresis of the left upper and lower limbs. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the right middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Right carotid angio-graphy demonstrated a large avascular mass in the right middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. An attempt to total removal of the tumor had failed to succeed because of extensive hemorrhage from the tumor. Histological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. Irradiation with a total dose of 5000 rads was delivered. After irradiation CT scan revealed a marked decrease of size and EMI number of the tumor. At this stage, hypervascular mass lesion with feeding arteries was noted in conventional angiography. Tumor stain in prolonged injection angiography was also visualized. In the second operation, removal of the tumor was performed without any difficulty and hemorrhage was controlled easily by electrocoagulation. Histology revealed a marked narrowing of vessels with an increase in the connective tissues. In the central part of specimen, there noted findings of coagulation necrosis, intraluminal thrombus formations and so on, which were attributed to the influence of radiation. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3000 - 5000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increase of probability of total removal of the tumor.

  10. Survival of very young children with medulloblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the posterior fossa) treated with craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saran, Frank H.; Driever, Pablo Herniz; Thilmann, Christoph; Mose, Stephan; Wilson, Paula; Sharpe, Geoff; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Boettcher, Heinz D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Very young children with medulloblastoma are considered to have a worse prognosis than older children. As radiotherapy remains an important part of the treatment, the adverse prognosis could be due to inadequate radiation treatment rather than biological factors. We analyzed the published literature to examine the impact of radiotherapy on survival in this group. Methods and Materials: A Medline search was performed and we reviewed studies of treatment of medulloblastoma where radiotherapy was delivered using megavoltage equipment and the minimum follow-up allowed the calculation of 5-year survival rates. Results: Thirty-nine studies were published between 1979 and 1996 with a treatment including craniospinal irradiation and boost to the posterior fossa. Eleven studies comprising 1366 patients analyzed survival by age at diagnosis. Eight of 11 studies showed a worse 5-year survival for the younger patient group which reached statistical significance in two. There is also a suggestion of a higher proportion of children with metastatic disease at presentation in the very young age group. The usual policy in younger children was to give a lower dose of radiotherapy to the craniospinal axis (CSA) and posterior fossa (PF) with reduction of dose in the range of 15 to 25% compared to standard treatment. As dose reduction to the posterior fossa is associated with worse survival and local recurrence is the predominant site of failure, the major determinant of worse survival in very young children with medulloblastoma may be suboptimal radiotherapy. Protocols including postoperative chemotherapy with delayed, omitted, or only local tumor irradiation do not reach survival rates of protocols with standard radiotherapy, also suggesting a continued importance for irradiation. Conclusion: Very young children with medulloblastoma have a worse prognosis than older children. Inadequate radiation dose and technique to the primary tumor region may be a major contributing

  11. Comparative Morphology and Histology of the Nasal Fossa in Four Mammals: Gray Squirrel, Bobcat, Coyote, and White-Tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karen K; Craven, Brent A; Wysocki, Charles J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2016-07-01

    Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of species that include the gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer. Results show that much more of the nose is lined with olfactory epithelium in the smallest species (gray squirrel) than in the larger species. In two species with similar body masses, bobcat and coyote, the foreshortened felid snout influences turbinal size and results in a decrease of olfactory epithelium on the ethmoturbinals relative to the longer canine snout. Ethmoturbinal surface area exceeds that of the maxilloturbinals in all four sampled animals, except the white-tailed deer, in which the two are similar in size. Combining our results with published data from a broader array of mammalian noses, it is apparent that olfactory epithelial surface area is influenced by body mass, but is also affected by aspects of life history, such as diet and habitat, as well as skull morphology, itself a product of multiple compromises between various functions, such as feeding, vision, and cognition. The results of this study warrant further examination of other mammalian noses to broaden our evolutionary understanding of nasal fossa anatomy. Anat Rec, 299:840-852, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with cerebellar hemorrhage: report of rare disease with MRI findings Hematoma subdural crônico de fossa posterior associado a hemorragia cerebelar espontânea: relato de doença rara com achados de RNM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodante B. Costa Jr

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa is an uncommon entity, and spontaneous lesions are very rarely described, occurring mostly during anticoagulation therapy. The association of the posterior fossa chronic subdural hematoma with spontaneous parenchymal hemorrhage without anticoagulation therapy was never related in the literature, to our knowledge. We describe a case of a 64 year-old woman who suffered a spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage, treated conservatively, and presented 1 month later with a chronic subdural posterior fossa hematoma.Hematomas subdurais da fossa posterior são lesões raras, mais comumente relacionadas com traumas graves. A ocorrência de hematomas subdurais crônicos na fossa posterior é muito rara, sendo descritos 15 casos até o momento, boa parte relacionada ao uso de anticoagulantes. Em nossa revisão da literatura, não pudemos encontrar nenhum relato da associação entre hematoma subdural crônico da fossa posterior e hemorragia cerebelar espontânea. Relatamos o caso de paciente de 64 anos com hematoma intraparenquimatoso cerebelar tratado conservadoramente e hematoma subdural crônico, tratado cirurgicamente, cerca de 1 mês após o acidente vascular cerebelar.

  13. Combining physico-chemical analysis with a Daphnia magna bioassay to evaluate a recycling technology for drinking water treatment plant waste residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Xu, Yongpeng; Zhu, Shijun; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-12-01

    Recycling water treatment plant (WTP) waste residuals is considered to be a feasible method to enhance the efficiency of pollutant removal. This study also evaluated the safety and water quality of a pilot-DWTP waste residuals recycling technology by combining physical-chemistry analysis with a Daphnia magna assay. The water samples taken from each treatment step were extracted and concentrated by XAD-2 resin and were then analyzed for immobilization and enzyme activity with D. magna. The measured parameters, such as the dissolve organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and THM formation potential (THMFPs) of the recycling process, did not obviously increase over 15 days of continuous operation and were even lower than typical values from a conventional process. The extract concentration ranged from 0 to 2 Leq/ml as measured on the 7th and 15th days and the immobilization of D. magna exposed to water treated by the recycling process was nearly equivalent to that of the conventional process. Both the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activity assay indicated that a lower dose of water extract (0.5, 1, 1.5 Leq/ml) could stimulate the enzyme activity of D. magna, whereas a higher dose (2 Leq/ml at the sampling point C3, R3, R4 ) inhibits the activity. Moreover, the SOD and CAT activity of D. magna with DOC and UV254 showed a strong concentration-effect relationship, where the concentration range of DOC and UV254 were 4.1-16.2 mg/L and 0.071-4.382 cm(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the conventional and recycling treatment processes and the toxicity of water samples in the recycling process did not increase during the 15-day continuous recycling trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spinal level of myelomeningocele lesion as a contributing factor in posterior fossa volume, intracranial cerebellar volume, and cerebellar ectopia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Kieron J

    2013-02-01

    McLone and Knepper\\'s unified theory of Chiari malformation Type II (CM-II) describes how the loss of CSF via the open posterior neuropore fails to create adequate distending pressure for the developing rhomboencephalic vesicle. The authors of the present article describe the relationship between the posterior fossa volume and intracranial cerebellar volume as being related to the distance from the obex of the fourth ventricle to the myelomeningocele lesion using a common mathematical model, the Hagen-Poiseuille law.

  15. Extradural haematoma of the posterior fossa: a report of eight cases and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Rainoldi, F.; Gipponi, D.; Paoletti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors review the literature and present 8 cases of extradural haematoma of the posterior fossa operated from 1979 to 1985 at the Neurosurgical Clinic of the University of Pavia. Emphasis is placed on the importance of an early diagnosis of the symptoms which are often ignored due to the absence of specific clinical signs. The authors recognize a substantial improvement in results because of the recent introduction of CT scanning facilities which permit an early and precise diagnosis of this traumatic pathology. (Author)

  16. Effect of pH and ionic strength on exposure and toxicity of encapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jino; Hooven, Louisa A; Harper, Bryan; Harper, Stacey L

    2015-12-15

    Encapsulation of pesticide active ingredients in polymers has been widely employed to control the release of poorly water-soluble active ingredients. Given the high dispersibility of these encapsulated pesticides in water, they are expected to behave differently compared to their active ingredients; however, our current understanding of the fate and effects of encapsulated pesticides is still limited. In this study, we employed a central composite design (CCD) to investigate how pH and ionic strength (IS) affect the hydrodynamic diameter (HDD) and zeta potential of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin and how those changes affect the exposure and toxicity to Daphnia magna. R(2) values greater than 0.82 and 0.84 for HDD and zeta potential, respectively, irrespective of incubation time suggest those changes could be predicted as a function of pH and IS. For HDD, the linear factor of pH and quadratic factor of pH×pH were found to be the most significant factors affecting the change of HDD at the beginning of incubation, whereas the effects of IS and IS×IS became significant as incubation time increased. For zeta potential, the linear factor of IS and quadratic factor of IS×IS were found to be the most dominant factors affecting the change of zeta potential of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin, irrespective of incubation time. The toxicity tests with D. magna under exposure conditions in which HDD or zeta potential of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin was maximized or minimized in the overlying water also clearly showed the worst-case exposure condition to D. magna was when the encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin is either stable or small in the overlying water. Our results show that water quality could modify the fate and toxicity of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin in aquatic environments, suggesting understanding their aquatic interactions are critical in environmental risk assessment. Herein, we discuss the implications of our findings for risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Long-term quality of life in children treated for posterior fossa brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Piscione, Janine; Shams, Iffat; Bouffet, Eric

    2013-09-01

    In the face of increasing survival, quality of life (QOL) has become an important indicator of treatment success in children with posterior fossa brain tumors (PFBTs). The authors' objective was to assess the long-term QOL in survivors of PFBT. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of children who, between birth and age 18 years at diagnosis, had previously been treated at their institution for a PFBT. At the time of assessment for this study, children were between 5 and 19 years old and had received standard treatment for PFBT ending at least 6 months before the assessment. The QOL was measured with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) generic score scales and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3). Multivariate analyses were used to assess several variables (patient related, treatment related, and socioeconomic) for association with QOL. A total of 62 children participated in the study (median age at assessment 11.9 years, interquartile range [IQR] 7.8-14.8, and median age at tumor diagnosis of 4.9 years, IQR 2.5-6.9). Median time since active treatment for their PFBT was 5.2 years (IQR 2.4-10.1). Tumor types included cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (45.2%), medulloblastoma (30.6%), ependymoma (11.3%), and brainstem astrocytoma (11.3%). Adjuvant therapy included chemotherapy (40.3%) or radiotherapy (14.5% focal and 21.0% craniospinal radiotherapy). Permanent treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 38.7% of the patients. Tumors recurred in 11.3%, requiring repeat treatment in these patients. The median HUI3 utility score was 0.91 (IQR 0.71-1.00) and the median PedsQL total score was 78.3 (IQR 64.1-92.4). Only the following variables were significantly associated with decreased QOL in multivariable model testing (all p size, decreased family functioning, and lower family income. As a group, long-term survivors of pediatric PFBT appear to have QOL indicators that are similar to those of the general population, although a reasonable

  18. Analyzing the capacity of the Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata bioavailability models to predict chronic zinc toxicity at high pH and low calcium concentrations and formulation of a generalized bioavailability model for D. magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Tina; Berteloot, Olivier; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-10-01

    Risk assessment in the European Union implements Zn bioavailability models to derive predicted-no-effect concentrations for Zn. These models are validated within certain boundaries (i.e., pH ≤ 8 and Ca concentrations ≥ 5mg/L), but a substantial fraction of the European surface waters falls outside these boundaries. Therefore, we evaluated whether the chronic Zn biotic ligand model (BLM) for Daphnia magna and the chronic bioavailability model for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata could be extrapolated to pH > 8 and Ca concentrations model can accurately predict Zn toxicity for Ca concentrations down to 0.8 mg/L and pH values up to 8.5. Because the chronic Zn BLM for D. magna could not be extrapolated beyond its validity boundaries for pH, a generalized bioavailability model (gBAM) was developed. Of 4 gBAMs developed, we recommend the use of gBAM-D, which combines a log-linear relation between the 21-d median effective concentrations (expressed as free Zn 2+ ion activity) and pH, with more conventional BLM-type competition constants for Na, Ca, and Mg. This model is a first step in further improving the accuracy of chronic toxicity predictions of Zn as a function of water chemistry, which can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based predicted-no-effect concentration in the risk assessment of high-pH and low-Ca concentration regions in Europe. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2781-2798. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Trans-zygomatic middle cranial fossa approach to access lesions around the cavernous sinus and anterior parahippocampus: a minimally invasive skull base approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Itay; Tubbs, R Shane; Payner, Troy D; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2009-08-01

    Exposure of the cavernous sinus or anterior parahippocampus often involves a wide exposure of the temporal lobe and mobilization of the temporalis muscle associated with temporal lobe retraction. The authors present a cadaveric study to illustrate the feasibility, advantages and landmarks necessary to perform a trans-zygomatic middle fossa approach to lesions around the cavernous sinus and anterior parahippocampus. The authors performed bilateral trans-zygomatic middle fossae exposures to reach the cavernous sinus and parahippocampus in five cadavers (10 sides). We assessed the morbidity associated with this procedure and compared the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of this method versus more extensive skull base approaches. A vertical linear incision along the middle portion of the zygomatic arch was extended one finger breadth inferior to the inferior edge of the zygomatic arch. Careful dissection inferior to the arch allowed preservation of facial nerve branches. A zygomatic osteotomy was followed via a linear incision through the temporalis muscle and exposure of the middle cranial fossa floor. A craniotomy along the inferolateral temporal bone and middle fossa floor allowed extradural dissection along the middle fossa floor and exposure of the cavernous sinus including all three divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Intradural inspection demonstrated adequate exposure of the parahippocampus. Exposure of the latter required minimal or no retraction of the temporal lobe. The trans-zygomatic middle fossa approach is a simplified skull base exposure using a linear incision, which may avoid the invasivity of more extensive skull base approaches while providing an adequate corridor for resection of cavernous sinus and parahippocampus lesions. The advantages of this approach include its efficiency, ease, minimalism, preservation of the temporalis muscle, and minimal retraction of the temporal lobe.

  20. Diagnosis of small posterior fossa stroke on brain CT: effect of iterative reconstruction designed for brain CT on detection performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Taihei; Yoshida, Morikatsu; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Nakaura, Takeshi; Hirata, Kenichiro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether iterative model reconstruction designed for brain CT (IMR-neuro) would improve the accuracy of posterior fossa stroke diagnosis on brain CT. We enrolled 37 patients with ischaemic stroke in the posterior fossa and 37 patients without stroke (controls). Using axial images reconstructed using filtered back-projection (FBP) and IMR-neuro, we compared the CT numbers in infarcted areas, image noise in the pons, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of infarcted and non-infarcted areas on scans subjected to IMR-neuro and FBP. To analyse the performance of hypo-attenuation detection, we used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve techniques. The image noise was significantly lower (2.2 ± 0.5 vs. 5.1 ± 0.9 Hounsfield units, p < 0.01) and the difference in CNR between the infarcted and non-infarcted areas was significantly higher with IMR-neuro than with FBP (2.2 ± 1.7 vs. 4.0 ± 3.6, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the average area under the ROC curve was significantly higher with IMR-neuro (0.90 vs. 0.86 for FBP, p = 0.04). IMR-neuro yielded better image quality and improved hypo-attenuation detection in patients with ischaemic stroke. (orig.)

  1. Fluvio geomorphic set-up of Noctis Fossae in Noctis Labyrinthus of Syria-Planum Provenance, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, A. A.; Bhandari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The modern era of planetary exploration has revealed fluvial or fluvial like landforms on the extraterrestrial surfaces of planets and moons of our solar system. This has posed as interesting challenges for advancing our fundamental understanding of fluvial processes and their associated landforms on the planetary surfaces especially on Mars. It has been recognized through earlier studies that the channels and valleys are extensively dissected on Mars. The Valleys are low lying, elongate troughs surrounded by elevated topography. Moreover, valley networks on Mars are the most noticeable features attesting that different geological processes and possibly climatic conditions prevailed in the past and played a vital role in formulating the Martian topography. Channel incisions which are a domino effect both tectonic and surface runoff and groundwater sapping. The components of surface runoff have been deciphered with the help of morphometric exercises. Further, the geomorphological studies of these landforms are critical in understanding the regional tectonics. The present work is an assessment of Fluvio geomorphic set-up of Noctis Fossae in Noctis Labyrinthus of Syria-Planum Provenance, Mars. This study focuses on the fluvio geomorphology of the southern highlands (00 to 400S to 850-1200W) to determine how these features were formed, which process formed these valleys and includes the probable causes resulting into the development of the topography. Keywords: Noctis Fossae; Noctis Labyrinthus; Syria Planum; Mars

  2. Anterolateral corridor approach to the infratemporal fossa and central skull base in maxillectomy: rationale and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jeremy D; Crowther, John; Taylor, William M; Wong, Ling Siew; Paterson, Tom; Devine, John; Wales, Craig; MacIver, Colin

    2015-11-01

    We describe the technical aspects and report our clinical experience of a surgical approach to the infratemporal fossa that aims to reduce local recurrence after operations for cancer of the posterior maxilla. We tested the technique by operating on 3 cadavers and then used the approach in 16 patients who had posterolateral maxillectomy for disease that arose on the maxillary alveolus or junction of the hard and soft palate (maxillary group), and in 19 who had resection of the masticatory compartment and central skull base for advanced sinonasal cancer (sinonasal group). Early proximal ligation of the maxillary artery was achieved in all but one of the 35 patients. Access to the infratemporal fossa enabled division of the pterygoid muscles and pterygoid processes under direct vision in all cases. No patient in the maxillary group had local recurrence at median follow up of 36 months. Four patients (21%) in the sinonasal group had local recurrence at median follow up of 27 months. Secondary haemorrhage from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery resulted in the only perioperative death. The anterolateral corridor approach enables controlled resection of tumours that extend into the masticatory compartment. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of transitional ceII carcinoma arising at penile fossa navicularis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Kim, Dong Sug; Moon, Gi Hak [College of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra are rare. Among the malignant tumors of the male urethra, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Transitional cell carcinoma is very rare, particularly in the distal urethra. We experienced a case of distal urethral transitional cell carcinoma, arising at the fossa navicuIaris of the penis, which we report here with a review of the literature. A 68-year-old male patient presented with bloody discharge from the prepuce for 1 month. Ultrasonography showed a poorly marginating, heterogeneous mass, invading the glans penis and the corpus spongiosum. The mass encircled the glandular urethra of the penis glans, and obstructed the glandular urethra and the fossa navicularis. A Doppler ultrasonogram revealed hypervascularity in this mass. The mass was isointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed a poorly enhancing mass in the glans penis. This mass was confirmed as a transitional cell carcinoma by histologic study and a partial penectomy was performed.

  4. Diagnosis of small posterior fossa stroke on brain CT: effect of iterative reconstruction designed for brain CT on detection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Taihei; Yoshida, Morikatsu; Yokoyama, Koichi; Nakaura, Takeshi; Hirata, Kenichiro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Harada, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether iterative model reconstruction designed for brain CT (IMR-neuro) would improve the accuracy of posterior fossa stroke diagnosis on brain CT. We enrolled 37 patients with ischaemic stroke in the posterior fossa and 37 patients without stroke (controls). Using axial images reconstructed using filtered back-projection (FBP) and IMR-neuro, we compared the CT numbers in infarcted areas, image noise in the pons, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of infarcted and non-infarcted areas on scans subjected to IMR-neuro and FBP. To analyse the performance of hypo-attenuation detection, we used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve techniques. The image noise was significantly lower (2.2 ± 0.5 vs. 5.1 ± 0.9 Hounsfield units, p < 0.01) and the difference in CNR between the infarcted and non-infarcted areas was significantly higher with IMR-neuro than with FBP (2.2 ± 1.7 vs. 4.0 ± 3.6, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the average area under the ROC curve was significantly higher with IMR-neuro (0.90 vs. 0.86 for FBP, p = 0.04). IMR-neuro yielded better image quality and improved hypo-attenuation detection in patients with ischaemic stroke. (orig.)

  5. Formações venosas superficiais da fossa cubital: aspectos de interesse para a prática da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Alves

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o conhecimento que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na identificação dos tipos mais comuns de formações venosas da região da fossa cubital e, ainda, enfocar a importância de estar sempre atento aos casos pouco comuns como o aqui relatado. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, constatamos que as formações venosas dessa região podem ser classificadas em 5 tipos mais comuns, sendo o tipo II o mais frequente. Constatamos ainda, que a VICo é o local de punção mais indicado, seguido pela VIB. Descrevemos também uma variação anatômica, onde observamos ausência de comunicação entre VC e VB no nível da fossa cubital e VIA drenando na VB, estando presente a VCA.

  6. Evaluation of Pneumatization in the Articular Eminence and Roof of the Glenoid Fossa with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İlgüy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of air cavities, so called pneumatizations, nearby to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ area is important, as they represent sites of minimal resistance and facilitate the spread of various pathologies into the joint as inflammation, tumor or fractures and serve as a possible complicating factor in TMJ surgery. Aims: To determine the prevalence of pneumatization of the articular eminence (PAT and roof of the glenoid fossa (PRGF using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Acquired images of 111 patients (222 TMJs were evaluated. The presence of pneumatization was recorded at the articular eminence and roof of the glenoid fossa. Age and gender were recorded for all patients and type (unilocular or multilocular and laterality were noted for the cases of pneumatization. Results: The mean age of the study group was 48.86±18.31 years. Among all the patients, 73 (65.8% had PAT, while 13 (11.7% had PRGF. Forty-two (37.8% of the patients had PAT bilaterally; whereas 3 of them (2.7% presented PRGF bilaterally. The percentage of PAT was higher for females (73.6% than males (51.3% (p<0.05. Conclusion: CBCT images are an accurate and reliable means of detection of the exact size and type of pneumatization and the relationship of pneumatization to the adjacent tissues. This is especially significant before a surgical intervention is planned in this region, in order to make a sound diagnosis.

  7. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of transitional ceII carcinoma arising at penile fossa navicularis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Kim, Dong Sug; Moon, Gi Hak

    2004-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra are rare. Among the malignant tumors of the male urethra, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Transitional cell carcinoma is very rare, particularly in the distal urethra. We experienced a case of distal urethral transitional cell carcinoma, arising at the fossa navicuIaris of the penis, which we report here with a review of the literature. A 68-year-old male patient presented with bloody discharge from the prepuce for 1 month. Ultrasonography showed a poorly marginating, heterogeneous mass, invading the glans penis and the corpus spongiosum. The mass encircled the glandular urethra of the penis glans, and obstructed the glandular urethra and the fossa navicularis. A Doppler ultrasonogram revealed hypervascularity in this mass. The mass was isointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed a poorly enhancing mass in the glans penis. This mass was confirmed as a transitional cell carcinoma by histologic study and a partial penectomy was performed

  8. A taste of plastic - quantifying micro- and nanoplastic ingestion and interactions with feeding in daphnia magna (E)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Sinja; Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    Aquatic ecosystems worldwide are polluted by microplastics and they are ingested by a broad range of organisms. Although research so far mainly focused on marine ecosystems, freshwater organisms are just as affected. Approaches to study microplastic ingestion are predominantly qualitative since...... exposed to a particle concentration of 1 mg/l for 24 h (uptake) and thereafter transferred to clean medium for another 24 h (depuration). During both phases animals were sampled and particle body burdens were determined by measuring particle fluorescence in the dissolved tissue. To analyze the influence...... of particle size, the study was done with beads of 2 µm and 100 nm. It was furthermore analyzed how the processes are affected by food availability and how the particles in turn affect the feeding rate of D. magna. Both particle sizes were readily taken up and body burdens increased with exposure time. The 2...

  9. The effect of food on the respiration rates of Daphnia magna using a flow-through system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Schmoker

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiration rates and gut fluorescence of the cladoceran Daphnia magna were studied using a flow-through system. This open system has the advantage of introducing food or producing a starvation effect during the course of the experiment. Severe variations in respiratory rates were observed in relation to the presence or absence of food, indicating short-term variability. Organisms kept starved or at low food for a long period (15-20 h responded to a sudden increase in food by increasing their respiration rates three- to four-fold in parallel with their gut content. A significant relationship between gut fluorescence and respiration rates was observed, suggesting that feeding and the related swimming activity were responsible for the observed metabolic variability.

  10. The effects of epoxiconazole and α-cypermethrin on Daphnia magna growth, reproduction, and offspring size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottardi, Michele; Birch, Michala Rosa; Dalhoff, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    of sublethal concentrations of epoxiconazole and α-cypermethrin and their mixture on growth, reproduction, and in vivo cytochrome P450 activity of the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna over 42 d. Continuous exposure to nonlethal concentrations of α-cypermethrin at 20 ng/L negatively affected adult growth...... and number and size of neonates within the first 14 d of exposure. Exposure to epoxiconazole at 25 μg/L increased protein content of adults within 1 to 3 d after initiating exposure and increased cumulative number of offspring at exposure times >31 d. Epoxiconazole enhanced the negative effect of α...... with other stressors such as food scarcity, predation, and pathogens, posing an additional hazard for the organisms at the beginning of their life cycle. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-12. © 2017 SETAC....

  11. Effects of 4-nonylphenol, fish predation and food availability on survival and life history traits of Daphni