WorldWideScience

Sample records for northern finland birth

  1. Infant vitamin d supplementation and allergic conditions in adulthood: northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppönen, Elina; Sovio, Ulla; Wjst, Matthias; Patel, Swatee; Pekkanen, Juha; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Järvelinb, Marjo-Riitta

    2004-12-01

    Allergen-induced secretion of Th2-type cytokines and IgE production have recently been reported to be increased in mice treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D, the active form of vitamin D. Our objective was to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation in infancy is associated with the risk of atopy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort consists of all individuals in the two most northern provinces of Finland who were due to be born in 1966. Data on vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life was obtained in 1967. Current asthma and allergic rhinitis were reported at age 31 years (n = 7,648), and atopy determined by skin-prick test in a sub-sample still living in northern Finland or the Helsinki area (n = 5,007). The prevalence of atopy and allergic rhinitis at age 31 years was higher in participants who had received vitamin D supplementation regularly during the first year compared to others (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.4-2.0, and OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.1-1.6, respectively). A similar association was observed for asthma (OR 1.35, 95%CI 0.99-1.8). These associations persisted after adjustment for a wide range of behavioral and social factors (adjusted: OR 1.33 for all, P = 0.01 for atopy, P = 0.001 for allergic rhinitis, and P = 0.08 for asthma). We observed an association between vitamin D supplementation in infancy and an increased risk of atopy and allergic rhinitis later in life. Further study is required to determine whether these observations reflect long-term effects on immune regulation or differences in unmeasured determinants of vitamin D supplementation.

  2. Hyperemesis gravidarum and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M. H.; Grooten, I. J.; Sebert, S.; Koiranen, M.; Järvelin, M. R.; Kajantie, E.; Painter, R. C.; Roseboom, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal hyperemesis gravidarum upon offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. Design This study is part of the prospective follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Setting Between 1 July 1985 and 30 June 1986 all

  3. Suicide rate in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaräisänen, Antti; Miettunen, Jouko; Räsänen, Pirkko; Fenton, Wayne; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli-Tuulie Jeannette; Isohanni, Matti

    2009-12-01

    Suicide rate among schizophrenia patients may vary for several reasons, one of the most important being the time point of the suicide during the illness process. However, prospective studies on suicide risk in population-based cohort of individuals with new-onset schizophrenia have been lacking. The data were collected for 10,934 individuals alive in Finland at the age of 16 from the genetically homogenous, population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort ascertained already during mid-pregnancy. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used until the end of 1997 (age 31) to identify cases with mental disorder. Case records were scrutinized and diagnoses were re-checked for DSM-III-R criteria. One hundred subjects met the DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia. Deaths by the end of year 2005 (age 39) were ascertained from death certificates. Suicides (n = 7) accounted for 50% of all the deaths at age from 16 to 39. Seven (7.0%) subjects with schizophrenia had committed suicide; suicide rate being 2.9% (1/35) for women and 9.2% (6/65) for men. Furthermore, 71% of suicides in schizophrenia occurred during the first 3 years after onset of illness. The suicide rate for patients with new-onset schizophrenia followed until the age of 39 was high and accounted for half of the deaths. Great majority of the suicides took place during the first years of the illness.

  4. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence - Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-04-20

    Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory

  5. Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Miettunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.

  6. Neurocognition as a predictor of outcome in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Juola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study neurocognitive performance as a predictor of outcomes in midlife schizophrenia. There is a lack of studies with unselected samples and a long follow-up. The study is based on the prospective, unselected population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The study includes 43 individuals with schizophrenia and 73 controls, whose neurocognitive performance was assessed twice, at 34 and 43 years. At both time points we used identical neurocognitive tests to assess verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Our main aim was to analyse neurocognitive performance at 34 years as a predictor of clinical, vocational and global outcomes at 43 years. Additionally, the analysis addressed cross-sectional associations between cognitive performance and clinical, vocational and global measures at 43 years. The assessment of outcomes was performed in the schizophrenia group only. In the longitudinal analysis poorer visual memory predicted poorer vocational outcome and poorer long-term verbal memory predicted poorer global outcome. In the cross-sectional analysis poorer visual memory and lower composite score of neurocognition were associated with poorer global outcome. No individual neurocognitive test or the composite score of these predicted remission. These data indicate that neurocognition, especially memory function, is an important determinant of long-term functional outcome in midlife schizophrenia.

  7. Obesity and depression: results from the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, A; Laitinen, J; Miettunen, J; Veijola, J; Karvonen, J T; Läksy, K; Joukamaa, M

    2006-03-01

    To examine the association between body size and depression in a longitudinal setting and to explore the connection between obesity and depression in young adults at the age of 31 years. This study forms part of the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study (N = 12,058). The follow-up studies were performed at 14 and 31 years. Data were collected by postal inquiry at 14 years and by postal inquiry and clinical examination at 31 years. A total of 8,451 subjects (4,029 men and 4,422 women) who gave a written informed consent and information on depression by three depression indicators at 31 years. Body size at 14 (body mass index (BMI) and 31 (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) years and depression at 31 years by three different ways: depressive symptoms by the HSCL-25-depression questionnaire (HSCL-25), the use of antidepressants and self-reported physician-diagnosed depression. Obesity at 14 years associated with depressive symptoms at 31 years; among male subjects using the cutoff point 2.01 in the HSCL-25 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.06-3.68), among female subjects using the cutoff point 1.75 (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.32). Female subjects who were obese both at baseline and follow-up had depressive symptoms relatively commonly (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.85 at cutoff point 1.75); a similar association was not found among male subjects. The proportion of those who used antidepressants was 2.17-fold higher among female subjects who had gained weight compared to female subjects who had stayed normal-weighted (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.28-3.68). In the cross-sectional analyses male subjects with abdominal obesity (WHR >or=85th percentile) had a 1.76-fold risk of depressive symptoms using the cutoff 2.01 in the HSCL-25 (adjusted OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.08-2.88). Abdominally obese male subjects had a 2.07-fold risk for physician-diagnosed depression (adjusted OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.23-3.47) and the proportion of those who used antidepressants

  8. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence – Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaana Tikanmäki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methods Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986, 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg−1·min−1. Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother’s and father’s body mass index (BMI, maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother’s or father’s overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring’s physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent’s own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother’s but not the father’s overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal

  9. Hyperemesis gravidarum and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koot, M H; Grooten, I J; Sebert, S; Koiranen, M; Järvelin, M R; Kajantie, E; Painter, R C; Roseboom, T J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal hyperemesis gravidarum upon offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. This study is part of the prospective follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Between 1 July 1985 and 30 June 1986 all pregnant women in two provinces of Finland were recruited at first antenatal visit (99% of eligible participated). A total of 8953 women with liveborn singleton offspring who consented to having their children followed-up were included. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) was defined as hospitalisation during pregnancy for HG based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD) code. Women who were not hospitalised for HG during pregnancy were used as a reference group. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes were obtained via medical records and questionnaires; 6462 adolescents, aged 16 years, underwent anthropometric measurements (HG n = 42, reference n = 6420) and 5648 adolescents had a fasting blood sample taken (HG n = 36, reference n = 5612). Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid levels in offspring. Multivariate regression analyses showed no differences in offspring BMI (kg/m 2 ; adjusted percentage difference HG versus reference, 2.2; 95% CI -0.1, 4.6), systolic blood pressure (adjusted difference 2.1 mmHg; 95% CI -1.5, 5.6), and fasting blood glucose (mmol/l; adjusted percentage difference, 2.3; 95% CI -0.6, 5.4), between adolescents born to mothers with and without HG. We found no evidence that prenatal exposure to HG has negative consequences for cardiometabolic health of offspring at the age of 16 years. Hyperemesis gravidarum does not affect cardiometabolic health in adolescent offspring. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Ante- and perinatal circumstances and risk of attempted suicides and suicides in offspring: the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaräisänen, Antti; Miettunen, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Isohanni, Matti; Räsänen, Pirkko; Mäki, Pirjo

    2012-11-01

    To investigate those ante- and perinatal circumstances preceding suicide attempts and suicides, which have so far not been studied intensively. Examination of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,742), originally based on antenatal questionnaire data and now followed up from mid-pregnancy to age 39, to ascertain psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring and suicides or attempted suicides in the offspring using nationwide registers. A total of 121 suicide attempts (57 males) and 69 suicides (56 males) had occurred. Previously unstudied antenatal factors (maternal depressed mood and smoking, unwanted pregnancy) were not related to these after adjustment. Psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring were the risk factors in both genders. When adjusted for these, the statistically significant risk factors among males were a single-parent family for suicide attempts (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.62-8.50) and grand multiparity for suicides (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.15-6.18). When a psychiatric disorder in females was included among possible risk factors for suicide attempts, it alone remained significant (OR 15.55, 8.78-27.53). A single-parent family was a risk factor for attempted suicides and grand multiparity for suicides in male offspring even after adjusting for other ante- and perinatal circumstances and mental disorders in the parents and offspring. Mothers' antenatal depressed mood and smoking and unwanted pregnancy did not increase the risk of suicide, which is a novel finding.

  11. Physical activity and fitness in adolescents at risk for psychosis within the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Tammelin, T; Kaakinen, M; Mäki, P; Moilanen, I; Taanila, A; Veijola, J

    2010-02-01

    Literature regarding physical activity and fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis especially in adolescents is scarce. This study evaluated the level of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis in a relatively large birth cohort sample. The study population consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 including 6987 adolescents who self-reported their physical activity by responding to a postal inquiry in 2001-2002 at the age of 15-16 years. Their cardiorespiratory fitness was measured in a clinical examination by a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Vulnerability to psychosis was defined in three ways: having a parent with a history of psychosis, having prodromal symptoms of psychosis measured by PROD-screen questionnaire at the age of 15-16 years or having actually developed psychosis after the field study (in 2002-2005). The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to find out about parental and the individual's own psychosis. Those individuals who developed psychosis were more likely to be physically inactive (OR 3.3; CI 95% (1.4-7.9) adjusted for gender, parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) and to have poor cardiorespiratory fitness (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.6-7.8 adjusted for parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) compared to those who did not develop psychosis. Adolescents who would actually develop psychosis had a relatively low level of physical activity compared to their age mates. General recommendations for physical activity would be important for subjects at risk for developing psychosis in order to avoid detrimental effect of physical inactivity on overall health. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, A; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Pirkola, J; Järvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2013-10-01

    Breakfast consumption and meal frequencies have been linked to the risk of obesity in youth but their associations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young populations are yet to be studied. We examined associations of three meal patterns on weekdays--five meals including breakfast, ≤four meals including breakfast and ≤four meals without breakfast--with overweight/obesity and MetS components in Finnish adolescents. A population-based sample of 16-year-old boys and girls (n = 6247) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 was used. Adolescents were clinically examined and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Overweight/obesity and MetS features were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the International Diabetes Federation MetS paediatric criteria and their associations with meal patterns assessed using logistic regression, adjusted separately for early life factors (birth size, maternal health) and later childhood factors (health behaviours, weight status, parental education). After adjustment for early life factors, the adolescents who ate five meals/day were at lower risk for overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.47 [0.34, 0.65]; girls: 0.57 [0.41, 0.79]), abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.32 [0.22, 0.48]; girls: 0.54 [0.39, 0.75]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (boys only). Adjusting for later childhood factors, the five-meal-a-day pattern was associated with decreased odds of overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.41 [0.29, 0.58]; girls: 0.63 [0.45, 0.89]) and abdominal obesity in boys (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16, 0.63). Among 16-year-olds, the five-meal-a-day pattern was robustly associated with reduced risks of overweight/obesity in both genders and abdominal obesity in boys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic determinants of height growth assessed longitudinally from infancy to adulthood in the northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sovio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1 and puberty (PHV2 and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person from 0-20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05. We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030 and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045. We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth.

  14. Genetic Determinants of Height Growth Assessed Longitudinally from Infancy to Adulthood in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J.; Millwood, Iona Y.; Molitor, John; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Kaakinen, Marika; Laitinen, Jaana; Haukka, Jari; Pillas, Demetris; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Molitor, Jassy; Hoggart, Clive; Coin, Lachlan J. M.; Whittaker, John; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Freimer, Nelson B.; Widen, Elisabeth; Peltonen, Leena; Elliott, Paul; McCarthy, Mark I.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1) and puberty (PHV2) and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person) from 0–20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components) in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05). We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty) and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030) and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045). We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth. PMID:19266077

  15. Association of indirect restorations with past caries history and present need for restorative treatment in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laajala, Anne; Karhatsu, Pasi; Pesonen, Paula; Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Raustia, Aune; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2017-10-16

    The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of indirect restorations and their association with past caries history and present need for restorative treatment among adults in Northern Finland. The study population was a subsample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 1961). The oral examinations were performed in 2012-2013. Indirect restorations (inlays/onlays and single crowns) were recorded tooth wise. Caries history was described with the sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF). Caries was assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The score of 4 was used as the cut off point for visible decay. Present need for restorative treatment was calculated by summing the decayed (D) and fractured (Fr) teeth. Need for restorative treatment was dichotomized to low [(D + Fr) ≤ 1] and high [(D + Fr) > 1]. Altogether, 7.8% of the study population had indirect restorations. The prevalence of indirect restorations did not differ within DMF (p = 0.925), but it was higher among the subjects with a low need for restorative treatment (p restorations were rare in the adult population and found mainly among the subjects with a low need for restorative treatment. The results of the study can encourage dentists to consider more often indirect restorations for subjects with a need for restorative treatment.

  16. The Association Between Low Grade Systemic Inflammation and Skin Diseases: A Cross-sectional Survey in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi-Päivikki Sinikumpu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Low grade inflammation is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. The association between skin diseases in general and systemic inflammation has not previously been studied at the population level. A whole-body investigation on 1,930 adults belonging to Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was performed and high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP level was measured as a marker of low grade inflammation in order to determine the association between low grade inflammation and skin diseases in an unselected adult population. After adjustment for confounding factors the following skin disorders were associated with low grade inflammation in multinomial logistic regression analysis: atopic eczema (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–3.9, onychomycosis (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.2 and rosacea (OR 1.7, 1.1–2.5. After additionally adjusting for body mass index and systemic diseases, the risks for atopic eczema (OR 2.4, 1.3–4.6 and onychomycosis (OR 1.9, 1.1–3.1 remained statistically significant. In conclusion, low grade inflammation is present in several skin diseases.

  17. Irregular menstruation and hyperandrogenaemia in adolescence are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility in later life: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S; Lashen, H; Bloigu, A; Franks, S; Puukka, K; Ruokonen, A; Järvelin, M-R; Tapanainen, J S; Morin-Papunen, L

    2014-10-10

    Do teenage girls with a history of menstrual irregularity and/or elevated androgen levels in adolescence exhibit an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and/or infertility later on in adulthood? Our results suggest that menstrual irregularity and/or elevated androgen levels at 16 years are still associated with symptoms of PCOS at 26 years as well as infertility problems at 26 years but not with decreased pregnancy or delivery rates at 26 years. Hyperandrogenaemia is associated with menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, acne and potentially higher risk for PCOS, but there are few follow-up studies investigating whether adolescent hyperandrogenaemia and/or menstrual irregularity are an early sign of PCOS. A prospective population-based cohort study was conducted using two postal questionnaires targeting girls in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986, n = 4567). The NFBC1986 comprises all expected births from the year 1986 in the two northernmost provinces of Finland. Collection of the database was performed at the age of 16 and 26. The 16-year and 26-year questionnaires included one question about the regularity and length of the menstrual cycle. The 26-year questionnaire also included questions about symptoms of PCOS, reproduction and infertility problems. The response rates for the questionnaires were 80% (n = 3669) at 16 years and 50% (n = 2270) at 26 years. At 15-16 years, of 2448 girls, 709 (29%) girls reported menstrual irregularity (symptomatic girls) and 1739 (71%) had regular periods (non-symptomatic girls). After combining data from the two questionnaires a total of 2033 girls were included in the analyses. The χ(2) and Student's t-test was used to compare reproductive outcome and prevalence of clinical hyperandrogenaemia, PCOS and infertility at 26 years between the study groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were employed to estimate the association of menstrual irregularity at 16 years with clinical

  18. Long-term effects of smoking on tooth loss after cessation among middle-aged Finnish adults: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Similä

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite smoking cessation efforts, cigarette smoking remains a serious general and oral health problem. We aimed to investigate the putative benefits of smoking cessation on dentition and to analyse whether the time elapsed since smoking cessation associated positively with the remaining number of teeth. Methods This cross-sectional study analyses data from the 46-year follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1966 (NFBC1966. A total of 5 540 subjects participated in this cross-sectional study, which utilises both clinical dental examinations and mailed questionnaires. We used the following information on smoking: status (current, former, never, years of smoking (current, former and years elapsed since smoking cessation (former. Self-reported and clinically measured number of teeth (including third molars served as alternative outcomes. We used binary logistic regression models to analyse the dichotomised number of teeth (‘0–27’, ’28–32’ and then calculated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR with 95 % confidence intervals (CI for the smoking variables (never smoker as the reference. Gender, education, tooth brushing frequency, diabetes and alcohol use served as confounders for the adjusted models. Results Ten years or more of smoking associated with tooth loss; this effect was the strongest among men who reported having an ongoing smoking habit (self-reported outcome: adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.40–2.16 and the weakest among women classified as former smokers (self-reported outcome: adjusted OR = 1.27, CI = 1.00–1.62. Conclusions This study shows that smoking has long-term effects on tooth loss even after cessation. The findings support smoking cessation efforts to reduce oral health risks.

  19. The association of generalized anxiety disorder and Somatic Symptoms with frequent attendance to health care services: A cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanpää, Tero S; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha P; Timonen, Markku J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Generalized anxiety disorder is associated with higher rate of physical comorbities, unexplained symptoms, and health care utilization. However, the role of somatic symptoms in determining health care utilization is unclear. The present study aims to assess the association of frequent attendance of health care services between generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms. Method This study was conducted cross-sectionally using the material of the 46-year follow-up survey of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Altogether, 5585 cohort members responded to the questionnaires concerning health care utilization, illness history, physical symptoms, and generalized anxiety disorder-7 screening tool. Odds ratios belonging to the highest decile in health care utilization were calculated for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and all (n = 4) somatic symptoms of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 controlled for confounding factors. Results Adjusted Odds ratios for being frequent attender of health care services were 2.29 (95% CI 1.58-3.31) for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and 1.28 (95% CI 0.99-1.64), 1.94 (95% CI 1.46-2.58), 2.33 (95% CI 1.65-3.28), and 3.64 (95% CI 2.15-6.18) for 1, 2, 3, and 4 somatic symptoms, respectively. People with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms had on average a higher number of somatic symptoms (1.8) than other cohort members (0.9). Moreover, 1.6% of people without somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder, meanwhile 22.6% of people with four somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Both generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms are associated with a higher risk for being a health care frequent attender.

  20. Predictors of Long-Term Change in Adult Cognitive Performance: Systematic Review and Data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannikko, Irina; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Ahmed, Anthony O; Veijola, Juha; Remes, Anne M; Murray, Graham K; Husa, Anja P; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Isohanni, Matti; Haapea, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Several social life events and challenges have an impact on cognitive development. Our goal was to analyze the predictors of change in cognitive performance in early midlife in a general population sample. Additionally, systematic literature review was performed. The study sample was drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at the ages of 34 and 43 years. Primary school performance, sociodemographic factors and body mass index (BMI) were used to predict change in cognitive performance measured by the California Verbal Learning Test, Visual Object Learning Test, and Abstraction Inhibition and Working Memory task. Analyses were weighted by gender and education, and p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons using Benjamini-Hochberg procedure (B-H). Male gender predicted decrease in episodic memory. Poor school marks of practical subjects, having no children, and increase in BMI were associated with decrease in episodic memory, though non-significantly after B-H. Better school marks, and higher occupational class were associated with preserved performance in visual object learning. Higher vocational education predicted preserved performance in visual object learning test, though non-significantly after B-H. Likewise, having children predicted decreased performance in executive functioning but non-significantly after B-H. Adolescent cognitive ability, change in BMI and several sociodemographic factors appear to predict cognitive changes in early midlife. The key advantage of present study is the exploration of possible predictors of change in cognitive performance among general population in the early midlife, a developmental period that has been earlier overlooked.

  1. The impact of self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism on fertility and lifetime reproductive success: results from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S; Vähäsarja, M; Bloigu, A; Pouta, A; Franks, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Järvelin, M-R; Corbett, S; Vääräsmäki, M; Morin-Papunen, L

    2014-03-01

    To what extent do self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism affect reproductive performance (childlessness, age at first delivery, family size and miscarriage rates)? At the age of 44, among women with both self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism the prevalence of childlessness was not significantly different from non-symptomatic women but they had a smaller family size than non-symptomatic women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by oligo-amenorrhea or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and hirsutism and it is the most frequent cause of anovulatory infertility, but there are few studies on the reproductive capacity of women with PCOS. In our previous population-based cohort study the women with self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism were found to have more infertility problems and smaller family size than non-symptomatic women at the age of 31. A prospective population-based cohort study. The population of the study is derived from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966), comprising all expected births from the year 1966 in the two northernmost provinces of Finland (n = 12 058). Of them, 5889 were females. Enrollment in this database begun at the 24th gestational week and so far data have been collected from the subjects at the ages of 1, 14 and 31 years. A postal questionnaire including questions about oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism was sent to all women at the age of 31 (n = 5608, response rate 81%, n = 4535) and a clinical examination was performed (attendance rate 76.5%). Those who reported both hirsutism and oligo-amenorrhea were defined as women with both symptoms (n = 153). Data on pregnancies/deliveries were obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) in 2010 when the women were 44 years old. Women with both symptoms had delivered at least one child as often as non-symptomatic women [75.2 versus 79.0%, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0

  2. Meal frequencies modify the effect of common genetic variants on body mass index in adolescents of the northern Finland birth cohort 1986.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jääskeläinen

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that meal frequencies influence the risk of obesity in children and adolescents. It has also been shown that multiple genetic loci predispose to obesity already in youth. However, it is unknown whether meal frequencies could modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the risk of obesity. We examined the effect of two meal patterns on weekdays -5 meals including breakfast (regular and ≤ 4 meals with or without breakfast (meal skipping - on the genetic susceptibility to increased body mass index (BMI in Finnish adolescents. Eight variants representing 8 early-life obesity-susceptibility loci, including FTO and MC4R, were genotyped in 2215 boys and 2449 girls aged 16 years from the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated for each individual by summing the number of BMI-increasing alleles across the 8 loci. Weight and height were measured and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Among meal skippers, the difference in BMI between high-GRS and low-GRS (<8 and ≥ 8 BMI-increasing alleles groups was 0.90 (95% CI 0.63,1.17 kg/m(2, whereas in regular eaters, this difference was 0.32 (95% CI 0.06,0.57 kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.003. The effect of each MC4R rs17782313 risk allele on BMI in meal skippers (0.47 [95% CI 0.22,0.73] kg/m(2 was nearly three-fold compared with regular eaters (0.18 [95% CI -0.06,0.41] kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.016. Further, the per-allele effect of the FTO rs1421085 was 0.24 (95% CI 0.05,0.42 kg/m(2 in regular eaters and 0.46 (95% CI 0.27,0.66 kg/m(2 in meal skippers but the interaction between FTO genotype and meal frequencies on BMI was significant only in boys (p interaction = 0.015. In summary, the regular five-meal pattern attenuated the increasing effect of common SNPs on BMI in adolescents. Considering the epidemic of obesity in youth, the promotion of regular eating may have

  3. Association of Multiple Melanocytic Naevi with Education, Sex and Skin Type. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study with 46 Years Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2017-02-08

    Having multiple melanocytic naevi (sex, socioeconomic status (education) in childhood and adulthood, skin type and sunbathing habits. The prevalence of multiple melanocytic naevi was 11.6% (223/1,930). Higher education (odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.51-2.96), male sex (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.06), sun-sensitive skin type (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.34-3.27) and regular use of sunscreen (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23-3.37) were associated with increased risk of multiple naevi. Inflammatory skin diseases decreased (OR 0.49, 95 CI% 0.33-0.72) the risk of multiple naevi. In conclusion, several risk factors were found for multiple naevi among adults living in high latitudes, in Northern Finland.

  4. Criminality in the offspring of antenatally depressed mothers: a 33-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Pirjo; Veijola, Juha; Räsänen, Pirkko; Joukamaa, Matti; Valonen, Pauliina; Jokelainen, Jari; Isohanni, Matti

    2003-05-01

    No epidemiological studies have been reported on the association between mothers' antenatal depression and criminality in their offspring. The material consists of a general population cohort of 12059 children born in 1966 in Northern Finland and followed to the end of 1998. Mothers were asked at midgestation by a nurse at the antenatal clinic if they felt themselves to be depressed. The Finnish Ministry of Justice provided information for all descendants on criminal offences. The associations between maternal depression and subgroups of violent and non-violent, violent recidive and non-recidive criminality in male and female offspring were analysed. Of the mothers 14% had depressed mood during pregnancy. A total of 607 (10.9%) male and 72 (1.3%) female criminal offenders were included in the cohort. When adjusted for mother's marital status, smoking, wantedness of the pregnancy, place of residence, socioeconomic status and perinatal complications, the odds ratio (OR) for males was 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9) in the association between maternal depression and non-violent offenders, 1.6 (1.1-2.4) between maternal depression and violent offenders and 1.7 (1.0-3.0) between maternal depression and violent recidivists. The adjusted OR for females involved in non-violent crimes was 1.7 (0.9-3.3) and 0.6 (0.1-6.0) for violent crimes. Maternal depression was not checked using a standardized assessment. For male offspring of antenatally depressed mothers there was a significant but slight increase in criminality. The emotional state of a pregnant mother may have some, but limited, influence on later criminality in the offspring.

  5. British Ceramics on the Northern European Periphery: Creamware Marketing in Nineteenth-Century Northern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, P.R.; Ylimaunu, T.; Brooks, A.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuorilehto, M.; Nurmi, R.; Oikarinen, T.; Herva, V.-P.; Symonds, J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1822, a devastating town fire sealed a large ceramic assemblage from a store in the town of Oulu in northern Finland. Excavations of the merchant’s stock recovered over a hundred kilograms of ceramics that was almost entirely composed of undecorated creamware, a ware and decorative type whose

  6. Birth outcomes after induced abortion: a nationwide register-based study of first births in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, R; Gissler, M; Niinimäki, M; Hemminki, E

    2012-11-01

    Is the perinatal health of first-born children affected by the mother's previous induced abortion(s) (IAs)? Prior IAs, particularly repeat IAs, are correlated with an increased risk of some health problems at first birth; even in a country with good health care quality. A positive association between IA and risk of preterm birth or a dose-response effect has been found in some previous studies. Limited information and conflicting results on other infant outcomes are available. Nationwide register-based study including 300 858 first-time mothers during 1996-2008 in Finland. All the first-time mothers with a singleton birth (obtained from the Medical Birth Register) in the period 1996-2008 (n = 300 858) were linked to the Abortion Register for the period 1983-2008. Of the first-time mothers, 10.3% (n = 31 083) had one, 1.5% had two and 0.3% had three or more IAs. Most IAs were surgical (88%) performed before 12 weeks (91%) and carried out for social reasons (97%). After adjustment, perinatal deaths and very preterm birth (<28 gestational week) suggested worse outcomes after IA. Increased odds for very preterm birth were seen in all the subgroups and exhibited a dose-response relationship: 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.44] after one IA, 1.69 (1.14-2.51) after two and 2.78 (1.48-5.24) after three IAs. Increased odds for preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birthweight (<2500 g and <1500 g) were seen only among mothers with three or more IAs: 1.35 (1.07-1.71), 1.43 (1.12-1.84) and 2.25 (1.43-3.52), respectively. Observational studies like ours, however large and well-controlled, will not prove causality. In terms of public health and practical implications, health education should contain information of the potential health hazards of repeat IAs, including very preterm birth and low birthweight in subsequent pregnancies. Health care professionals should be informed about the potential risks of repeat IAs on infant outcomes in subsequent pregnancy. National

  7. Radiation doses from global fallout and cancer incidence among reindeer herders and Sami in Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Pukkala, Eero; Ilus, Taina; Rahola, Tua; Auvinen, Anssi

    2010-11-01

    People in the Arctic regions are one of the most heavily exposed population from the global fallout from atmospheric atomic bomb testing of the 1950s and 1960s due to their diet rich in reindeer meat in which radionuclides accumulate. We estimated the effect of the radioactive fallout and ethnicity on the cancer incidence in Northern Finland. A cohort of the Arctic population in Finland (n=34,653) was identified through the Population Register Centre with grouping by reindeer herding status, ethnicity and radiation exposure. Annual average radiation doses, based on (137)Cs whole-body measurements, were assigned by birth year, gender and reindeer herder status. Incident cancer cases of a priori selected cancer types in the study cohort during 1971-2005 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. A total of 2630 cancer cases were observed versus 3073 expected on the basis of incidence rates in Northern Finland (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.86 with 95% CI of 0.82 to 0.89). For the indigenous Sami people SIR was even lower, 0.60 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.71). None of the cancer sites was significantly associated with the lifetime cumulative radiation dose. The SIR for the combined group of radiation-related cancer sites increased with the cumulative radiation dose received before 15 years of age (p=0.004). Despite the low overall cancer incidence in the Arctic population and ethnic Sami people in Finland and lack of association between the lifetime cumulative radiation exposure from global radioactive fallout and cancer incidence, we found some indication of an increased cancer risk associated with radiation exposure received during childhood. Potential underestimation and misclassification of the radiation dose may affect the results and the findings should be interpreted with caution.

  8. Environmental aspects of Greenfield NPP site in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopisto, L.

    2015-01-01

    Fennovoima will build a nuclear power plant of 1200 MW at Hanhikivi headland in Pyhaejoki, Northern Finland on the shore of the Baltic Sea. According to the target schedule the plant will produce electricity in 2024. The plant supplier is Rusatom Overseas, subsidiary of the Russian Rosatom. No industrial activity is practiced in the immediate surroundings of the site area and the headland and its surroundings are sparsely populated. The area is in its natural state. This means that all the preparatory and infrastructure works needs to be done before the construction of NPP can start. The environmental and nature conservation aspects have to be taken into consideration in planning, construction and operation of the NPP. Northern location sets some challenges to the design of the power plant. The sea area is normally covered with ice almost half of the year which has to be taken into account in the design of the power plant. But there are also advantages: in winter when the cooling water is cold the efficiency of electricity production is estimated to be exceptionally good, approximately 39 %. Since 2008, Fennovoima has carried out several environmental studies and surveys in the site area and has collected information about the nature conditions on land and in the sea area. The collected environmental data has been utilized in land use planning, environmental impact assessment procedure and in applying for conventional permits. The environmental data can also be used as baseline data. The document is composed of an abstract and the presentation slides

  9. The birth rate of hypospadias in the Turku area in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Kaleva, M; Haavisto, A M

    2001-01-01

    Reports based on national registers of congenital malformations have suggested that the birth rate of hypospadias has increased during the last few decades. Register-based information may, however, have pitfalls because of changes in diagnostics, reporting accuracy and registration system. The aim...... of this study was to determine the current birth rate of hypospadias in Turku University Central Hospital (TUCH) in Finland. This was a prospective study on live-born boys born in TUCH from 1997 to 1999. In the total birth cohort (n=5,798) as well as in a special subcohort group (n=1,505) 0.3% of boys had...... hypospadias. Only one scrotal hypospadias was found in a boy who had a chromosomal anomaly. Other hypospadias were glandular or coronal. No increase was found in the birth rate of hypospadias when comparing our result with register-based data of boys born in Finland during the years 1970 to 1986...

  10. The birth rate of hypospadias in the Turku area in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Kaleva, M; Haavisto, A M

    2001-01-01

    hypospadias. Only one scrotal hypospadias was found in a boy who had a chromosomal anomaly. Other hypospadias were glandular or coronal. No increase was found in the birth rate of hypospadias when comparing our result with register-based data of boys born in Finland during the years 1970 to 1986...

  11. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  12. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The timing of abortions, births, and union dissolutions in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heini Väisänen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: People make fertility decisions within the wider context of their lives. Previous studies have shown that there are factors that drive both relationship transitions and childbearing decisions. However, there is a lack of research on whether these factors also drive abortion decisions and decisions to end a romantic relationship, and whether their effect depends on being in a cohabitating or marital union. Objective: To study whether the factors that influence relationship transitions and childbearing decisions are also associated with abortion decision-making. Methods: I analysed nationally representative register data of Finnish women born in 1965-1969 (N=17,666 using multi-level multi-process event history models. Results: Women's unobserved characteristics affected union dissolution, abortion, and childbearing decisions: Women with a tendency towards unstable relationships were more likely to have an abortion and less likely to give birth. The observed likelihood of abortion was lower for married than cohabiting women in the early years of a relationship, but became similar over time. Conclusions: Characteristics such as personality and religiosity may partly explain these results. In line with previous research on other union characteristics, the likelihood of abortion in long-term cohabitation becomes similar to marriage over time. Contribution: This study is the first to jointly estimate these three decision-making processes using reliable longitudinal data.

  14. Placenta previa and risk of major congenital malformations among singleton births in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Heinonen, Seppo

    2015-06-01

    Placenta previa has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but its association with congenital malformations is inconclusive. We examined the association between placenta previa and major congenital malformations among singleton births in Finland. We performed a retrospective population register-based study on all singletons born at or after 22+0 weeks of gestation in Finland during 2000 to 2010. We linked three national health registers: the Finnish Medical Birth Register, the Hospital Discharge Register, and the Register of Congenital Malformations, and examined several demographic and clinical characteristics among women with and without placenta previa, in association with major congenital malformations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of placenta previa was estimated as 2.65 per 1000 singleton births in Finland (95% confidence interval, 2.53-2.79). Overall, 6.2% of women with placenta previa delivered a singleton infant with a major congenital malformation, compared with 3.8% of unaffected women (p ≤ 0.001). Placenta previa was positively associated with almost 1.6-fold increased risk of major congenital malformations in the offspring, after controlling for maternal age, parity, fetal sex, smoking, socio-economic status, chorionic villus biopsy, In vitro fertilization, pre-existing diabetes, depression, preeclampsia, and prior caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.90). Using a large population-based study, we found that placenta previa was weakly, but significantly associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations in singleton births. Future studies should examine the association between placenta previa and individual types of congenital malformations, specifically in high-risk pregnancies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. How Were the Pupils Dressed in a Country Village in Northern Finland in 1909-1939?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, Anitta; Maatta, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyse schoolchildren's clothing at the village school of Rautiosaari in northern Finland between 1909 and 1939. Accordingly, we describe the kind of clothes that schoolgirls and schoolboys used during the target period. Interviews with elderly people were used as sources for the study. The research had a micro-historical…

  16. Northern excess in adolescent male firearm suicides: a register-based regional study from Finland, 1972-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Keränen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    There are more firearms in Northern Finland as compared to Southern Finland, and a positive association between suicide rates and the number of firearms in a given region has been demonstrated in previous literature. Accordingly, the authors compared firearm suicide rates of Finnish adolescent (under 18 years) males in the two geographic regions. Young adult (18-24 years) and adult (25-44 years) males were used as reference groups. National data on cases of suicide in Northern and Southern Finland between 1972 and 2009 were obtained from Statistics Finland. Firearm suicides (n=5,423) were extracted according to ICD-classification (ICD-8/9: E955, ICD-10: X72-X75). The distribution of types of firearms (hunting gun, handgun, other) employed in suicides was also investigated. The adolescent male firearm suicide rate in Northern Finland was almost three times higher than that observed in Southern Finland, while there was no difference in rates of suicide by other methods. A northern excess in firearm suicide rates was also found among young adult and adult males. Hunting guns were the most common type of firearms employed in young male suicides, and their use was especially common in Northern Finland. Our results indicate that the use of firearms plays a major role in explaining the northern excess in young Finnish male suicide rates, and emphasize a need to advance suicide prevention according to specific regional characteristics.

  17. Lessons learned from the birth and evolution of the EduFinland virtual community for educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Educators around the world are experimenting with the possibilities virtual three dimensional worlds have for education and learning how to use these new environments efficiently. Virtual worlds have the potential to bring some new added value to education and educators can use them to create something that is not possible to do or show in traditional classrooms. Although a lot have been learned about virtual worlds and their potential, a lot more has to be learned before virtual worlds can become an integrated part of education on various levels. The article looks back at the birth and growth of the EduFinland community in the virtual world of Second Life and discusses lessons learned so far during the years of its existence.

  18. Composition and origin of the Middle Weichselian interstadial deposit in Veskoniemi, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Putkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphy and sedimentology of a diamicton-stratified sand deposit have been studied in the Veskoniemi area, near Lake Inarijärvi in central Finnish Lapland. Test pit excavations were used for stratigraphical investigations. Till-covered laminar and cross-bedded sands were dated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL. Ages range between 21.0 ± 1.5 and 22.4 ± 1.6 ka for laminated sands at upper levels and 39 ± 3 and 46 ± 3 ka for sands at deeper levels. These dating results strengthen the evidence for a Middle Weichselian interstadial in northern Finland during oxygen isotope stage 3, and can be compared with other results in eastern and southern Lapland. This is the first time that sediments from the Middle and Late Weichselian contact have been identified in Finland. These new dating results indicate that an ice-free period could have lasted from halfway through the Middle Weichselian to the beginning of the Late Weichselian about 22–25 ka ago in northern Finland.

  19. Income-related and educational inequality in small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland 1987-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn; Kaplan, George A; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie N

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs). From the national medical birth registries we gathered information on all births from 1987 to 2003. Information on highest completed maternal education and household income in the year preceding birth of the offspring was obtained for 1,012,400 births in Denmark and 499,390 in Finland. We then calculated CIXs for income- and education-related inequality in SGA and preterm birth. The mean household income-related inequality in SGA was -0.04 (95% confidence interval: -0.05, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The maternal education-related inequality in SGA was -0.08 (-0.10, -0.06) in Denmark and -0.07 (-0.08, -0.06) in Finland. The income-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.03 (-0.03, -0.02) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The education-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.05 (-0.07, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) in Finland. In Denmark, the income-related and education-related inequity in SGA increased over time. In Finland, the income-related inequality in SGA birth increased slightly, while education-related inequalities remained stable. Inequalities in preterm birth decreased over time in both countries. Denmark and Finland are examples of nations with free prenatal care and publicly financed obstetric care of high quality. During the period of study there were macroeconomic shocks affecting both countries. However, only small income- and education-related inequalities in SGA and preterm births during the period were observed.

  20. A descriptive qualitative study of adolescent girls’ well-being in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Wiens

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method: This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results: Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.

  1. Issues promoting and hindering girls' well-being in Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja

    2017-08-01

    Well-being is a complex concept that includes elements of inequality due to socio-economics, living environment or gender. Every person also encounters unique situations and has different experiences of well-being. This qualitative study aims to describe what issues promote and hinder the well-being of girls aged 13-16 in Northern Finland. A total of 117 girls aged 13-16 living in Northern Finland were asked to write about the issues that hinder and promote their well-being. The girls' responses were analysed using content analysis. After analysis, two combining categories were discovered: issues hindering well-being were a debilitating sphere of life and negative experiences in life, and issues promoting well-being were positive subjective sensations and favourably perceived conditions. The results of this study indicate that girls' well-being is connected to their social and physical environment. As the girls' view of the issues that promote or hinder health are connected and interact with their living environment, there is also a need for health promotion measures to take into account both the individuals and the environment in which they function and live. This view challenges us to see health promotion in a broader way-a way which takes into account structural and political factors, individual consultation and empowerment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Self-reported oral health and associated factors in the North Finland 1966 birth cohort at the age of 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintula, Terho; Laitala, Ville; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi; Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2014-12-16

    The Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort (NFBC 1966) is an epidemiological study where the participants have been controlled since pregnancy both in field tests and using questionnaires. This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectionally the association of self-reported oral symptoms (dental caries and bleeding of gums) with sociodemographic and health behavior factors among the subjects. Of the 11,541 original members of the cohort, 8,690 (75%) responded to the questionnaire on oral health (dental decay, gingival bleeding and self-estimated dental treatment need) and sociodemographic factors, general health and health behavior. Cross-tabulation and chi-squared tests as well as multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the association between the outcome and explanatory variables. The study group was equally distributed between the genders. One third of the subjects reported having dental decay, one fourth gingival bleeding and a half a dental treatment need. As compared to women, men reported significantly more frequently symptoms (p oral symptoms ((OR 1.57 (1.39-1.78) for dental decay, 1.94 (1.68-2.24) for gingival bleeding and 1.42 (1.26-1.61) for dental treatment need). Frequent smoking was associated with dental decay (OR 1.63 (1.44-1.84)) and treatment need OR (1.39 (1.23-1.56)), whereas poor general health (OR 1.71 (1.48-1.96)) and high BMI (OR 1.19 (1.03-1.36)) both were associated with gingival bleeding. Males with single marital status, BMI over 25, poor general health and poor oral health behaviors are at risk for self-reported poor oral health and dental treatment need.

  3. Monitoring of IVF birth outcomes in Finland: a data quality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Elina

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of information on infertility treatments is important for the surveillance of potential health consequences and to monitor service provision. Study design We compared the coverage and outcomes of IVF children reported in aggregated IVF statistics, the Medical Birth Register (subsequently: MBR and research data based on reimbursements for IVF treatments in Finland in 1996–1998. Results The number of newborns were nearly equal in the three data sources (N = 4331–4384, but the linkage between the MBR and the research data revealed that almost 40% of the reported IVF children were not the same individuals. The perinatal outcomes in the three data sources were similar, excluding the much lower incidence of major congenital anomalies in the IVF statistics (157/10 000 newborns compared to other sources (409–422/10 000 newborns. Conclusion The differences in perinatal outcomes in the three data sets were in general minor, which suggests that the observed non-recording in the MBR is most likely unbiased.

  4. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001-2003 and 2008-2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011-2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908-2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north-south direction and for the period 1877-2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north-west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3-4 days over a 100-year period.

  5. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001–2003 and 2008–2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011–2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908–2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north–south direction and for the period 1877–2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north–west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3–4 days over a 100-year period. PMID:25798141

  6. Synthesis and New Observations on Needle Pathogens of Larch in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Jalkanen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle pathogens of larch (Larix spp. in the Nordic countries are under-studied. Their incidence in Finland tends to be low and local, and this may be a function of enemy release, since species of larch were introduced to the region. Here, the ecology and incidence of larch needle pathogens and the abiotic factors that also affect larch in northern Finland are reviewed. Field observations and related laboratory analyses during the past 35 years have mainly been obtained near the Kivalo Research Area within the Arctic Circle, Finnish Lapland. The relatively recent introduction of Hypodermella laricis is a primary focus. This pathogen is not only new to Nordic countries, but can cause severe outbreaks, defoliation and crown-thinning in the canopies of all ages of most planted larch species worldwide. Symptoms of H. laricis clearly differ from those of Mycosphaerella laricina; the latter has affected Larix sibirica at high latitudes for decades. The effects of Meria laricis, Lophodermium laricinum, various rust fungi, and wind and frost are also discussed.

  7. Contributing factors in self-poisoning leading to hospital admission in adolescents in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisanantti, Janne Henrik; Ala-Kokko, Tero Ilmari; Dunder, Teija Sinikka; Ebeling, Hanna Elina

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequencies of different agents used in self-poisonings and acute factors contributing to intoxication of patients aged 12-18 years in northern Finland. Retrospective medical record review of all hospitalized patients during the period from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2006. Cause of the admission, contributing factors, readmissions within one year. There were 309 admissions during the period, 54% were females. The leading cause of admission was alcohol, in 222 cases (71.8%). Hospitalizations related to alcohol consumption were associated with accidental poisoning in recreational use. There were no acute contributing factors in the majority of all patients. Over one-third of all intoxications were intentional self-harm, although previously diagnosed psychiatric diseases were rare. It is crucial to recognize adolescent psychiatric disorders in time and consult child and adolescent psychiatrist in case of poisoning.

  8. Resorts, second home owners and distance: a case study in northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kauppila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors for the site selection of a second home is the space-time dimension. For example, the popularity of second home tourism in the hinterland of population centres is based on the short distance between second homes and the permanent residence of second home owners. In the case of peripheral resorts, however, the main reason for a large number of second homes is the attractiveness of the area associated with a high level of touristic elements. The study examines the municipalities of residence of the second home owners in four large resorts – Levi, Ruka, Saariselkä and Ylläs – in northern Finland. After analysing the geographical distribution of the owners with maps and diagrams the aim of the paper is to present a distance model for the resorts located in a northern periphery from the viewpoint of the regions of destination. Generally speaking, the model resembles a U-letter. In this respect, the resorts have three zones – day trip, weekend and vacation – and each of them has their own characteristics based on accessibility and regional structure, the number and structure of population (potential owners and land ownership. In the planning context, the proposed model can be utilised as a tool for the marketing of resorts as a second home environment as well as for analysing and comparing the overall attractiveness of resorts.

  9. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Salmela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.

  10. Prevalence of the primary LHON mutations in Northern Finland associated with bilateral optic atrophy and tobacco-alcohol amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiamäki, Paula; Kervinen, Marko; Karjalainen, Karoliina; Majamaa, Kari; Uusimaa, Johanna; Remes, Anne M

    2013-11-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is regarded as the most common mitochondrial disease. We have previously reported comprehensive population-based epidemiological data on common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations including m.3243A>G, m.8344A>G and large-scale mtDNA deletions in Northern Finland. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of primary LHON mutations and mutations in the four mtDNA genes considered hot spots for LHON in the same population. The study population consisted of 42 adult patients with an aetiologically undefined bilateral optic atrophy. The major LHON mutations m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and MTND1, MTND6 and MTATP6 genes were sequenced. MTND5 gene was analysed by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE). No major LHON mutations were found in the population of the province of Northern Ostrobothnia giving the prevalence of these mutations 0-1.36:100 000 (95% CI). However, two main mutations were found elsewhere in Northern Finland, homoplasmic m.11778G>A from Kainuu and heteroplasmic m.3460G>A from Central Ostrobothnia. Furthermore, tobacco-alcohol amblyopia was diagnosed in five patients in the study population and one of them had m.11778G>A. The prevalence of the three major LHON mutations is lower in Northern Finland than elsewhere in Finland or in Western Europe. As LHON and tobacco-alcohol amblyopia have a similar phenotype, we recommend analysing the known LHON-associated mutations before setting tobacco-alcohol amblyopia diagnosis. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  11. Long-term variability of aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvärinen, Antti; Asmi, Eija; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrjö

    2017-04-01

    We introduce long term dataset of aerosol scattering and absorption properties and combined aerosol optical properties measured in Pallas Atmosphere-Ecosystem Supersite in Norhern Finland. The station is located 170 km north of the Arctic Circle. The station is affected by both pristine Arctic air masses as well as long transported air pollution from northern Europe. We studied the optical properties of aerosols and their radiative effects in continental and marine air masses, including seasonal cycles and long-term trends. The average (median) scattering coefficient, backscattering fraction, absorption coefficient and single scattering albedo at the wavelength of 550 nm were 7.9 (4.4) 1/Mm, 0.13 (0.12), 0.74 (0.35) 1/Mm and 0.92 (0.93), respectively. We observed clear seasonal cycles in these variables, the scattering coefficient having high values during summer and low in fall, and absorption coefficient having high values during winter and low in fall. We found that the high values of the absorption coefficient and low values of the single scattering albedo were related to continental air masses from lower latitudes. These aerosols can induce an additional effect on the surface albedo and melting of snow. We observed the signal of the Arctic haze in marine (northern) air masses during March and April. The haze increased the value of the absorption coefficient by almost 80% and that of the scattering coefficient by about 50% compared with the annual-average values. We did not observe any long-term trend in the scattering coefficient, while our analysis showed a clear decreasing trend in the backscattering fraction and scattering Ångström exponent during winter. We also observed clear relationship with temperature and aerosol scattering coefficient. We will present also how these different features affects to aerosol direct radiative forcing.

  12. Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-11-01

    Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender differences in comorbidity of conduct disorder among adolescents in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Ilomäki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Conduct disorder (CD refers to a pattern of severe antisocial and aggressive behaviour manifested in childhood or adolescence, with heavy costs to society. Though CD is a common psychiatric diagnosis among adolescents of both genders, gender differences in comorbidity of CD have been little studied. In this study we examined gender differences among adolescents with CD in causes for hospitalization, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and somatic conditions. Study design : The original study sample consisted of 508 inpatient adolescents in Northern Finland (age 12–17; 155 of them (65 girls, 92 boys fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for CD. Methods : Diagnosis of CD and psychiatric comorbidities were obtained from the K-SADS-PL and somatic conditions from the EuropAsi. Results : As compared to boys with CD, suicidality (including suicidal ideation and behaviour was significantly more commonly the cause of hospitalization among girls with CD (43% vs. 24%, p=0.013. Among somatic conditions, there was a significant predominance in self-reported allergies among girls (60% vs. 25%, p<0.001. Girls had more often diagnosed comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (13% vs. 3%, p=0.025 and marginally significantly more major depressive disorder (36% vs. 23%, p=0.086. Conclusions : Girls with CD seem to have an increased tendency to develop both comorbid psychiatric and somatic conditions as well as suicidality. New clinical aspects in treatment of CD and comorbid disorders among girls are discussed.

  14. Potential Trade-Offs Between Nature-Based Tourism and Forestry, a Case Study in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Salminen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Forestry, as a large industry, has significant impacts on the quality of nature-based tourism landscapes in boreal forests. In Finland, the rapid growth of nature-based tourism has expanded outdoor recreation activities from protected areas into timber production forests; this is particularly so in northern Finland. This paper focuses on assessing balanced local net impacts of three alternative land-use scenarios, in which the level of integration between nature-based tourism (NBT and traditional forestry is varied. The study is located in northern Finland in the area between two top-rated tourist resorts, Ylläs and Levi. The results of the case study support the idea of an eligible integration between NBT and forestry, which takes into account scenic qualities of forested landscapes by restricting traditional management practices. In our case, the increased number of tourists (due to a more attractive forest environment offset the losses accrued in forestry (due to restricted forest management.

  15. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suopajärvi, Leena, E-mail: leena.suopajarvi@ulapland.fi

    2013-09-15

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest.

  16. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suopajärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest

  17. Association of traumatic brain injury with criminality in adolescent psychiatric inpatients from Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkainen, Saku; Riala, Kaisa; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2012-12-30

    The association of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) with criminality, substance-related disorders and conduct disorders has mainly been studied in adult populations. In our study we examine the association in an adolescent population. We used a population-based clinical sample of 508 psychiatric inpatient adolescents from Northern Finland. The prevalences of TBI and criminality were 26 (5.1%) and 85 (16.7%), respectively. The information on TBI was acquired from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and on criminality from the Legal Register Center. DSM-IV diagnoses were obtained by interviewing the subjects using the semi-structured Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). Adolescents with TBI had significantly more often committed crimes compared to adolescents without TBI (53.8% vs. 14.7%, respectively). Prevalences of both violent crimes (42.9% vs. 9.1%) and non-violent crimes (29.4% vs. 6.8%) were also higher in the TBI group. TBI during childhood and adolescence increased the risk of any criminality 6.8-fold (95% 3.0-15.2), conduct disorder 5.7-fold (95% 2.1-15.4) and concomitant criminality and conduct disorder 18.7-fold (95% 4.3-80.1). Our results suggest that clinicians working with mentally ill adolescents who have experienced head injuries should be aware of the increased risk for delinquency and violent tendencies occurring later in the adolescents' lives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  19. Spatial clustering of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Finland at place of birth and place of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Clive E.; Boyle, P. J.; Löytönen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Previous evidence for spatial clustering of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is inconclusive. Studies that have identified apparent clusters have often been based on a small number of cases, which means the results may have occurred by chance processes. Also, most studies have used the geographic...... location at the time of death as the basis for cluster detection, rather than exploring clusters at other points in the life cycle. In this study, the authors examine 1,000 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis distributed throughout Finland who died between June 1985 and December 1995. Using a spatial...

  20. Fear of childbirth predicts postpartum depression: a population-based analysis of 511 422 singleton births in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Sari; Lehto, Soili M; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Heinonen, Seppo

    2013-11-28

    To study how reproductive risks and perinatal outcomes are associated with postpartum depression treated in specialised healthcare defined according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes, separately among women with and without a history of depression. A retrospective population-based case-control study. Data gathered from three national health registers for the years 2002-2010. All singleton births (n=511 422) in Finland. Prevalence of postpartum depression and the risk factors associated with it. In total, 0.3% (1438 of 511 422) of women experienced postpartum depression, the prevalence being 0.1% (431 of 511 422) in women without and 5.3% (1007 of 18 888) in women with a history of depression. After adjustment for possible covariates, a history of depression was found to be the strongest risk factor for postpartum depression. Other strong predisposing factors for postpartum depression were fear of childbirth, caesarean birth, nulliparity and major congenital anomaly. Specifically, among the 30% of women with postpartum depression but without a history of depression, postpartum depression was shown to be associated with fear of childbirth (adjusted OR (aOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.98 to 3.71), caesarean birth (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.77), preterm birth (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.56) and major congenital anomaly (aOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.42), compared with women with no postpartum depression and no history of depression. A history of depression was found to be the most important predisposing factor of postpartum depression. Women without previous episodes of depression were at an increased risk of postpartum depression if adverse events occurred during the course of pregnancy, especially if they showed physician-diagnosed fear of childbirth.

  1. Minor long-term effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on methane dynamics of a subarctic fen in Northern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörsky, Sami K.; Haapala, Jaana K.; Rinnan, Riikka

    2012-01-01

    The effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on methane dynamics was studied in a natural fen in Northern Finland for three growing seasons (2003–2005). This is the first in situ study on the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on methane dynamics in a natural fen. The experimental setup....... The results emphasize the need for long-term field studies under moderately enhanced exposures to estimate whether the function and feedbacks of mire ecosystems change under increased UV-B radiation....

  2. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  3. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  4. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands : A 30-year population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other

  5. General geology, alteration, and iron deposits in the Palaeoproterozoic Misi region, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Niiranen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleoproterozoic Misi region forms the northeastern part of the Peräpohja Schist Belt in northern Finland. The area comprises mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks, differentiated gabbros, and late-orogenic granitoids. Three geochemically different mafic volcanic units were recognised: LREE-depleted amygdaloidal lavas, slightly LREE-enriched lavas, and mafic tuffs that have a flat REE pattern. Sedimentary rocks include arkosites, mica gneisses, dolomitic marbles, quartzites, tuffites, mica schists, calc-silicate rocks and graphite-bearing schists. Two types of gabbros wereidentified: one with a LREE-enriched pattern and another with flat REE pattern. The age of the former is according to Perttunen and Vaasjoki (2001 2117±4 Ma, whereas there is no age determination for the latter. The granitoid intrusions belong to the ca. 1800 Malate-orogenic group of the Central Lapland Granitoid Complex. The geochemistry and the stable isotope data on mafic lavas and dolomitic marbles show similarities with the mafic volcanic rocks and marbles of the lower part of the Kivalo group in the western part of Peräpohja Schist Belt. Peak metamorphic conditions in the region vary from upper-greenschist to upper-amphibolite facies. Three major stages of deformation were distinguished: N-S compressional D1 with ductile deformation, NE-SW compressional D2 with ductile to brittle-ductile deformation, and E-W compressional D3 with brittle deformation. Several magnetite occurrences are known in the region and four of those have been mined for iron. The ores are mainly composed of magnetite with minor haematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite. Besides iron, the ores contain small amounts of P, S and V aswell as trace amounts of Cu, Co, Te and Au. The magnetite bodies are hosted by skarnoids within the ca. 2220–2120 Ma dolomitic marble-quartzite sequence, and highly differentiated, intensely albitised, LREE-enriched gabbro. Multistage and -type alteration is

  6. Social inequalities in teenage fertility outcomes: childbearing and abortion trends of three birth cohorts in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Heini; Murphy, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Teenagers of low socioeconomic status are more likely to get pregnant, and less likely to choose abortion, than more privileged teenagers. Few studies have used longitudinal data to examine whether these differences persist as overall teenage pregnancy rates decline. Nationally representative register data from 259,242 Finnish women in three birth cohorts (1955-1959, 1965-1969 and 1975-1979) were analyzed using Cox regression to assess socioeconomic differences in teenagers' risks of pregnancy and abortion. Binary logistic regression was used to assess socioeconomic differences in the odds of pregnant teenagers' choosing abortion. Socioeconomic differences in abortion risk did not change substantially across cohorts; however, differences in the risk of childbirth rose between the first two cohorts and then returned to their earlier level. In all cohorts, teenagers from upper-level employee backgrounds, the most privileged group, had the lowest risks of abortion and childbirth (44-53% and 53-69% lower, respectively, than those for manual workers' children). Teenagers whose parents were lower-level employees or farmers also had reduced risks of both outcomes in all cohorts; results for other socioeconomic groups were less consistent. Pregnant teenagers from upper-level employee backgrounds had 2-3 times the odds of abortion of manual workers' children; the largest difference was found in the 1950s cohort. Despite the declining overall teenage pregnancy rate, poorer background continues to be associated with a higher risk of conceiving and of giving birth. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  7. Electromagnetic studies on the Kola peninsula and in Northern Finland by means of a powerful controlled source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, Ye. P.; Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Belkov, I. V.; Gorbunov, G. I.; Hjelt, S. E.; Lisin, A. S.; Vanyan, L. L.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Demidova, T. A.; Korja, T.; Kirillov, S. K.; Kuksa, Yu. I.; Poltanov, A. Ye.; Tokarev, A. D.; Yevstigneyev, V. V.

    1986-07-01

    Station "Khibiny", equipped with a powerful magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and/or diesel generator, has been successfully used since 1976 to study the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust in the northern part of the Baltic Shield. The present paper describes the techniques of measurement, data processing and interpretation of the five-component electromagnetic fields created by this source. A longitudinal conductance map for the upper 10 km of the Earth's crust has been constructed. Several blocks, with conductances varying from 0.1 to some thousands of Siemens, have been revealed on the Kola Peninsula, in northern Karelia and in northern Finland. The blocks of high conductance are connected with relatively young complexes of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean ages. In some places, they create thick and extensive conductive belts such as the Imandra-Varzuga and the Pechenga zones. More often, they appear in the shape of vast regions with enhanced conductivity (e.g., the granulite belts and the Allarechen region). The geoelectric cross-section of the Imandra-Varzuga ore-critical structure has been studied in detail, using the method of electromagnetic field migration. Its depth extent is approximately 10 km. Highly resistant blocks are associated with the most ancient geological units, of early Archean age. Resistant regions have been found in the Murmansk and Central Kola regions, as well as in the Kovdor massif and in the Central Finland granite area. These regions are the most promising ones for deep electromagnetic sounding of the lower crust and the upper mantle of the Earth.

  8. Bioenergy decision-making of farms in Northern Finland. Combining the bottom-up and top-down perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaekin, Juha-Pekka; Muilu, Toivo; Pesola, Tuomo

    2010-01-01

    Finnish farmers' role as energy producers is small compared to their role as energy resource owners. Since climate and energy policy in Finland continues favoring large-scale energy visions, additional investment support for agriculture will stay modest. To utilize fully the energy potential in farms, we analyze the farmers' decision-making environment. First, we present an overview of the Finnish energy policy and economy and their effect on farms (the top-down perspective). Then we analyze the drivers behind the bioenergy decisions of farms in general and in the Oulu region, located in Northern Finland (the bottom-up perspective). There is weak policy coherence between national and regional energy efforts. Strong pressure is placed on farmers to improve their business and marketing knowledge, innovation and financial abilities, education level, and networking skills. In the Oulu region, bioenergy forerunners can be divided in three different groups - investors, entrepreneurs and hobbyists - that have different levels of commitment to their energy businesses. This further stresses the importance of getting quality business services from numerous service providers. (author)

  9. Application of lithogeochemistry in the assessment of nickel-sulphide potential in komatiite belts from northern Finland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Heggie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the application of chalcophile elements such as nickel, copper and the platinum-group elements as indicators of nickel-sulphide prospectivity in komatiites from terranes of the Karelian Craton in northern Finland and Norway. Major element abundances reflect volcanic processes associated with the emplacement dynamics of ultramafic lavas, whereas the variable chalcophile element concentrations record the ore-forming process, mainly as an anomalous metal depletion and enrichment relative to the calculated background. Geochemical data from this study indicate that Paleoproterozoic komatiites in the Pulju Greenstone Belts and Archean komatiites in the Enontekiö area are prospective for nickel-sulphide mineralisation. Conversely, on the basis of the present dataset, ultramafic rocks from the Palaeoproterozoic Karasjok Greenstone Belt display lower prospectivity for nickel-sulphides, although potential exists if high-volume flow conduits and channels within the large volcanic flow field could be identified.

  10. Late Cenozoic deep weathering patterns on the Fennoscandian shield in northern Finland: A window on ice sheet bed conditions at the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adrian M.; Sarala, Pertti; Ebert, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The nature of the regolith that existed on the shields of the Northern Hemisphere at the onset of ice sheet glaciation is poorly constrained. In this paper, we provide the first detailed account of an exceptionally preserved, deeply weathered late Neogene landscape in the ice sheet divide zone in northern Finland. We mine data sets of drilling and pitting records gathered by the Geological Survey of Finland to reconstruct regional preglacial deep weathering patterns within a GIS framework. Using a large geochemical data set, we give standardised descriptions of saprolite geochemistry using a variant of the Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) as a proxy to assess the intensity of weathering. We also focus on mineral prospects and mines with dense pit and borehole data coverage in order to identify links between geology, topography, and weathering. Geology is closely linked to topography on the preglacial shield landscape of northern Finland and both factors influence weathering patterns. Upstanding, resistant granulite, granite, gabbro, metabasalt, and quartzite rocks were associated with fresh rock outcrops, including tors, or with thin ( 50 m and included intensely weathered kaolinitic clays with WIPfines values below 1000. Late Neogene weathering profiles were varied in character. Tripartite clay-gruss-saprock profiles occur only in limited areas. Bipartite gruss-saprock profiles were widespread, with saprock thicknesses of > 10 m. Weathering profiles included two discontinuities in texture, materials and resistance to erosion, between saprolite and saprock and between saprock and rock. Limited core recovery when drilling below the soil base in mixed rocks of the Tana Belt indicates that weathering locally penetrated deep below upper fresh rock layers. Such deep-seated weathered bands in rock represent a third set of discontinuities. Incipient weathering and supergene mineralisation also extended to depths of > 100 m in mineralised fracture zones. The thin

  11. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  12. The meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals for adolescent girls’ wellbeing in northern Finland: A qualitative descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Wellbeing is complex, holistic, and subjectively perceived. Issues such as gender, age, and environment seem to affect it. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals towards 13–16-year-old girls’ wellbeing in Northern Finland. In the spring of 2014, through purposive sampling, a total of 19 girls participated in semi-structured interviews from various parts of Northern Finland. The data were analysed using content analysis. Afterwards, the analysis combining the category participatory involvement with environment was found, and this consisted of three main categories: adaptation to seasonal changes, restorative nature, and empowering interactivity with animals. Seasonal changes had an effect on girls’ wellbeing; in the summertime, they felt happy and vivacious, active, and outgoing. Instead, during the winter months, girls’ mood and activity seemed to be lower and they felt lazier and depressed. Nature brought mainly positive feelings to girls; being in nature was experienced as liberating and relaxing, and it offered opportunities to relax and have sensory perceptions. Interaction with animals was perceived as empowering. They were experienced as altruistic and comforting companions. Animals were important to girls, and they contributed to girls’ lives through positive effects towards their mental and physical wellbeing. Based on the results of this study, we can recommend that being in nature and interacting with animals should be supported because they seem to have benefits towards adolescent girls’ health and wellbeing. In order to facilitate the negative effects of winter, the school days should be arranged in such a way that it would be possible for girls to have outdoor activities during the daytime. The challenge for the future is perhaps the purposeful utilisation of nature's and the animals’ positive effects towards their wellbeing. PMID:26905401

  13. The meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals for adolescent girls' wellbeing in northern Finland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Wellbeing is complex, holistic, and subjectively perceived. Issues such as gender, age, and environment seem to affect it. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals towards 13-16-year-old girls' wellbeing in Northern Finland. In the spring of 2014, through purposive sampling, a total of 19 girls participated in semi-structured interviews from various parts of Northern Finland. The data were analysed using content analysis. Afterwards, the analysis combining the category participatory involvement with environment was found, and this consisted of three main categories: adaptation to seasonal changes, restorative nature, and empowering interactivity with animals. Seasonal changes had an effect on girls' wellbeing; in the summertime, they felt happy and vivacious, active, and outgoing. Instead, during the winter months, girls' mood and activity seemed to be lower and they felt lazier and depressed. Nature brought mainly positive feelings to girls; being in nature was experienced as liberating and relaxing, and it offered opportunities to relax and have sensory perceptions. Interaction with animals was perceived as empowering. They were experienced as altruistic and comforting companions. Animals were important to girls, and they contributed to girls' lives through positive effects towards their mental and physical wellbeing. Based on the results of this study, we can recommend that being in nature and interacting with animals should be supported because they seem to have benefits towards adolescent girls' health and wellbeing. In order to facilitate the negative effects of winter, the school days should be arranged in such a way that it would be possible for girls to have outdoor activities during the daytime. The challenge for the future is perhaps the purposeful utilisation of nature's and the animals' positive effects towards their wellbeing.

  14. Accessibility of Local Food Production to Regional Markets – Case of Berry Production in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhonen Kirsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers and institutional kitchens, as well as traders, have shown increasing interest towards local food. This is particularly due to the transparency and traceability characteristic of a short supply chain and social aspects related to food origins. The trend has been increasingly common during the past decade in Europe and North America, and it is strongly evident in the case area of this study in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. In general, ease of access to food is highly important for consumers and crucial for institutional kitchens, in addition to quality aspects and price. However, regardless of proximity, poor accessibility is one of the key issues preventing the further growth of local food markets. Due to scale economics in food value chain, food transport is presently organised mainly by centralised, large-scale logistics companies directed via hubs serving millions of consumers. Accordingly, production volumes required to enter large-scale markets are often unattainable for disjointed small-scale local food producers. In this study, geographic information system (GIS-based accessibility analyses are applied for analysing potential for integral networking of local food production and transport companies. Berry production was selected as a case study because it has a relatively strong role in Northern Ostrobothnia, while its logistics are notably underdeveloped. Spatial data of primary production volumes consists of register records of farm-specific cultivation areas and average yields in Northern Ostrobothnia and Finland. Accessibility computations are based on the digital model of the Finnish road network, Digiroad. Two surveys were also implemented to farmers and food processing companies to seek views on food processing, sales, logistics and procurements regarding local food. Data from the surveys was used in accessibility analysis, which enables exploration of opportunities for establishing ‘local food’ clusters integrating

  15. Tacit consent: the Church and birth control in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2011-01-01

    This article employs novel documentation to examine ways in which the Church's moral rules on contraception were (or were not) communicated to parishioners in a predominantly Catholic context in a period of rapid fertility decline: the diocese of Padua, in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto, during the first half of the twentieth century. The account is based on documents that have until now been overlooked: the moral cases discussed during the periodic meetings among Padua priests in the years 1916–58, and the written answers provided by priests in response to a question asked of them concerning their efforts to combat the limiting of births. This documentation reveals the limited effect on the reproductive behavior of the position of the Catholic Church against birth control.

  16. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  17. Tropospheric methane in northern Finland: seasonal variations, transport patterns and correlations with other trace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Tuula; Hatakka, Juha; Lallo, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Methane mixing ratios have been continuously observed at Pallas, Finland since winter 2004. The seasonal variation in monthly means was ca. 40 ppb, showing largest mixing ratios in winter and also high values during late summer. Examination of back-trajectories showed that the air masses with elevated methane mixing ratios arrived from continental Eastern and Central Europe while low methane mixing ratios were connected with Atlantic and Arctic air masses. During summer, air masses with highest mixing ratios arrived from Northwestern Russia indicating wetland sources, while the influence of southern emissions became more significant in winter. Methane was positively correlated with carbon dioxide and negatively correlated with ozone in winter. The average slope of the selected wintertime background hourly mean mixing ratios was 7.0 ± 1.2 ppb(CH 4 )/ppm(CO 2 ). Nocturnal summertime low-altitude measurements above a local wetland source indicated slopes of about 10 ± 1 ppb(CH 4 )/ppm(CO 2 ). The different slopes reflect the differences in emission parameters

  18. Utilisation of Non-Skilled Birth Attendants in Northern Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HVD

    KEYWORDS: Antenatal Care; Education Needs; Reproductive Health; Skilled Birth Attendants; Northern Nigeria. .... Residence. Urban/Semi-urban. 1,578. 31.2. Rural. 3,478. 68.8. Occupation. Food processing. 1,864. 37.1. Agricultural processing. 228. 4.5. Farming. 181. 3.6 .... member that the definitions of urban versus.

  19. Traditional beliefs about pregnancy and child birth among women from Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Yimyam, Susanha; Parisunyakul, Sukanya; Baosoung, Chavee; Sansiriphun, Nantaporn

    2005-06-01

    To examine women's embodied knowledge of pregnancy and birth, women's explanations of precautions during pregnancy and birth and preparations for easy birth and the role of a traditional midwife in a Thai birthing care. In-depth interviews relating to traditional and changed beliefs and practices of pregnancy and childbirth with Thai women in Northern Thailand. Chiang Mai city and Mae On sub-district in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand. 30 Thai women living in Chiang Mai in Thailand. The social meaning of childbirth in Thai culture is part of the larger social system, which involves the woman, her family, the community, society and the supernatural world. Traditional beliefs and practices in Thai culture clearly aim to preserve the life and well-being of a new mother and her baby. It seems that traditional childbirth practices have not totally disappeared in northern Thailand, but have gradually diminished. Women's social backgrounds influence traditional beliefs and practices. The traditions are followed by most rural and some urban poor women in Chiang Mai. The findings of this study may assist health professionals to better understand women from different cultures. It is important to recognise many factors discussed in this paper within the context of Thai lives and traditions. This will prevent misunderstanding and, consequently, encourage more sensitive pregnancy and birthing care for pregnant women.

  20. Resort-oriented tourism development and local tourism networks – a case study from northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Kulusjärvi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In tourism studies, it has been widely recognized that resort-oriented tourism development creates challenges for regional development, mainly due to its enclave nature and lack of regional economic linkages. However, there have been relatively few studies on the destination-scale cooperative networks, although, they are vital in increasing the positive regional economic impacts of tourism development. This paper is an empirical qualitative study exploring the connections between resort-oriented tourism development and tourism business cooperation in the case study area of the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination in Northeast Finland. The interest is on how the local cooperative networks of the Ruka tourist resort are spatially constructed within the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination. The research data consists of semi-structured interviews conducted for ten tourism actors located in the Ruka resort. The results show that the businesses located in the Ruka resort cooperate at the regional scale mainly in marketing, while their partners in production cooperation are located mostly within the resort, particularly in its very core area. The resort appears to function as a basis for spatial identification for tourism actors, which, in turn, affects entrepreneurs’ motivation to cooperate at the local and regional scale. Tourism entrepreneurs operating in the very core of the resort perceive the area as the principal area for their operations, and therefore, they do not particularly engage with the surrounding areas and businesses or with other actors located there. Thus, for smaller enterprises outside the core, it can be difficult to benefit from the resort’s core’s growth via network relations. This contributes mainly to the development of the core areas alone, creates challenges for sustainable regional economic development in the destination region, and hinders the resort’s tourism growth in the long run.

  1. Cores and peripheries in a northern periphery: a case study in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kauppila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, peripheral rural areas have been faced with social and economic challenges, such as economic restructuring, unemployment, out-migration and ageing population. Due to declining traditional industries, tourism has often been highlighted as a vehicle to revitalize the economy in rural areas. The aim of the review is to conceptualize the regional development process of resorts in relation to their location municipalities at the local level in Finland. GIS (Geographical Information Systems technology and georeferenced data, so called grid data, are utilized in the statistical socio-economic analysis of the four largest resorts – Levi, Ruka, Saariselkä and Ylläs – in the Finnish periphery. The study results show that the development process of the resorts has been very positive in terms of the indicators of regional development. Along with the absolute progressing, the relative importance of the resorts within their location municipalities has strengthened. The outcome of the study is presented in the classic core–periphery framework: the resorts are considered as cores and the surrounding area of those cores as a periphery. In consequence, there emerges a polarization process within the municipalities under study because of tourism development. It is obvious that the role of the resorts within the location municipalities in regional development will strengthen in the future. Generally speaking, from the viewpoint of the regional development of peripheral rural areas, the main challenge is to extend the positive socio-economic impacts of resorts, cores, to a wider geographical area, a periphery.

  2. Accidental hypothermia: factors related to long-term hospitalization. A retrospective study from northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnes, Jari; Ala-Kokko, Tero

    2017-12-01

    Accidental hypothermia has a low incidence, but is associated with a high mortality rate. Knowledge about concomitant factors, complications, and length of hospital stay is limited. A retrospective cohort study on patients with accidental hypothermia admitted to Oulu University Hospital in Finland, over a 5-year period. Patients were categorized as short-stay patients (7 days or less) and long-stay patients (more than 7 days) according to their length of stay in hospital. From a total of 105 patients, 67 patients were included in the analyses. Alcohol abuse was the most common concomitant factor (54 %). Median length of hospital stay was 4 days, and 16 patients (24 %) stayed in hospital over 7 days (median 15 days). Thirty-day mortality was low (14/105, 13 %). Patients with long-term hospitalization had a lower initial temperature (28.4 versus 31.2 °C, p = 0.011), a lower level of consciousness (GCS score 8.4 versus 12.8, p = 0.003), more severe acidosis (pH 7.08 versus 7.28, p = 0.005, and lactate 7.2 versus 3.9, p = 0.043), and a lower level of platelets (183 versus 242, p = 0.041) on admission compared with short-stay patients. Thirty-six patients (54 %) had at least one complication, and this prolonged median hospital treatment for 2.5 days (p hospital. Long-term hospitalization is related to a lower core temperature, lower consciousness, more severe lactic acidosis, lower platelet level and infections, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure.

  3. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year 1996. The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose. The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in 1995 - 1996, to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In 1997 there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results (target < 1 % bark content) of the bolts and to improve the logistic productivity of the whole production chain

  4. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of resource partitioning among foliage-gleaning passerines in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Rauno V

    1980-05-01

    The five most abundant species were included in a year-round study with respect to six foraging niche dimensions. Approximately full multidimensional utilization functions were used for niche metrics. During summer foraging overlaps were invariably high, but in other seasons periodically lower. Foraging site breadth was lower in winter, when fewer sites are profitable for foraging than in summer. Feeding posture versatility, by contrast, was highest in winter. Seasonal foraging shifts were very prominent, as great in fact as between-species differences. Often seasonal trends were parallel in different species. Niche axes of macrohabitat-type (e.g. tree) were more open for foraging variation and axes of microhabitat-type (tree part) more rigid. Among the resident species seasonal variation in foraging was greatest in Regulus regulus and Parus cristatus, whereas the foraging behaviour was more stable for P. montanus (an abundant species with broad niche), perhaps owing to greater intraspecific competition. In these northern forests foliage-gleaners must be versatile generalists to cope with the unpredictable resources, and thus they overlap broadly in their general resource niches which are determined by their genetically fixed cost and benefit relations to each resource type. Anyhow, presumably during periodical food shortage, the actual resource uses adjusted by resource availability and competition may overlap narrowly.

  6. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  7. Evolution of snow and ice temperature, thickness and energy balance in Lake Orajärvi, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal evolution of snow and ice on Lake Orajärvi, northern Finland, was investigated for three consecutive winter seasons. Material consisting of numerical weather prediction model (HIRLAM output, weather station observations, manual snow and ice observations, high spatial resolution snow and ice temperatures from ice mass balance buoys (SIMB, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS lake ice surface temperature observations was gathered. A snow/ice model (HIGHTSI was applied to simulate the evolution of the snow and ice surface energy balance, temperature profiles and thickness. The weather conditions in early winter were found critical in determining the seasonal evolution of the thickness of lake ice and snow. During the winter season (Nov.–Apr., precipitation, longwave radiative flux and air temperature showed large inter-annual variations. The uncertainty in snow/ice model simulations originating from precipitation was investigated. The contribution of snow to ice transformation was vital for the total lake ice thickness. At the seasonal time scale, the ice bottom growth was 50–70% of the total ice growth. The SIMB is suitable for monitoring snow and ice temperatures and thicknesses. The Mean Bias Error (MBE between the SIMB and borehole measurements was −0.7 cm for snow thicknesses and 1.7 cm for ice thickness. The temporal evolution of MODIS surface temperature (three seasons agrees well with SIMB and HIGHTSI results (correlation coefficient, R=0.81. The HIGHTSI surface temperatures were, however, higher (2.8°C≤MBE≤3.9°C than the MODIS observations. The development of HIRLAM by increasing its horizontal and vertical resolution and including a lake parameterisation scheme improved the atmospheric forcing for HIGHTSI, especially the relative humidity and solar radiation. Challenges remain in accurate simulation of snowfall events and total precipitation.

  8. Birth weight by gestational age and congenital malformations in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Nigatu, Balkachew; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-03-29

    Studies on birth weight and congenital anomalies in sub-Saharan regions are scarce. Data on child variables (gestational age, birth weight, sex, and congenital malformations) and maternal variables (gravidity, parity, antenatal care, previous abortions, maternal illness, age, medication, and malformation history) were collected for all neonates delivered at Ayder referral and Mekelle hospitals (Northern Ehthiopia) in a prospective study between 01-12-2011 and 01-05-2012. The total number of deliveries was 1516. More female (54%) than male neonates were born. Birth weights were 700-1,000 grams between 26 and 36 weeks of pregnancy and then increased linearly to 3,500-4,000 grams at 40 weeks. Thirty-five and 54% of neonates were very-low and low birth weight, respectively, without sex difference. Very-low birth-weight prevalence was not affected by parity. Male and female neonates from parity-2 and parity-2-4 mothers, respectively, were least frequently under weight. Sixty percent of newborns to parity -3 mothers weighed less than 2,500 grams, without sex difference. The percentage male neonates dropped from ~50% in parity-1-3 mothers to ~20% in parity-6 mothers. Diagnosed congenital malformations (~2%) were 2-fold more frequent in boys than girls. The commonest malformations were in the central nervous system (CNS; ~1.5% of newborns). Parity, low birth weight, gestational age less than 35 weeks, male sex, and lack of antenatal care were the most significant risk factors for congenital anomalies. The high prevalence of neonates with low birth weight and CNS anomalies in Northern Ethiopia was very high. The findings may reflect the harsh conditions in the past 2 decades and suggest environmental and/or nutritional causes. Male sex and parity affected the outcome of pregnancy negatively.

  9. SIMS zircon ages and Nd isotope systematics of the 2.2 Ga mafic intrusions in northern and eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Hanski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the SIMS, ID-TIMS and Sm-Nd isotopic methods and the electron microprobe, we have studied several differentiated mafic intrusions of the c. 2.2 Ga gabbro-wehrlite association (GWA from four Paleoproterozoic schist belts and the Archean Kuhmo Greenstone Belt. Back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses revealed that zircon crystals vary from well-preserved to turbid and highly altered with individual grains often displaying irregular, hydrated, CaO-bearing domains. In the most pristine domains, suitable for establishing the crystallization ages, SIMS 207Pb/206Pb ages fall in the range of 2210–2220 Ma, which is consistent with the most concordant ID-TIMS UPb ages. One of the studied intrusions that had previously yielded a conventional U-Pb date of less than 2.0 Ga, could be shown by spot analysis to belong to the 2.2 Ga family. In contrast to the well-preserved zircon domains, altered domains exhibit a variable and often strong U-Pb discordance up to 70 % and have distinctly lower 207Pb/206Pb ages. Some zircon grains record isotopic resetting at the time of the Svecofennian orogeny(ca. 1.8–1.9 Ga, while the most discordant ones project in the concordia diagram to late Paleozoic lower intercept ages indicating a relative recent Pb loss. The mineral chemistry of zircon suggests that the leakage of radiogenic Pb can be ascribed to an opensystembehavior related to hydrothermal alteration via action of CaCl2-bearing fluids.Common albitization of plagioclase in the GWA intrusions has caused this mineral to behave as an open system with regard to the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics. Despite this uncertainty, our Nd isotopic data indicate that the magma that produced the GWA intrusions in various parts of northern and eastern Finland was isotopically homogeneousand had an initial εNd(2220 Ma value of c. +0.6 precluding significant upper crustal contamination upon emplacement and subsequent fractional crystallization.

  10. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Fabienne; Wilkins, Russell; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193), we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal) and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal). From 1991-1995 to 1996-2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05-2.01)]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64-4.83)]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66-0.92)], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71-6.62)]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99-4.85)]. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  11. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Simonet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. Study design and methods. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193, we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal. Results. From 1991–1995 to 1996–2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.01]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64–4.83]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66–0.92], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71–6.62]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99–4.85]. Conclusion. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  12. A Comparison of Medical Birth Register Outcomes between Maternity Health Clinics and Integrated Maternity and Child Health Clinics in Southwest Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia Tuominen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Methods: A comparative, register-based cross-sectional design was used. The data of women (N = 2741 who had given birth in the Turku University Hospital area between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009 were collected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Comparisons were made between the women who were clients of the maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics. Results: There were no clinically significant differences between the clients of maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics regarding the utilisation of maternity care services or the explored health outcomes. Conclusions: The organisational model of the maternity health clinic does not impact the utilisation of maternity care services or maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Primary maternity care could be provided effectively when integrated with child health services.

  13. A Comparison of Medical Birth Register Outcomes between Maternity Health Clinics and Integrated Maternity and Child Health Clinics in Southwest Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Miia; Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-07-08

    Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes. A comparative, register-based cross-sectional design was used. The data of women (N = 2741) who had given birth in the Turku University Hospital area between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009 were collected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Comparisons were made between the women who were clients of the maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics. There were no clinically significant differences between the clients of maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics regarding the utilisation of maternity care services or the explored health outcomes. The organisational model of the maternity health clinic does not impact the utilisation of maternity care services or maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Primary maternity care could be provided effectively when integrated with child health services.

  14. Season of birth and morningness: comparison between the northern and southern hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Vincenzo; Di Milia, Lee

    2011-10-01

    The present study explored the possible role of the photoperiod at birth on morningness by collecting data in the northern (Italy) and southern (Australia) hemispheres. To assess circadian typology, the Composite Scale of Morningness (CS) was administered to a sample of 1734 university students (977 Italian and 757 Australian; 1099 females and 635 males; age 24.79 ± 7.45 yrs [mean ± SD]). Consistent with the literature, females reported higher CS scores (morningness) than males, and Australian participants reported higher CS scores than Italian participants. Allowing for the fact the seasons are reversed between the hemispheres, the results are in line with previous studies. The authors found more evening types were born during the seasons associated with longer photoperiod (spring and summer), and more morning types were born during the seasons associated with shorter photoperiod (autumn and winter), indirectly supporting an imprinting-like phenomenon played by the photoperiod at birth.

  15. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Abubakari

    Full Text Available Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings.The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns, and practices and birth weight in Northern Ghana.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was performed in two districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The selected districts were the Tamale Metropolis and Savelugu-Nanton District. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural populations, therefore ensuring that the distribution in social groups of the study population was similar to the entire population of the region. In all, 578 mothers who were drawing antenatal and postnatal care services were interviewed using a questionnaire, which asked the mothers about their frequency of consumption of individual foods per week since they became pregnant or when they were pregnant.We determined dietary patterns by applying a factor analysis with a varimax rotation using STATA. Multivariate analysis was used to establish association between maternal factors and dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary practices and patterns and birth weight.Women who ate outside the home twice a week (OR = 1.6 & 95% CI; 1.1-2.45, P; 0.017 and those who practiced 'pica' (OR = 1.7 & 95% CI; 1.16-2.75, P; 0.008 had increased odds for low birth. Two dietary patterns were identified-namely 'health conscious' and 'non

  16. Fear of childbirth in nulliparous and multiparous women: a population-based analysis of all singleton births in Finland in 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, S; Lehto, S M; Nielsen, H S; Gissler, M; Kramer, M R; Heinonen, S

    2014-07-01

    To identify risk factors for fear of childbirth (FOC) according to parity and socioeconomic status, and to evaluate associations between FOC and adverse perinatal outcomes. A cohort study. The Finnish Medical Birth Register. All 788 317 singleton births during 1997-2010 in Finland. Fear of childbirth was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases code O99.80, and its associations with several risk factors and perinatal outcomes were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Prevalence of, risk factors for and outcomes of FOC. Fear of childbirth was experienced by 2.5% of nulliparous women and 4.5% of multiparous women. The strongest risk factors for FOC in nulliparous women were depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 6.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.25-7.68], advanced maternal age (aOR, 3.78; 95% CI, 3.23-4.42) and high or unspecified socioeconomic status. In multiparous women, the strongest risk factors for FOC were depression (aOR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.67-6.41), previous caesarean section (CS) (aOR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.93-3.11) and high or unspecified socioeconomic status. Among both nulliparous and multiparous women, FOC was associated with higher rates of CS (3.3-fold and 4.5-fold higher, respectively) and a lower incidence of low birthweight (depression are predisposing factors for FOC regardless of parity. Among multiparous women, a previous CS increases vulnerability to FOC. FOC is associated with increased rates of CS, but does not adversely affect other pregnancy outcomes. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scale dependence of biotic homogenisation by urbanisation: a comparison of urban bird communities between central Argentina and northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leveau Lucas M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed contrasting results about the homogenising force of urbanisation on bird community composition at large and regional scales. We studied whether urbanisation promotes the homogenisation of wintering bird communities and if this varies when comparing towns located within a specific region and towns located in two different biomes of two countries. We used both similarity indices based on the presence/absence data and the abundance data in comparing communities. Processes governing bird community dissimilarity between urbanisation levels were examined with the partitioning of Sörensen index in species turnover and nestedness. We made bird surveys in town centres and suburban habitats of three cities located in the Pampean region of Argentina and in the boreal region of Finland using a single-visit study plot method. Rarefacted species richness did not differ amongst the town centres between the countries, but it was higher in the suburban areas of Argentina than in Finland. At the country-level comparison, we found a higher similarity amongst the town centres than amongst the suburban areas; whereas at the regional comparison, similarity between town centres was comparable to the similarity between suburban areas. The use of an abundance-based index produced a higher similarity between town centre communities of both countries than when using a presence-based index. The dissimilarity between habitats in Argentina was related to nestedness and to species turnover in Finland. Our results indicate that urban-based biotic homogenisation of bird communities is dependent on the scale used, being more evident when comparing cities of different biomes where the same and abundant bird species, such as sparrows and doves, dominate. At the regional scale, quite a high beta-diversity can still be found within urban habitats. Processes of community dissimilarity between urban habitats may differ according to the regional pool of species

  19. Timing of births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Mendes, S L; Santos, R R

    2001-10-01

    We monitored the birth patterns of sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) during a 4-yr period from October 1996 to August 2000 at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brown howler monkey births (n = 34) occurred throughout the year, and birth frequencies did not differ between rainy and dry season months. The aseasonal birth patterns of the howler monkeys differed significantly from the dry season concentration and dry month peak in muriqui births (n = 23). We found no effects of infant sex or the number of females on interbirth intervals (IBIs) in our 10 howler monkey study troops. IBIs of brown howler monkeys averaged 21.2 +/- 2.5 mo (n = 8, median = 21.0 mo), and were significantly shorter following dry season births than rainy season births. Their IBIs and yearling survivorship (74%) were similar to those reported for other species of howler monkeys, but yearling survivorship was much lower than that of muriquis (94%), whose IBIs were more than 12 mo longer than those of the howler monkeys. Our study extends comparative knowledge of birth patterns in Alouatta to a poorly known species, and provides insights into the different ways in which diet and life history may affect the timing of births in large-bodied platyrrhines under the same seasonal ecological conditions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  1. Multiple measures of adiposity are associated with mean leukocyte telomere length in the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966

    OpenAIRE

    Buxton, Jessica L.; Das, Shikta; Rodriguez, Alina; Kaakinen, Marika; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Sebert, Sylvain; Millwood, Iona Y.; Laitinen, Jaana; O’Reilly, Paul F.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and adiposity have produced conflicting results, and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and telomere length throughout life remains unclear. We therefore tested association of adult LTL measured in 5,598 participants with: i) childhood growth measures (BMI and age at adiposity rebound (AR)); ii) change in BMI from childhood to adulthood and iii) adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body adiposity index (BAI). Childhood BMI at AR was posit...

  2. A Year in the Life: Annual Patterns of CO2 and CH4 from a Northern Finland Peatland, Including Anaerobic Methane Oxidation and Summer Ebullition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Biasi, C.; Dorodnikov, M.; Männistö, M.; Lai, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The major ecological controls on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in northern wetland systems are well known, yet estimates of source/sink magnitudes are often incongruous with measured rates. This mismatch persists because holistic flux datasets are rare, preventing 'whole picture' determinations of flux controls. To combat this, we measured net CO2 and CH4 fluxes from September 2012-2013 within a peatland in northern Lapland, Finland. In addition, we performed in situ manipulations and in vitro soil incubations to quantify anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenic rates as they related to alternative electron acceptor availability. Average annual fluxes varied substantially between different depressions within the wetland, a pattern that persisted through all seasons. Season was a strong predictor of both CO2 and CH4 flux rates, yet CH4 rates were not related to melt-season 10cm or 30cm soil temperatures, and only poorly predicted with air temperatures. We found evidence for both autumnal and spring thaw CH4 bursts, collectively accounting for 26% of annual CH4 flux, although the autumnal burst was more than 5 fold larger than the spring burst. CH4 ebullition measured throughout the growing season augmented the CH4 source load by a factor of 1.5, and was linked with fine-scale spatial heterogeneity within the wetland. Surprisingly, CH4 flux rates were insensitive to Fe(III) and humic acid soil amendments, both of which amplified CO2 fluxes. Using in vitro incubations, we determined anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenesis rates. Measured anaerobic oxidation rates showed potential consumption of between 6-39% of the methane produced, contributing approximately 1% of total carbon dioxide flux. Treatments of nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron showed that nitrate suppressed methanogenesis, but were not associated with anaerobic oxidation rates.

  3. Energy Supply Potentials in the Northern Counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden towards Sustainable Nordic Electricity and Heating Sectors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fischer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The lands in the northernmost corner of Europe present contradictory aspects in their social and economic development. Urban settlements are relatively few and small-sized, but rich natural resources (minerals, forests, rivers attract energy-intensive industries. Energy demand is increasing as a result of new investments in mining and industries, while reliable energy supply is threatened by the planned phase out of Swedish nuclear power, the growth of intermittent power supplies and the need to reduce fossil fuel consumption, especially in the Finnish and Norwegian energy sectors. Given these challenges, this paper investigates the potentials of so far unexploited energy resources in the northern counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden by comparing and critically analyzing data from statistic databases, governmental reports, official websites, research projects and academic publications. The criteria for the technical and economic definition of potentials are discussed separately for each resource. It is concluded that, despite the factors that reduce the theoretical potentials, significant sustainable techno-economic potentials exist for most of the resources, providing important insights about the possible strategies to contribute to a positive socio-economic development in the considered regions.

  4. Effects of network development on attitudes towards work and well-being at work among health care staff in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanste, Outi; Lipponen, Kaija; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2010-09-01

    To assess the effects of network development between primary and special health care units on attitudes towards work and well-being at work among health care staff. A prospective quasi-experimental design with intervention (n=33) and control (n=23) groups. This 2-year pilot intervention study was implemented in 14 health centres and 4 hospitals in northern Finland. The material was gathered via self-reported questionnaires from the health care staff at baseline and 1 follow-up. The intervention was composed of regional networking, self-ruling teamwork, staff education and guidance for the multiprofessional teams consisting of participants from primary and special health care units. The objective of these teams was to construct and disseminate regional models of patient education for the service process of 6 patient groups: cardiovascular, COPD, total joint replacement, cerebral infarction, cancer and chronic ulcer patients. The network development intervention had positive effects on attitudes towards work concerning organizational commitment, occupational commitment and growth satisfaction. The positive effects were also found in well-being at work, measured by absorption. The results are encouraging, although the study failed to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in other attitude and well-being outcomes that were measured. Network development intervention particularly improved positive attitudes towards work among health care staff. Although randomized controlled trials are needed, regional network development between health centres and hospitals is recommended when the goal is positive attitudes towards work and well-being at work in sparsely populated and rural areas.

  5. Do perinatal and early life exposures influence the risk of malignant melanoma? A Northern Ireland birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, M A; Black, C; Murray, L J; Cardwell, C R; Gavin, A T; Cantwell, M M

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine, early life and maternal exposures may have important consequences for cancer development in later life. The aim of this study was to examine perinatal and birth characteristics with respect to Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) risk. The Northern Ireland Child Health System database was used to examine gestational age adjusted birth weight, infant feeding practices, parental age and socioeconomic factors at birth in relation to CMM risk amongst 447,663 infants delivered between January 1971 and December 1986. Follow-up of histologically verified CMM cases was undertaken from the beginning of 1993 to 31st December 2007. Multivariable adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CMM risk. A total of 276 CMM cases and 440,336 controls contributed to the final analysis. In reference to normal (gestational age-adjusted) weight babies, those heaviest at birth were twice as likely to develop CMM OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1). Inverse associations with CMM risk were observed with younger (birth and both a higher birth order and greater household density OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-0.99) and OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.30-1.0) respectively. This large study of early onset melanoma supports a positive association with higher birth weight (imperatively gestational age adjusted) and CMM risk which may be related to factors which drive intrauterine foetal growth. Strong inverse associations observed with higher birth order and household density suggest that early-life immune modulation may confer protection; findings which warrant further investigation in prospective analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic matter iron and nutrient transport and nature of dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin of a boreal humic river in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Organic carbon and iron transport into the Gulf of Bothnia and the seasonal changes in the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in 1983 and 1984 at the mouth of the River Kiiminkijoki, which crosses an area of minerotrophic mires in northern Finland. Organic and inorganic transport within the drainage basin was studied in the summer and autumn of 1985 and 1986. The results indicate that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is mainly of terrestrial origin, leaching mostly from peatlands. The DOC concentrations decrease under low flow conditions. The proportion of drifting algae as a particulate organic carbon (POC) source seems to increase in summer. The changes in the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of fluorescence to DOC with discharge give indications of the origin, formation, nature and fate of the DOM in the river water. Temperature-dependent microbiological processes in the formation and sedimentation of Fe-organic colloids seem to be important. Estimates are given for the amounts and transport rates of organic carbon and Fe discharged into the Gulf of Bothnia by river. High apparent molecular weight (HAMW) organic colloids are important for the organic, Fe and P transport in the basin. The DOM in the water consists mainly of fulvic acids, although humic acids are also important. The results indicate an increase in the mobilization of HAMW Fe-organic colloids in the peatlands following drainage and peat mining. The transport of inorganic nitrogen from the peatlands in the area and in the river is increasing due to peat mining. The changes in the transport of organic matter, Fe and P are less marked

  7. Technical note: New particle formation event forecasts during PEGASOS-Zeppelin Northern mission 2013 in Hyytiälä, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, T.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Manninen, H. E.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-11-01

    New particle formation (NPF) occurs frequently in the global atmosphere. During recent years, detailed laboratory experiments combined with intensive field observations in different locations have provided insights into the vapours responsible for the initial formation of particles and their subsequent growth. In this regard, the importance of sulfuric acid, stabilizing bases such as ammonia and amines as well as extremely low volatile organics, have been proposed. The instrumentation to observe freshly formed aerosol particles has developed to a stage where the instruments can be implemented as part of airborne platforms, such as aircrafts or a Zeppelin-type airship. Flight measurements are technically more demanding and require a greater detail of planning than field studies at the ground level. The high cost of flight hours, limited time available during a single research flight for the measurements, and different instrument payloads in Zeppelin airship for various flight missions demanded an analysis tool that would forecast whether or not there is a good chance for an NPF event. Here we present a methodology to forecast NPF event probability at the SMEAR II site in Hyytiälä, Finland. This methodology was used to optimize flight hours during the PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas Aerosol Climate Interaction Study)-Zeppelin Northern mission in May-June 2013. Based on the existing knowledge, we derived a method for estimating the nucleation probability that utilizes forecast air mass trajectories, weather forecasts, and air quality model predictions. With the forecast tool we were able to predict the occurrence of NPF events for the next day with more than 90 % success rate (10 out of 11 NPF event days correctly predicted). To our knowledge, no similar forecasts of NPF occurrence have been developed for other sites. This method of forecasting NPF occurrence could be applied also at other locations, provided that long-term observations of conditions favouring particle

  8. Membership Finland

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1991-01-01

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  9. Reflections on “Crossing Borders in Birthing Practices”: Hmong in Northern Thailand and Saint Paul, Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a family physician and medical anthropologist, I have interacted with pregnant women and their families in Minnesota since 1983 and in one Hmong village in Northern Thailand since 1988. In the previous article I describe our recent research about Hmong families’ pregnancy and birth practices in Thailand. In this article, I reflect upon the differences in Minnesota and Thailand, consider what socio-cultural factors may be influencing people’s experiences, and speculate that Minnesota Hmong experiences could be helpful to Thai Hmong.

  10. The evolving role of traditional birth attendants in maternal health in post-conflict Africa: A qualitative study of Burundi and northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Primus Che; Urdal, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Many conflict-affected countries are faced with an acute shortage of health care providers, including skilled birth attendants. As such, during conflicts traditional birth attendants have become the first point of call for many pregnant women, assisting them during pregnancy, labour and birth, and in the postpartum period. This study seeks to explore how the role of traditional birth attendants in maternal health, especially childbirth, has evolved in two post-conflict settings in sub-Saharan Africa (Burundi and northern Uganda) spanning the period of active warfare to the post-conflict era. A total of 63 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions were held with women of reproductive age, local health care providers and staff of non-governmental organisations working in the domain of maternal health who experienced the conflict, across urban, semi-urban and rural settings in Burundi and northern Uganda. Discussions focused on the role played by traditional birth attendants in maternal health, especially childbirth during the conflict and how the role has evolved in the post-conflict era. Transcripts from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed by thematic analysis (framework approach). Traditional birth attendants played a major role in childbirth-related activities in both Burundi and northern Uganda during the conflict, with some receiving training and delivery kits from the local health systems and non-governmental organisations to undertake deliveries. Following the end of the conflict, traditional birth attendants have been prohibited by the government from undertaking deliveries in both Burundi and northern Uganda. In Burundi, the traditional birth attendants have been integrated within the primary health care system, especially in rural areas, and re-assigned the role of 'birth companions'. In this capacity they undertake maternal health promotion activities within their communities. In northern Uganda, on

  11. The Petäjäskoski Formation, a new lithostratigraphic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kyläkoski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the first description of a newly-recognized, basin-wide metasedimentary unit in the Paleoproterozoic (~2.4–1.9 Ga Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland. The unit, which is named the Petäjäskoski Formation (PFm after the single location where the rocks are known to be exposed, is situated stratigraphically in the middle part of the Kivalo Group between the quartzites of the>2.22 Ga Palokivalo Formation and the mafic volcanic rocks of the ~2.1 Ga Jouttiaapa Formation.The bulk of the PFm comprises phlogopitic-sericitic and albitic schists with abundant hematite as a diagnostic feature. Quartzite and dolomite interbeds are common. Based on drillcore and geophysical data, the succession is several hundreds of meters thick. The unit has prograde, chiefly lower greenschist facies mineral assemblages and, though being commonly intensely deformed, shows well-preserved sedimentary structures that imply deposition in shallow-water tosubaerial environments. Based on the original lithological features, the Petäjäskoski Formation can be defined as a claystone-siltstone-sandstone-dolostone association. On the geochemical and stratigraphic basis, the albite schists likely represent albitized equivalents of the micaceous claystones and siltstones. They are intercalated with stratabound collapse breccias, up to tens of meters in thickness, with clasts composed mainly of bordering albite schist. A mafic sill intruding the Petäjäskoski Formation yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 2140 ± 11 Ma. The older, c. 2220 Ma, differentiated sills are not known to reach the stratigraphic level of thePetäjäskoski Formation and hence, the depositional age of the PFm sediments can be bracketed between c. 2220 and 2140 Ma. Detrital zircon grains dated from a quartzitic sample from the PFmshow an Archean (c. 2650–3470 Ma provenance.The moderate to high MgO (~6–13 wt.%, K2O (~3–8 wt.% and FeOtot(8–15 wt.% contents, low CaO and Na2O contents, and abundant

  12. Wedding trends in Finland 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Krista

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the whole wedding industry is introduced on the global level first and then given a few good examples of market leaders in Northern America and Europe. Wedding surveys done in USA and UK give informative results about the average age of bride and groom, wedding budget breakdowns, size of the weddings, most popular months to get married, most wanted venues, trendy themes and everlasting traditions. The wedding business in Finland is compared with these huge market leaders by us...

  13. The effect of temperature on forest production in Canada, Finland and Sweden. Predicted effects of a global warming on production of lodgepole pine and Scots pine in the northern boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Anders

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse relationships between forest production and climatic factors under different biogeoclimatic conditions and, thus, to enhance our ability to predict changes in production following temperature increases. Production in the IUFRO 70/71 provenance test series with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) was correlated to climate data from adjacent meteorological stations. Field-tests in Canada (British Columbia and the Yukon) and Scandinavia (Finland and Sweden) were evaluated about 20 years after planting. The temperature regime was strongly correlated to forest production in the northern boreal forest regions. The temperature during the growing season as a whole and the length of it seem to be more important than the maximum summer temperature. The relationship between production and temperature was weaker in Canada than in Scandinavia, and production increased generally more on poor and intermediate sites than on rich sites. According to the presented algorithms, an increase in the temperature sum from 600 to 1200 degree days, would theoretically result in an increase in site index of between 5 and 13 m for lodgepole pine, and slightly lower for Scots pine. The highest increases would occur in Scandinavia. Temperature plots show that, especially in northern Scandinavia, a higher mean temperature would prolong the growing season, and this may make short spells with above 0 deg C-temperatures during the dormant period. Together with drought during the growing season, this may increase the frequency of climate-related frost damage

  14. Impacts of changing climate on the productivity of Norway spruce dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine and birch in relation to water availability in southern and northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Yun; Väisänen, Hannu

    2011-03-01

    A process-based ecosystem model was used to assess the impacts of changing climate on net photosynthesis and total stem wood growth in relation to water availability in two unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula sp.). The mixed stands were grown over a 100-year rotation (2000-99) in southern and northern Finland with initial species shares of 50, 25 and 25% for Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch, respectively. In addition, pure Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch stands were used as a comparison to identify whether species' response is different in mixed and pure stands. Soil type and moisture conditions (moderate drought) were expected to be the same at the beginning of the simulations irrespective of site location. Regardless of tree species, both annual net canopy photosynthesis (P(nc)) and total stem wood growth (V(s)) were, on average, lower on the southern site under the changing climate compared with the current climate (difference increasing toward the end of the rotation); the opposite was the case for the northern site. Regarding the stand water budget, evapotranspiration (E(T)) was higher under the changing climate regardless of site location. Transpiration and evaporation from the canopy affected water depletion the most. Norway spruce and birch accounted for most of the water depletion in mixed stands on both sites regardless of climatic condition. The annual soil water deficit (W(d)) was higher on the southern site under the changing climate. On the northern site, the situation was the opposite. According to our results, the growth of pure Norway spruce stands in southern Finland could be even lower than the growth of Norway spruce in mixed stands under the changing climate. The opposite was found for pure Scots pine and birch stands due to lower water depletion. This indicates that in the future the management should be properly adapted to climate change in order to

  15. SIMS U-Pb, Sm-Nd isotope and geochemical study of an arkosite-amphibolite suite, Peräpohja Schist Belt: evidence for ca. 1.98 Ga A-type felsic magmatism in northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Hanski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the northern and north-eastern part of the Peräpohja Schist Belt, northern Finland, an extensive supracrustal rock unit has been identified which is composed of alternating amphibolitic and arkositic components. The amphibolites form layers whose thickness varies from one millimeter to some tens of meters, being most often a few tens of centimeters. They represent mafic tuff beds deposited concurrently with more abundant arkositic rocks. Most of the arkosites have a modal and major and trace element compositionsimilar to that of A2-type granites. For example, they exhibit high LREE/HREE, negative Eu anomalies, and flat HREE and are moderately enriched in Nb, Zr, and Y. The genesis of the arkosites is enigmatic as they show features supporting either a volcaniclastic or an epiclastic origin. In the latter case, they were derived via erosion of a source dominated by A2-type granitic rocks. Previous conventional ID-TIMS and new SIMS U-Pb dating of zircons from two arkosite samples and one mica schist sample, all three picked from the northern part of the schist belt, indicate that these rocks contain a single population of zircons with an age of ca. 1975 Ma suggesting that they are among the youngest supracrustal rocks in the schist belt. In contrast, one mica schist sample from the western part of the belt revealed only the presence of Archean zircons. The samples do not differ markedly in terms of their Nd isotopecomposition as they all have a moderately negative εNd(1900 Ma. Regardless of the genesis of the arkosites, their isotopic and geochemical data suggest a previously unknown occurrence of extensive A-type felsic magmatism at ca. 1.98 Ga, contemporaneously withsome continental flood basalts. However, concrete evidence for this felsic A-type magmatism in the form of ca. 1.98 Ga felsic plutonic rocks is virtually absent in the presently exposed Fennoscandian Shield.

  16. Large shifts in vegetation and climate during the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-c) inferred from multi-proxy evidence at Sokli (northern Finland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmens, K.F.; Väliranta, M.; Engels, S.; Shala, S

    2012-01-01

    For decades, detailed studies on Early Weichselian deposits have been made in central Europe. In contrast, these studies are rare in Fennoscandia in northern Europe. We here integrate an extensive multi-proxy data set obtained on sediments of MIS 5d-c age that form part of a long sediment record

  17. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  18. Organosulfates and Carboxylic Acids in Secondary Organic Aerosols in Coniferous Forests in Rocky Mountains (USA), Sierra Nevada Mountains (USA) and Northern Europe (Finland and Denmark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, M.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Kristensen, T. B.; Mccubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.; Petäjä, T.; Surratt, J. D.; Worton, D. R.; Bilde, M.; Kulmala, M. T.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Levels and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosols affect their climate effects and properties. Organosulfates (OS) are formed through heterogeneous reactions involving oxidized sulfur compounds, primarily originating from anthropogenic sources. Availability of authentic standards have until now been an obstacle to quantitative investigations of OS in atmospheric aerosols. We have developed a new, facile method for synthesis and purification of OS standards. Here we have used 7 standards to quantify OS and nitrooxy organosulfates (NOS) observed in aerosols collected at four sites in coniferous forests in USA and Europe during spring or summer. The two American sites were Storm Peak Laboratory, Colorado (Rocky Mountains, elevation 3220 m a.s.l) and Sierra Nevada Mountains, California (as part of BEARPEX 2007 and 2009). The European sites were Hyytiälä Forest Station, Finland (in the boreal zone) and Silkeborg, Denmark (temperate forest). Aerosol filter samples were extracted and analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatograph coupled through an electrospray inlet to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-QTOF-MS). We identified 11 carboxylic acids using authentic standards, while 16 different OS and 8 NOS were identified based on their molecular mass and MS fragmentation patterns, as well as comparison with available standards. OS were ubiquitous in the atmospheric aerosol samples, even at the high elevation mountain station. Levels of carboxylic acids from oxidation of monoterpenes were 8-25 ng m-3 at Silkeborg and Storm Peak Laboratory, while concentrations at the sites with strong regional monoterpene emissions (Sierra Nevada Mountains and Hyytiälä) were much higher (10-200 ng m-3). At all sites, the dominant group of OS were derived from isoprene (IEPOX) and related compounds, while OS of monoterpenes showed lower concentrations, except at Hyytiälä during periods of north-westerly winds when monoterpene OS were at similar or

  19. Applying the global positioning system and google earth to evaluate the accessibility of birth services for pregnant women in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Wang, Jung-Der; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung; Rn, Tzu-Yi Chiang; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rn, Hsiu-Hung Wang; Nyasulu, Yohane M Z; Kolola-Dzimadzi, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the combined use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Google Earth for measuring the accessibility of health care facilities for pregnant women in northern Malawi. We used GPS and Google Earth to identify 5 major health care facilities in Mzuzu (Malawi) and the homes of 79 traditional birth attendants (TBAs). The distance and time required for each TBA to reach the nearest health care facility were measured by both GPS and by self-report of the TBAs. A convenience sample of 1138 pregnant women was interviewed about their choices of birth sites for current and previous pregnancies and the time and cost required to access health care facilities. The correlation coefficient between the objective measurements by GPS and subjective reports by TBAs for time required from their homes to health care facilities was 0.654 (P birth at a health care facility. However, only 48.7% of women actually gave birth in a health care facility in a previous pregnancy, and 32.6% were assisted by TBAs. Combined GPS and Google Earth can be useful in the evaluation of accessibility of health care facilities, especially for emergency obstetric care. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  20. Season of birth in suicides: excess of births during the summer among schizophrenic suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhumaa, Tuomo; Hakko, Helinä; Nauha, Rauno; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    Season of birth is associated with several psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. We explored the association between the season of birth and suicide among schizophrenic and psychotic suicide victims. The study sample consisted of all suicides in the province of Oulu in Northern Finland from 1989 to 2010. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates, and psychiatric diagnoses associated with the hospital treatments were obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The seasons were defined as follows: winter (from November to January), spring (from February to April), summer (from May to July), and autumn (from August to October). Suicide victims (n = 1,902) were categorized as having either schizophrenia (n = 228) or psychosis other than schizophrenia (n = 240). Suicide victims without any hospital-treated mental disorder (n = 1,434) were used as a comparison group. The distribution of births among suicide victims with schizophrenia differed statistically significantly from that observed in the general population, with a peak in summer (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). Birth during summer may predispose schizophrenic persons to suicide. The putative roles of serotonin, dopamine, and vitamin D status in the season of birth of psychotic suicide victims are discussed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at ∼50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmens, Karin F.

    2009-08-01

    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at ∼ 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14 C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last ∼130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to ∼50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results have been

  2. Terrorism research in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jännes, Veera

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade terrorism has become an increasingly visible part of society and the debate about society. Although Finland has escaped serious incidents of terrorism in the recent past, it has been obliged to take a stance on terrorism, create legislation regarding terrorism and formulate its policy on counterterrorism. Through international treaties Finland is committed to participating in the international fight against terrorism. Terrorism research supports counterterrorism by providin...

  3. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at approx50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmens, Karin F. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at approx 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last approx130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to approx50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results

  4. Birth order of twins and risk of perinatal death related to delivery in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S; Fleming, Kate M; White, Ian R

    2007-03-17

    To determine the effect of birth order on the risk of perinatal death in twin pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003. 1377 twin pregnancies with one intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death from causes other than congenital abnormality and one surviving infant. The risk of perinatal death in the first and second twin estimated with conditional logistic regression. There was no association between birth order and the risk of death overall (odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1). However, there was a highly significant interaction with gestational age (Pbirth order and the risk of death among infants born before 36 weeks' gestation but there was an increased risk of death among second twins born at term (2.3, 1.7 to 3.2, Pbirths, there was a trend (P=0.1) towards a greater risk of the second twin dying from anoxia among those delivered vaginally (4.1, 1.8 to 9.5) compared with those delivered by caesarean section (1.8, 0.9 to 3.6). In this cohort, compared with first twins, second twins born at term were at increased risk of perinatal death related to delivery. Vaginally delivered second twins had a fourfold risk of death caused by intrapartum anoxia.

  5. Terrorist attacks and the male-to-female ratio at birth: The Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Rodney King riots, and the Breivik and Sandy Hook shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-12-01

    Males are usually born in excess of females. The ratio is often expressed as M/F (male divided by total births). A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence M/F. Terrorist attacks reduce M/F. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether individual terrorist attacks influenced M/F in relevant populations. The following events were studied: the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Los Angeles Riots (the Rodney King affair), the Breivik shooting (Norway), and the Sandy Hook shooting (Connecticut). Northern Ireland M/F was significantly lower during the Troubles (1969-1998) than during the period before (p=0.0006). There was a very sharp dip in 1978 (p≤0.004) during this particular year of renewed violence and heavy civilian attacks. Rodney King riots-late April 1992 M/F dipped significantly in August 1992, 4months after the riots (p=0.044). Breivik Shooting-22/07/2011 M/F dipped significantly in December 2011, 5months after the event (p=0.004). Sandy Hook Shooting-14/12/2012 M/F dipped significantly in April 2013, 4months after the event (p=0.009). M/F dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are felt to be momentous enough by a given population. All of the above events caused significant population stress. The M/F dips noted may have been caused by population stress which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male foetuses. The dips noted are comparable to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially elevating this a public health issue. 1. The male-to-female ratio at birth is decreased by stressful events. 2. This is due to an excess of male foetal losses in established pregnancies. 3. Such losses in response to acute events are transient. 4. This ratio may be a useful indicator of population stress. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS: 1. Gender ratios in populations could be routinely monitored in order to assess the impact of stressful events that may reduce the male-to-female birth ratio. Copyright

  6. Energy taxation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy taxation in Finland is described in addition to plans for reforms in this respect. It is stated that taxation on energy has primarily a fiscal motive, and it can also be used as a means of steering of energy and environmental policy. Numerical data illustrate the text. (AB)

  7. Getting to Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Kan man både opnå topplaceringer i PISA og blive Nordens mester i lighed gennem uddannelse? Finland kan. Men har den danske folkeskole mod til at tage samme type af ansvar for skabe større lighed gennem uddannelse, end vi hidtil har opnået?...

  8. National programme: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.

    1986-01-01

    Finland's programmes in the field of reactor pressure components are presented in this paper. The following information on each of these programmes is given: the brief description of the programme; the programme's schedule and duration; the name of the project manager

  9. Defensive Defense in Finland - Will It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    34 has ben Novgorod, Muscovy , Russia o- the - - Soviet Union.’ DurinQ the"s "yers of danger’ and since, Finlandtc security-political situation can be...solution in a new security policy context. The Republic of Finland is a small, prosperous 6t~ate in theA( northern part of Europe. Socially and politically...Finlaad’s history more than any other event in the nation’s history . The nation, divided in two by the gory sivil war of 1918, was reunited in opposition

  10. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiömäki, Nelli; Auvinen, Juha; Tulppo, Mikko P; Hautala, Arto J; Perkiömäki, Juha; Karhunen, Ville; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Huikuri, Heikki V; Kiviniemi, Antti M

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects. At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD) from R-R intervals (RRi) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking) and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status) potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function. In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014) and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, pmid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less favourable cardiovascular autonomic regulation and potentially to an elevated cardiovascular risk in later life.

  11. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Finland covers an area of 337,000 skm. One third of the country lies north of the northern polar circle. 31,613 skm are covered by lakes. 71% of the landscape are covered by coniferous -wood. Climatlcal conditions are continental. The topography of the country is gently rolling with highest elevations of 300 m in the northern part. The most interesting geological units for uranium are Karelian, marginal meta-sediments, mainly quarzites and conglomerates but also schists. These schists are intruded by orogenlc plutonic rocks which are 1800-My-old. Potassium granites are common adjacent to the contact of the Pre-karelian basement (2500 My). In addition to these geological environment uranium and thorium minerals have been found in a large carbonatite in northern Finland, which is explored now

  12. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...

  13. [Designer drugs in Finland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Ulrich; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Korpi, Esa R; Pihlainen, Katja; Alho, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Designer drugs are synthetic psychotropic drugs which are marketed as "legal drugs". Their emergence, rapid spreading and unpredictable effects have challenged the health and substance abuse care. The slow process of classification of an abusable drug has provided too many possibilities for spreading the designer drugs. Once a certain substance receives an illegal drugs classification, dealers and users usually move to another, slightly different molecule that is still legal. In Finland, the Narcotics Act has been amended to the effect that the addition of a new substance to the illegal drug list does not require an amendment to the law.

  14. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  15. Finland's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, A.

    1977-01-01

    In describing Finland's energy political situation, it is pointed out that the climate makes necessary the use of large amounts of energy for heating and Finland's geography also requires the use of large amounts in the communication system. Finnish industry, based on the exploitation and refinement of the natural resources of wood and minerals, also consumes large amounts of energy. Hydroelectric resources, which supplied half the energy esed in the early 1960s, are virtually totally exploited. Oil is imported from the USSR and coal from USSR and Poland on long-term contracts. Nuclear power plants have been purchased from the USSR (the Loviisa 1 and 2 plants) and from Sweden (TVO 1 and 2). The uranium for the latter plants is purchased from Canada and will be enriched in the USSR, while the fuel element manufacture will take place in Sweden. Negotiations with the USSR for the purchase of a 1000 MW nuclear power plant are under way. If future power production is also based on nuclear power, then 30 % of the power in year 2000 will be nuclear. (JIW)

  16. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  17. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  18. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  19. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  20. Climate change and the cultural environment: Recognized impacts challenges in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Berghäll, Jonna; Pesu, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Climate change impacts the cultural heritage of Finland. Adaptation and mitigation measures are posing challenges along with the consequences of climate change. Cultural landscapes, the built cultural environment and the archaeological heritage all will be affected. The impacts of climate change that Finland will face and the challenges posed by them for the care of the cultural environment also apply to the Boreal Zone of Northern Europe in more general terms. This report charts the chall...

  1. Aging fatherhood in Finland - first-time fathers in Finland from 1987 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Miia; Bloigu, Aini; Hemminki, Elina; Gissler, Mika; Klemetti, Reija

    2016-06-01

    The increase in maternal age has been well documented in Western societies, but information on paternal age trends is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in age and other background characteristics of first-time fathers in Finland in the period 1987-2009. A random 60% sample of first-time fathers in each year from 1987 to 2009 was obtained from Statistics Finland (n=344,529). Five-year intervals were used (three years in 1987-1989). Sociodemographic characteristics of older first-time fathers (⩾40 years) were compared over time using logistic regression. In the logistic regression, immigrants were excluded from the study population as they may have had children before migrating to Finland. The mean age of first-time fathers increased from 28.7 to 30.4 years in 1987-2009. The change was greatest in the Capital Region and smallest in Northern and Eastern Finland. Fatherhood at the age of ⩾40 years doubled from 3.1% to 6.8%. From 2005 to 2009, men who lived in rural areas and the Capital Region, had a long education, were divorced or widowed, had been born in a rural area and were native Finnish speakers, were more likely than other men to be old when they became fathers. CONCLUSIONS DURING THE STUDY PERIOD, THE AVERAGE AGE OF FIRST-TIME FATHERS INCREASED BY TWO YEARS FURTHER STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO EXAMINE WHETHER DELAYS IN FIRST-TIME FATHERHOOD AFFECT FERTILITY, CHILD HEALTH AND THE USE OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH SERVICES. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  3. Losing women along the path to safe motherhood: why is there such a gap between women's use of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance? A mixed methods study in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Erin; Borchert, Matthias; Campbell, Oona M R; Sondorp, Egbert; Kaducu, Felix; Hill, Olivia; Okeng, Dennis; Odong, Vicki Norah; Lange, Isabelle L

    2015-11-04

    Thousands of women and newborns still die preventable deaths from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications in poor settings. Delivery with a skilled birth attendant is a vital intervention for saving lives. Yet many women, particularly where maternal mortality ratios are highest, do not have a skilled birth attendant at delivery. In Uganda, only 58 % of women deliver in a health facility, despite approximately 95 % of women attending antenatal care (ANC). This study aimed to (1) identify key factors underlying the gap between high rates of antenatal care attendance and much lower rates of health-facility delivery; (2) examine the association between advice during antenatal care to deliver at a health facility and actual place of delivery; (3) investigate whether antenatal care services in a post-conflict district of Northern Uganda actively link women to skilled birth attendant services; and (4) make recommendations for policy- and program-relevant implementation research to enhance use of skilled birth attendance services. This study was carried out in Gulu District in 2009. Quantitative and qualitative methods used included: structured antenatal care client entry and exit interviews [n = 139]; semi-structured interviews with women in their homes [n = 36], with health workers [n = 10], and with policymakers [n = 10]; and focus group discussions with women [n = 20], men [n = 20], and traditional birth attendants [n = 20]. Seventy-five percent of antenatal care clients currently pregnant reported they received advice during their last pregnancy to deliver in a health facility, and 58 % of these reported having delivered in a health facility. After adjustment for confounding, women who reported they received advice at antenatal care to deliver at a health facility were significantly more likely (aOR = 2.83 [95 % CI: 1.19-6.75], p = 0.02) to report giving birth in a facility. Despite high antenatal care coverage, a number of demand and supply side

  4. Computers in Education in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Jari

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This chapter traces the history of computers in education in Finland from the early 1970s to today. It begins by noting that the history of computers in education in Finland began in the early 70s after many Finnish companies and universities acquired and made use of mainframe computers. Some of the university students who used computers in their studies afterwards became teachers and brought with them the idea of using computers in classroom education in Finnish schoo...

  5. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lorek, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  6. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  7. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  8. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  9. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  10. Historical Time Series of Extreme Convective Weather in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, T. K.; Mäkelä, A.; Rauhala, J.; Olsson, T.; Jylhä, K.

    2016-12-01

    Thunderstorms, lightning, tornadoes, downbursts, large hail and heavy precipitation are well-known for their impacts to human life. In the high latitudes as in Finland, these hazardous warm season convective weather events are focused in the summer season, roughly from May to September with peak in the midsummer. The position of Finland between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Asian climate zones makes possible large variability in weather in general which reflects also to the occurrence of severe weather; the hot, moist and extremely unstable air masses sometimes reach Finland and makes possible for the occurrence of extreme and devastating weather events. Compared to lower latitudes, the Finnish climate of severe convection is "moderate" and contains a large year-to-year variation; however, behind the modest annual average is hidden the climate of severe weather events that practically every year cause large economical losses and sometimes even losses of life. Because of the increased vulnerability of our modern society, these episodes have gained recently plenty of interest. During the decades, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has collected observations and damage descriptions of severe weather episodes in Finland; thunderstorm days (1887-present), annual number of lightning flashes (1960-present), tornados (1796-present), large hail (1930-present), heavy rainfall (1922-present). The research findings show e.g. that a severe weather event may occur practically anywhere in the country, although in general the probability of occurrence is smaller in the Northern Finland. This study, funded by the Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety (SAFIR), combines the individual Finnish severe weather time series' and examines their trends, cross-correlation and correlations with other atmospheric parameters. Furthermore, a numerical weather model (HARMONIE) simulation is performed for a historical severe weather case for analyzing how

  11. Tests of linear and nonlinear relations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and psychosocial problems during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R; Smith, Gail L; Mason, W Alex; Savolainen, Jukka; Chmelka, Mary B; Miettunen, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2017-10-01

    This study tested whether there are linear or nonlinear relations between prenatal/birth cumulative risk and psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Participants (n = 6963) were taken from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986. The majority of participants did not experience any contextual risk factors around the time of the target child's birth (58.1%). Even in this low-risk sample, cumulative contextual risk assessed around the time of birth was related to seven different psychosocial outcomes 16 years later. There was some evidence for nonlinear effects, but only for substance-related outcomes; however, the form of the association depended on how the cumulative risk index was calculated. Gender did not moderate the relation between cumulative risk and any of the adolescent psychosocial outcomes. Results highlight the potential value of using the cumulative risk framework for identifying children at birth who are at risk for a range of poor psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  13. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  14. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  15. [Antenatal course attendance among primiparous mothers, with physiological pregnancy and birth at term in Trentino (Northern Italy): characteristics of non-attender women and benefits among attender women in pregnancy behaviours, type of birth delivery and neonatal outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertile, Riccardo; Pedron, Mariangela; Berlanda, Michela; Piffer, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    to outline the attendance rate of antenatal classes (ANCs) among women resident in Trentino Region (North-Eastern Italy) during the period 2000-2012; to identify the main sociodemographic characteristics of women who do not attend ANCs and to measure the effectiveness of ANCs attendance. cohort study with a retrospective data collection. by the computerised database of Trentino Certificates of delivery care, primiparous mothers living in Trentino presenting a physiological pregnancy and birth at term (≥37 weeks of gestation) were selected. Temporal trends of ANCs attendance were also studied for all mothers living in Trentino, all primiparous residents, all multiparous residents and all residents with foreign citizenship. possible associations between the probability of not attending ANCs and sociodemographic variables concerning mothers were analysed: age, professional status, educational level, marital status, citizenship and residence in an area served by a maternal and child health (MCH) clinic or not. Significant relationships between ANCs attendance and variables related to course of pregnancy, childbirth and neonatal outcomes were identified. ANCs coverage has a statistically significant increasing trend over time for each group of women living in Trentino. Among the selected primiparous pregnant women, the principal barriers to ANCs access are being foreign, having an age ≤30 years, in particular ≤20 years, being housewives or unemployed, presenting a medium-low educational level, and residing in an area not served by a MCH clinic. ANCs-not-attending women show a lower awareness of the importance of performing serological tests for Syphilis and Cytomegalo-virus and they declare smoking in pregnancy. Benefits of ANCs attendance do not affect neonatal outcomes, but they concern a higher probability of vaginal birth and a higher breastfeeding predisposition. data about ANCs attendance in Trentino Region appear higher than other national-regional studies

  16. 210Po and 210Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of 210 Po and 210 Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest 210 Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of 210 Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples

  17. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Perkiömäki

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects.At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD from R-R intervals (RRi and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function.In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014 and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, p<0.001, as well as with standing BRS (r = -0.092, p = 0.006. These observations were verified using relevant birth weight categories (<2,500 g; 2,500-3,999 g; ≥4,000 g. In women, birth weight was positively correlated with seated BRS (r = 0.081, p = 0.010, but none of the other measures of cardiovascular autonomic function. These correlations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.05 for all.In men, higher birth weight was independently associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function at mid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less

  18. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  19. Employee motivation in JYSK Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Orimus, Juulia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is commissioned by JYSK, a global retail chain. The aim of this thesis is to find out the level of employee motivation in the case company JYSK Finland. The objective is to find out what motivates the employees, what decreases motivation and how can the employees be motivated better in the future. Stress-management and stress creating factors are also researched. The study was carried out using a web-based survey and the link was posted to the JYSK employees. The survey includ...

  20. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...

  1. The risk of childhood autism among second-generation migrants in Finland: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lehti, Venla; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background Studying second-generation immigrants can help in identifying genetic or environmental risk factors for childhood autism. Most previous studies have focused on maternal region of birth and showed inconsistent results. No previous study has been conducted in Finland. Methods The study was a nested case–control study based on a national birth cohort. Children born in 1987–2005 and diagnosed with childhood autism by the year 2007 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Reg...

  2. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  3. [Historiography of diseases in Finland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, H S

    1998-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of comprehensive, "big" histories of diseases. German historiographers of diseases were especially prominent. World-famous is August Hirsch's Handbuch der historisch-geographischen Pathologie (the second edition appeared in three volumes in 1881-1886). The first volume of the Finn Immanuel Ilmoni's (1797-1856) Bidrag till Nordens sjukdoms-historia (A History of Diseases in the Nordic Countries) was published in 1846, the second volume in 1849 and the third in 1853. In this book Ilmoni treated the history of disease up to the year 1800. He planned a fourth volume, dealing with the 19th century, but this book was never published. Ilmoni was strongly influenced by the ideas of Thomas Sydenham and the German exponents of Naturphilosophie. Ilmoni's "ontological" concept of disease was rejected by Erik Alexander Ingman, a contemporary Finnish representative of "modern" medical ideas. After Ilmoni, nobody has attempted to write a comprehensive history of diseases in Finland, but histories of cholera (Carl Qvist, 1872) lepra (Lars Fagerlund, 1886), malaria (Richard Sievers, 1891) and pulmonary tuberculosis (Woldemar Backman and Severi Savonen, 1934) have been published. Diseases in Finland received very little attention in the "world histories" of diseases. After Hirsch only one comprehensive "world history" of diseases has been published (1993).

  4. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, W.

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  5. New Orthodox Immigration in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Martikainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Orthodox Church is the second largest religious organization in Finland with ca. 57,000 members. During the last 15 years its membership has grown 7% because of international migration. The migrants are mainly from the former Soviet Union (e.g. Estonia, Russia and Ukraine, but there are also small groups from, e.g., Greece, Ethiopia and Romania. The article is a case study of the immigrant activities in two Orthodox parishes that are located in Helsinki and Turku. Issues such as organizational support, religious education and transnational connections are presented. Based on contemporary research on religion and immigration, the article aims to highlight the speci? c role of language in immigrant organizations, and it argues that more attention should be given to it as a speci? c factor.

  6. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    , with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA......Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries....

  7. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency......, with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries....

  8. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  9. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  10. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  11. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  12. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  13. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  14. Integrated environmental research and networking of economy and information in rural areas of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    M. LUOSTARINEN

    2008-01-01

    This article uses material from many extensive research projects starting from the construction of the electric power supply network and its water supply systems in northern Finland in 1973-1986, to the Agropolis agricultural strategy and networking for the Loimijoki project. A list of the material and references of the publications is available in Agronet on the Internet. All these projects applied integrated environmental research covering biology, the natural sciences, social sciences, and...

  15. Environmental monitoring in Finland 2006-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This publication presents environmental monitoring carried out in Finland in 2006-2008. It is a summary of the environmental monitoring activities of the following national institutes: Geological Survey of Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute, National Public Health Institute, Plant Production Inspection Centre, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Information Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Statistics Finland, Finnish Environment Institute, and Regional Environment Centres. Monitoring of natural resources, environmental pressures, state of the environment, water and health, land use and environmental policy are presented. The objective was to compile the information on national environmental monitoring and to activate information exchange and cooperation in this field. (orig.)

  16. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  17. Changing attitudes in Finland towards FGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saido Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Former refugee women are now working as professional educators among immigrant and refugee communities in Finland to tackle ignorance of the impact and extent of female genital mutilation/cutting.

  18. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  19. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  20. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Solatie, D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest {sup 137}Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. {sup 137}Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of

  1. Libraries in Finland Establish Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Häkli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available I will discuss the development of organized consortia, which are based on a charter or a written contract. I will also deal with some issues related to the organization of the consortia. I would already here like to stress, that if a consortium wants to achieve results it, in addition to a charter or a contract, also needs an executive body that carries out the work and makes sure that the plans and decisions are not only prepared but also put into practice. One of the main weaknesses of many cooperative arrangements between libraries has been the absence of a common executive not only taking care of the practicalities but also safeguarding the continuity. A committee can never fulfill the tasks of an executive body because running a consortium successfully requires much more effort than what is normally anticipated. In Finland the National Library has been given the task to enhance the cooperation between the research libraries of the country and to support their consortia . According to the National Library Strategy (adopted in November 1999 the Library is functioning as a common resource of the country’s research libraries. In this capacity it has been instrumental in creating the comprehensive consortia described below and is also responsible for running their daily business. It is possible that an arrangement of this kind is more typical for a small country than for a bigger one.

  2. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  3. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  4. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H; Morgen, Camilla S

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic posi......-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with......During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio...

  5. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  6. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  7. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L.; Hakkarainen, V.; Kaija, J.; Kuivamaki, A.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaki, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T., e-mail: lasse.ahonen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  8. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pchildhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pchildhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  9. The interplay of variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and social stress in relation to birth size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhi Ali Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=5369. Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years, low maternal education (<11 years, and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95%CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95%CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95%CI -0.15, -0.02 and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95%CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95%CI -0.20, -0.05. The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1 magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more

  10. Internal radiation doses of people in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T.

    1997-01-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl radionuclides carried by airstreams reached Finland on April 27, 1986. The radioactive cloud spread over central and southern Finland and to a lesser extent over northern Finland. In Helsinki the maximum radionuclide concentrations in air were measured in late evening of April 28. The radioactive cloud remained over Finland only a short time and within a few days the radionuclide concentrations in the air decreased to one-hundredth of the maximum values. Most radionuclides causing deposition were washed down by local showers, resulting in very uneven deposition of radionuclides on the ground. In a addition minor amounts of radioactivity were deposited on Mav 10-12. For internal and external dose estimations Finland was divided into five fallout regions (1-5) according to the increasing 137 Cs surface activity. At first, the short-lived radionuclides as well as 134 Cs and 137 Cs contributed to the external dose rate. Only the long-lived isotopes, 134 Cs and especially 137 Cs, later determined the external dose rates. The regions and corresponding dose rates and deposition categories on October 1, 1987, are shown.To estimate the total dose of the Finnish population from the radionuclides originating at Chernobyl the effective external and internal doses were calculated; the external doses were estimated using the data given. Groups of Finnish people representing the five fallout regions were whole-body counted annually during 1986-1990. The results of these measurements and those of the reference group were used to estimate the internal body burdens and radiation doses from 134 Cs and 137 Cs to the population

  11. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  12. The uncertainty of modeled soil carbon stock change for Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Aleksi; Heikkinen, Juha

    2013-04-01

    Countries should report soil carbon stock changes of forests for Kyoto Protocol. Under Kyoto Protocol one can omit reporting of a carbon pool by verifying that the pool is not a source of carbon, which is especially tempting for the soil pool. However, verifying that soils of a nation are not a source of carbon in given year seems to be nearly impossible. The Yasso07 model was parametrized against various decomposition data using MCMC method. Soil carbon change in Finland between 1972 and 2011 were simulated with Yasso07 model using litter input data derived from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and fellings time series. The uncertainties of biomass models, litter turnoverrates, NFI sampling and Yasso07 model were propagated with Monte Carlo simulations. Due to biomass estimation methods, uncertainties of various litter input sources (e.g. living trees, natural mortality and fellings) correlate strongly between each other. We show how original covariance matrices can be analytically combined and the amount of simulated components reduce greatly. While doing simulations we found that proper handling correlations may be even more essential than accurate estimates of standard errors. As a preliminary results, from the analysis we found that both Southern- and Northern Finland were soil carbon sinks, coefficient of variations (CV) varying 10%-25% when model was driven with long term constant weather data. When we applied annual weather data, soils were both sinks and sources of carbon and CVs varied from 10%-90%. This implies that the success of soil carbon sink verification depends on the weather data applied with models. Due to this fact IPCC should provide clear guidance for the weather data applied with soil carbon models and also for soil carbon sink verification. In the UNFCCC reporting carbon sinks of forest biomass have been typically averaged for five years - similar period for soil model weather data would be logical.

  13. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  14. Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) and other lethal arthrogryposes in Finland--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Ritvanen, Annukka; Herva, Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Kestilä, Marjo; Ignatius, Jaakko

    2006-09-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by multiple contractures with an estimated frequency of 1 in 3,000 births. With improving diagnostic methods, increasing numbers of fetuses with arthrogryposis are found. The pathogenetic mechanisms are relatively well known but the epidemiology and genetics of the prenatally lethal forms of arthrogryposis are less well known. In this study we collected all cases of a multiple contractures diagnosed in Finland during 1987-2002 including live born infants, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies. Ninety-two cases of 214 suffered intrauterine demise (68 selective pregnancy terminations and 24 stillbirths) and 58 died in infancy. In 141 out of these cases the diagnosis could be included within lethal arthrogryposes, with a prevalence of 1 in 6,985 (1.43/10,000) births. Of these, 59 had spinal cord pathology at autopsy and thus were of neurogenic origin. Thirty-nine cases had lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) clinically characterized by total immobility of the fetus at all ultrasound examinations (12 weeks or later), multiple joint contractures in both upper and lower limbs, hydrops, and fetal death before the 32nd week of pregnancy. LCCS is noted as a unique Finnish disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 25,250 (0.40/10,000) births and is a major cause of lethal arthrogryposis in Finland.

  15. A Review of Telemedicine Services in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatri, Vikramajeet; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine is gaining popularity due to the provision of ubiquitous health care services that is a fundamental need for every socialized society. In this paper, telemedicine services in Finland are discussed, as well as how they came into existence, how they are funded, evaluated, and what are ...

  16. From Finland to Kyrgyzstan: A Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Andreas K. R.

    2009-01-01

    In the most recent Programme for International Student Assessment of science learning, the equivalent of six school years separate the achievement of 15-year-olds in Finland, the best-performing country, from their counterparts in Kyrgyzstan, a former Soviet republic. Still more than a school year lies between the neighboring countries Canada,…

  17. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  18. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  19. Strontium content and strontium-calcium ratio in timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and soil in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasikallio, Arja

    1979-01-01

    Strontium and calcium contents were determined about 2 000 sample pairs of timothy and soil. An investigation into these element contents was made with reference to parishes and latitudinal zones. The effect of some soil factors on the Sr content of timothy in Carex peat soil was also studied. The Sr content of timothy was highest in northern Finland, while the highest contents of soluble Sr and Ca were generally found in the soils of southern Finland. The Ca content of timothy also tended to rise from the southern to the northern regions but to a lesser extent than Sr. The Sr/Ca ratio both in timothy and soil was generally highest between latitudes 64 deg and 66 deg N. The highest Sr content of timothy in the north was suggested to be due to at least some of the following factors: regional differences in the distribution of soil types, the occurrence of nutritionally poorer soils in the northern regions, climatological factors and plant competition. The present material did not contain any exceptionally high Sr contents in timothy or soil. In Carex peat, the Sr content of timothy increased with decreasing volume weight and pH of the soil. In these soils, the variation in the low Sr content of timothy was explained significantly by soluble Sr in the soil and the straw height; plant Sr increased with increasing soluble Sr and decreasing plant height. In higher Sr contents, plant Sr increased with decreasing soluble Ca. (author)

  20. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H; Morgen, Camilla S; Madsen, Mia; Schnor, Ole; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (preterm birth (32-36 gestational weeks) were calculated by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period.

  1. Understanding parental gender preferences in advanced societies: Lessons from Sweden and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Vikat

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999 that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among natives and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. Moreover, our Swedish data allow us to investigate regional and educational differences in child-sex specific fertility behavior of two-child mothers in 1981-1999. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population appears to have developed a girl preference, though. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Our analysis of regional and educational differentials in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents' sex preferences for children.

  2. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkonen, Lasse; Suhonen, Niko

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts.

  3. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  4. ASPECTS OF COMMODIFICATION OF RUSSIAN IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ханнес Виимаранта

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the commodification of Russian in Finland, where recent decades have seen a sharp rise in the size of the Russian-speaking population and the number of tourists from Russia. We particularly consider the use of Russian in the fields of traditional and medical tourism, education, and culture - all of them areas where Russian tourists show a strong preference for services in their native language. The need to provide a variety of services in Russian means that proficiency in Russian is a sig-nificant asset on the job market, both for immigrants and for the relatively small number of Finns who can speak the language. We also note that there is considerable demand among Russian-speaking parents in Fin-land for educational services to supplement their children’s school education.

  5. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, Lasse [North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu (Finland); Suhonen, Niko [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts. (author)

  6. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  7. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  8. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  9. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  10. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  11. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  12. Area Handbook Series: Finland: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    movement, in which the farmer- evangelist Paavo Ruotsalainen (1777-1852) was the most important figure (see Lutheran Church of Finland, ch. 2). The...life, such as child care, family counseling , and health care. Although some social problems per- sisted, the quality of life for Finns overall had... counseling , although these activities were often not strictly religious in nature. The role the state churches played in life’s key moments made them, for

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. By 2014 Finland already surpassed its 2020 target for renewable energy use under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The current feed-in premium system will be discontinued and is expected to be replaced with a competitive technology-neutral tendering scheme, in line with the requirements set in the 2014 State Aid guidelines

  14. Tuberculosis in immigrants in Finland, 1995-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, P E; Soini, H; Vasankari, T; Smit, P W; Nuorti, J P; Ollgren, J; Ruutu, P; Lyytikäinen, O

    2016-01-01

    Increasing immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) incidence countries is a challenge for surveillance and control in Finland. Here, we describe the epidemiology of TB in immigrants by using national surveillance data. During 1995-2013, 7030 (84·7%) native and 1199 (14·4%) immigrant cases were identified. The proportion of immigrant cases increased from 5·8% in 1995 to 32·1% in 2013, consistent with increasing immigrant population (2·1-5·6%) and decreasing incidence of TB in the native population (from 12·1 to 3·5/100 000). TB cases in immigrants were significantly younger, more often female, and had extrapulmonary TB more often than native cases (P immigrants than natives (P Immigrant cases were born in 82 different countries; most commonly in Somalia and the former Soviet Union/Russia. During 2008-2013, 433 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from immigrants were submitted for spoligotyping; 10 different clades were identified. Clades were similar to those found in the case's country of birth. Screening immigrants from high-incidence countries and raising awareness of common characteristics and symptoms of TB is important to ensure early diagnosis and to prevent transmission.

  15. The esoteric milieu in Finland today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Sohlberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As in the other Scandinavian countries, so in Finland an exceptionally high percentage of the population belongs to a religious community. Today, about 82 per cent of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. However, the picture of the Finnish religious and spiritual landscape is more complex than it may at first appear. The project ‘Religions in Finland’ was started in 2003. The project is a joint-effort of the Church Research Institute and the Research Network for the Study of New Religious Movements. The aim is to create an electronic database for describing, mapping and analysing religious associations and communities in Finland (active ones and also those that no longer exist. In August 2007 there were 777 communities and organizations listed in the database. They are classified into ten categories representing religious traditions according to their historical and cultural background. There are 29 organizations classified under the category Western esotericism. This article presents a general overview of the major and recently founded esoteric groups in Finland, most of which are registered associations.

  16. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Scherb, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m 2 . Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m 2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  17. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  18. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in Finland in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, H.

    2002-05-01

    A survey on the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostics and therapy in 2000 in Finland has been made by STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland. In 2000 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 45 492 and that of the therapeutic treatments was 2028. The frequency of examinations per 1000 population was 8.8 and that of therapeutic treatments was 0.39. The collective effective dose to the patients was 172.3 manSv and the mean effective dose to the population was 0.03 mSv per person. The mean effective dose per examination was 3.8 mSv. The number of nuclear medicine examinations has decreased 12.0 % and of therapeutic treatments 9.5 % when compared to those in 1997 when the survey was made last time. The collective effective dose from nuclear medicine examinations has decreased 16.8 % when compared to that in 1997. The frequency of nuclear medicine examinations per 1000 population was in 2000 in Finland lower than on the average in developed countries (health care level I) in 1991-1996. According to UNSCEAR report 2000 the frequency of nuclear medicine examinations per 1000 population was 19 on the average the range being 0.5-65 in countries of health care level I in 1991-1996. The frequency of therapeutic treatments per 1000 population was higher in 2000 in Finland than on the average in countries of health care level I (0.19/1000) and of the same order as in other Scandinavian countries and in Middle Europe. The mean effective dose per examination was in 1997 (4.0 mSv) and in 2000 (3.8 mSv) in Finland lower than on the average in developed countries. According to UNSCEAR report 2000 the mean effective dose per examination was 4.3 mSv in health care level I and 4.6 mSv worldwide in 1991-1996. The mean effective dose to the population was 0.08 mSv per year in health care level I and 0.03 mSv per year worldwide in 1991-1996. (orig.)

  19. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  20. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carrie...

  1. DISC1 conditioned GWAS for psychosis proneness in a large Finnish birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Tomppo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic evidence implicates the DISC1 gene in the etiology of a number of mental illnesses. Previously, we have reported association between DISC1 and measures of psychosis proneness, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS and Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS, in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66. As part of the studies of this Finnish birth cohort genome-wide association analysis has recently been performed. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, we re-analyzed the genome-wide association data with regard to these two measures of psychosis proneness, conditioning on our previous DISC1 observation. From the original NFBC66 sample (N = 12 058, 4 561 individuals provided phenotype and genotype data. No markers were significant at the genome-wide level. However, several genes with biological relevance to mental illnesses were highlighted through loci displaying suggestive evidence for association (≥3 SNP with P<10E-4. These included the protein coding genes, CXCL3, KIAA1128, LCT, MED13L, TMCO7, TTN, and the micro RNA MIR620. CONCLUSIONS: By conditioning a previous genome-wide association study on DISC1, we have been able to identify eight genes as associating to psychosis proneness. Further, these molecules predominantly link to the DISC1 pathway, strengthening the evidence for the role of this gene network in the etiology of mental illness. The use of quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a large population cohort will make these findings, once verified; more generalized to a broad selection of disorders related to psychoses and psychosis proneness.

  2. DISC1 conditioned GWAS for psychosis proneness in a large Finnish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomppo, Liisa; Ekelund, Jesper; Lichtermann, Dirk; Veijola, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hennah, William

    2012-01-01

    Genetic evidence implicates the DISC1 gene in the etiology of a number of mental illnesses. Previously, we have reported association between DISC1 and measures of psychosis proneness, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS) and Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS), in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66). As part of the studies of this Finnish birth cohort genome-wide association analysis has recently been performed. In the present study, we re-analyzed the genome-wide association data with regard to these two measures of psychosis proneness, conditioning on our previous DISC1 observation. From the original NFBC66 sample (N = 12 058), 4 561 individuals provided phenotype and genotype data. No markers were significant at the genome-wide level. However, several genes with biological relevance to mental illnesses were highlighted through loci displaying suggestive evidence for association (≥3 SNP with P<10E-4). These included the protein coding genes, CXCL3, KIAA1128, LCT, MED13L, TMCO7, TTN, and the micro RNA MIR620. By conditioning a previous genome-wide association study on DISC1, we have been able to identify eight genes as associating to psychosis proneness. Further, these molecules predominantly link to the DISC1 pathway, strengthening the evidence for the role of this gene network in the etiology of mental illness. The use of quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a large population cohort will make these findings, once verified; more generalized to a broad selection of disorders related to psychoses and psychosis proneness.

  3. Uranium exploration, non-governmental organizations, and local communities. The origin, anatomy, and consequences of a new challenge in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerola, Toni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of global warming has returned nuclear power to the agenda. Many countries, including Finland, have decided to construct more nuclear power plants. They will need uranium, and its price is rising in the international market. A new uranium exploration boom is going on. Finland is politically and economically stable, with good infrastructure and basic geodata, attracting foreign companies to explore the promising uranium showings of the country. However, this has triggered an extensive anti-uranium campaign in northern, eastern, and southern, but not in central Finland, which is related to anti-nuclear movement, green and leftist parties, and environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs. The resistance, created mainly by lack of public awareness of geology and mining, surprised mining companies, the geological community, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, who found themselves in a completely new situation. Here we will examine the origin, anatomy, and consequences of this challenge and how to deal with it. The picture presented herewithin is based on author’s active participation in uranium exploration in Finland, discussions with other geologists and activists, following the issue in newspapers, web-pages, reviews, and participating in NGO meetings.

  4. Reducing tick bite risk in Finland - combining citizen science and GIS for predictive modelling of tick occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Jani; Kulha, Niko; Klemola, Tero

    2017-04-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases constitute a growing welfare problem in northern Europe and Russia. Surveys conducted in Russia, Sweden and Norway have revealed a northwards shift in distribution and an increase in tick abundance over the past few decades. In southwestern Finland, surveys have revealed a similar increase in tick abundance, as well as the presence of novel tick-borne pathogens. As avoiding risk areas and removing attached ticks as quickly as possible are the best available methods for preventing tick-borne diseases, accessible and up-to-date data on tick occurrence is essential. However, consistently tracking the nationwide distribution of ticks is impossible using traditional collection methods. Therefore, GIS-based predictive modelling for tick occurrence is required. In May 2015, a national tick collection campaign was launched by the University of Turku tick project, with the objective of mapping the current geographical distribution of the two tick species responsible for tick-borne infections in Finland, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus. During the collection campaign, citizens were asked to send any ticks they found to the University of Turku by letter, along with information on the collection locality. The campaign ended in September 2015 and was a great success, with nearly 7000 letters delivered to the University. These letters contained more than 20 000 individual ticks from all around Finland. The geographic data from the letters was converted into coordinate points after the campaign was concluded. Data from the national tick collection campaign revealed not only a northwards shift in the distribution of I. ricinus, but also novel foci for I. persulcatus in Finland. Strikingly, while they were otherwise found throughout Finland, I. persulcatus were absent from the south-southwestern coast, where I. ricinus is nevertheless abundant. The exact cause for this phenomenon is unclear, as I. persulcatus are found further

  5. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  6. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  7. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  8. Country policy profile - Finland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  9. Country policy profile - Finland. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  10. Freemasonry and its social position in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils G. Holm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Freemasonry, with its roots in the seventeenth century, has had to suffer insults and some­times even attacks from society. In this article the author looks more closely at Free­masonry in Finland, where it first appeared in the mid-eighteenth century, in the light of the suspicion and negative treatment it had to suffer. The deprecatory attitude of individuals and various social organisations towards Freemasonry varied over time, but there was often an underlying suspicion among the general public. This was expressed in the form of legends and folk tales of a more or less dramatic nature.

  11. Freemasonry and its social position in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nils G. Holm

    2008-01-01

    Freemasonry, with its roots in the seventeenth century, has had to suffer insults and some­times even attacks from society. In this article the author looks more closely at Free­masonry in Finland, where it first appeared in the mid-eighteenth century, in the light of the suspicion and negative treatment it had to suffer. The deprecatory attitude of individuals and various social organisations towards Freemasonry varied over time, but there was often an underlying suspicion among the general ...

  12. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  13. Late preterm birth and neurocognitive performance in late adulthood: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Raikkonen, Katri

    2015-04-01

    We studied if late preterm birth (34 weeks 0 days-36 weeks 6 days of gestation) is associated with performance on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) in late adulthood and if maximum attained lifetime education moderated these associations. Participants were 919 Finnish men and women born between 1934 and 1944, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. They underwent the CERAD-NB at a mean age of 68.1 years. Data regarding gestational age (late preterm versus term) were extracted from hospital birth records, and educational attainment data were gathered from Statistics Finland. After adjustment for major confounders, those born late preterm scored lower on word list recognition (mean difference: -0.33 SD; P = .03) than those born at term. Among those who had attained a basic or upper secondary education, late preterm birth was associated with lower scores on word list recognition, constructional praxis, constructional praxis recall, clock drawing, Mini-Mental State Examination, and memory total and CERAD total 2 compound scores (mean differences: >0.40 SD; P values late preterm birth was not associated with CERAD-NB scores. Our findings offer new insight into the lifelong consequences of late preterm birth, and they add late preterm birth as a novel risk factor to the list of neurocognitive impairment in late adulthood. Our findings also suggest that attained lifetime education may mitigate aging-related neurocognitive impairment, especially among those born late preterm. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Fear of AIDS and suicide in Finland: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Henriksson, M; Leinikki, P

    1995-01-01

    This review presents data on HIV epidemiology and suicide mortality, and summarizes studies on fear of AIDS in completed suicides in Finland. Finland has a low prevalence of HIV and a high suicide mortality. A 12-month nationwide suicide population, 1987-88 (n = 1397, all HIV negative) at the tim...

  15. ADHD in Finland and Types of Scandinavian Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Marie-Louise; Michelsson, Katarina

    This paper reviews the history and current status of services to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Finland. It notes the availability of free or almost free health services in Finland and the resulting very low infant mortality rate. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), termed "minimal brain…

  16. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  17. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  18. Energy and sustainable development in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.N. World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was the origin of the international framework for sustainable development. As a basis for joint, sustainable action by governments, organizations, industries, and the public, the participating countries signed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and drafted the associated action program, Agenda 21. Sustainable development comprises these three determinant factors: - Economy. - Ecology. - Social aspects. This is where entrepreneurial responsibility for society comes in. If industries want to generate overall positive effects, they must be efficient, competitive, and profitable on a long-term basis. Power supply systems meeting the criteria of sustainable development must be reliable, economically viable, socially acceptable, and environmentally compatible. The power supply in Finland is meeting these sustainability requirements in many ways. Finland's electricity supply is decentralized, using a variety of energy sources. Electricity can be generated and made available at low cost. The Finnish power industry is an important employer and a major factor in the economy. Moreover, electricity is generated in advanced types of power plants. In this way, the structure of the Finnish power supply system incorporates important factors of sustainable development. (orig.)

  19. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  20. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  1. Radioactivity of household water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Saxen, R.

    1991-01-01

    A nationwide study on artificial and natural radioactivity in household water has been under way in Finland since the 1960s. The occurrence of artificial radionuclides in the surface water of drainage basins has been monitored extensively. The proportion of household water derived from surface waters in Finland is currently 48 %, but its usage is decreasing whereas that of groundwater is increasing at an annual rate of 1 - 2 %. The natural radioactivity of household water has been studied in almost all of the waters distributed by public waterworks and in 5400 private ground water wells. The downward trend in 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 3 H concentrations in surface water continued from the middle 1960s until the Chernobyl accident. After the accident ten different radionuclides were detected in surface waters, but only 137 Cs made a minor contribution the radiation dose. The maximum effective dose via ingestion of water was about 0.001 mSv in 1986, and considerably lower in the following years

  2. A review of the seismotectonics of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    1992-12-01

    Recent major improvements in our knowledge about seismicity, crustal structure, primary stress field and tectonics together with other extensive geophysical and geological investigations have provided a good basis for a review of the seismotectonic setting of Finland. Correlations have been found to be present for the seismicity in Finland with the seismotectonic zones inside the Baltic Shield and with the seismicity of the North Atlantic Ridge. The current stress field in the Fennoscandian Shield seems to be dominated by ridge push forces. This conclusion is based on earthquake focal mechanisms, in-situ stress measurements and geodetic information. The report discusses the possible block movements induced by future glaciation. Location of the seismotectonic zones, duration of the glaciation and the presence of locally anomalous shear stresses seem to relate to the distribution of the discovered post-glacial faults in Fennoscandia. Special attention is paid to local seismotectonics. Potential direct or indirect effects on underground openings are possible due to local earthquakes or the creep. The importance of slow deformation processes in the bedrock is emphasized. (orig.)

  3. Electricity statistics for Finland 1997; Saehkoetilasto 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, H.; Savolainen, T. [Adato Energia Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    Until 1995 the electrical statistics information has according to the law about electric utilities and facilities been collected and handled by the Electrical Inspectorate. In 1996 the work was done by the Finnish Electricity Association and it was commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Since 1996 the collection and handling of the information is based on the Electricity Market Act. The information is mainly submitted by the producers and distributors of electricity and processed since 1997 in Adato Energia Oy owned jointly by Finnish Energy Industries Federation, Finnish District Heating Association and Finnish Electricity Association. This action is based on a mutual contract of the Statistics Finland, Adato Energia Oy, Finnish Energy Industries Federation and Finnish Electricity Association. The Electricity Statistics for Finland 1997 contains several summaries about the consumption and the production. There is also summaries about the networks, the effects of electricity, the capacities of electricity, the fuels used in production and the dwellings heated by electric power. Like before a list of names, addresses, persons and telephone numbers is available. Additionally a list comprising the power consumption in all Finnish communes and a glossary in three languages (Finnish, Swedish and English) are included

  4. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Anttonen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in SME's and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in occupational safety and health are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  5. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO 2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO 2 for 8 % of the N 2 O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  6. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  7. Vectors and transmission dynamics for Setaria tundra (Filarioidea; Onchocercidae, a parasite of reindeer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuusela Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed expansion by an array of Filarioid nematodes' into the northern boreal region of Finland. The vector-borne nematode, Setaria tundra, caused a serious disease outbreak in the Finnish reindeer population in 2003–05. The main aim of this study was to understand the outbreak dynamics and the rapid expansion of S. tundra in the sub arctic. We describe the vectors of S. tundra, and its development in vectors, for the first time. Finally we discuss the results in the context of the host-parasite ecology of S. tundra in Finland Results Development of S. tundra to the infective stage occurs in mosquitoes, (genera Aedes and Anopheles. We consider Aedes spp. the most important vectors. The prevalence of S. tundra naturally infected mosquitoes from Finland varied from 0.5 to 2.5%. The rate of development in mosquitoes was temperature-dependent. Infective larvae were present approximately 14 days after a blood meal in mosquitoes maintained at room temperature (mean 21 C, but did not develop in mosquitoes maintained outside for 22 days at a mean temperature of 14.1 C. The third-stage (infective larvae were elongated (mean length 1411 μm (SD 207, and width 28 μm (SD 2. The anterior end was blunt, and bore two liplike structures, the posterior end slight tapering with a prominent terminal papilla. Infective larvae were distributed anteriorly in the insect's body, the highest abundance being 70 larvae in one mosquito. A questionnaire survey revealed that the peak activity of Culicidae in the reindeer herding areas of Finland was from the middle of June to the end of July and that warm summer weather was associated with reindeer flocking behaviour on mosquito-rich wetlands. Conclusion In the present work, S. tundra vectors and larval development were identified and described for the first time. Aedes spp. mosquitoes likely serve as the most important and competent vectors for S. tundra in Finland. Warm summers

  8. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...

  9. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  10. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...

  11. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  12. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with childhood bone fractures in offspring - A birth-cohort study of 6718 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Roope; Auvinen, Juha; Pokka, Tytti; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko

    2017-08-01

    In children there is limited understanding about the biological and environmental risk factors of fractures. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of maternal smoking on preschool children's fractures hypothesizing that the fracture risk might be programmed during intrauterine growth in means of disturbed bone formation. A prospective birth cohort included women living in Northern Finland with an expected date of delivery between July 1st, 1985 and June 30th, 1986 (N=9362), and their offspring (N=9432). Smoking was inquired during pregnancy and when the offspring reached seven years of age. Information on in-hospital-treated fractures among the children was collected from the National Hospital Discharge Register (NHDR). The cases who declined to participate or suffered from any bone dysplasia such as osteogenesis imperfecta or any malignancy were excluded, thus 6718 subjects (71.2%) were finally included. Poisson regression analysis with adjustment for gender, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, socioeconomic status of the family, maternal age and body mass index (BMI) of the children was used to determine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and bone fractures. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 1.83-fold (95% CI 1.06-3.02, p=0.022) increased risk of in-hospital-treated fractures at pre-school age. The fracture risk in childhood is perhaps increased as a result of modified bone development of the fetus due to maternal smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...... low (3% pass rate for basic delivery and management of postpartum hemorrhage). CONCLUSIONS: The HMS BAB simulation-based training has potential to contribute to education of health care providers. We recommend a full day of training and validation of the facilitators to improve the training....

  14. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  15. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  16. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...

  17. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...

  18. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  19. Research News from Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Norge: 1 Forskningsavd ved Reindriftsadministrasjonen. 2 Avd. for arktisk biologi, Univ. i Tromsø 3 Viltforskningen ved DN, Trondheim 4 Institutt for biologi og geologi, Univ. i Tromsø 5 Institutt for husdyrnæring, Norges landbrukshøgskole 6 Institutt for zoologi, Norges landbrukshøgskole 7 Stipendiat Norges landbruksvit. forskningsråd 8 Statens veterinære laboratorium i Nord-Norge Sverige: 1 Renförsöksavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet 2 Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt 3 Statens naturvårdsverk Finland: 1 Vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Renforskning 2 Kaamanen försöksstation, Renägareföreningen 3 Veterinärmedicinska högskolan 4 Helsingfors universitets husdjursvetenskapliga institut 5 Kuopios och Uleåborgs universiteter 6 Helsingfors universitets geologiska institut 7 Jyväskyläs universitet 8 Lantbrukets forskningscentral

  20. Future probabilities of coastal floods in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikka, Havu; Leijala, Ulpu; Johansson, Milla M.; Leinonen, Katri; Kahma, Kimmo K.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal planning requires detailed knowledge of future flooding risks, and effective planning must consider both short-term sea level variations and the long-term trend. We calculate distributions that combine short- and long-term effects to provide estimates of flood probabilities in 2050 and 2100 on the Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Our distributions of short-term sea level variations are based on 46 years (1971-2016) of observations from the 13 Finnish tide gauges. The long-term scenarios of mean sea level combine postglacial land uplift, regionally adjusted scenarios of global sea level rise, and the effect of changes in the wind climate. The results predict that flooding risks will clearly increase by 2100 in the Gulf of Finland and the Bothnian Sea, while only a small increase or no change compared to present-day conditions is expected in the Bothnian Bay, where the land uplift is stronger.

  1. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  2. CRAYFISHERIES IN FINLAND, A SHORT OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUSSILA J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayfish trapping and activities related to crayfishing have traditionally been lucrative businesses in rural Finland. The catch itself, varying in the 1990’s from 2 to 4 millions crayfish annually, is worth 4 to 8 millions euros. Crayfishing has been a crucial part of small-scale business farms with access to productive crayfish stocks. The catch has so far been mainly noble crayfish (Astacus astacus but stockings with signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus during the past 15 years have started to produce commercial scale catches in Southern Finland. This has had a strong impact on commercial markets and has encouraged stocking of signal crayfish to an increasing number of water bodies, both legally and illegally. Noble crayfish stocks, on the other hand, have suffered from crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci and watercourse construction. Up to 10 commercially productive noble crayfish stocks have been infected with crayfish plague annually. Most of the signal crayfish stocks have been infected as well, with the price being paid in loss of commercial value and even population collapse. The traditional way to catch crayfish is trapping during the crayfish season, with an increasing number of crayfish farmers competing for the same markets. Crayfish tourism is also taking its first steps, with a lot of opportunities for services targeted at urban upper class customers both in domestic and foreign markets. The future of Finnish crayfisheries remains uncertain at the moment with the following processes under way: spread of signal crayfish northwards, spread of crayfish plague, declining noble crayfish catch, restructuring of the commercial crayfish markets into several fractions, increasing demand for noble crayfish stockings, increasing demand for market size noble crayfish and demand for processed crayfish.

  3. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  4. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  5. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  6. New Resource-Wise Planning Strategies for Smart Urban-Rural Development in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rönkkö

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the opportunities and challenges for resource-wise development strategies in regional planning. Spatial planning integrates the key aspects, transportation, housing, and food production which are, on many occasions, stated as the most significant consumption factors causing environmental impacts. In light of the challenges that regions are currently facing in Finland, we are drawing attention to the role of strategic spatial planning as demand-responsive resource management, a theme which is still inadequately addressed within regional development and planning in Finland. In many other fields of society, innovative data-based products and demand- and user-driven services are considered important sources of success in the future. Such strategies combine different types of service providers, like deliveries for groceries or restaurant meals, mobile healthcare services, or public transport with on-demand services. We highlight the fact that a regionally large and sparsely populated country, such as Finland, cannot achieve success solely through centralisation. Instead, smart networking, co-creation, and innovative cyber-physical solutions are vital for the utilisation of the entire country’s resource potentiality. In conclusion, we underpin the need for a framework, which would offer a strategic support scheme for resource-wise development, resource optimization, and closure of yield gaps. In our view it is necessary to begin to envision, strategise, and develop user- and demand-responsive development strategies with a specific aim for sustainable, resource-wise ways of life in northern regions, also outside the growing urban centres, and innovate solutions that help individuals, communities, and the whole society to renew and manage resources wisely.

  7. Effects of climate change on the production and consumption of electricity in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsius, J.; Kuivalainen, P.; Maekinen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Helsinki (Finland). Environmental Protection Div.

    1996-12-31

    In the next few decades, the probable strengthening of the greenhouse effect may bring about considerable changes in energy production and consumption, which depend on climate. It is presumed that some of the changes will occur even if the rise in greenhouse gas concentration will be reduced. Because the investments in energy production have a long-term influence, decision-makers should have an idea about the impact of the strengthening of the greenhouse effect on energy production and consumption in Finland. According to the results of this study, the effects of climate change on the total consumption and production of electricity will be limited. The structure of both electricity consumption and production will remain rather similar, the most important changes applying to hydro power. The consumption of heating electricity will decrease substantially. Because the non- climate-dependent sectors of electricity consumption (process industry and services) account for more than a half of the total consumption, the effect on the total consumption is, however, rather small. The total annual hydropower production in Finland was estimated to be 2 % more both in the year 2025 and 2100 than at present. The annual mean discharges do not change very much compared to the present. The greatest difference in comparison with the present is the noticeable smoothing of the annual discharge variation. Particularly in Northern Finland the smoothing is considerable in average circumstances. In the scenario for the year 2100, in particular, the spring flood peak is, on average, significantly reduced, the flood peak takes place earlier and the average winter discharges increase

  8. Survey of selected tick-borne diseases in dogs in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Kapiainen, Suvi; Junnikkala, Sami; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-06-23

    Due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern Europe. Although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in Finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. We determined the antibody and DNA prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in Finland: Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and Bartonella. Anti-Ap, -Bb and -Ec antibodies were determined in 340 Finnish pet dogs and 50 healthy hunting dogs using the 4DX Snap®Test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs for the detection of Ap and Bartonella DNA were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to a vector borne agent. The overall seroprevalence was highest for Ap (5.3%), followed by Bb (2.9%), and Ec (0.3%). Seropositivities to Ap and Bb were significantly higher in the Åland Islands (p dogs, seropositivity rates of 4% (2/50) and 2% (1/50) were recorded for Ap and Bb, respectively. One client-owned dog and one hunting dog, both healthy, were infected with Ap as determined by PCR, while being seronegative. For Bartonella spp., none of the dogs tested was positive by PCR. This study represents the first data of seroprevalence to tick borne diseases in the Finnish dog population. Our results indicate that dogs in Finland are exposed to vector borne diseases, with Ap being the most seroprevalent of the diseases tested, followed by Bb. Almost 50% of dogs living in Åland Islands were Ap seropositive. This finding suggests the possibility of a high incidence of Ap infection in humans in this region. Knowing the distribution of seroprevalence in dogs may help predict the pattern of a tick borne disease and may aid in diagnostic and prevention efforts.

  9. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...... during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic...... regression analysis. We observed a distinct association between Wilms tumor and high birth weight (=4 kg) for girls (OR 1.97, CI 1.50-2.59) but not for boys (1.04, 0.78-1.38); overall, the OR was 1.43 (1.17-1.74). Among girls, risk increased by 28% (15-42%) per 500 g increase in birth weight. Large...

  10. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic.We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children.In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use.This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  11. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out. The main aim was to study cultural identity and experiences of difference. The primary objective of this study is to give a voice to young international adoptees in Finland and present results as examples of how the dominant population adapts to difference.

  12. Amateur observations of exoplanets in Finland: History and recent activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Kehusmaa, P.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Exoplanet have been observed by Finnish amateur astronomers already 17 years. Recently there are two active observers, but the interest to photometric observations on exoplanet transits is increasing in Finland.

  13. Science and regulation 50 years hand in hand in radiation safety work in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, Jukka; Mustonen, Raimo; Ikaheimonen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    The first predecessor of the present Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) was founded in 1958 to regulate the use of radiation and to study artificial radiation in the environment. In those days radiation was used only in medical and industrial applications and there were also first indications that atmospheric nuclear tests might cause significant exposure to radiation, especially in the Northern Finland. Focusing activities of the new Institute of Radiation Physics, as STUK was called in those days, to these two activities laid foundation for the operations culture where regulators and scientists work together to achieve the optimum level of safety. Since those early days STUK has continued this operations model and developed it to include also other activities. Today STUK is the national regulatory body for both radiation protection and nuclear safety, but at the same time it is a research organisation and an expert body, supporting for instance the national emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiation accidents. This has brought great synergy benefits and given STUK an opportunity to use the limited national resources in the most effective way. This paper describes the main functions of STUK in its fifty years' operation and highlights the arguments favouring to keep regulatory and research activities as close to each other as possible. In today's world nuclear safety, radiation protection, and radiological preparedness and security issues are so closely connected with each other that organisations dealing with them should have comprehensive knowledge about all of them. (author)

  14. Perceptions of addictions as societal problems in Canada, sweden, Finland and st. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Kari; Koski-Jännes, Anja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Blomqvist, Jan; Pervova, Irina; Cunningham, John A

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the relative gravity people attribute to various addictive behaviors with respect to other societal concerns in four northern populations with different history, social policy and treatment alternatives for addicted individuals. Random population surveys were conducted in Canada, Sweden, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia. In Finland and Sweden, the survey was conducted by mail, in Canada and St. Petersburg by phone. As a part of this survey, the respondents were asked to assess the gravity of various societal problems, some of which involved various addictive behaviors. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods, factor analysis, contextual analysis and multiple regression analysis. Hard drugs, criminality and environmental issues belonged to the topmost problems in all data samples. Overall, Finns and Canadians appeared the least worried about various societal problems, Swedes seemed the most worried and St. Petersburgian views were the most polarized. Two factors were extracted from the combined data. Factor 1 covered criminal behavior and various addictions; it was named Threats to Safety factor. Factor 2 comprised social equality issues. The country context explained 12.5% of the variance of the safety factor and 7.9% of the equality factor. Despite some cultural variation in the gravity assessments, the central core of the social representation of addictive behaviors tends still to be linked with 'badness' since they were mainly grouped with various forms of criminal behavior in all these countries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. New Reactor Siting in Finland, Hanhikivi Site in Pyhaejoki - STUK preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    STUK has performed a preliminary assessment of the Decision-in-Principle on the Fennovoima application. A variety of factors must be considered in the selection of a site, including effects of the site on the plant design and the effects of the plant on the site environment. These include external hazards, both natural and human-induced. Since this is a new site, an extensive siting process is followed, that can include an EIA. A site survey is performed to identify candidate sites, after investigating a large region and rejecting unsuitable sites. The remaining sites are then screened and compared on the basis of safety and other considerations to select one or more preferred sites. Natural hazards include geology, seismology, hydrology and meteorology. Offshore ice will be a particular hazard for this plant, since the site is on average only 1.5 m above sea level. The design basis earthquake corresponds to a return frequency of 100,000 years, with 50 % confidence. The existing sites in southern Finland used a design peak ground acceleration of 0.1 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 10 Hz. The candidate sites in northern Finland will require a peak ground acceleration of 0.2 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 25 Hz

  16. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeck, K.; Purcell, A.

    2003-11-01

    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  17. Interpersonal communication about politics among Russian migrants in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    CHERNYUK, IRINA

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to analyse interpersonal communication on politics among Russian migrants in Finland, and to find an answer to the question: What are the essentials of the interpersonal communication on politics among Russian migrants in Finland? The study presents an exploration of scientific discussion on political communication. The research focuses political communication among citizens on interpersonal level, and considers different approaches, theories and findings in that fiel...

  18. Early childhood education and care partnership in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kc, Anupama

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and find Early Childhood Education and Care partnership (ECEC) in a certain day-care of Finland. The objective of the study was to find answers to two questions: 1) what is ECEC partnership and how does it work in Finland; and 2) what are parents’ opinions and suggestions regarding the ECEC partnership. The thesis is based on qualitative research. Unstructured interview was conducted with five different parents for obtaining the data. The designed...

  19. Chinese SME Entrepreneurs in Finland From a cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengsi

    2017-01-01

    China presently holds the position of the second largest investor world-wide, and its external levels of foreign direct and indirect investment has become a global phenomenon. Besides Russia, China is the second biggest trading partner of Finland. This research reports the described experiences of a small sample of Chinese entrepreneurs who are doing business in Finland. The research describes cultural aspects from both Chinese and Finnish cultural perspectives, and therefore is beneficial fo...

  20. Migrant family language practices and language policies in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Shahzaman

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This article investigates the language practices and language policies of an Indian migrant family in their daily life in Finland. The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential of an empirical case study on migration to understand the interrelationship between macro and micro analyses of language policies and practices. Though the migrant language instruction is encouraged and executed under the national language policy in Finland, the second generation of the...

  1. Social media usage among rally fans : Case: Neste Rally Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Linnaluoma, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the social media usage of rally fans to optimize social media communication. The thesis was assigned by AKK Sports Ltd, which operates as the marketing company of Neste Rally Finland event. The research was conducted by using quantitative research method, which purpose was to clarify the target group's social media usage in general and also around the context of Neste Rally Finland. The research data was gathered with an electronic questionnai...

  2. Service design for Chinese restaurant management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is focused on understanding the service and operation model of Chinese restaurants in Finland, identifying the gaps between the service suppliers’ and the customers’ view on service quality and trying to find out the best Chinese restaurant service design in Finland. The conceptual framework of the thesis is based on the service design, the scale to measure the service quality - SERVQUAL model, and the comparison of Finnish and Chinese food culture and...

  3. Firewood processing devices in Finland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.; Kaerhae, K.

    2002-01-01

    This Forestry Bulletin presents a review of the market situation for firewood processing devices in Finland during March 2002. The review is based on a questionnaire sent to device manufacturers. The firewood processing devices have traditionally been divided into three groups according to their functions: cross-cutting devices, splitting devices and cross-cutting and splitting devices. With a cross-cutting device the tree can be cross-cut only. Because it is easily possible to build the splitting function into a cross-cutting device, merely manufacturing a cross-cutting devices is rare. In all the splitting machines on the market, the splitting is carried out on a horizontally operated hydraulic cylinder pushing against a splitting blade. The types of cross-cutting blade mostly used in cross-cutting and splitting devices are circular i.e. circular saw blade, and chain saw. These devices are called firewood sawing machines. In firewood chopping machines that have a chopping blade, the wood is cross-cut using a spiral or guillotine blade. The splitting is done by a wedge blade or an axe blade. The firewood chopping machines can cross-cut and split stems up to a maximum of 20-22 cm in diameter. Circular blade firewood machines use either a cone screw or hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. They can handle wood of 20-30 cm thick in diameter. Machines using a chain saw can process stems of a maximum 30-45 cm thick in diameter. All firewood machines that work with a chain saw use a hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. According to the questionnaire responses, there were 14 (12 Finnish, one Norwegian and one Italian) manufacturers of firewood processing devices in the market. There were over 80 device models. There were only three cross-cutting devices, thirty splitting devices and forty cross-cutting splitting devices. The price range of the devices was 500-66,000 euros (including 22% VAT). According to the MTT Agrifood Research Finland

  4. Economics of nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, Risto; Luostarinen, Kari

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power generation fits perfectly with the long duration load profile of the Finnish power system. The good performance of the Finnish nuclear power has yielded benefits also to the consumers through its contribution to decreasing the electricity price. Furthermore, the introduction of nuclear power has resulted in a clear drop in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in the shift of 1970's and 1980's. In the year 2001 the four Finnish nuclear power units at Loviisa and Olkiluoto generated 22.8 TWh electricity, equivalent to 28 per cent of the total consumption. Loviisa power station has a net output capacity of 2 x 488 MW, and Olkiluoto 2 x 840 MW. The capacity factors of the four nuclear units have been above 90 per cent, which are among the highest in the world. The energy-intensive process industries in particular have strong belief in nuclear power. In November 2000, Teollisuuden Voima company (TVO) submitted to the Finnish Government an application for decision in principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit. The arguments were among other things to guarantee for the Finnish industry the availability of cheap electric energy and to meet the future growth of electricity consumption in Finland. The carbon-free nuclear power also represents the most efficient means to meet the Greenhouse Gas abatement quota of Finland. Simultaneously, the energy policy of the Government includes intensive R and D and investment support for the renewable energy sources and energy conservation, and the objective is also to replace coal with natural gas as much as reasonably possible. The fifth nuclear unit would be located in one of the existing Finnish nuclear sites, i.e. Olkiluoto or Loviisa. The size of the new nuclear unit would be in the range of 1000 to 1600 MW electric. The ready infrastructure of the existing site could be utilised resulting in lower investment cost for the new unit. The Finnish Government accepted the

  5. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  6. Small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Pekka; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Perälä, Jussi; Dahl, Helle Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To compare domestic cannabis cultivation in Denmark and Finland to describe national characteristics in small-scale cannabis growing. A Web survey conducted among small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark (June to November 2008) and Finland (May to June 2009). Current cannabis growers (Denmark, 401; Finland, 1,054). Comparisons in regard to social background, growing history, practices, purposes and motives of growing, and perceptions of risks. Cannabis was cultivated primarily for own use, but sharing with friends and avoiding criminal circles also were significant motives for growing. Finnish growers prioritized indoor cultivation, whereas the Danes were more in favor of open-air plantations. Risks of getting caught by the police were observed to be greater in Finland. Growing for medical purposes was twice as prevalent in Finland as in Denmark. Cannabis growing is a stronger and more novel phenomenon in Finland than in Denmark, but both countries have been influenced by international trends. Finnish and Danish small-scale cannabis cultivators can be considered to be ideologically oriented lifestyle growers. Differences in the magnitude of the phenomenon may reflect differences in the availability and quality of cannabis in national drug markets. The Internet had promoted the spreading of the trend. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M. [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  8. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  9. Costs of allergic diseases from birth to two years in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, S; Maskunitty, A; Nermes, M; Laitinen, K; Pekurinen, M

    2012-10-01

    Costing studies are needed to identify the resources used for treatment and inform payers of the costs incurred. The objectives were to determine the costs of diagnosing and treating atopic dermatitis, food allergy and asthma, and to compare the share of costs to society and to the family during the first two years of life. The data were obtained from an ongoing mother-infant nutrition study. The sample comprised 60 infants who developed allergic disease by the age of 24 months and 56 healthy infants with no allergic disease. The costs included diagnosis and treatment of the allergy, disability allowances, travel expenses and time spent by parents. The median costs per infant were €275 (range 94-1306) for atopic dermatitis, €1408 (163-5408) for asthma, €3182 (628-11195) for food allergy, and €10 (0-619) for the healthy infants due to the suspicion of allergic disease. The highest costs in atopic dermatitis were caused by primary care visits, topical treatments, travel costs and parents' time, and those for food allergy by hospital out-patient care, infant formulae for cow's milk allergy, disability allowances and travel costs. The families paid 43% of the costs arising from atopic dermatitis, 13.6% of those from food allergy and 16.5% of those from asthma. Cow's milk allergy emerged as the most expensive allergic disease, especially for the society, and concurrent asthma in particular further increased the costs. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  11. Integrated environmental research and networking of economy and information in rural areas of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LUOSTARINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses material from many extensive research projects starting from the construction of the electric power supply network and its water supply systems in northern Finland in 1973-1986, to the Agropolis agricultural strategy and networking for the Loimijoki project. A list of the material and references of the publications is available in Agronet on the Internet. All these projects applied integrated environmental research covering biology, the natural sciences, social sciences, and planning methodology. To be able to promote sustainable agriculture and rural development there is a pressing need to improve research methodology and applications for integrated environmental research. This article reviews the philosophy and development of the theory behind integrated environmental re-search and the theory of network economy.

  12. Pardoning in Nineteenth-Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Kotkas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years many new studies on the history of pardoning in the early modern period have questioned the old conception of pardoning merely as an expression of a ruler’s mercy. Now, the system of pardoning is seen rather as an institutional framework for the condemned and the authorities to negotiate for the punishment. However, the 19th century pardoning systems and practices still seem to be a reasonably uncovered area. This article shows that the pardoning practice of 19th century Finland still embodied features of early modern criminal law. Pardoning was used to take into account mitigating circumstances, the social capital of the petitioners was important for the outcome, and the procedure involved symbolism. On the other hand, modern features also appeared. Local community had lost its influence on the procedure, pardoning power was to a large extent delegated to the judicial authorities with clear guidelines, and fiscal interests were no longer involved in the pardoning system. The article also shows that the reforms carried out in the Finnish criminal law during the 19th century had a clear impact on the pardoning practice. Pardoning began to lose its significance. However, the pardoning system did not simply give way to the standards of modern criminal law. On the contrary, it functioned as an important transitional tool for modernizing the material criminal law.

  13. The use of forest chips in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    International commitments require the industrial world to restrict their greenhouse gas emissions. In Finland, where the annual timber cut per capita is more than ten times the average cut in the other EU countries, the primary means to reduce CO 2 emissions is to replace fossil fuels with forest biomass. The annual consumption of wood-based energy corresponds to 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) or almost 20% of the total primary energy consumption. The goal is to rise the annual production of wood-based energy to 7.8 million toe by 2010. Substantial part of the targeted increase could be obtained by forest chips produced of unmerchantable small-diameter trees and logging residues. The goal for 2010 is to use 5 million solid m 3 of forest chips, which equals to 0.9 million toe. The use of forest chips is increasing. About 474 000 solid m 3 of forest chips were used as fuel in 1999. At the moment, the growth is rapid especially in cogeneration plants producing both heat and electricity. The growth is based primarily on chips obtained from logging residues. The price of forest chips decreased considerably during the 1990s but the price range remained wide. Chips made of logging residues are cheaper than those made of small trees. The average price of forest chips at the plant, VAT excluded, is about 53 FIM per MWh. In Sweden, the average price is more than 40% higher

  14. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  15. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, R.; Koutaniemi, P.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper, such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  16. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Illukka, E.; Pusa, S.

    1989-08-01

    The atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in the 1950s, '60s and '70s caused global radioactive fallout. After the reactor accident at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986, radioactive fallout was carried by by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1987 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via different foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the Chernobyl accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chernobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Ten different groups of people were measured during 1987. Three were local reference groups, two groups of radiation workers, one a population group representing the whole country and four groups representing those with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137 Cs body burden in the population group was 2000 Bq at the end of 1987, the minimum body burden being 200 Bq and the maximum 10000 Bq. The measurement results showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in the summer 1987. The groups with special diets did not necessarily follow this pattern. The mean effective dose equivalents delivered in 1987 to people in Finland, estimated by using the measurement results of the population group, was 0.08 mSv, the corresponding dose equivalent in 1986 bein 0.06 mSv

  17. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Illukka, E.; Pusa, S.

    1991-03-01

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl radioactive fallout was carried by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1988 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the Chernobyl accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chemobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Nine different groups of people were measured during 1988. Three were local reference groups, two groups of radiation workers, one a population group representing the whole country and three groups representing those with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137 Cs body burden in the population group was 1300 Bq at the end of 1988, the minimum body burden being 50 Bq and the maximum 7700 Bq. The measurement data showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in summer 1987. The group with special diets did not necessarily follow this pattern. The mean effective dose equivalents delivered to people in Finland in 1988, estimated by using the measurement data on the population goup, was 0.05 mSv the corresponding dose equivalent in 1987 being 0.08 mSv

  18. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Aaltonen, H.; Laaksonen, J.; Lahtinen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Reponen, H.; Rytoemaa, T.; Suomela, M.; Toivonen, H.; Varjoranta, T.

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  19. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  20. Improving cervical cancer screening attendance in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Anni; Anttila, Ahti; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Nieminen, Pekka

    2015-03-15

    High attendance is essential to cervical cancer screening results. Attendance in the Finnish program is currently at 70%, but extensive opportunistic screening occurs beside the organized. A shift from opportunistic to organized screening is imperative to optimize the costs and impact of screening and minimize potential harms. We evaluated the effect of reminder letters (1st reminder) and self-sampling test (2nd reminder) on program attendance. The study population consisted of 31,053 screening invitees in 31 Finnish municipalities. 8,284 non-attendees after one invitation received a reminder letter and 4,536 further non-attendees were offered a self-sampling option. Socioeconomic factors related to participation were clarified by combining screening data to data from Statistics Finland. Reminder letters increased participation from 72.6% (95% CI 72.1, 73.1) to 79.2% (95% CI 78.8, 79.7) and self-sampling further to 82.2% (95% CI 81.8, 82.7). Reminder letters with scheduled appointments resulted in higher increase than open invitations (10 vs. 6%). Screening of original non-attendees increased the yield of CIN3+ lesions by 24%. Non-attendance was associated with young age, immigrant background, lower education level and having never been married. We showed that a total attendance of well over 80% can be achieved within an organized program when the invitational protocol is carefully arranged. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. INCIDENCE OF KAWASAKI DISEASE IN NORTHERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Eeva; Griffiths, Elizabeth P.; Farstad, Teresa; Schiller, Bodil; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Uehara, Ritei; Best, Brookie M.; Burns, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to compare the epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease (KD) in three Northern European countries and Japan. Methods Data were obtained from discharge databases for hospitals in Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1999–2009 and from nationwide epidemiologic surveys in Japan from 1998–2008. Annual incidence for each country was calculated using regional census data. Results During the 11-year period, 1,390 KD patients were recorded in the registries of the three Northern European countries. Average annual incidence rates per 100,000 children less than 5 years were: Finland 11.4, Norway 5.4, and Sweden 7.4. Overall, 86.4% of Japanese KD patients were less than 5 years compared to only 67.8% in the four Northern European countries (p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of KD in Northern Europe was constant over the study period and much lower than in Japan. There was a significant age difference between Northern European and Japanese KD patients that remains unexplained. PMID:22726311

  3. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-country comparison study of Finland and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Sutinen, Jussi; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P

    2016-07-01

    The premises underlying the development of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) instruments provide a convincing rationale for comparing quality of life (QoL) across countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the QoL of patients living with HIV infection in Finland and in Portugal, and to examine the contribution of the QoL domains to the overall QoL in these two countries. The sample comprised 453 patients from Finland (76.3% male; mean age = 46.50) and 975 from Portugal (69.2% male; mean age = 40.98), all living with HIV. QoL data were collected by use of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Significant country differences were found in QoL domains and specific facets. Patients from Finland reported markedly higher scores on all six QoL domains and general facet, than did their Portuguese counterparts. Regarding the specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref, patients from Finland also reported significantly higher scores on 24 out of 29. The exceptions were dependence on medications and treatment, positive feelings, personal relationships, sexual activity, and on spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Regression analyses showed that physical, psychological, and independence domains contributed to overall QoL among the Finnish patients (R(2) = 0.63), whereas among the Portuguese, the domains significantly associated with overall QoL were physical, psychological, independence, and environment (R(2) = 0.48). Country differences in QoL domains and specific facets may reflect sociocultural differences between southern and northern Europe.

  4. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  5. Warm weather conditions moderated the increase of power consumption in Finland in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    Year 2000 was exceptionally warm in Finland. The amount of rainfalls in Northern Finland was larger than in 1999. This is shown clearly in the production of hydroelectric power. The wind conditions were also better, so the wind power generation doubled in 2000. The increase in power consumption in 2000 was only 1.7%. The power consumption rate was slightly over 79 TWh. The power consumption of household and agricultural sectors decreased by nearly 2% and in the public sector by 0.2%. The industrial power consumption increased by nearly 3%. Year 2000 was excellent for the industrial sector. The industrial production increased by 11%. The increment of power demand in heavy metal industry, chemical industry and forest industry was 5-7%. Power demand of process industry in 2000 exceeded 43.4 TWh, of which the share of building industry was more than 200 GWh. Process industry use about 55% of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000. The power demand of forest industry was 26.3 TWh, which is about 2% higher than in 1999. The corresponding figures for metal industry were 7.1 TWh and growth rate 3%. Chemical industry used in 2000 about 5.9 TWh of electric power. The growth rate was more that 4% higher in 2000 than in 1999. Power consumption of other industrial sectors in 2000 increased about 3% being now about 3.9 TWh. Hydroelectric power generation in 2000 was nearly 14.4 TWh, which is nearly 14.4 % higher than in 1999. The share of hydroelectric power generation of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000 was 18%. The wind power generation in 2000 was nearly 80 GWh, which are about 60% higher than in 1999. The number of wind power plants is 63, and the capacity of them 38 MW. The production of nuclear power in 2000 decreased by about 2% because of the longer and more thorough maintenance stoppages in the Loviisa 1 reactor. The utilisation rates of Finnish nuclear power plants in 2000 were high, Loviisa 1 by nearly 85%, Loviisa 2 by 91%, Olkiluoto 1 by 96

  6. The introduction of nuclear power in Finland; Introduktionen av kaernkraften i Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafs, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    The aim of my research was to study the introduction of nuclear power in Finland with special focus on the domestic engineering works industry. I wanted to find out what really happened during this long process, which I consider to be unique. I also tried to clearfy the reasons why it came about at all, and why it developed in such a peculiar way. My basic research questions were: (a.) When and how was nuclear power introduced in Finland? (b.) Which were the reasons for this introduction and which were the results? (c.) Which was the role of the domestic engineering works industry? I started the investigation by exploring the original situation in Finland and also in the countries which came to be a primus motor for the development. I studied the relevant literature and interviewed quite a few of the persons who in a decisive way had an influence on the long and chaotic process which led to the introduction of nuclear power in Finland. When describing the different phases in the development I stayed in principle within the historic framework, although I diverged from a strict chronological order when necessary. Neither did I in my investigation take a neutral stance regarding the two large projects that had a central position in the introduction, namely the nuclear power plants in Lovisa and in Olkiluoto. The Lovisa project implied a greater challenge and it was also more important to the domestic industry than Olkiluoto. It therefore got more attention than Olkiluoto. Oy Finnatom Ab (managed by me 1975-2001), due to its role as a spokesman for the Finnish nuclear engineering works industry, occupied a central position in my investigation. The start of the introduction may psychologically be dated to the startup in 1958 of the Ydin Exponential pile, YXP, and in 1962 of Finland Reactor I, FiR I, and the end to the signing in 1982 by Industrins Kraft, ASEA and Asea-Atom of the acceptance protocol for Olkiluoto and the final permits for Lovisa, granted by the

  7. northern Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam,. P O Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... National Parks and neighbouring villages in northern Tanzania between 1993 and l996 (Kabigumila 1998a). Most of ..... International Congress ofChelonian Conservation. SOPTOM,. Gonfaron France. pp: ...

  8. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...

  9. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  10. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 ... Labor and Birth (FAQ087) Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (FAQ170) Patient Education ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  11. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  12. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  13. Fathers' birth experience in relation to midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Cederlöf, Linnea; Widén, Sara

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to identify the proportion of fathers having a positive experience of a normal birth and to explore factors related to midwifery care that were associated with a positive experience. Research has mainly focused on the father's supportive role during childbirth rather than his personal experiences of birth. 595 new fathers living in a northern part of Sweden, whose partner had a normal birth, were included in the study. Data was collected by questionnaires. Odds Ratios with 95% confidence interval and logistic regression analysis were used. The majority of fathers (82%) reported a positive birth experience. The strongest factors associated with a positive birth experience were midwife support (OR 4.0; 95 CI 2.0-8.1), the midwife's ongoing presence in the delivery room (OR 2.0; 1.1-3.9), and information about the progress of labour (OR 3.1; 1.6-5.8). Most fathers had a positive birth experience. Midwifery support, the midwife's presence and sufficient information about the progress of labour are important aspects in a father's positive birth experience. The role of the midwife during birth is important to the father, and his individual needs should be considered in order to enhance a positive birth experience. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  15. Nationwide survey of resuscitation education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, H; Silfvast, T; Turpeinen, A; Paakkonen, H; Uusaro, A

    2009-09-01

    Good-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is highlighted in the International Resuscitation Guidelines, but clinically the quality of CPR is often poor. Education of CPR has a major role in the primary skills imparted to students. Different methods can be used to teach CPR quality. We evaluated the current status of their usage in Finland institutes teaching students of emergency medicine at different levels. The following institutes were included in an anonymous survey: medical schools (teaching future physicians), universities of applied sciences (paramedics), colleges (emergency medical technicians) and emergency services college (fire-fighters). Hours of teaching theory lessons of CPR and hours of small group training were evaluated. In particular, we focussed on the teaching methods for adequate chest compression rate and depth. Twenty-one of 30 institutes responded to the questionnaire. The median for hours of theory lessons of CPR was 8h (range: 2-28 h). The median for hours of small group training was 10 (range: 3-40 h). The methods of teaching adequate chest compression rate were instructors' visual estimation in 28.5% of the institutions, watch in 33.3%, metronome in 9.5% and manikins' graphic in 28.5% of institutions. The methods of teaching adequate chest compression depth were instructors' visual estimation in 33.3%, in manikins light indicators in 23.8% and manikins' graphics in 52.3% of institutions. The hours of theoretic lessons and small group training vary widely among different institutes. In one-third of institutions, the instructor's visual estimation was a sole method used to teach adequate chest compression rate and depth. Different technical methods were surprisingly seldom used.

  16. New NPP Construction Experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm-Lytz, K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the experiences of the new nuclear power plant construction projects. The topics include the licensing and regulatory oversight process, completion of the design prior to construction, experience and know-how of the participating organisations, quality management in a nuclear construction project, safety culture aspects in a nuclear construction project, and the role and importance of regulator’s oversight. Finland has recent experience of new nuclear power plant construction, one plant unit being under construction close to commissioning phase and one plant unit in construction license phase. Each nation is solely responsible for the safety of its nuclear installations. Therefore, there are also national practices how nuclear power plants are licensed and how the safety and quality of these plants are verified during construction and operation. Differences in licensing, regulations and regulatory practices may have an impact on the design of the plant. There may be differences in how the detailed design has to be documented and how and when it needs to be submitted for approval to the regulator. To avoid surprises due to differences, it is beneficial for the owner and plant vendor to familiarize themselves early enough on the national practices and regulations to ensure that regulatory expectations and processes can be taken into account in the project implementation. In addition, the owner and the plant vendor have to understand what are the national safety goals and safety requirements that the plant has to fulfil, and what they mean to the detailed design of the plant. These have to be clarified and explicitly defined by the owner in terms of design criteria in the bidding documentation to avoid difficulties in the future steps of the project.

  17. Present situation of heating enterpreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmio, H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating entrepreneurs are farmers, who usually have a wood-lot of their own, or entrepreneurs, who have undertaken to look after the supply of fuel to real estates and their heating. The TTS- Institute conducted an analysis of the scope of heating enterpreneurship in connection with the project belonging to the national Bioenergy Research Programme. According to the responses obtained in a mail questionnaire study conducted in autumns 1996, and other data obtained on the subject, there were 36 active heating entrepreneur sites in Finland in December 1996. Heating enterpreneurship, usually involving the supply of chipped wood, has become more common during the past few years. In 1994, it was started at ten places, in 1995 at eight places, and in 1996 at twelve places. The majority, nearly three quarters, of the heating enterpreneurship sites at the end of 1996 were school buildings and one fifth were district heating plants. The solid fuel boiler capacity of all the plants in the study was 11.5 MW. The district heating plants were 0.3-2.5 MW in capacity, the school buildings were in the 60-500 kW range, old peoples'' homes had capacities of 300-370 kW. Except for one school building using sod peat as primary fuel, wood chips was the primary fuel used by institutional buildings. The enterprise form was that of an entrepreneur or a pool formed by entrepreneurs in the case of 27 entrepreneurs, a company in the case of 6, and a co-operative society in the case of three. There were 56 heating-enterpreneurship sites at the implementation or planning stage. Four fifths of them involved heat generation capacity of less than 500 kW and one fifth a capacity of 0.5-2.0 Mw Tyoetehoseuran Metsaetiedote. 13 refs., 3 figs

  18. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Northern Pintail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert G.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Guyn, Karla L.; Haukos, David A.; Austin, Jane E.; Miller, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout fall and winter.Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often far from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season.Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in the early 1970s to less than 3 million in

  20. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Limei; Wang, Caifeng; Cui, Chang; Ding, Guodong; Zhou, Yijun; Jin, Jun; Gao, Yu; Tian, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the potential association between maternal PBDEs and birth outcomes, including birth weight (g), length (cm), head circumference (cm) and gestational age (week). 215 mothers were recruited from a prospective birth cohort in rural northern China between September 2010 and February 2012. Serum PBDE congeners were detected and their association with birth outcomes were examined. The median maternal serum concentrations of BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153 were 2.27, 2.26, 3.58, 2.13, 4.87 ng/g lipid, respectively. Maternal LgBDE-28 and LgBDE-100 were negatively associated with birth length (β = −0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.82, −0.02; β = −0.97, 95% CI: −1.83, −0.08). A negative association was found between LgBDE-28 and birth weight among male infants (β = −253.76, 95% CI: −438.16, −69.36). PBDE congeners were not associated with head circumference, or gestational age. Our results contribute to growing evidence suggesting that PBDEs have adverse effects on birth outcomes. - Highlights: • We examined the relations between maternal exposure to PBDEs and birth outcomes. • BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, and -153 were detected in serum from 215 pregnant women. • There was a negative association between BDE-28, -100 and birth length. • BDE-28 showed a negative association with birth weight among male infants. - Negative associations were found between BDE-28, -100 exposure and birth length as well as between BDE-28 exposure and birth weight in male infants.

  1. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per

    2011-01-01

    -for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry......Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...... during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic...

  2. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per

    2011-01-01

    during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic......-for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry......Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...

  3. Asthma and atopic dermatitis after early-, late-, and post-term birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Päivi; Haataja, Paula; Ojala, Riitta; Hirvonen, Mikko; Korppi, Matti; Paassilta, Marita; Uotila, Jukka; Gissler, Mika; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Outi

    2018-03-01

    To assess the incidence and risk factors of asthma and atopic dermatitis by seven years of age after early-term (ET) (37 +0 -38 +6 weeks), full-term (FT) (39 +0 -40 +6 weeks), late-term (LT) (41 +0 -41 +6 weeks), and especially post-term (PT) (≥42 weeks) birth. Altogether, 965 203 infants born between 1991 and 2008 in Finland were investigated in ET, FT, LT, and PT groups. Data on asthma medication reimbursement and hospital visits for atopic dermatitis were retrieved from national health databases. The frequencies of asthma medication reimbursement in the ET, FT, LT, and PT groups were 4.5%, 3.7%, 3.3%, and 3.2%, respectively. Hospital visits due to atopic dermatitis were most common after PT birth. Compared with FT births, ET births were associated with an increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20, 1.17-1.23), while LT (aOR, 95%CI 0.91, 0.89-0.93) births and PT (aOR, 95%CI 0.87, 0.83-0.92) births decreased this risk. PT birth (aOR, 95%CI 1.06, 1.01-1.10) predicted atopic dermatitis. From a population point of view, the most relevant risk factors for asthma were male sex, ET birth, smoking during pregnancy and birth by elective cesarean section, and for atopic dermatitis male sex, first delivery, birth in a level II hospital and birth by cesarean section. Early-term birth was a predictor of asthma, and PT birth was associated with atopic dermatitis. Counseling against smoking and following strict indications for planned ET deliveries and cesarean sections may be means to reduce the risk of later asthma. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  5. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  6. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  7. Description of the electric power and energy trade in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Finnish State has traditionally controlled the import of electricity, larger related investments and pricing. Lately, a market orientated economic policy has influenced energy policy and the amount of state control has gradually decreased. Decisions have yet to be made with regard to the fifth nuclear power reactor. The paper deals briefly with the subjects of the electric power, natural gas and oil markets. Finland's transmission network has connections to the former Russia and the Baltic countries. According to agreements within the European Community, Finland must now make changes in its electric power supply structure. Competition will be encouraged and monopolies discouraged. Pricing shall be transparent, and power plants must present written documentation for their management system, price regulations etc. A law must be passed to legitimate trade across the country's borders. Emphasis will be laid on energy conservation and energy research and consultant services. It is claimed that Finland's level of technology in this area lives up to international standards. (AB)

  8. The chopped firewood trade in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, A.; Kaerhae, K.

    2003-01-01

    The TTS Institute studied the operations of chopped firewood merchants and described the cost structure of commercial chopped firewood production. The research material was collected via postal questionnaire in 2002 after being sent to those firewood merchants assumed to be selling chopped firewood. Acceptable responses were received from 244 firewood merchants. In addition, ten firewood merchants were interviewed. In 2001, the firewood merchants sold an average of 151 m 3 of chopped firewood. Half of the firewood merchants sold less than 51 m 3 of chopped firewood. The main source of income for the majority of chopped firewood merchants was agriculture and forestry. If approximately 300,000 m 3 of chopped firewood is sold annually, according to the research there are about 2,000 chopped firewood merchants in Finland. However, only a very few entrepreneurs get their main income from the chopped firewood trade. The majority of raw material for chopped firewood came from the merchant's own forest. Birch was the most commonly used species. 54% of the chopped firewood was made from pulpwood, 19% from pole size trees and 18% from split firewood. The drying methods for chopped firewood were most often natural drying outside in covered stocks or cages, natural drying in stacks or natural drying of mechanically debarked or debarked timber in stacks. Less than a tenth of the merchants dried their chopped, firewood using artificial cold air-drying. The share of packaged chopped firewood was 14% i.e. approximately 42,000 m 3 . Chopped firewood was packed mostly into small packages (about 10 kg). The chopped firewood trade is a local business: the average transport distance from the merchant's store to the customer was 25 km. The chopped firewood merchants delivered 73% of lie chopped firewood themselves. An agricultural tractor and a trailer were the most common transport method. The most important customer group is detached houses. The average production costs amongst the

  9. Contribution of risk factors to extremely, very and moderately preterm births - register-based analysis of 1,390,742 singleton births.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Räisänen

    Full Text Available Preterm birth, defined as birth occurring before 37 weeks gestation, is one of the most significant contributors to neonatal mortality and morbidity, with long-term adverse consequences for health, and cognitive outcome.The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors of preterm birth (≤36+6 weeks gestation among singleton births and to quantify the contribution of risk factors to socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth.A retrospective population-based case-control study using data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. A total population of singleton births in Finland from 1987-2010 (n = 1,390,742 was reviewed.Among all singleton births (n = 1,390,742, 4.6% (n = 63,340 were preterm (<37 weeks, of which 0.3% (n = 4,452 were classed as extremely preterm, 0.4% (n = 6,213 very preterm and 3.8% (n = 54,177 moderately preterm. Smoking alone explained up to 33% of the variation in extremely, very and moderately preterm birth incidence between high and the low socioeconomic status (SES groups. Reproductive risk factors (placental abruption, placenta previa, major congenital anomaly, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, anemia, stillbirth, small for gestational age (SGA and fetal sex altogether explained 7.7-25.0% of the variation in preterm birth between SES groups.Smoking explained about one third of the variation in preterm birth groups between SES groups whereas the contribution of reproductive risk factors including placental abruption, placenta previa, major congenital anomaly, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, anemia, stillbirth, SGA and fetal sex was up to one fourth.

  10. Birthing postures and birth canal lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-05-01

    This study was performed to assess the differences in the birth canal lacerations following the lateral and fours posture deliveries compared with those following the supine posture deliveries. We examined the birth canal lacerations of our "low risk" pregnant women under the midwife-led delivery care at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015. There were 3826, 1754 and 719 women who delivered with supine, lateral and fours postures. The rate of no laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.630, 95% CI 0.56-0.71, p < 0.01); however, the incidence of perineal laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.856, 95% CI 0.76-0.90, p < 0.01). The incidence of perineal laceration of third- or fourth-degree in the women who delivered with fours posture was significant higher than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, p < 0.01). The current results may be to help for self-determination of birthing postures in prenatal women.

  11. CO2 sequestration by magnesium silicate mineral carbonation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Kohlmann, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fixation Of CO 2 from fossil fuel combustion in the form of solid carbonates appears to be a realistic option for the capture and storage of this greenhouse gas. Vast amounts of magnesium silicate minerals exist worldwide that may be carbonated, with magnesium carbonate as stable and environmentally harmless product. Also in Finland magnesium silicate resources exist that could support Finnish commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper describes the option Of CO 2 sequestration with magnesium silicates in Finland. Addressed are mineral resources, mineral quality and the mineral carbonation process, including some experimental results on magnesium silicate carbonation kinetics

  12. 237Np in peat and lichen in Finland; Forests ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, S.; Helariutta, K. (Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Arctic Research Programme, Helsinki (Finland)); Roos, P. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    In this work, an analytical method was developed for separating Np from large sample masses. Activity concentration of 237Np was determined from selected peat and lichen samples collected immediately after the Chernobyl accident in Southern and Central Finland (12.-14.5.1986). Furthermore, the contributions from the nuclear weapons testing in 1950-1960ies and the Chernobyl accident to 237Np inventory in Finland were evaluated. It can be concluded that 237Np originates mainly from global nuclear test fallout in Finnish peat and the concentration of 237Np, both Chernobyl-derived and older global fallout, varies depending on location. (LN)

  13. Noteworthy records of aphyllophoroid fungi in Finland (Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Kunttu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present new records of noteworthy aphyllophoroid fungi, mainly polypores and corticioids in Finland. The following 19 rare or infrequently collected species are presented with notes on their substrates: Amylocorticium subsulphureum, Antrodiella parasitica, Ceraceomyces sulphurinus, Clavaria atroumbrina, Clavaria rosea, Gloeophyllum carbonarium, Hyphodontia flavipora, Junghuhnia fimbriatella, Lindtneria chordulata, Odonticium septocystidia, Peniophorella guttulifera, Perenniporia tenuis, Postia immitis, Repetobasidium vile, Resinicium pinicola, Sidera vulgaris, Tomentella coerulea, Trechispora laevis and Xylodon pruni. We also list 41 aphyllophoroid fungi as new to some sections of the boreal vegetation zone in Finland.

  14. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  15. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  16. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... discuss birth control methods with one’s sexual partner. General methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically interferes with ...

  17. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...

  18. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the patch have no side effects. ...

  19. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  20. High birth rates despite easy access to contraception and abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hognert, Helena; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe and compare contraceptive use, fertility, birth, and abortion rates in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National data on births, abortions, fertility rate (1975-2013), redeemed prescriptions of hormonal contraceptives and sales figures...... contraception followed by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were the most common methods. During 1975-2013 abortion rates decreased in Denmark (from 27/1000 women to 15/1000 women aged 15-44/1000 women) and Finland (from 20 to 10/1000 women), remained stable in Norway (≈16) and Sweden (≈20......) and increased in Iceland (from 6 to 15/1000 women). Birth rates remained stable around 60/1000 women aged 15-44 in all countries except for Iceland where the birth rate decreased from 95 to 65/1000 women. Abortion rates were highest in the age group 20-24 years. In the same age group, Sweden had a lower...

  1. Status of Women in Highly Literate Societies: The Case of Kerala and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Both Kerala and Finland have made notable achievements in the realm of literacy: Kerala has one of the highest rates in the developing world and Finland ranks first in literacy among developed countries. Both also share a cultural history of granting women a high status in their respective societies. Using Kerala and Finland as examples, this…

  2. Dirofilaria repens transmission in southeastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Pietikäinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. Results Herein, we describe an autochthonous D. repens infection in a Finnish woman. We also present two cases of D. repens infection in imported dogs indicating the life-cycle in the Russian Vyborg and St Petersburg areas, close to the Finnish border. Conclusions The most obvious limiting factor of the northern distribution of D. repens is the summer temperature, due to the temperature-dependent development of larvae in vectors. With continuing climate change, further spread of D. repens in Fennoscandia can be expected.

  3. Introduction of a Uranium tax in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In Finland, it is possible to create a tax model on uranium that will not compromise the profitability of future power plant investments or decisively reduce climate policy incentives for carbon-free energy production. The rise in energy costs caused by the tax could be compensated by lowering the electricity tax imposed on industry. The estimates above were made by Managing Director Pasi Holm and Professor Markku Ollikainen, who, on 4 February 2011, handed over their report concerning introduction of uranium tax to Minister of Economic Affairs Mauri Pekkarinen. According to the administrators, one can deem nuclear power to include specific grounds for imposing a tax via the fact that storage of used nuclear fuel involves a (infinitesimally small) risk of accidents with irreversible effects, and that, through the EU climate policy, nuclear power companies gain extra profit 'for nothing', i.e. windfall profit. The EU Energy Tax Directive facilitates collection of uranium tax. Uranium tax, imposed as an excise tax, would target the nuclear power plants in operation as well as the Olkiluoto 3 plant, presently under construction. The amount of uranium fuel used would serve as the basis of taxation. Holm and Ollikainen introduce two tax models, adjustable in a manner that the uranium tax would yield revenues of approximately EUR 100 million a year. The companies would still keep more than half of the profit and the state, depending on the model used, would collect 43 to 45 per cent of it via the tax. In the minimum tax model, the uranium tax is 44.5 of the difference between the market price of emission allowance and the average price of 2010 (EUR 15/tonne of CO 2 ), used as the comparison price, the minimum being EUR 2/MWh. The tax would yield a minimum of EUR 67 million to the state a year. When the emission allowance price rises to EUR 30, the tax would be EUR 6.7/MWh and the state would earn revenues of EUR 223 million. In a flexible tax model, the fixed part of the

  4. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  5. A comparative ideotype, yield component and cultivation value analysis for spring wheat adaptation in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Laurila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mixed structural covariance, Path and Cultivation Value analyses and the CERES-Wheat crop model were used to evaluate vegetation and yield component variation affecting yield potential between different high-latitude (> 60° N lat. and mid-European (< 60° N lat. spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes currently cultivated in southern Finland. Path modeling results from this study suggest that especially grains/ear, harvest index (HI and maximum 1000 kernel weight were significant factors defining the highest yield potential. Mixed and Cultivation value modeling results suggest that when compared with genotypes introduced for cultivation before 1990s, modern spring wheat genotypes have a significantly higher yielding capacity, current high yielding mid-European genotypes even exceeding the 5 t ha-1 non-potential baseline yield level (yb. Because of a forthcoming climate change, the new high yielding wheat genotypes have to adapt for elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 growing conditions in northern latitudes. The optimized ideotype profiles derived from the generic high-latitude and mid-European genotypes are presented in the results. High-latitude and mid-European ideotype profiles with factors estimating the effects of concurrent elevated CO2 and temperature levels with photoperiodical daylength effects can be utilized when designing future high yielding ideotypes adapted to future growing conditions. The CERES-Wheat ideotype modeling results imply, that with new high yielding mid-European ideotypes, the non-potential baseline yield (yb would be on average 5150 kg ha-1 level (+ 108 % vs. new high-latitude ideotypes (yb 4770 kg ha-1, 100% grown under the elevated CO2(700ppm×temperature(+3ºC growing conditions projected by the year 2100 climate change scenario in southern Finland.

  6. Contents of trichothecenes in oats during official variety, organic cultivation and nitrogen fertilization trials in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. HIETANIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural toxins, such as mycotoxins, have emerged as a significant factor affecting the safety image of cereal grains as a raw material for the food and feed industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contents of trichothecenes in representative samples of oats during official variety, nitrogen fertilization and organic farming trials in Finland, 1997–1999. Further objectives were to promote industry and commerce by selection of high-quality oat varieties for various applications. The official variety trials conducted at 8–10 locations were managed following standard protocol. There were 2 types of agronomy trial, the first included comparison of oat cultivars grown in conventional and organic farming systems at 6 locations, and the second used 5 nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha-1 at 2 locations. Regardless of wet cold summer occurring in Finland during 1998, the concentrations of Fusarium toxins were lowest during this 3 year monitoring period. More mycotoxins were produced during the warm, dry summers of 1997 and 1999 than in 1998. In all, 55% of the oat samples in the official variety trials contained deoxynivalenol (DON within the range of 50– 896 µ g kg-1. The differences in DON concentrations between organic and conventional cultivation were small. The results showed also that the use of various nitrogen fertilization levels only slightly affected the trichothecene concentrations. The contents of trichothecenes in Finnish grains appeared to be similar to or lower than those reported earlier in the Northern Hemisphere.;

  7. Teaching Russian as a Heritage Language in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protassova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Originating from many different sources, Russian as a heritage language in Finland displays a spectrum of developmental tendencies: both attrition and maintenance can be observed in various degrees. The Finnish educational system allows for the organization of bilingual pre-schools and schools when there are sufficient numbers of potential pupils.…

  8. Operational safety related human engineering research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Human errors contribute considerably to the total risk of the nuclear power plants as was clearly demonstrated at the TMI-accident in 1979. This fact was recognized early in Finland and a comprehensive research program was established in the second half of the 1970s. This paper gives a short description of some research projects in this program. (author)

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Finland, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Pieter Willem; Haanperä, Marjo; Rantala, Pirre; Couvin, David; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Rastogi, Nalin; Ruutu, Petri; Soini, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases are linked to immigration. In Finland, most cases are still Finnish born but the number of foreign born cases is steadily increasing. In this 4-year population based study, the TB situation in Finland was characterized by a genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. A total of 1048 M. tuberculosis isolates (representing 99.4% of all culture positive cases) were analyzed by spoligotyping and MIRU. Spoligotype lineages belonging to the Euro-American family were predominant among the Finnish isolates, particularly T (n=346, 33.0%) and Haarlem (n=237, 22.6%) strains. The lineage signature was unknown for 130 (12.4%) isolates. Out of the 17 multi-drug resistant TB strains, 10 (58.8%) belonged to the Beijing lineage. In total, 23 new SIT designations were given and 51 orphan strains were found, of which 58 patterns were unique to Finland. Phylogeographical TB mapping as compared to neighboring countries showed that the population structure in Finland most closely resembled that observed in Sweden. By combining spoligotyping and MIRU results, 98 clusters comprising 355 isolates (33.9%) were found. Only 10 clusters contained both Finnish and foreign born cases. In conclusion, a large proportion of the M. tuberculosis isolates were from Finnish born elderly patients. Moreover, many previously unidentified spoligotype profiles and isolates belonging to unknown lineages were encountered. PMID:24386443

  10. Teaching Popular Music in Finland: What's Up, What's Ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the history and current situation of popular music pedagogy in Finland. While popular music is widely accepted in the curriculum, there are differences in its application in the comprehensive schools and music institutions. Popular styles were first introduced into Finnish music education by secondary school music teachers;…

  11. Street mirrors, surveillance, and urban communities in early modern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ylimaunu, T.; Symonds, J.; Mullins, P.R.; Salmi, A.-K.; Nurmi, R.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Tranberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses street mirrors or ‘gossip mirrors’, in terms of urban social relations and surveillance. Street mirrors were introduced to coastal towns in Sweden and Finland in the 18th and early 19th centuries and may still be found in well-preserved towns with historic wooden centres. The

  12. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  13. Problematizing Finland's Pursuit of Intercultural (Kindergarten) Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Heidi; Dervin, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The argument that teachers should become ethical intercultural teachers is increasingly recognized as legitimate. This article presents a case study in kindergarten teacher education in Finland, a country that has been at the center of global discussions about quality education. The authors question the agenda for studying and teaching in an…

  14. Brug af alternativ isolering i Finland og Sverige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hjorslev

    I denne SBI-meddelelse beskrives erfaringer fra Finland og Sverige med cellulosebaseret løsfyldsisolering. Forhold vedrørende materialeegenskaber og indbygning beskrives. Der vises en række eksempler på svenske og finske konstruktioner med denne isoleringstype. Rapporten henvender sig til projekt...

  15. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Haarto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930 and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. P. modestus is also new to the Palaearctic.

  16. Survey of the pine-particle research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Ohlstroem, M.; Kulmala, M.; Haemeri, K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to find out the present state of the fine-particle research in Finland, the relations to the international research and the business possibilities of this research sector. The survey also included a questionnaire of the needs to establish a national research programme in this field

  17. Estimation of wind power potential of the Gulf of Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monzikova, Anna K.; Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of wind power potential of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its seasonal variations are presented. Measurements taken from meteorological stations around the coastline are used as the input data. Calculations are based on the similarity theory for the atmospheric planetar...

  18. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  19. Learning Practices of Femininity through Gendered Craft Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the processes and practices that link crafts and gender in the upbringing and education of girls. The paper is based on a study conducted among female primary school trainee teachers in Finland. The data are comprised of their experiences with crafts as schoolgirls. The methods of the study were memory work and writing of…

  20. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  1. Evaluating the Quality of the Child Care in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…

  2. My Lifelong Learning Realm: An Autoethnography Experiential Learning in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2011-01-01

    My journey to write autoethnography report started with inclination to learn cultural and social phenomena in Finland. This was my realm of learning through experiential learning. The ontological philosophy was perceived through objectivistic and subjectivistic approaches. The lifelong experiential learning realm was a benchmark for me to perceive…

  3. Subcontracting, Posted Migrants and Labour Market Segmentation in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan

    Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational

  4. Visions on energy production technologies for Finland up to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Mikko

    2003-01-01

    The energy sector will face major challenges in the coming decades. Global demand for primary energy is continuously increasing, as are its related environmental effects. On the other hand, the limited resources of especially oil and gas will lead to increasing price instability. Deregulation of energy markets is a challenge for the infrastructure. This deregulation is leading to restructuring of the energy market. States and owners of energy companies and energy policy decision-makers will find it difficult to play this double role. At European level and in Finland the biggest challenge is the attainment of the Kyoto target and then further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Renewables, nuclear power and growing imports of natural gas from Russia will play a crucial role in Finland. This presentation focuses on the development of the energy production technologies that are most important for Finland's energy supply and energy technology exports. In order to analyse the possible role of various emerging and evolving technologies in the future energy system of Finland, three scenarios has been created for a comprehensive energy system model. The model is based on a bottom-up, technology oriented representation of the energy system, including both the supply and end-use sector. Mathematically, the model is a quasi-dynamic linear optimisation model that stimulates the behaviour of energy-economic decision-making by minimising the total present value of all costs and other expenditures in the energy system during the entire time horizon under consideration. (BA)

  5. Biodiversity Hotspots and Visitor Flows in Oulanka National Park, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon, K.; Cottrell, S.P.; Siikamaki, P.; Marwijk, van R.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oulanka National Park, Finland aims to ensure nature conservation while providing high quality visitor experiences. The growth of outdoor recreation and nature tourism, however, has fueled concern about consequent pressures on the natural resources of the park. This analysis assessed the spatial

  6. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  9. Transition to distributed energy generation in Finland: Prospects and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Salvatore; Varho, Vilja; Rikkonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale distributed energy generation is expected to play an important role in helping Finland increase its energy self-sufficiency. However, the overall strategy to date for promoting distributed energy remains unclear. It is not yet well understood which factors promote the growth of the distributed energy sector and what barriers need to be removed. In this article we present the results of a questionnaire directed at a panel of 26 experts from the distributed energy value chain and 15 semi-structured interviews with industry and non-industry representatives. We investigated, from a sociotechnical transition perspective, the possibilities and challenges of the transition to distributed energy in Finland through 2025. The results show that a shift to a prosperous future for distributed energy is possible if permit procedures, ease of grid connection, and taxation laws are improved in the electricity sector and new business concepts are introduced in the heat sector. In contrast to other European countries, the transition in Finland is expected to take place through a market-based approach favoring investment-focused measures. We conclude that incentive-based schemes alone, whatever they may be, will be insufficient to create significant growth in Finland without institutional change, removal of barriers, and the engagement of key actors. - Highlights: • We examine the possibilities and challenges of the transition to DE in Finland. • Technological niches are emerging both in the heat and electricity sector. • Business model innovation is evident only in the electricity sector. • Removing barriers and developing new business models will accelerate the transition.

  10. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  11. Childcare use and overweight in Finland: cross-sectional and retrospective associations among 3- and 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, R; Mäki, P; Ray, C; Laatikainen, T; Roos, E

    2016-04-01

    Different types of non-parental childcare have been found to associate with childhood overweight in several, but not all studies. Studies on the matter are mainly North American. The objective of our study was to examine associations between childcare use and overweight in Finland. The cross-sectional and partly retrospective data consists of 1683 3- and 5-year-old children participating in the Child Health Monitoring Development project (LATE-project) conducted in 2007-2009 in Finland. Children were measured at health check-ups and information on child's age when entering childcare, the number of childcare places the child has had, current type of childcare (parental, informal, [group] family childcare, childcare centre) and the current amount of childcare (hours) were gathered. Parents' body mass indices, family educational level, family structure, maternal smoking during pregnancy and child's birth weight were treated as covariates. Beginning childcare before age 1 (adjusted model: odds ratio [OR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.52) and, for girls only, number of childcare places (adjusted model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), were associated with an increased risk of overweight. The current type of childcare or the time currently spent in childcare was not associated with overweight. Beginning childcare before age 1, which is quite rare in Finland, and having attended several childcare places were associated with overweight even when adjusting for family socioeconomic status and other family background variables. The significance of these findings needs to be further studied. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  13. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    and implications for practice: as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices......Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... of discourse analysis. Setting/participants: forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New...

  14. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  15. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  16. Impact of temperament on depression and anxiety symptoms and depressive disorder in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Emma; Miettunen, Jouko; Freimer, Nelson; Joukamaa, Matti; Mäki, Pirjo; Ekelund, Jesper; Peltonen, Leena; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Paunio, Tiina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize at the population level how innate features of temperament relate to experience of depressive mood and anxiety, and whether these symptoms have separable temperamental backgrounds. The study subjects were 4773 members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, a culturally and genetically homogeneous study sample. Temperament was measured at age 31 using the temperament items of the Temperament and Character Inventory and a separate Pessimism score. Depressive mood was assessed based on a previous diagnosis of depressive disorder or symptoms of depression according to the Hopkins Symptom Check List - 25. Anxiety was assessed analogously. High levels of Harm avoidance and Pessimism were related to both depressive mood (effect sizes; d=0.84 and d=1.25, respectively) and depressive disorder (d=0.68 and d=0.68, respectively). Of the dimensions of Harm avoidance, Anticipatory worry and Fatigability had the strongest effects. Symptoms of depression and anxiety showed very similar underlying temperament patterns. Although Harm avoidance and Pessimism appear to be important endophenotype candidates for depression and anxiety, their potential usefulness as endophenotypes, and whether they meet all the suggested criteria for endophenotypes will remain to be confirmed in future studies. Personality characteristics of Pessimism and Harm avoidance, in particular its dimensions Anticipatory worry and Fatigability, are strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as to depressive disorder in this population. These temperamental features may be used as dimensional susceptibility factors in etiological studies of depression, which may aid in the development of improved clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neighborhood interactions influencing tree population dynamics in nonpyrogenous boreal forest in northern Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Jiří; Šrůtek, Miroslav; Hara, T.; Sumida, A.; Penttilä, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 185, - (2006), s. 135-150 ISSN 1385-0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : competition * spatial size autocorrelation * Picea Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.383, year: 2006

  18. Home automation for a sustainable living:modelling a detached house in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, J.-N. (Jean-Nicolas); Caló, A. (Antonio); Leiviskä, K. (Kauko); Pongrácz, E. (Eva)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a model of a detached house in which home automation has been progressively introduced into the building. The model integrates different factors related to end-user behaviour and decision-making regarding the management of electrical energy consumption, and integrates a gradual end-user response to home automation measures. The presented model aims to show the potential economic benefits obtained by the modelled changes of end-users’ behaviours within a smart e...

  19. Gender differences in comorbidity of conduct disorder among adolescents in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ilomaki, Essi; Hakko, Helina; Ilomaki, Risto; Rasanen, Pirkko; STUDY-70 Workgrp; Marttunen, Mauri

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Conduct disorder (CD) refers to a pattern of severe antisocial and aggressive behaviour manifested in childhood or adolescence, with heavy costs to society. Though CD is a common psychiatric diagnosis among adolescents of both genders, gender differences in comorbidity of CD have been little studied. In this study we examined gender differences among adolescents with CD in causes for hospitalization, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and somatic conditions. Study design: The original...

  20. Characteristics of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 in Slaughtered Reindeer from Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Claudio; Fierz, Lisa; Cernela, Nicole; Laaksonen, Sauli; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Stephan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Fecal samples collected from 470 slaughtered reindeer 6 to 7 months of age were screened by real-time PCR (after enrichment) for Shiga toxin genes (stx) and then for Escherichia coli serogroup O157. Shiga toxin genes were found frequently (>30% of samples), and serogroup O157 was detected in 20% of the stx-positive samples. From these samples, a total of 25 E. coli O157:H - isolates (nonmotile but PCR positive for fliC H7 ) were obtained. Twenty-four of these E. coli O157:H - isolates did not ferment sorbitol and originated from one geographic area. These 24 isolates belonged to the multilocus sequence type 11, typical for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and O157:H - , and harbored genes stx 1a , stx 2c , eae, and hlyA; the stx 2c subtype has been associated with high virulence. In contrast, one E. coli O157:H - isolate (multilocus sequence type 11) did ferment sorbitol, lacked Shiga toxin genes, but was positive for eae, hlyA, and sfpA. This isolate closely resembled an STEC that has lost its Shiga toxin genes. Additional examination revealed that reindeer can be colonized by various other STEC isolates; 21 non-O157 STEC isolates belonged to four multilocus sequence types, harbored stx 1a (8 isolates) or stx 2b (13 isolates), and in the stx 2b -positive isolates the recently described new allelic variants (subAB2-2 and subAB2-3) for subtilase cytotoxin were identified. Hence, slaughtered semidomesticated Finnish reindeer might constitute a little known reservoir for STEC O157:H7/H - and other serogroups, and the risk of direct or indirect transmission of these pathogens from reindeer to humans and domestic livestock must not be overlooked.

  1. Historieundervisning och historiebruk i en språklig minoritetskontext. Minoritetsskolor i Danmark, Tyskland och Finland som identitetsformande undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Gullberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available History Teaching and the Use of History in a Linguistic Minority Context. Minority Schools in Denmark, Germany and Finland as a Field of Research on Education for Identity Construction Apart from subject knowledge and historical thinking skills, didactical theories generally consider identity as an important issue for history education. The article discusses history teaching and its function in identity construction in schools for language minority groups. It focuses on identity formation processes in three kinds of minority schools: upper secondary schools for the German minority in Southern Denmark, upper secondary schools for the Danish minority in the Northern part of Germany, and upper secondary schools for the Swedish-speaking population in Finland. The content and the educational aims of the school subject history are compared in these minority school systems and conclusions are drawn in relation to a theoretical model of the use of history. It is concluded that history is used in a political-educational and existential way in the Danish minority schools, with a strong focus on minority issues, while the German minority schools have a more neutral and “Danish” approach to German history in Denmark, with some elements of non-use of history (i.e. discreet treatment of the German occupation during the WW II. As Swedish is equal to Finnish as a national language, the Swedish schools in Finland could be expected to have the same approach in history teaching as the Finnish schools – the curriculum has the same content and aims in both cases – but there is an explicit ambition in the Swedish schools to use history in a more existential and ideological way in relation to Finland’s shared history with Sweden. The comparison of history teaching in minority schools turned out to improve the didactical understanding of the use of history in history teaching.

  2. Admixture and gene flow from Russia in the recovering Northern European brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F; Danilov, Pjotr I; Hagen, Snorre B

    2014-01-01

    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia.

  3. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2000. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces

  4. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  5. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  6. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  7. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  8. Better Births Initiative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring that health professionals practise according to evidence-based standards is important since it affects the quality and cost of care patients receive. The purpose of this research was to use a focused change programme (the Better Births Initiative) to influence obstetric practice at 10 hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa.

  9. Analysis of Circulation Patterns in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, Simulated with a High-Resolution Hydrodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea is a long, estuary-like sea area that is a direct continuation of the Baltic Proper. Short-term surface circulation in the gulf is mainly wind driven. The stability of currents varies from season to season. The relatively large freshwater input from the eastern end and the more saline deep water flow from the main basin at the western end maintain horizontal density gradients. We studied circulation patterns in the gulf with a high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic model setup. The configuration was based on the NEMO model and had 0.25 NM horizontal resolution and vertical resolution of 1 m. Our multi-year simulation revealed high year to year variability in the circulation. The persistency of currents in the Gulf of Finland is known to be low, with high variability in time and space. This was clearly demonstrated by our results. Processes affecting circulation patterns were analysed. These included upwelling-related alongshore currents. Several strong upwelling related coastal currents were present in the results on both northern and southern coast of the Gulf. The effect of wind forcing on the circulation in the gulf was also considered. We analysed wind forcing and found that annual differences contributed to the modelled circulation patterns.

  10. Birth seasonality and offspring production in threatened neotropical primates related to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, R.; Post, E.

    2011-01-01

    Given the threatened status of many primate species, the impacts of global warming on primate reproduction and, consequently, population growth should be of concern. We examined relations between climatic variability and birth seasonality, offspring production, and infant sex ratios in two ateline primates, northern muriquis, and woolly monkeys. In both species, the annual birth season was delayed by dry conditions and El Ni??o years, and delayed birth seasons were linked to lower birth rates. Additionally, increased mean annual temperatures were associated with lower birth rates for northern muriquis. Offspring sex ratios varied with climatic conditions in both species, but in different ways: directly in woolly monkeys and indirectly in northern muriquis. Woolly monkeys displayed an increase in the proportion of males among offspring in association with El Ni??o events, whereas in northern muriquis, increases in the proportion of males among offspring were associated with delayed onset of the birth season, which itself was related, although weakly, to warm, dry conditions. These results illustrate that global warming, increased drought frequency, and changes in the frequency of El Ni??o events could limit primate reproductive output, threatening the persistence and recovery of ateline primate populations. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Postglacial uplift of the eastern Gulf of Finland-Lake Ladoga region: models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Fjeldskaar, Willy; Amantova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The eastern Gulf of Finland - Lake Ladoga region - is at the peripheral part of the Fennoscandian post-glacial uplift. We compared different modeling results for this region with observations, including our revision of geomorphological traces of paleo shorelevel. As in many parts of the general Baltic-White Sea bedrock lowland at the margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, the bedrock landscape was modified by glaciers, but it was also the major controlling factor for the history of glacial grows and decays. First-order landforms of this segment are: Lake Ladoga-Lake Ilmen lowland, Lembolovo High of the Karelic Isthmus and Neva-Gulf of Finland lowland. The range of the bedrock topography is close to 350 m. The landforms reflect different glacial behavior during stadials, with fast movement and strong erosion in northern Ladoga, but passive motion and accumulation around Lembolovo High. The differences influenced the ice sheet and deglaciation history. The shore level displacements in this area are slightly different than westwards in the Baltic area; the shoreline tilts are usually lower in southern-central part of the eastern Gulf of Finland-lake Ladoga region. For example, the shoreline tilts at 11 600 BP in the Baltic Ice Lake in the south-east range from 0.55 to 0.31 m/km. The slope of the Ancylus shoreline varies from 0.12 to 0.18 m/km, increasing to almost the double in the north-western area. Similarly, the Littorina shore level is tilted only 0.08 m/km, rising to 0.14 m/km in the north-west. We have used this data in our high resolution modeling involving glacial isostasy, hydro isostasy, sediment isostasy, and gravity field changes. The mopdeling is based on Earth rheology model with a low-viscosity asthenosphere of thickness less than 150 km and viscosity less than 7.0x10**19 Pa s above a mantle of viscosity 10**21 Pa s, and an effective elastic lithosphere thickness of 30-40 km (flexural rigidity 10**24 Nm). The specific uplift features in the area are

  12. When Finland was lost. Background, Course of Events and Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Edgren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1809 the loss of Finland has been discussed in different ways in Swedish history research. In the early 20th century the burst of the state was seen in a nationalistic perspective. It was said that the people in Sweden, or the “public opinion”, with despair and in a “nationalistic trauma” received the news bulletins from the peace agreement in Fredrikshamn 1809, which was interpreted the worst defeat ever in Swedish history. Nowadays researchers argue whether the loss of Finland really was seen as a nationalistic trauma in the early 19th century. The article first summarises the background of the war and the most important war episodes and then discusses the apprehension of a Sweden in national chock after the burst of the state.

  13. Work-related accidents and daylight saving time in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, T; Sysi-Aho, J; Haukka, J; Partonen, T

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time (DST) unbalance the physiological circadian rhythm and may lead to sleep disturbance. Sleep deprivation may have negative effects on motivation, attention and alertness and thus it is possible that transitions into and out of DST may increase accident rates. To explore the impact of DST transitions on the number of occupational accidents in Finland. For the study, we analysed all occupational accidents that happened in Finland 1 week before and 1 week after DST transitions during the years 2002-06. Transitions into and out of DST did not significantly increase the number of occupational accidents. It seems that sleep deprivation after DST transition is not harmful enough to impact on occupational accident rates.

  14. Changes in Length of Grandparenthood in Finland 1790-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N. Chapman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of grandparents for their grandchildren is well-studied in several disciplines, and studies are now also addressing the potential effects of grandchildren on grandparental wellbeing. Any such effects are limited by the time grandparents share with their grandchildren. Changing child mortality rates, grandparental longevity, and childbearing patterns may have profoundly altered the length of grandparenthood across the demographic transition, but this has received little scientific attention. Using a genealogical dataset from Finland, we investigate changes in this shared time, from the late 18th to mid-20th century. We found the number of shared years between grandparents and grandchildren was low until roughly the onset of industrialisation in Finland, after which point shared time increased rapidly, from both the grandchild and grandparent perspectives. Understanding changing patterns in the opportunity for intergenerational transfers between grandparents and grandchildren has implications for several fields of study, including biology, demography, sociology, health studies, and economics.

  15. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Hakanen, A

    2002-01-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) collected the number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000. The work was based on a decree of the ministry of social affairs and health on the medical use of radiation. The work was done in cooperation with the Finnish work group of nomenclature of radiological examinations and procedures and professor Seppo Soimakallio. In 2000, ca. 4.1 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. In 1984 and in 1995, the numbers were ca. 4.6 million and 4.2 million, respectively, indicating that the total number of x-ray examinations has remained nearly unaltered. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 93.5 %, 5.0 %, 0.9 % and 0.6 %, respectively. The reported number of ultrasound examinations was ca. 0.5 million. The reported number of MRI examinations was ca. 0.1 million.

  16. Työturvallisuustarkastelu ALSTOM Finland Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamäki, Kaisa

    2010-01-01

    Työn toimeksiantajana toimi ALSTOM Finland Oy. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tarkastella työsuojelun historiaa ja nykypäivää Suomessa sekä selvittää lainsäädännön asettamat vaatimukset työsuojelulle. ALSTOMin toimintaan vaikuttavia lakisääteisiä vaikutuksia tarkasteltiin Finlexin sekä Edilex-palvelun avulla. ALSTOM Finland Oy:n toimintaan vaikuttava lainsäädäntö kerättiin lakilistaan. Lista on kaikkien työntekijöiden luettavissa yrityksen verkossa. Työhön on kerätty myös ...

  17. Are there gender differences in family trajectories by education in Finland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that in some countries socioeconomic differences in family formation are highly gendered, whereas gender-neutral patterns are reported in other countries. Most previous studies focus on single events and therefore it is unclear how the gender differences and neutralities in family transitions combine into variation in longer family-formation trajectories. Objective: We explore how family trajectories vary by educational attainment and gender. The research asks whether there are gender differences in family trajectories by education. We focus on the trajectories of women and men in Finland between the ages of 18 and 39, and on the 1969 and 1970 birth cohorts. The trajectories consist of states entered via the formation and dissolution of cohabitation and marriage and the birth of the first child. Methods: We give a sequence representation of Finnish register data comprising monthly histories of union dynamics and childbearing. We focus on the number and order of family states. Results: We find notable differences in family trajectories by educational attainment; however, the gender differences in the trajectories within educational groups are negligible. For instance, the proportion of never-partnered and childless at age 39 is largest among those with low education, regardless of gender. Further, at age 39, highly educated women and men are most likely to live in the same union in which they became first-time parents. Contribution: This study adds to previous literature by showing that in an egalitarian Nordic welfare state, longitudinal family-formation trajectories are highly stratified by education but remarkably gender-neutral.

  18. Planned Out-of-Hospital Birth and Birth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Tilden, Ellen L.; Snyder, Janice; Quigley, Brian; Caughey, Aaron B.; Cheng, Yvonne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency of planned out-of-hospital birth in the United States has increased in recent years. The value of studies assessing the perinatal risks of planned out-of-hospital birth versus hospital birth has been limited by cases in which transfer to a hospital is required and a birth that was initially planned as an out-of-hospital birth is misclassified as a hospital birth. Methods We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all births that occurred in Oregon during 2012 and 2013 using data from newly revised Oregon birth certificates that allowed for the disaggregation of hospital births into the categories of planned in-hospital births and planned out-of-hospital births that took place in the hospital after a woman’s intrapartum transfer to the hospital. We assessed perinatal morbidity and mortality, maternal morbidity, and obstetrical procedures according to the planned birth setting (out of hospital vs. hospital). Results Planned out-of-hospital birth was associated with a higher rate of perinatal death than was planned in-hospital birth (3.9 vs. 1.8 deaths per 1000 deliveries, P = 0.003; odds ratio after adjustment for maternal characteristics and medical conditions, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 4.30; adjusted risk difference, 1.52 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.54). The odds for neonatal seizure were higher and the odds for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit lower with planned out-of-hospital births than with planned in-hospital birth. Planned out-of-hospital birth was also strongly associated with unassisted vaginal delivery (93.8%, vs. 71.9% with planned in-hospital births; P<0.001) and with decreased odds for obstetrical procedures. Conclusions Perinatal mortality was higher with planned out-of-hospital birth than with planned in-hospital birth, but the absolute risk of death was low in both settings. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  19. Radioactivity of foodstuffs in Finland in 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1991-06-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium in foodstuffs of agricultural origin were surveyed in Finland in 1987 - 1988. The nationwide survey was a continuation to an earlier foodstuff monitoring programme, which was extended both areally and by the types of foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The purpose of the programme was to give information for dose assessment and on temporal changes and regional differences in the contents of fallout radionuclides in foodstuffs

  20. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmaajaervi, Irmeli

    2003-01-01

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

  1. Developing a new service for organizing social events in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Titikshya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a new service concept for people living in Finland by using service design methods. In this busy world, people frequently have no time to organize events on their own. Therefore, service design tools and methodology will be used as foundational pillars for the case company in this thesis in developing solutions for this issue, as well as bringing customer satisfaction from service delivery. This service concept is designed to save time and simplify the...

  2. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  3. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  4. How to support the teaching of multicultural groups in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Finnish vocational and polytechnic institutes have seen a rapid increase in foreign students during the past few years. International students studying in Finland have either an immigrant background or are participating in exchange programmes, both for short- or long term purposes. Additionally, more and more degree courses are also offered in English, which attract and draw foreign students from all over the world, especially from Africa, China and middle Europe. In vocational, as well ...

  5. COCA-COLA FINLAND – KALUSTESUUNNITELMA UUSIIN TOIMITILOIHIN

    OpenAIRE

    Luoti, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Coca-Cola Finland muutti vanhoista tiloistaan Helsingistä Sinebrychoffin tehtaalle Keravalle. Uusista tiloista haluttiin tyylikkäät ja brandin mukaiset, sillä tiloissa vierailee myös asiakkaita. Coca-Cola Finlandin uusien toimitilojen suunnittelussa yrityksen brandin huomioiminen onkin ollut tärkeää. Suunnitelmassa on keskitytty mittatilaus kalusteiden suunnitteluun, mutta työ sisältää myös visuaalisien elementtien suunnittelua. Suunnitteluprosessin aikana on tutkittu Coca-Colaa yritykse...

  6. Developing integrated marketing communication campaign for CoreFinland Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Kucher, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop marketing communication campaign for a small-sized snacks- producing company CoreFinland Ltd using the integrated approach. The research question defines what kind of marketing activities the case company needs in order to improve the interaction with consumers and raise brand awareness. The first part of the research is a qualitative study of relevant marketing literature that concentrates on comparison between traditional and modern marketing. An...

  7. Tentative novel lyssavirus in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T

    2018-02-15

    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Defining Marketing Strategies For Vihreä Tekno Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Manzari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define marketing strategies for Vihreä Tekno, a company in Vantaa, Finland. The company runs several businesses such as providing IT services, website designing, business/loyalty cards, professional logo design, PC repairs and installations, mobile application development, translation services, cleaning services, advertising and distribution services, billing/invoicing systems and so forth. In this thesis, the author analyzed the company’s current s...

  9. Estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Otterstroem, T.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the project is to develop a method for estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland. The purpose of the method is to take into account all the most important impacts on health, materials and the environment. The study will assess environmental effects of emissions from Finnish energy production on people and the environment locally (population centres), nationally (Finland) and globally. The different energy production forms to be included in the study are heat and electric energy generated with coal, natural gas, fuel oil and peat (not industry's energy production). Local and national environmental impact assessment is carried out within the Finnish borders. The economic influence of emissions (in particular greenhouse gases) originating outside Finland but with global impact will also be assessed, as far as Finland is concerned. When studying the amounts of emissions the whole fuel chain is taken into account: production, processing or transport, storage in the different stages of the chain of use, and end use. The main components under review are SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , H x C y , CO, particulates and a couple of heavy metals. In addition. the study considers ozone (O 3 ), which is formed in the atmosphere. The primary monetary valuation method used is the indirect monetarization. which is based on dose-response functions and the use of both market prices and willingness-to-pay assessments. The method to be developed during the project for monetary valuation of effects caused by emissions on health, materials and the environment can be utilized in further monetarization studies. The results of the work can used to assess the profitability of energy production plants and energy companies from the economic point of view

  10. E-sport organization and professional gamers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Phan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    E-sports nowadays are considered as a billion dollars industry. Indeed, playing video gaming step by step become a worthy occupation and would bring decent furture for any person who have talented and determination. This thesis describes how e-sports organizations in Finland are structured. Also, it identifies the common characteristics of professional e-sports players in this coun-try. Related on interviews with persons who already have experiences by involve in E-sports, the resuls of t...

  11. Starting a Business in Finland : Case Dragon Sheng Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    After the global financial crisis in 2008, European countries had a debt crisis start in 2009. It directly or indirectly affected the employment rate in European countries. In Finland, there are many people facing unemployment. They need to look for a job, or they can start their own business, especially the foreigners. Starting up their own business can help the foreigners get a job, it provides some working places and it is increasing the GDP for Finnish government as well. In this thes...

  12. Developing the implementation of green warehousing at IKEA Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Minh

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has become an increasingly important trend in supply chain management recently. The green warehouse, a crucial element in the sustainable supply chain, should be implemented strategically and efficiently. The thesis aims to develop the implementation of green warehousing at IKEA Finland with three investigative questions (IQs). The research examines the IKEA’s current warehouse sustainability with a focus on energy efficiency (IQ1), waste management (IQ2) and creates develo...

  13. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at ... and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected ...

  14. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. ...

  15. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Mustonen, R.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  16. Finland and international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, H.

    1991-01-01

    The report is an index of international cooperational contacts of Finnish state, industry and organizations in the field of nucelar energy. The index contains information on international nuclear organizations which Finland is participating, the agreements of both the Finnish state and industry on nuclear research and development programs. It also contains information on connections to international professional and intellectual associations, industrial cooperational associations of industry related with nuclear energy, and other cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. The collected data contains the official names of organizations in Finnish, Swedish and English, as well as the official abbreviation, the contact information, the date of establishment, the year when Finland joined the organization. The report also contains the list of members participating the cooperation, the purpose, the tasks, and operation of the organization, the management and administrative organs, the official languages, budget information of the organization, and the Finnish representatives in the management and administrative organs, main projects and working groups of the organization, the coordinators of Finnish activities, and the place where the organizational documents are held in Finland. The contractional data contains the subject, date of agreement and validity of it. The number of contraction series of the Finnish statute of the state level contracts, the participating and possible leading organizations, the joint organizations and countries, responsible persons and organizations

  17. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  18. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  19. Atmospheric forcing controlling inter-annual nutrient dynamics in the open Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Jouni; Savchuk, Oleg P.; Elken, Jüri; Dahlbo, Kim; Kuosa, Harri; Raateoja, Mika; Kauppila, Pirkko; Räike, Antti; Pitkänen, Heikki

    2017-07-01

    The loading of P into the Gulf of Finland has decreased markedly, but no overall trend in the concentration of P has been observed in the open Gulf, where the concentrations of both inorganic N and P still have a pronounced inter-annual variability. Our main aim was to study whether the internal processes driven by atmospheric forcing can explain the variation in the nutrient conditions in the Gulf during the period 1992-2014. We observed that the long-term salinity variation of the bottom water in the northern Baltic Proper controls that in the Gulf, and that the deep-water concentrations of oxygen and nutrients are significantly correlated between the basins. This imposes preconditions regarding how atmospheric forcing may influence deep water flows and stratification in the Gulf on a long-term scale. We found that over short timescales, winter winds in particular can control the in- and outflows of water and the vertical stratification and mixing, which to a large extent explained the inter-annual variation in the DIN and TP pools in the Gulf. We conclude that the inter-annual variation in the amounts, ratios, and spatial distribution of nutrients sets variable preconditions for the spring and potential blue-green algae blooms, and that internal processes were able to mask the effects of the P load reductions implemented across the whole Gulf. The transportation of P along the bottom from the northern Baltic Proper and its evident uplift in the Gulf highlights the fact that the nutrient reductions are also needed in the entire catchment of the Baltic Sea to improve the trophic status of the open Gulf.

  20. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  1. Starting a Small Business in Tampere Region in Finland : Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigalkin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays in Finland, there are a lot of people who are searching for a job. Also, there are opportunities for opening a new business which provides better quality or cheaper service. Such findings can lead someone to create his own workplace and reduce the level of unemployment. Repair, maintenance, and service of a passenger car are very expensive in Finland, especially in central and southern parts of Finland. The author assumes that there is a possibility to provide the described servi...

  2. Meteorological pre-processing of incoming solar radiation and heat flux over a sparse boreal forest at a northern site during winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from Northern Finland on radiation and turbulent fluxes over a sparse boreal forest with snow-covered ground were analysed. The measurements represent harsh winter conditions characterized by low sun angles. The absorption of incoming solar radiation in clear skies (turbidity...

  3. Demand for women's health services in northern Nigeria: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demand for and utilization of women's health services in northern Nigeria are consistently low and health indicators in the region are among the poorest in the world. This literature review focuses on social and cultural barriers to contraceptive use, antenatal care, and facility births in northern Nigeria, and influencers of ...

  4. Sensitization according to skin prick testings in atopic patients with asthma or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Northern Europe and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E Eriksson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin prick tests (SPT were performed on 2113 atopic patients (407 children and 1 706 adults with asthma and/or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. Test extracts were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae [D. farinae, cat, dog, horse, birch, timothy, mugwort, Cladosporium, Alternaria, cockroach, chironomids (red mosquito larvae, RML and shrimp. Among the allergens, timothy followed by cat, birch and dog gave the highest number of positive SPT. Positive SPT with house dust mites (HDM, furred animals, RML and Cladosporium were more common in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis; birch and timothy more common in patients with rhinitis. Sensitization against D. pteronyssinus, horse, timothy and Cladosporium was more common in men than in women. Although the general sensitization pattern of the atopic patients at the participating centers showed similarities, there were also significant differences between centers. Positive SPT with furred animals were most prevalent in Northern and Central Sweden and St Petersburg, and least common in Siberia and Denmark. Pollen allergy was most common in Novosibirsk and on the west coast of Sweden, and less common in Vladivostok. Sensitization against HDM was most common in Lithuania and least prevalent in Northern Sweden and Finland. Insect allergens gave the most positive reactions in St Petersburg and the least positive reaction in Novosibirsk. Sensitization against multiple allergens was found in 74% of the patients and a mono-allergy in 26%. The degree of atopy was higher in males than in females and higher in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis. The month of birth of the patients did not influence significantly the test results. It is concluded that although the sensitization pattern shows similarities in different regions, it is also influenced to some extent by residence as well as by diagnosis, sex

  5. Stillbirths at the West Gonja hospital in northern Ghana | Der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most parts of Ghana, stillbirths (SBs) do not count in routine mortality data collection and there-fore are not seen as a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine still-birth rate, trend, causes and factors associated with stillbirth at the West Gonja Hospital in northern Ghana and offer ...

  6. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  7. Observing wind, aerosol particles, cloud and precipitation: Finland's new ground-based remote-sensing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, A.; O'Connor, E. J.; Komppula, M.; Korhonen, K.; Pfüller, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Wood, C. R.; Bauer-Pfundstein, M.; Poikonen, A.; Karppinen, T.; Lonka, H.; Kurri, M.; Heinonen, J.; Moisseev, D.; Asmi, E.; Aaltonen, V.; Nordbo, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laurila, T.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute, in collaboration with the University of Helsinki, has established a new ground-based remote-sensing network in Finland. The network consists of five topographically, ecologically and climatically different sites distributed from southern to northern Finland. The main goal of the network is to monitor air pollution and boundary layer properties in near real time, with a Doppler lidar and ceilometer at each site. In addition to these operational tasks, two sites are members of the Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS); a Ka band cloud radar at Sodankylä will provide cloud retrievals within CloudNet, and a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, PollyXT (POrtabLe Lidar sYstem eXTended), in Kuopio provides optical and microphysical aerosol properties through EARLINET (the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Three C-band weather radars are located in the Helsinki metropolitan area and are deployed for operational and research applications. We performed two inter-comparison campaigns to investigate the Doppler lidar performance, compare the backscatter signal and wind profiles, and to optimize the lidar sensitivity through adjusting the telescope focus length and data-integration time to ensure sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in low-aerosol-content environments. In terms of statistical characterization, the wind-profile comparison showed good agreement between different lidars. Initially, there was a discrepancy in the SNR and attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles which arose from an incorrectly reported telescope focus setting from one instrument, together with the need to calibrate. After diagnosing the true telescope focus length, calculating a new attenuated backscatter coefficient profile with the new telescope function and taking into account calibration, the resulting attenuated backscatter profiles all showed good agreement with each other. It was thought that harsh Finnish

  8. ATM variants and cancer risk in breast cancer patients from Southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aittomäki Kristiina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals heterozygous for germline ATM mutations have been reported to have an increased risk for breast cancer but the role for ATM genetic variants for breast cancer risk has remained unclear. Recently, a common ATM variant, ATMivs38 -8T>C in cis with the ATMex39 5557G>A (D1853N variant, was suggested to associate with bilateral breast cancer among familial breast cancer patients from Northern Finland. We have here evaluated the 5557G>A and ivs38-8T>C variants in an extensive case-control association analysis. We also aimed to investigate whether there are other ATM mutations or variants contributing to breast cancer risk in our population. Methods Two common ATM variants, 5557G>A and ivs38-8T>C, previously suggested to associate with bilateral breast cancer, were genotyped in an extensive set of 786 familial and 884 unselected breast cancer cases as well as 708 healthy controls. We also screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of the ATM gene in 47 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the patients. The identified variants were also evaluated for increased breast cancer risk among additional breast cancer cases and controls. Results Neither of the two common variants, 5557G>A and ivs38-8T>C, nor any haplotype containing them, was significantly associated with breast cancer risk, bilateral breast cancer or multiple primary cancers in any of the patient groups or subgoups. Three rare missense alterations and one intronic change were each found in only one patient of over 250 familial patients studied and not among controls. The fourth missense alteration studied further was found with closely similar frequencies in over 600 familial cases and controls. Conclusion Altogether, our results suggest very minor effect, if any, of ATM genetic variants on familial breast cancer in Southern Finland. Our results do not support association of the 5557G>A or ivs38-8T>C variant with

  9. Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamminpää Reeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N = 15,437 compared with those 35 and over (N = 2,387 who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks, low Apgar score (5 min., small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4% than younger women (6.4%. They had more prior terminations (25 ( Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

  10. Additive Manufacturing in Finland: Recommendations for a Renewed Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Salmi, Mika; Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    The objective of this research is to define an optimal innovation policy and funding strategy to improve Additive Manufacturing (AM) capabilities in Finnish companies. To do so, we present an international review of innovation programs in the area of AM. In addition, the study replied upon a survey prepared to evaluate factors for AM implementation. The ultimate goal is to help in the definition of a national policy strategy in the area of AM based on the characteristics of the Finnish industrial ecosystem. The methodology and data collection method involved defining the taxonomy of Finnish AM industry. The target group of the survey was a population of AM experts, and individuals with knowledge on AM and industrial processes. Overall, the survey revealed that research and innovation activities are well positioned in Finland. In order for future innovation policies to further support developments in the field, we estimated that policy strategies need to generate about 6-8 M€/year in national and EU- funding instruments for AM technology transfer, development, and innovation activities. Efforts should be targeted towards strengthening uses of AM in final production. In fact, only 36% of Finnish respondents declared to use AM for final production, while leading countries in AM use it in average more than 50%. Another area in need of development in Finland is the use of AM high performance materials. Moreover, outsourcing of AM services in Finland is 23 percentage point higher in national and 13 percentage point higher in international outsourcing to service bureaus and suppliers. In this regard, future policies and funding strategies should maintain the created momentum. However, there is a need to acquire high-end research and industrial equipment to stimulate AM integration to the existing production systems. This in the end can trigger the creation of new products, processes and intellectual property, enabling innovation and competitive advantage.

  11. Non-advertising program in promoting nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, Antti

    1989-01-01

    In Finland, there are two nuclear power plants with four reactors totalling about 2 200 MWe. The oldest reactor has been operating just over ten years. In the Finnish power supply the share of nuclear power makes up one third. The optimum would be about 40%. Based on energy and nuclear attitude surveys showed that these issues are not independent in the society. Quite the opposite, the nuclear attitudes especially are tightly connected to general views like the pessimism toward the future, the credibility of large institutions, or politics, the acceptability of continuous economic growth, etc. The role of technical or economic facts, we engineers love, is found to be small, too. To change people's nuclear attitude one should be able to influence all the complex issues related to nuclear power. In theory, this is possible by ads. In that case the campaigning ought to be huge, it should last for years, and still would have basic question marks. The first question is how credible people see ads, in general, and, especially, in case of highly disputed and societal issues. Although there have been some educational ad campaigns in Finland, nuclear campaign would be a step to the unknown. Knowing that the nuclear attitudes are tightly connected to very many and quite stable societal views, and seeing the basic difficulties with ads, it is clear to me that there is no other way of promoting nuclear energy than a long and continuous public debate involving. Referring to the nuclear attitude survey results in Finland, advertising is not the solution to win the public confidence. Nuclear industry must be active in other ways than promoting nuclear power by advertising. This was the Finnish opinion. The nuclear issue is national in the sense that no country can copy models from other countries without carefully considering the local circumstances. So, in other countries there may be situations where other kinds of actions are called for

  12. Sustainable Living in Finland: Combating Climate Change in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto O. Salonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Finland aims to be a carbon-neutral society by the year 2050. We are interested to know on a general level how sustainable living materializes among Finnish people, what is the structure of a sustainable lifestyle in Finland and how do people reason about their everyday behavior choices in the context of sustainability in order to combat climate change. The data (n = 2052 were collected by questionnaire in April 2017. They were corrected by sex, age and residential area to be representative of the population of Finland (18–79 years old. We applied mixed methods. A principal axis factoring was conducted on the 32 variables with orthogonal rotation (varimax. Six factors explained 65.2% of the variance. The respondents were also able to write why they considered the specific variable to be important for them. We classified 2811 reasonings. According to our results, Finns have become conscious of climate change, but carbon reduction has not become mainstream in their everyday life. Circulation and preventing loss of materials show a promising start to a Finn’s sustainable way of living. Recycling has been automated so that it is part of a Finn’s everyday routine and habits. Finns also favor domestic food and products. They are interested in the origin of materials. Essential reasons for that are supporting the local economy and ensuring a good employment rate for the state. Smart, carbon-free mobility is a challenge. Finns seem to estimate that their personal car use is already at the proper level. On the other hand, even one fifth reported consideration of environmental effects when planning holidays.

  13. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2007. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water

  14. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.)

  16. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2011-02-01

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant sense of

  17. Colon cancer and large bowel function in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W J; Bjerrum, L

    1982-01-01

    for large bowel cancer. Mean transit time (37 +/- 1 hours, Copenhagen; 43 +/- 1 hours, Helsinki; 40 +/- 1 hours, Them; 37 +/- 1 hours, Parikkala) was not significantly different among populations, but average 24-hour stool weights (136 +/- 13 g, Copenhagen; 176 +/- 17 g, Helsinki; 169 +/- 16 g, Them; 196...... +/- 15 g, Parikkala) were different and had a significant inverse relationship to total large bowel cancer incidence, with larger stool weights being found in the low-risk population. A high proportion of study subjects, especially in Finland, were found to be taking medication or to have a history...... of gastrointestinal illness, but neither of these variables related to bowel habit....

  18. Viraalimarkkinointi web-sivustoilla : Case: Sony Music Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kerminen, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Tekijät Satu Kerminen Ryhmä tai aloitusvuosi 2007 Opinnäytetyön nimi Viraalimarkkinointi web-sivustoilla Case: Sony Music Finland Sivu- ja liitesivumäärä 37 + 7 Ohjaaja Mirja Jaakkola Tämä raportti on Haaga-Helia Ammattikorkeakoululle tehty opinnäytetyö. Opinnäytetyö on osa IT-tradenomin tutkintoa. Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on viraalimarkkinointi web-sivustoilla. Aihetta tutkittiin suunnittelemalla ja toteuttamalla viraalimarkkinointisivusto Sony ...

  19. Spatial scaling of regional strategic programmes in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Inkinen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    has expressed criticism of their use as tools for policy-making. We studied innovation and cluster rhetoric in a geographical context by using empirical evidence obtained from the policy documents of the Finnish regional councils. We used a theoretical conception of spatial scaling as a geographical...... framework. Spatial scales proved to be a black box for regional strategies in Finland. Regional strategic programmes use a similar language that ignores the spatial variations of their locations. Clusters and regional innovation systems should be considered as parts of vertical and horizontal interlinkages...... as buzzwords. This misuse hampers the ability of administrations to execute regional development in their respective areas....

  20. Integrating Internships with Professional Study in Pharmacy Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfhjelm, Ulla; Passi, Sanna; Airaksinen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy internships are an important part of undergraduate pharmacy education worldwide. Internships in Finland are integrated into professional study during the second and third year, which has several pedagogic advantages, such as better understanding of the association between academic studies and pharmaceutical work-life during the studies, and enhanced self-reflection through the feedback from preceptors and peers during the internships. The objective of this paper is to describe the Finnish integrated internship using the pharmacy curriculum at the University of Helsinki as an example. PMID:26056411

  1. IMPLEMENTING HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT-BASED RECOMMENDATIONS IN FINLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sihvo, Sinikka; Ikonen, Tuija; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods Program (MUMM) started 10 years ago as a joint venture of the Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) and the twenty hospital districts in Finland. The aim is to offer information on the effectiveness, safety, organizational...... in decision making. Conclusions: HTA-based MUMM recommendations were well received by physicians but in practice they are less used than clinical practice guidelines. Short-form electronic surveys were a useful way of gathering information about awareness and implementation. The surveys also functioned...... as another method of informing key physicians about the recommendations....

  2. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  3. Mood and food at the University of Turku in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    to healthy weight students. Sweets, cookies and snacks consumption were not associated with stress. Stress was associated with lower subjective importance of healthy eating, independent of gender and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress might have relationships of different magnitudes in overweight vs. normal......OBJECTIVES: We examined perceived stress and food intake at University of Turku, Finland. METHODS: This study was conducted as an online survey (1189 students). We computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence...

  4. Raaka-aineoppaan suunnittelu ja toteutus: Lush Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Pikkarainen, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö oli toimeksianto tuorekosmetiikkaa kuluttajille myyvältä Lush Finland Oy:ltä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa raaka-aineopas Lushin tuorekasvonaamioissa käytetyistä raaka-aineista ja niiden funktioista. Raaka-aineoppaan tarkoituksena on tukea Lushin työntekijöiden ammattiosaamista ja auttaa heitä asiakaspalvelutilanteissa. Tarkoituksena oli tehdä raaka-aineoppaasta riittävän laaja, helposti luettava ja päivitettävä sekä raaka-ainekoulutuksien materiaal...

  5. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant

  6. Colon cancer and large bowel function in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W J; Bjerrum, L

    1982-01-01

    for large bowel cancer. Mean transit time (37 +/- 1 hours, Copenhagen; 43 +/- 1 hours, Helsinki; 40 +/- 1 hours, Them; 37 +/- 1 hours, Parikkala) was not significantly different among populations, but average 24-hour stool weights (136 +/- 13 g, Copenhagen; 176 +/- 17 g, Helsinki; 169 +/- 16 g, Them; 196...... +/- 15 g, Parikkala) were different and had a significant inverse relationship to total large bowel cancer incidence, with larger stool weights being found in the low-risk population. A high proportion of study subjects, especially in Finland, were found to be taking medication or to have a history...

  7. Justifications of national gambling policies in France and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marionneau Virve

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – The principles of free trade and free circulation of services within the European Union have created pressures to make the strictly controlled European gambling markets more open. According to the Court of Justice of the European Union, restrictions on gambling are only allowed if they are justified in admissible terms of consumer protection, prevention of criminal activity and protection of public order. This study compares the gambling laws of two European societies, France and Finland, to analyse how their legal frames of gambling have been adjusted to these principles.

  8. Inventory of volatile organic compound emissions in Finland, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroueh, U.M.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compile an inventory of the emissions of volatile organic compounds in Finland for the year 1985. The report was prepared for the ECE Task Force on Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Stationary Sources according to the classification given by the Task Force. It considers anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Mobile sources are excluded. The quantities as well as the main components are listed, as far as possible. The values given exclude methane which according to the present understanding is regarded as unreactive

  9. Inclusive education in Finland: present and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, S; Zumberg, M

    1994-12-01

    The movement to integrate special education students into normal school classes started to develop in Finland in the 1960s. At the same time, the number of students labeled "special" in the Finnish comprehensive school system exploded from 2% to 17% of all school children. Presently, 84% of all special education placements are part-time placements. Special schools and special classes comprise 15% of all special education placements, while full inclusion is only 1% of all special education placements. Some factors affecting the current integration of special students and the development of integration are discussed.

  10. Furcocercous cercariae (Trematoda) from freshwater snails in Central Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Niewiadomska, K.; Santos, M. J.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 310-317 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:Portuguese FCT(PT) SFRH/BSAB/492/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cercariae * Mollusca * Finland * Trematoda * Pulmonata * Prosobranchia * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2007

  11. Farm Entrepreneurs’ Intentions to Develop Pluriactive Business Activities in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Niemelä

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to the entrepreneurial intentions literature by applying the theory of planned behaviour and resource-based views to the model of active entrepreneurs’ intention to develop their pluriactive usinesses. Using our 2012 survey data from farm firms in Finland, we address the limited focus on active ntrepreneurs and their intentions to develop on-going income-generating, off-farm related business activities. We found that attitudinal proxy antecedents such as innovation, cooperation and growth for pluriactivity differ for active and non-active entrepreneurs and with respect to the entrepreneurs’ age and production line and innovation behaviour.

  12. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  13. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  14. The birth of joseph gabriel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Anne Touhill

    2013-01-01

    In this column, a mother shares the story of the birth of her first child. With confidence in the process of birth and in her ability to give birth, and with the support, confidence, and encouragement of her mother and sisters, Anne manages to cope with strong contractions through a busy day. Finally, her husband realizes how fast labor is progressing. Baby Joseph was born less than 2 hours after arrival at the hospital.

  15. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  16. Northern forests, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  17. Towards Strengths-Based Planning Strategies for Rural Localities in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rönkkö Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will introduce the topic of strengths-based planning strategies for rural localities in Finland. The strengths-based approach focuses on capacity building and competence enhancement with the local people, encouraging communities to valorise, identify and mobilise existing but often unrecognised assets. Setting focus only on the deficiencies and problems easily inflicts a ‘surrender mentality‘ in places outside of the urbanisation impact, creating a narrative that both decision-makers and community members start to believe. Hence, the role and potential of smaller rural localities is easily forgotten by planners, politicians and the public at large. Addressing the scale of rural localities in spatial planning, we will first reflect upon the main findings from our earlier research project “Finnish rural localities in the 2010`s” conducted by Lahti University of Applied Sciences, the University of Oulu and Aalto University in 2013-2015. Findings from the research project affirmed the unfortunate consequences of rapid urbanisation, rational blueprint planning and overoptimistic expectations of growth in the 1960s and 70s, which have resulted in the state of permanent incompleteness in rural localities today. However, these localities possess many under-utilised strengths, and we consider it essential for the future development of rural localities to make the most of this potential, and not only tackle the downwards spiral. This requires the ability to engage local stakeholders around a common vision for the future, and strategic approach based on endogenous strengths. We will discuss these possibilities via two theoretically informed case studies. The first one, Vieremä, is situated in the region of Northern Savo, and the other one, Vääksy, is the main centre in the municipality of Asikkala, situated in the region of Päijät-Häme in Southern Finland. Our study design can be characterised as qualitative research

  18. Finland as a Knowledge Economy 2.0: Lessons on Policies and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Finland is known for its consistent progress in the economy and competitiveness, as well as the egalitarian society underneath it. Yet, the challenges experienced by Finland in the beginning of the 20th century were similar to those experienced by many countries today. Finland emerged as an inde......"Finland is known for its consistent progress in the economy and competitiveness, as well as the egalitarian society underneath it. Yet, the challenges experienced by Finland in the beginning of the 20th century were similar to those experienced by many countries today. Finland emerged...... as an independent nation in the midst of international economic and political turbulence. In spite of its remoteness, relative scarcity of natural resources, smallness of the home market and recent history characterized by wars and social cleavages, Finland transformed itself from an agriculture-based economy...... in the 1950’s into one of the leading innovation-driven, knowledge-based economies and high-tech producers in the twenty-first century. The development was rapid, and involved determined action and sometimes drastic decisions by the government and other key actors. Today, at the end of 2013, Finland is facing...

  19. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  20. Behaviour of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides deposited on peat and urban surfaces in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, A.

    1992-10-01

    In the thesis the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on Finland was studied in three aspects: (1) the areal distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Finland was determined by measuring peat samples, (2) the behaviour of fallout radionuclides was investigated in the combustion of peat in power plants, and (3) the removal rates of fallout radionuclides on urban surfaces were resolved

  1. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  2. Self-evaluation on Capacity Building in Finland: Report of the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, Jaana; Aurela, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned: • In Finland the most important result of the CB self-evaluation was the process itself. Commitment to this work and results by the experts and organizations are very important. • There should be a broad cooperation in the national capacity building work. • Complicated queries end in thin catch - also endless patience is needed. • All definitions should be agreed and the rules should be clear (plans of the organizations). Quality takes time. • Reserve enough time and resources. In the Finnish case the national effort forced MEE to leave important international projects aside. • It pays to be active with media also during the Self-Assessment

  3. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  4. Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Aaltonen, H.; Mustonen, R.; Taipale, T.K.; Juutilainen, J.

    1987-06-01

    In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

  5. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  6. Cold hardiness research on agricultural and horticultural crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LINDÉN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an overview of cold hardiness research conducted on agricultural and horticultural crops, as well as on amenity plants in Finland. Inadequate freezing tolerance and/or winter hardiness often prevents introduction of new species and cultivars to Finland. Field observations on winter hardiness and more recently the results from laboratory freezing tests, have assisted breeders to select hardy genotypes. Research approaches for agricultural crops have evolved from observations on winter and frost damage to studies on molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing injury. The results of experiments on survival of winter cereals, grasses and clovers and frost tolerance of potato and turnip rape are discussed. The studies conducted on horticultural crops, including apple, strawberry, raspberry, currants, blueberry, sea buckthorn, perennial herbs as well as on ornamental trees and shrubs have included field evaluations of cultivars, or selections for winter hardiness, and studies on the effects of cultural management practices on winter survival. During the last decade detailed studies including controlled freezing tests have provided tools to assist in explanation of the underlying mechanisms of cold hardiness also in horticultural plants. ;

  7. Predictors and birth outcomes: An investigation of birth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Birth and emergency preparedness is a safe motherhood strategy which encourages early decision making and minimizes delays in health care seeking in the event of obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to determine individual level factors influencing birth and emergency preparedness. Methods: A ...

  8. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  9. Finlands synpunkt: Utan Storbritannien förlorar vi en bundsförvant i EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Jokela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available I Finland ses Storbritanniens utträde ur Europeiska unionen (EU huvudsakligen som en negativ utveckling. Resultatet av folkomröstningen förvånade Finland, även om man under en längre tid hade bekymrat sig över den vändning som Storbritanniens relationer till EU tagit. De direkta ekonomiska och politiska följderna av utträdet tycks bli överkomliga för Finland. De indirekta följderna för EU:s ekonomi, framtid och säkerhet betraktas som mer relevanta orosmoment för Finland. Finlands högsta prioritet har sålunda varit att dämpa de negativa konsekvenserna av brexit för EU och att stärka den europeiska integrationen.

  10. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  11. Impact of month of birth on the development of autoimmune thyroid disease in the United Kingdom and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Alexander; Newby, Paul R; Carr-Smith, Jacqueline D

    2014-01-01

    /winter experience increased viral/bacterial exposure after birth, impacting upon immune system development and predisposing to AITD later in life. OBJECTIVE: Month of birth effects were investigated in three independent European Caucasian AITD datasets. DESIGN: Variation in GD and HT onset was compared across......: Our results suggest in UK/Northern European Caucasian GD subjects, month of birth does not impact on AITD development. Although some month of birth effects for HT females in one collection cannot be excluded, only further work in larger European Caucasian AITD collections can confirm these effects....

  12. Birth order and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.

  13. Job Contract at Birth of the First Child as a Predictor of Women’s Labor Market Attachment: Trajectory Analyses over 11 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Peutere; Jussi Vahtera; Mika Kivimäki; Jaana Pentti; Pekka Virtanen

    2015-01-01

    There is a lot of evidence that pre-birth employment and access to parental leave are important predictors of mothers’ labor market attachment after childbirth. This register-based study from Finland aimed to analyze in which ways the type of job contract (none, temporary, or permanent) at the start of maternity leave predicts labor market attachment in the long term. The mother cohorts were followed up for 11 years. Labor market attachment was analyzed with latent class growth analysis, whic...

  14. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C.; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis. PMID:26000630

  15. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Mellemkjaer

    Full Text Available A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08 adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77. Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66. There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis.

  16. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis.

  17. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively f...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  18. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  19. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  20. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  1. Advanced Maternal Age and the Risk of Low Birth Weight and Preterm Delivery: a Within-Family Analysis Using Finnish Population Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisis, Alice; Remes, Hanna; Barclay, Kieron; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Advanced maternal age at birth is considered a major risk factor for birth outcomes. It is unclear to what extent this association is confounded by maternal characteristics. To test whether advanced maternal age at birth independently increases the risk of low birth weight (family models (children born to different mothers at different ages) with within-family models (children born to the same mother at different ages). The latter procedure reduces confounding by unobserved parental characteristics that are shared by siblings. We used Finnish population registers, including 124,098 children born during 1987–2000. When compared with maternal ages 25–29 years in between-family models, maternal ages of 35–39 years and ≥40 years were associated with percentage increases of 1.1 points (95% confidence intervals: 0.8, 1.4) and 2.2 points (95% confidence intervals: 1.4, 2.9), respectively, in the probability of low birth weight. The associations are similar for the risk of preterm delivery. In within-family models, the relationship between advanced maternal age and low birth weight or preterm birth is statistically and substantively negligible. In Finland, advanced maternal age is not independently associated with the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery among mothers who have had at least 2 live births. PMID:29206985

  2. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2011. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water

  3. Financial provision for future nuclear waste management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeaetaeinen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The main principle as regards nuclear waste management in Finland is that the operator that has produced nuclear waste is responsible for the management of all such nuclear waste. It has to take care of its waste (including that of decommissioning) until it has been disposed of in a manner accepted by the authorities. Spent nuclear fuel is considered to be nuclear waste subject to disposal into a final repository. According to the Nuclear Energy Act, all nuclear waste produced in Finland must be handled, stored and disposed of in Finland. The spent fuel and other nuclear wastes are stored at the power plant sites until they are disposed of. At the both two sites there already are the final repositories for low and intermediate level waste. The funding system is based on the principle that, if a nuclear facility would stop its operation and also stop to produce more waste, the money in the Fund and the securities given to the State would, together, always suffice to handle the situation and take care of the management of all the existing waste and dismantling and decommissioning of the plant. As the actual waste management measures would not be taken immediately, the interest accrued, in the meantime, by this existing capital is used to compensate for the inflation and cost escalation. The critical question is how the system takes into account the difficulty of arriving at reliable estimates. The Finnish funding system contains some built-in features to minimise the risk of the State having to contribute additional funds to carrying out these operations. The system continuously requires new updated estimates that must take into account the practical experience accumulating world-wide. The estimates must, however, always be based on technology currently available. Additionally, the law also requires that the uncertainty of available information about prices and costs shall be taken into account, in a reasonable manner, as raising the estimated liability. In the case

  4. Recovery from acidification of lakes in Finland, Norway and Sweden 1990–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Skjelkvåle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate deposition has decreased by about 60% in the Nordic countries since the early 1980s. Nitrogen deposition has been roughly constant during the past 20 years, with only a minor decrease in the late 1990s. The resulting changes in the chemistry of small lakes have been followed by national monitoring programmes initiated in the 1980s in Finland (163 lakes, Norway (100 lakes and Sweden (81 lakes. These lakes are partly a subset from the survey of 5690 lakes in the Northern European lake survey of 1995. Trend analyses on data for the period 1990-1999 show that the non-marine sulphate concentrations in lakes have decreased significantly in 69% of the monitored lakes. Changes were largest in lakes with the highest mean concentrations. Nitrate concentrations, on the other hand, were generally low and showed no systematic changes. Concentrations of non-marine base cations decreased in 26% of the lakes, most probably an ionic-strength effect due to the lower concentrations of mobile strong-acid anions. Acid neutralising capacity increased in 32% of the lakes. Trends in recovery were in part masked by large year-to-year variations in sea-salt inputs and by increases in total organic carbon concentrations. These changes were most probably the result of climatic variations. Nordic lakes, therefore, show clear signs of recovery from acidification. Recovery began in the 1980s and accelerated in the 1990s. Reductions in sulphur deposition are the major "driving force" in the process of recovery from acidification. Further recovery can be expected in the next 10 years if the Gothenburg protocol on emissions of acidifying pollutants is implemented. Keywords: Nordic countries, sulphur deposition, lakes, recovery

  5. Birth of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.

  6. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  7. Radon in dwellings in Finland; Asuntojen radonpitoisuus Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-10-01

    For over ten years STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has performed systematic indoor radon mapping in Finland with health authorities in municipalities. The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3} and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. Therefore STUK has made radon measurement plans and radon risk maps to identify radon-prone areas. During 1986 - 1996 the municipalities have ordered 33 000 dosemeters for radon measurements. Private persons have ordered 24 000 dosemeters and STUK has used for its own investigations 34 000 dosemeters. Today the basic radon database of STUK consists information of about 52 000 Finnish dwellings. This report is a summary of the radon measurements made by STUK in low-rise dwellings. The radon situation by provinces is presented in tables.

  8. Internal radiation doses from radioactivity of drinking water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlos, H.; Asikainen, M.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the radioactivity of drinking water in Finland was carried out from 1974 to 1978. Samples were collected from nearly all water supply plants with more than 200 users and from privately dug or drilled wells. This paper considers drinking water as a factor in increasing the natural radiation exposure of the population and estimates the collective and per capita dose rates caused by the 222 Rn present in water. Instead of performing dose calculations, the significance of 226 Ra and uranium is assessed by means of daily intake. The assessment is made for both the whole population and three subgroups using the water from water supply plants and privately dug or drilled wells. (author)

  9. Language-group Differences in Very Early Retirement in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study very early retirement as an indicator for poor health, with focus on a comparison between the two language groups in Finland. Extensive longitudinal data are analysed with the help of random effects probit models. As expected from previous studies of mortality differences, the rate of retirement is lower among Swedish-speakers than among Finnish-speakers, and this cannot be attributed to socio-demographic and regional factors. Swedish-speaking males have a risk of very early retirement that is about 25 per cent lower than that of Finnish-speaking males. Among females the corresponding difference is about 15 per cent. Our results also suggest that not accounting for unobserved individual heterogeneity will bias the effect of native language downwards.

  10. Stated Preferences for Forest Conservation in Southern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Emmi; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Pouta, Eija

    conservation was investigated. Contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE) methods were applied. According to the CV results, 74% of respondents are prepared to pay for increased conservation and 16% support increased conservation but are not willing to pay for it. A further 5% are indifferent and 5......% support decreasing forest conservation. An average willingness-to-pay for increased biodiversity conservation was 60-212 € per household per year, depending on the described project and measurement method. In addition to costs per household, the number of conserved biotopes and endangered plant and animal......This study analyses Finnish citizens’ valuations and attitudes towards a forest conservation programme for southern Finland and the Pohjanmaa region. In particular, Finnish households’ willingness to accept expenses through increased taxation to guarantee a certain level of biodiversity...

  11. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Finland. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  12. Culturally diverse nursing students in Finland: some experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Kekki, Pertti; Pitkala, Kaisu

    2012-09-12

    Around the world, student populations are internationalizing and diversifying. The purpose of this study was to research culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students' experiences in Finland. The data were collected from 27 students in four polytechnics through focus group interviews. The findings highlight the importance of concreteness in theoretical instruction. In clinical settings, language barriers and negative attitudes towards students and their cultural background lead to social and professional isolation. The findings suggest that development of culturally sensitive pedagogy requires further investigation with strong research designs. Intensified language instruction for those who need it is essential. Strategies that increase cultural competence and promote appreciation of cultural diversity in health care settings should be developed.

  13. Rapid increase in contact allergy to Kathon CG in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, M

    1986-10-01

    In unselected eczema patients subjected to routine patch testing, the number with positive reactions to Kathon CG 100 ppm increased from none in 1983 to 0.7% in January-August 1985, and to 4.6% in September 1985 to March 1986. Repeated open application tests (ROAT) with creams containing 7-15 ppm of the isothiazolinones were positive in 12 of 24 patients tested. 2 of the ROAT-positive cases had negative patch tests to 100 ppm Kathon CG, but 1 was positive with 200 ppm. Atopic dermatitis, chronic hand dermatitis and lower leg dermatitis were the most common disorders in the positive patients. The cause of the rapid increase of Kathon CG allergy in Finland during the winter of 1985-1986 was the use of a popular moisturizing cream containing first 19 ppm, then 7 ppm of a mixture of 2 isothiazolinones (Euxyl K 100).

  14. The oil spill in the Gulf of Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvi, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In February 1987 the oil tanker MT Antonio Gramsci ran aground off the south coast of Finland with 570 tons of crude oil aboard which ran out into the sea. For several months it was uncertain how the situation could be brought under control because the oil was being moved around by the ice blocks and was threatening the fish in the Finnish bay. Tests were made in the years 1987-1989. In this connection a project was set up the aim of which was to learn to what extent the oil contamination would damage the ocean life. The effects on ocean fauna, fish and birds were also examined. In this connection other studies and laboratory experiments were performed [fi

  15. Accessibility and readability of university websites in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Karhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study conducted by the authors to evaluate the accessibility and readability of the contents of the Web sites of seven universities in Finland. The accessibility assessment has been carried out to check compliance with accessibility guidelines for Web content established by the World Wide Web Consortium recommendation in WCAG 2.0. The readability has been evaluated using the Flesch Reading Ease Level formula for English texts. We have tried to determine whether the universities have been concerned to provide accessible information about the university through its website so that it can be accessed by everyone (teachers, students, regardless of whether or not the user has a disability.

  16. Population-based surveillance study of Campylobacter infections in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakari, U-M; Huovinen, E; Kuusi, M; Siitonen, A

    2010-12-01

    The annual incidence in 14,361 campylobacteriosis cases reported in Finland in 2002-2005 varied between 61 and 76/100,000 population. The mean incidence was highest (148/100,000) in the 25-29 years age group and lowest (range 21-24/100,000) in children aged 5-14 years and patients aged ≥75 years. The number of domestic cases was low in winter and peaked in summer. A total of 622 strains isolated from domestic infections and 785 foreign travel-related strains were serotyped. Serotypes Pen 3 and Pen 37 had the strongest association with travel-related infections (96%, P70% domestic within each serotype, P<0·001). Pen 2 and Pen 1,44 were less common in older than in younger patients. Of domestic strains, a higher proportion of Pen 2 strains was isolated in winter (18%) compared to the other serotypes (0-10%).

  17. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  18. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... to this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be ...

  19. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...