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Sample records for northern baltic macrophyte

  1. First steps in the Central-Baltic intercalibration exercise on lake macrophytes: where do we start?

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    Tóth, L.G.; Poikane, S.; Penning, W.E.; Free, G.; Mäemets, H.; Kolada, A.; Hanganu, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000) defines macrophytes as one of the biological groups required for the ecological assessment of European surface waters. Several indices for macrophyte assessment have been proposed or are currently in use by different European states. As a first step towards p

  2. Long-term development of inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll alpha in the open northern Baltic Sea.

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    Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Laamanen, Maria; Kuosa, Harri; Haahti, Hannu; Olsonen, Riitta

    2008-03-01

    Eutrophication is an ongoing process in most parts of the Baltic Sea. This article reports on the changes during recent decades of several eutrophication-related variables in the open sea areas surrounding Finland (wintertime nutrient concentrations, wintertime nutrient ratios, and summer time chlorophyll alpha concentrations at the surface). The sum of nitrate- and nitrite-nitrogen ([NO3+NO2]-N) was observed to increase nearly fourfold in the Northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland and almost double in the Bothnian Sea from the 1960s until the 1980s or 1990s. The increase was followed by a decrease, which was modest in the two former subregions. Phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations followed a similar pattern in the Northern Baltic Proper (threefold increase and subsequent slight decrease) and Bothnian Sea (30% increase and subsequent decrease), but increased throughout the study in the Gulf of Finland, with the present concentration being threefold to the measurements made in the early 1970s. The PO4-P concentration decreased throughout the study in the Bothnian Bay. Silicate-silicon (SiO4-Si) concentrations decreased 30-50% from the early 1970s to the late 1990s and increased 20-40% thereafter in the Northern Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, and the Bothnian Sea. Chlorophyll alpha showed an increase of over 150% in the Northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland from the 1970s until the early 2000s. In the Bothnian Sea the chlorophyll alpha concentration increased more than 180% from the late 1970s until the late 1990s, and decreased thereafter. According to these long-term observations, the Gulf of Finland and Northern Baltic Proper show clear signs of eutrophication, which may be emphasized by hydrographical changes affecting the phytoplankton communities and thus the algal biomass.

  3. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

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    Cieśliński Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  4. Extreme variations of pCO2 and pH in a macrophyte meadow of the Baltic Sea in summer: evidence of the effect of photosynthesis and local upwelling.

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    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.; Herman, P. M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Since the rise of ocean acidification as a major scientific question, state of the art knowledge on pCO2 and pH in nearshore ecosystems are becoming crucial to drive the experimentalists. However, in temperate areas, such data are widely missing. In this study we investigated the variations of the carbonate system in the nearshore macrophyte meadows of the western Baltic Sea. These are key benthic ecosystems, providing spawning and nursery areas and food source to numerous commercially important species. In situ pCO2, pH (total scale), salinity and PAR irradiance were measured with a continuous recording unit dropped in a shallow macrophyte meadow (Eckernförde bay, western Baltic) during three different weeks in July, August and September 2011. Means (± SD) pCO2 / pHtot observed were respectively 382 ± 114 µatm / 8.188 ± 0.131, 239 ± 62 µatm / 8.218 ± 0.101 and 931 ± 668 µatm / 7.826 ± 0.398 in July, August and September. Mean (± SD) day / night pCO2 variations due to photosynthesis and respiration were 227 ± 88 µatm, 195 ± 100 µatm and 1488 ± 732 µatm in July, August and September. The observed variations of pCO2 were explained through a statistical model considering wind direction and speed together with PAR irradiance, proving the occurrence of local upwellings of hypercapnic water masses with late summer offshore winds. Those results are demonstrating the high variability of the carbonate system in nearshore macrophyte meadows depending on meteorology and biological activities. They highlight the need for future pCO2 scenarios for nearshore habitats.

  5. Hydrological instability of a Baltic raised bog during the last 1000 years in northern Poland

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    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Galka, Mariusz; Pawlyta, Jacek; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Goslar, Tomasz; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, Grażyna; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

    2010-05-01

    Our aim was to reconstruct the palaeohydrological of a Baltic raised bog located in northern Poland over the last 1000 years. We used several proxies: testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, pollen and carbon stable isotopes to reconstruct the bog surface wetness. We analysed two replicated monoliths collected from the same bog at high temporal resolution. We obtained a reliable chronology for both monoliths based on radiocarbon and lead 210 dating. We compared the inferred water table depth changes obtained from the quantitative reconstruction based on the testate amoebae transfer function with inference from plant remains and carbon isotopic composition of Sphagnum stems for both monoliths. Our data provide new insight on human impact on the hydrology of Baltic raised bogs and the sensitivity of these peatlands to various disturbances. We show an increasing hydrological instability of the studied peatland concomitant with the gradually increasing human impact over the landscape since the Medieval Period. However, climatic change also played an important role during the Little Ice Age period that overlapped with the anthropogenic disturbance. This palaeoenvironmental data provides useful baseline data for peatland management and restoration in Northern Poland and more generally illustrate the value of high-resolution multiproxy studies as tool for both palaeoenvironmental studies and current management.

  6. Immunological responses in the mussel Mytilus trossulus transplanted at the coastline of the northern Baltic Sea.

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    Höher, N; Turja, R; Köhler, A; Lehtonen, K K; Broeg, K

    2015-12-01

    The applicability of immune responses in transplanted Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) as biomarkers of immunotoxic effects was studied at differently contaminated locations in the Gulf of Bothnia (northern Baltic Sea). Here, we present a detailed report on the immune responses measured as complementary part of transplantation study by Turja et al. (2014).Various immunological endpoints such as total and differential cell count, morphological alterations,phagocytic activity, and caspase 3/7 activity of mussel haemocytes as well as haemolytic activity of the haemolymph were used. Mussels collected at a reference site at a Finnish coastal site (Hanko, H) were transplanted at the Swedish coast near industrial and urban regions of the cities Sundsvall (S1, S2) and Gävle (G1, G2), respectively. Based on the measured immunological responses, multivariate statistical analysis (PCA biplot) showed a clear separation of the most polluted site S1, indicating immunotoxic impacts of the mixture of contaminants present at this location. Based on these observations and results from Turja et al. (2014), we suggest the implementation of immunotoxic biomarkers for the evaluation of ecosystem health. However, these should be accompanied by complementary endpoints of biological effects encompassing i.e., physiological, antioxidant and bioenergetic markers.

  7. Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations.

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    Bidleman, Terry F; Laudon, Hjalmar; Nygren, Olle; Svanberg, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2017-06-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81-147 d and a temperature range of -2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources. Correction for nonlinear uptake of these was made using experimentally measured PUF-air partition coefficients. Passive-derived air concentrations of pesticides were uniform over the bay and agreed within a factor of 2 or better with levels determined by active (pumped) sampling at one of the island stations. Levels of OCPs were similar to those reported at background sites in the European and Canadian Arctic and at monitoring stations in the central Baltic and southern Scandinavia, indicating long-range transport. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was 10 times lower at bay stations than in the Canadian Arctic. Insight to sources and processes was gained by examining compound profiles. Fractions Falpha = α-HCH/(α-HCH + γ-HCH) and FTC = trans-chlordane/(trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane) at bay stations were higher than in the Norwegian and Finnish Arctic and similar to those at the southern monitoring stations. Volatilization of chlordanes from Baltic seawater may also modify FTC. Higher FTriBA = 2,4,6-TriBA/(2,4,6-TriBA + 2,4-DiBA) distinguished local volatilization from the Baltic Sea versus lower FTriBA found at the inland site and reported in air on the Norwegian coast, suggesting westerly transport from the Atlantic across Norway and Sweden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Turbidity characterizes the reproduction areas of pikeperch ( Sander lucioperca (L.)) in the northern Baltic Sea

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    Veneranta, L.; Urho, L.; Lappalainen, A.; Kallasvuo, M.

    2011-11-01

    The pikeperch ( Sander lucioperca (L.)) is an economically important fish species occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of Europe. To evaluate the distribution and extent of the reproduction areas in the northern Baltic Sea, a field survey was carried out in two separate coastal areas. Presence/absence data were used to develop a geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive spatial distribution model, where high resolution raster maps of the focal environmental variables and a logistic regression equation were used to predict the probability of larval occurrence. The results indicated that the pikeperch reproduction areas are located in the innermost archipelago zone where high water turbidity best explained their presence. Turbidity was related to several other variables such as fetch and depth. Contrary to our preliminary hypothesis, surface water temperatures measured during the survey had no significant effect in the model due to the low spatial variation in the measured values. Since turbidity is possible to determine by remote sensing methods, the probability maps can be cost-effectively extended to more extensive coastal areas with proper validation.

  9. Phylogeny of culturable estuarine bacteria catabolizing riverine organic matter in the northern Baltic Sea.

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    Kisand, Veljo; Cuadros, Rocio; Wikner, Johan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of our study was to isolate and determine the phylogenetic affiliation of culturable estuarine bacteria capable of catabolizing riverine dissolved organic matter (RDOM) under laboratory conditions. Additions of RDOM consistently promoted the growth of estuarine bacteria in carbon-limited dilution cultures, with seasonal variation in growth rates and yields. At least 42 different taxa were culturable on solid agar media and, according to quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations, constituted 32 to 89% of the total bacterial number in the enriched treatments. Five species in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group and one in the gamma-proteobacteria phylogenetic group (Marinomonas sp.) were numerically dominant during the stationary phase of the RDOM-enriched dilution cultures but not in the control cultures. Four of the isolates in Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group were putatively affiliated with the genus FLAVOBACTERIUM: All dominating isolates were determined to be new species based on comparison to the current databases. The same group of species dominated independently of the season investigated, suggesting a low diversity of bacteria catabolizing RDOM in the estuary. It also suggested a broad tolerance of the dominating species to seasonal variation in hydrography, chemistry, and competition with other species. Taken together, our results suggest that a limited group of bacteria, mainly in the Flavobacterium genus, played an important role in introducing new energy and carbon to the marine system in the northern Baltic Sea.

  10. The bloom of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the northern Baltic Proper stimulates summer production

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    Svedén, Jennie B.; Walve, Jakob; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2016-11-01

    In the northern Baltic Sea Proper, total nitrogen (TN) increases during the summer bloom of filamentous heterocystous cyanobacteria. To follow the fate of the nitrogen they fix, we studied several N fractions during the bloom. We measured cyanobacterial biomass, TN, particulate organic N (PON, two size fractions), dissolved organic N (DON), and PON sedimentation in two areas in 2011. TN increased mainly due to increasing PON, but also to DON. Cyanobacteria contributed about 20% of the PON increase and ~ 10% of the TN increase. About half the PON changes (increase, then decrease) could be explained by the sum of cyanobacteria, other autotrophs (> 2 μm) and zooplankton, indicating that the bloom stimulates primary and secondary production. TN decreased after the bloom mainly due to declining PON > 10 μm, but sedimentation rates did not increase and could explain little of the post-bloom N-loss. There was little settling of undecomposed cyanobacteria. The seasonal development of Aphanizomenon sp. and N pools was similar among stations and areas. For Nodularia spumigena between-station variability increased once patchy surface accumulations developed. A brief Dolichospermum spp. bloom indicated that sampling frequency may be more important than spatial resolution for capturing dynamics of this bloom.

  11. Past, present and future formation of groundwater resources in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin

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    Marandi, A.; Vallner, L.; Vaikmae, R.; Raidla, V.

    2012-04-01

    Cambrian-Vendian Aquifer System (CVAS) is the deepest confined aquifer system used for water consumption in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB). A regional groundwater flow and transport model (Visual Modflow) was used to investigate the paleohydrogeological scientific and contemporary management problems of CVAS. The model covers the territory of Estonia and its close surrounding, all together 88,000 km2 and includes all main aquifers and aquitards from ground surface to as low as the impermeable part of the crystalline basement. Three-dimensional distribution of groundwater heads, flow directions, velocities, and rates as well as transport and budget characteristics were simulated by the model. Water composition was changed significantly during the last glaciations.Strongly depleted O and H stable isotope composition, absence of 3H and low radiocarbon concentration are the main indicators of glacial origin of groundwater in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer in northern Estonia. The noble gas analyses allowed concluding, that palaeorecharge took place at temperatures around the freezing point. While in North Estonia, most of water was changed by glacial melt water, high salinity water is till preserved in Southern part of Estonia.First results of modeling suggest that during the intrusion period lasting 7.3-9.3 ka the front of glacial thaw water movement had southeast direction and reachedto 180-220 kmfrom CVAS outcrop in Baltic Sea. Confining layer of CVAS is cut through by deep buried valleys in several places in North Estonia making possible for modern precipitation to infiltrate into aquifer system in present day. In case of natural conditions, the water pressure of CVAS is few meters above sea level and most of valleys act as discharge areas for aquifers system. Two regional depression ones have formed in North Estonia as a result of groundwater use from CVAS. Water consumption changes the natural groundwater gradient, flow direction and thereforerecharge

  12. Validation of SMOS sea ice thickness retrieval in the northern Baltic Sea

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    Nina Maaß

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission observes brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band with a daily coverage of the polar regions. L-band radiometry has been shown to provide information on the thickness of thin sea ice. Here, we apply a new emission model that has previously been used to investigate the impact of snow on thick Arctic sea ice. The model has not yet been used to retrieve ice thickness. In contrast to previous SMOS ice thickness retrievals, the new model allows us to include a snow layer in the brightness temperature simulations. Using ice thickness estimations from satellite thermal imagery, we simulate brightness temperatures during the ice growth season 2011 in the northern Baltic Sea. In both the simulations and the SMOS observations, brightness temperatures increase by more than 20 K, most likely due to an increase of ice thickness. Only if we include the snow in the model, the absolute values of the simulations and the observations agree well (mean deviations below 3.5 K. In a second comparison, we use high-resolution measurements of total ice thickness (sum of ice and snow thickness from an electromagnetic (EM sounding system to simulate brightness temperatures for 12 circular areas. While the SMOS observations and the simulations that use the EM modal ice thickness are highly correlated (r 2=0.95, the simulated brightness temperatures are on average 12 K higher than observed by SMOS. This would correspond to an 8-cm overestimation of the modal ice thickness by the SMOS retrieval. In contrast, if the simulations take into account the shape of the EM ice thickness distributions (r 2=0.87, the mean deviation between simulated and observed brightness temperatures is below 0.1 K.

  13. Context-dependent consequences of Marenzelleria spp. (Spionidae: Polychaeta invasion for nutrient cycling in the Northern Baltic Sea

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    Alexey Maximov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marenzelleria spp. are among the most successful non-native benthic species in the Baltic Sea. These burrowing polychaetes dig deeper than most native Baltic species, performing previously lacking ecosystem functions. We examine evidence from experiments, field sampling and modelling that the introduction of Marenzelleria spp. affects nutrient cycling and biogeochemical processes at the sediment–water interface. Over longer time scales, bioirrigation by Marenzelleria spp. has the potential to increase phosphorus retention in bottom deposits because of deeper oxygen penetration into sediments and formation of a deeper oxidized layer. In contrast, nitrogen fluxes from the sediment increase. As a consequence of a decline of the phosphate concentration and/or rising nitrogen/phosphorus ratio, some Northern Baltic ecosystems may experience improvement of the environment because of mitigation of eutrophication and harmful cyanobacteria blooms. Although it is difficult to unambiguously estimate the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion, in many cases it could be considered as positive due to increased structural and functional diversity. The long-term interactions with the native fauna still remain unknown, however, and in this paper we highlight the major knowledge gaps.

  14. Sex-specific distribution and diet of Platichthys flesus at the end of spawning in the northern Baltic Sea.

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    Borg, J P G; Westerbom, M; Lehtonen, H

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of seascape structure, prey availability and sex on the post-spawning distribution and diet of European flounder Platichthys flesus in the northern Baltic Sea. The objectives were to determine whether: (1) wave exposure and substratum affect abundance and distribution of P. flesus, (2) diet reflects the benthic prey composition and (3) sex affects the distribution or diet of P. flesus. The results showed that P. flesus was evenly spread in the archipelago with no correlation to wave exposure. The distribution was, however, sex specific; reproductive males dominated the exposed zone and mainly post-reproductive females dominated the intermediate and sheltered zones. Platichthys flesus fed mainly on two bivalve prey species: blue mussels Mytilus edulis and Baltic tellins Macoma balthica. Hard substratum invertebrates dominated the diet in all habitats and apart from some typical soft substratum species, there was no clear link between fish feeding and the dominance structure of benthic prey. Diet was further sex specific, with females showing a broader range of diet than males. Results suggest that P. flesus is a specialist molluscivore found commonly and equally in soft- and hard-substratum habitats throughout the archipelago area. Previous studies on P. flesus in the Baltic Sea have yielded inconsistent results regarding diet and it has commonly been believed that the distribution of Baltic Sea P. flesus is linked to sand and soft substrata. The present findings emphasize the importance of including the entire range of habitats when diet and regional species distributions are assessed. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. A methodology for research on international cooperation on marine environment protection: application of the Baltic Sea practices to the northern seas

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    Kharlampyeva N. K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the methodology for the study of international cooperation on marine environment protection. The author suggests applying the practices of marine environment protection in the Baltic Sea to the northern seas as well as examining earlier projects for the effective implementation of interdisciplinary initiatives bringing together international law, international relations and world politics.

  16. A methodology for research on international cooperation on marine environment protection: application of the Baltic Sea practices to the northern seas

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    Kharlampyeva Nadezhda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the methodology for the study of international cooperation on marine environment protection. The author suggests applying the practices of marine environment protection in the Baltic Sea to the northern seas as well as examining earlier projects for the effective implementation of interdisciplinary initiatives bringing together international law, international relations and world politics.

  17. Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis into a shallow-water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea

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    Kotta, Jonne; Orav, Helen; Sandberg-Kilpi, Eva

    2001-12-01

    Effects of the North American polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis on a simple shallow-water benthic community of the northern Baltic Sea were studied in a field experiment combining natural densities of dominating macrofaunal species. The presence of M. cf. viridis increased benthic production (chlorophyll a) and reduced the survival of the native polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Adult Macoma balthica caused a significant mortality on M. cf. viridis whereas adult Cerastoderma glaucum had no effect on M. cf. viridis. We suggest that the competitive interactions between M. cf. viridis and M. balthica are a possible key factor determining the distribution pattern of M. cf. viridis in the Baltic Sea.

  18. Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era – new evidence from Ostrobothnia, western Finland

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    Uutela, A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports new evidence of the extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. A drillcore (DC304 from the Lappajärvi impact crater, western Finland, and erratics from the surrounding area were studied for acritarchs. The acritarchs from the drillcore were reworked by the explosion but indicate, however, that the Baltic Sea extended beyond the western coast of central Finland during the Lower Cambrian Vergale and the Middle Cambrian Kibartai regional stages as well as during Middle Ordovician transitions from Aseri to Lasnamägi and from Idavere to Jöhvi regional stages. The provenance of the erratics was the Bothnian Bay, further north than the Lower Palaeozoic deposits previously known in the Bothnian Sea. The age could be determinated by their acritarch composition which shows that the sea also covered Central Ostrobothnia during the Lower Ordovician Billingen and early Middle Ordovician Lasnamägi regional stages. The drillcore samples contained also unknown spores. They suggest that there have been sediments and/or a terrestrial flora later than Ordovician in the Lappajärvi area.

  19. Strontium content in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

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    Lill, J-O.; Heselius, S-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Himberg, M.; Hagerstand, H. [Cell Biology, Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smâtt, J-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The salinity of water in the northern Baltic Sea forms a gradient as it receives fresh water from several large rivers in the north and salty water by infrequent inflows of North Sea water in the south. The salinity of brackish water in the north-south direction (700 km) changes from about 3 to 7%. In an attempt to use the salinity gradient to study migration patterns, sagittae otoliths were collected from common fish species caught at different locations along the Finnish west coast. Otoliths from fishes caught in fresh-water lakes in Finland and Estonia were also included in the study for comparison. Part of the otoliths was grind and the powder was pressed to pellets which were irradiated in air with an ion beam from the Abo Akademi cyclotron and the emitted X-rays were measured. Other otoliths were embedded in epoxy and polished to reveal the ring structure. These prepared otoliths were irradiated with the ion beam to determine elemental profiles. Furthermore, XRD was applied to study the crystal structure and to identify the minerals in the otoliths. The strontium level of water is usually related to its salinity, and as the strontium ions are able to replace calcium ions in fish otoliths [1], the strontium content in fish otoliths from the same locations is expected to be very similar. However, the PIXE analyses revealed large differences in the strontium content between otoliths from different species of fish caught at the same locations. The strontium concentration in otoliths of perch and pike from the Aland Islands was about 1600 μg/g and of common whitefish 3600 μg/g. The strontium concentration in perch otoliths from the Oravais archipelago, about 400 km north of the Aland Islands, was 1400 μg/g. Corresponding concentration in otoliths of perch and pike caught in fresh-water lakes was 200 μg/g and of common whitefish from Saadjarve 400 μg/g and from Lake Inari 1000 μg/g. Otoliths of perch contained no detectable amounts of zinc (Iower

  20. Long-term mesoscale variability of modelled sea-ice primary production in the northern Baltic Sea

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    Letizia Tedesco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new ocean-sea ice-biogeochemical model, apply it to the Bothnian Bay in the northern Baltic Sea for the time period 1991–2007 and provide the first long-term mesoscale estimates of modelled sea-ice primary production in the northern Baltic Sea. After comparing the available physical and biogeochemical observations within the study area and the time period investigated with the model results, we show the modelled spatial, intra- and interannual variability in sea-ice physical and biogeochemical properties and consider the main factors limiting ice algal primary production. Sea-ice permeability in the studied area was low compared with the polar oceans, which appeared to be a major reason for the generally low primary production rates. Although the sea ice was less saline in the northernmost parts of the basin, these parts were characterized by sea ice with a larger amount of habitable space, higher levels of photosynthetically active radiation and increased macronutrient availability near the coast, which favoured higher algal growth rates. Other parts of the southern central basin were mostly co-limited by less favourable light conditions (i.e., earlier ice breakups associated with fewer sunlight hours and lower seawater macronutrient concentrations than in the coastal zones. Although a change towards milder winters (i.e., reduced ice cover, thickness and length of the ice season was previously detected on a half-century timescale and could partly be seen here, analysis of the temporal evolution of sea-ice biogeochemical properties showed no significant trends over time, though these properties were characterized by large interannual variability.

  1. Assessing the roles of environmental factors in coastal fish production in the northern Baltic Sea: a Bayesian network application.

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    Uusitalo, Laura; Kuikka, Sakari; Kauppila, Pirkko; Söderkultalahti, Pirkko; Bäck, Saara

    2012-07-01

    Environmental conditions play a crucial role in the distribution and abundance of fish species in any area. Much research has been attributed to the requirements and tolerance limits of commercially exploited fish species. It is rare, however, that studies have been able to address the relative importance of potentially restrictive environmental factors; extensive enough to allow for estimation of the effect of several environmental factors through the fishes' life span. The coastline of Finland in the northern Baltic Sea offers a unique natural experimental setting that can be used to assess the relative importance of various environmental factors for the species occupying it. The area includes major variations in several crucial environmental factors: salinity, temperature regime, represented by winter ice duration, coastline characteristics, and eutrophic status. Furthermore, Finland has collected extensive and spatially representative data of water quality and environmental factors, as well as a long and extraordinarily spatially detailed data set of commercial catches of several fish species. In this article, we make an attempt to correlate the environmental data to the commercial catches of fish species, assuming that the commercial catches reflect, to some reasonable degree, the productivity of that species in that area (compared to other areas and combinations of environmental factors, not to other species). We use a Bayesian network approach to examine the sensitivity of the species to the environmental factors.

  2. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

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    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  3. Sources of sedimentary biomarkers and proxies with potential paleoenvironmental significance for the Baltic Sea

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    Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed and intra-continental shelf sea characterized by anoxic bottom waters in the deepest basins, allowing for the preservation of sedimentary organic matter. In the present study, the most abundant, naturally-occurring lipids in surface sediments from the entire Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak area were identified and their potential sources were assigned. Together with long-chain n-alkanes derived from land plant leaf waxes, diploptene and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are of allochthonous origin, while isoprenoid GDGTs, hydroxylated isoprenoid GDGTs (OH-GDGTs), n-C25:1, n-C27:1 and n-C29:1 alkenes are autochthonous lipids. The isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs are probably derived from Thaumarchaeota and the long-chain n-alkenes from phototrophic organisms. Significant correlations were found between indexes based on isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs and Baltic Sea surface and bottom temperatures. The calibrations obtained for surface temperature have statistically similar slopes, but different intercepts than calibrations established for the Nordic Seas. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether index can be used to estimate the percentage of soil (terrestrial) organic matter in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. High values of the Paq' ratio (defined here as the ratio of odd numbered n-C23 and n-C25 over n-C23 to n-C29 alkanes) in the northern Baltic Sea originate from the presence of both Sphagnum mosses in the drainage basin and submerged macrophytes, such as Potamogeton sp. and Myriophyllum sp., in the freshwater to brackish water of the coastal areas. The Paq' ratio may thus reflect fluctuations in the regional expansion of freshwater to brackish coastal environments in the Baltic Sea.

  4. Allochthonous Carbon--a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60% of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2%. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60%. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  5. Checklist of the Aquatic Macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergent macrophytes formed 93.3% of the total macrophyte .... accounted for 2.2% while emergent species with. 93.30% of ... proliferation of floating aquatic macrophytes like ..... Geoelectric Evalution of the Groundwater Potential of Parts.

  6. Metodologija issledovanija mezhdunarodnogo sotrudnichestva po zashhite i ohrane morskoj sredy: opyt regiona Baltijskogo morja dlja severnyh morej [A methodology for research on international cooperation on marine environment protection: application of the Baltic Sea practices to the northern seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharlampyeva Nadezhda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the methodology for the study of international cooperation on marine environment protection. The author suggests applying the practices of marine environment protection in the Baltic Sea to the northern seas as well as examining earlier projects for the effective implementation of interdisciplinary initiatives bringing together international law, international relations and world politics.

  7. Production and sedimentation of peptide toxins nodularin-R and microcystin-LR in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T. [Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR), Erik Palmenin aukio 1, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: kankaanpaa@fimr.fi; Sjoevall, Olli [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: olli.sjovall@kokemaki.fi; Huttunen, Maija [Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR), Erik Palmenin aukio 1, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: maija.huttunen@fimr.fi; Olin, Miikka [Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR), Erik Palmenin aukio 1, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: miikka.olin@helsinki.fi; Karlsson, Krister [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: krister.karlsson@kolster.fi; Hyvaerinen, Kirsi [Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR), Erik Palmenin aukio 1, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: kirsi.hyvarinen@fimr.fi; Sneitz, Laura [Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR), Erik Palmenin aukio 1, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: laura.sneitz@luukku.com; Haerkoenen, Janne [Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR), Erik Palmenin aukio 1, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.harkonen@evtek.fi; Sipiae, Vesa O. [Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR), Erik Palmenin aukio 1, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland); Meriluoto, Jussi A.O. [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: jussi.meriluoto@abo.fi

    2009-04-15

    This seven-year survey was primarily targeted to quantification of production of nodularin-R (NOD-R), a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin, in Baltic Sea cyanobacteria waterblooms. Additionally, NOD-R and microcystin-LR (MC-LR; a cyclic heptapeptide toxin) sedimentation rates and NOD-R sediment storage were estimated. NOD-R production (70-2450 {mu}g m{sup -3}; {approx}1 kg km{sup -2} per season) and sedimentation rates (particles; 0.03-5.7 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}; {approx}0.3 kg km{sup -2} per season) were highly variable over space and time. Cell numbers of Nodularia spumigena did not correlate with NOD-R quantities. Dissolved NOD-R comprised 57-100% of total NOD-R in the predominantly senescent, low-intensity phytoplankton blooms and seston. Unprecedentedly intensive MC-LR sedimentation (0.56 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) occurred in 2004. Hepatotoxin sedimentation rates highly exceeded those of anthropogenic xenobiotics. NOD-R storage in surficial sediments was 0.4-20 {mu}g kg{sup -1} ({approx}0.1 kg km{sup -2}). Loss of NOD-R within the chain consisting of phytoplankton, seston and soft sediments seemed very effective. - Production of nodularin-R in pelagic Baltic Sea takes place in a scale of up to kilograms per square kilometre.

  8. Northern E-Dimension Action Plan: E-Skills Study in the Baltic Countries and Northwest Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus KURILOVAS

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is the first attempt to systematically gather information about what is happening in research and education in the ICT field in the Baltic countries and Northwest Russia, so it is mostly a general investigation and fact-finding project, leading to possible future research and activities in the field. The study will estimate how well the supply of eSkills, that is, educated ICT graduates, meets the requirements of the ICT industry and the needs of the market in Northwest Russia, Kaliningrad, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The main objective of this study can be divided into three tasks: 1 Surveying educational organisations providing ICT education and training in the region. The main technical universities, high schools and other public and private institutions, as well as research centres, will be examined with the goal of charting what specialists are being produced and what research is being carried out in the universities and research institutions of the region. 2 Identifying the market needs for ICT competence with the focus on the ICT industry and SMEs. 3 Highlighting discrepancies between the supply of ICT educated graduates and the demand of the digital economy. \\end{list}

  9. Garnet granulite xenoliths from the Northern Baltic shield- The underplated lower crust of a palaeoproterozoic large igneous province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, P.D.; Downes, H.; Neymark, L.A.; Wartho, J.A.; Zartman, R.E.; Sharkov, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    Garnet granulite facies xenoliths hosted in Devonian lamprophyres from the Kola Peninsula are interpreted to represent the high-grade metamorphic equivalents of continental flood tholeiites, emplaced into the Baltic Shield Archaean lower crust in early Proterozoic time. Geochronological data and similarities in major and trace element geochemistry suggest that the xenoliths formed during the same plume-related magmatic event that created a widespread Palaeoproterozoic large igneous province (LIP) at 2.4-2.5 Ga. They are, thus, the first samples of the lower crust of a Palaeo-proterozoic LIP to be studied in petrological detail. The suite includes mafic granulites (gar + cpx + rutile ?? plag ?? opx ?? phlog ?? amph), felsic granulites (plag + gar + cpx + rutile ?? qtz ?? Kspar ?? phlog ?? amph) and pyroxenites (?? phlog ?? amph), but mafic garnet granulites predominate. Although some samples are restites, there is no evidence for a predominance of magmatic cumulates, as is common for Phanerozoic lower-crustal xenolith suites. Metasediments are also absent. Phlogopite and/or amphibole occur in xenoliths of all types and are interpreted to be metasomatic in origin. The K-rich metasomatic event occurred at ?????0 Ga, and led to substantial enrichment in Rb, K, LREE/HREE, Th/U, Th/Pb and, to a lesser extent, Nb and Ti. The fluids responsible for this metasomatism were probably derived from a second plume that arrived beneath the region at this time. Evidence for partial melting of mafic crust exists in the presence of migmatitic granulites. The timing of migmatization overlaps that of metasomatism, and it is suggested that migmatization was facilitated by the metasomatism. The metamorphism, metasomatism and migmatization recorded in the Kola granulite xenoliths may be representative of the processes responsible for converting Archaean LIP-generated proto-continents into continental crust.

  10. Analysis of Vertical Dynamics in the Northern Baltic Sea based on 3D Modelling and Data from Shallow-Water Argo Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Vertical mixing is a challenge for ocean models. 3D hydrodynamic models often produce considerable errors in mixed layer depths and vertical temperature structure that can be related to the vertical turbulence parameterisation. These errors can be pronounced in areas with complex hydrography. In the Baltic Sea, for example, there are high horizontal and vertical salinity gradients. Furthermore, thermocline and halocline are located at different depths. This produces stratification conditions challenging for all ocean models. We studied vertical mixing with modelling experiments and new observational data. NEMO 3D ocean model has been set up at Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) for the Baltic Sea, based on the NEMO Nordic configuration. The model has been discretized on a Baltic Sea - North Sea grid with 2 nautical mile resolution and 56 vertical layers, using FMI-HIRLAM atmospheric forcing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is sparse and new methods are needed to collect data for model validation and development. FMI has been testing Argo floats in the Baltic Sea since 2011 in order to increase the amount of observed vertical profiles of salinity and temperature. This is the first time Argo floats have been successfully used in the brackish, shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. This new data set is well suited for evaluating the capability of hydrodynamic models to produce the vertical structure of temperature. It provides a time series of profiles from the area of interest with good temporal resolution, showing the structure of temperature in the water column throughout the summer. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. We ran the model with different vertical turbulence parameterisations. The k-ɛ and k-ω schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated

  11. Fluoride remediation using floating macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Six aquatic macrophytes, such as Pistia stratiotes, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphoides indica, Lemna major, Azolla pinnata,and Eichhornia crassipes were considered for remove fluoride from aqueous solution. Five different concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 100 ppm of fluoride solution were taken in 1 L plastic container. Fixed weight (20 g of macrophytes along with 500 ml fluoride solution was taken in each plastic container for 72 hours observation. Results demonstrated all the macrophytes show highest fluoride removal during 24 h to 48 h, but after 72 h their efficiency reduced drastically. The species N. indica showed better removal efficiency than other experimental macrophytes. In general, pigment measurement data indicated higher concentration at 72 h. However, Pistia sp. showed higher concentration of pigmentation at intermediate time interval (48 h. Higher level of dry weight to fresh weight ratio was recorded for L. major and A. pinnata at all concentrations, excepting at 10 ppm. In addition, all macrophytes showed lower RGR at higher concentration. Isotherm study indicated that macrophyte C. demersum is a good fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm whereas L. major with Langmuir isotherm during 24 hours.

  12. Vertical temperature dynamics in the Northern Baltic Sea based on 3D modelling and data from shallow-water Argo floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura

    2016-06-01

    3D hydrodynamic models often produce errors in the depth of the mixed layer and the vertical density structure. We used the 3D hydrodynamic model NEMO to investigate the effect of vertical turbulence parameterisations on seasonal temperature dynamics in the Bothnian Sea, Baltic Sea for the years 2012 and 2013. We used vertical profiles from new shallow-water Argo floats, operational in the area since 2012, to validate our model. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. The k-ε and k-ω schemes were selected for a more detailed analysis. Both schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated with the k-ω scheme, thermocline depth was clearly better with the k-ε scheme. We investigated the effect of wave-breaking on the mixing of the surface layer. The Craig and Banner parameterisation clearly improved the representation of thermocline depth. However, further tuning of the mixing parameterisations for the Baltic Sea is needed to better simulate the vertical temperature structure. We found the autonomous Baltic Sea Argo floats valuable for model validation and performance evaluation.

  13. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr...

  14. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr...

  15. Sankt-Peterburg v Baltijskom regione [Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudoley Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the place of St Petersburg in international cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of the Baltic region as one of the priorities of the international relations of the city. The authors show continual attention of Saint-Petersburg to developing international relations in the Baltic Sea region. The article indicates one of the most important areas of international cooperation – the participation of the city in the renewed Northern Dimension policy.

  16. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  17. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  18. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... to distribute photons evenly between the photosynthetic tissues. As scattering and attenuation in the water column increase, the effect of thallus structure on production declines and thin transparent macrophytes are more efficient at utilizing light than thick opaque macrophytes. The results confirm...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...

  19. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören

    2012-01-01

    Featured as research highlight in Nature. The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1...

  20. Timing of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Vassiljev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoreline database for the Baltic, covering the Late Weichselian and Holocene, was compiled. The database includes about 1600 sites from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, NW Russia, Poland, Sweden and was used to create a GIS-based palaeogeographical reconstructions on the development of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL. The formation of thehighest shoreline of the BIL in Estonia was connected with the development of the Pandivere ice marginal zone (Estonia and the lowest with the Salpausselkä ice-marginal formations (Finland. There was a well-accepted knowledge that the Pandivere ice marginal zone correlates with the Neva ice marginal zone in NW Russia dated to 13 300 cal yr BP. Recent studies of the late glacial sites in northern Estonia indicate that the age of the Pandivere ice marginal zone and hence the highest shoreline of the BIL A1 is about 13 800–14 000 cal yr BP. It was followed by the BIL stage A2, which formed in front ofthe Palivere ice marginal belt about 13 200–13 500 cal yr BP. The final drainage of the BIL took place about 11 650 cal yr BP. The timing of the BIL stages was derived from AMS-14C dates and correlated with varve chronology, OSL and 10Be dates.

  1. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  2. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  3. Macrophytes: Freshwater Forests of Lakes and Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Karla J.; Naiman, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological effects on macrophytes (aquatic plants) on the freshwater ecosystem are discussed. Research questions and issues related to these organisms are also discussed, including adaptations for survival in a wet environment, ecological consequences of large-scale macrophyte eradication, seasonal changes in plant…

  4. Genetic and nutritional characterization of some macrophytes, inhabiting the Bardawil Lagoon, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam E. Elsaied

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economical significances of macrophytes, inhabiting the Mediterranean Lagoon, Bardawil, northern Sinai, Egypt, are still ambiguous, due to lack of knowledge. This study focused on genetic and nutritional characterization of three dominant macrophyte species at Bardawil Lagoon. Genetic identifications were done through genomic DNA extraction, followed by PCR amplifications and sequencing of 18S rRNA genes of the studied species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that two of the recorded species showed homologies with the seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica and Halophila ovalis, with nucleotide identities 94.5% and 96.8%, respectively. The third species showed a unique phylogenetic lineage, representing nucleotide identity average, 86.5%, among the brown seaweeds, Heterokontophyta. Nutritional analyses indicated that the recorded seaweed-like macrophyte had the highest recommended nutritional contents, crude protein, 24.67%, with a total amino acid composition of 6.64 g/100 g protein, and carbohydrate, 38.16%, besides a calorific value of 3.063 K cal/g, among the studied macrophytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to characterize macrophyte community in Bardawil Lagoon, using both genetic and biochemical approaches.

  5. The Scandinavian baltic pancreatic club (SBPC) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren S; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a multifaceted disease associated with several risk factors and a complex clinical presentation. We established the Scandinavian Baltic Pancreatic Club (SBPC) Database to characterise and study the natural history of CP in a Northern European cohort. Here......: The study cohort comprised of 910 patients (608 men: 302 women; median age 58 (IQR: 48-67) years with definite 848 (93%) or probable CP 62 (7%). Nicotine (70%) and alcohol (59%) were the most frequent aetiologies and seen in combination in 44% of patients. A history of recurrent acute pancreatitis was seen......, we describe the design of the database and characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS: Nine centres from six different countries in the Scandinavian-Baltic region joined the database. Patients with definitive or probable CP (M-ANNHEIM diagnostic criteria) were included. Standardised case report...

  6. Characteristics of cyclones causing extreme sea levels in the northern Baltic Sea** The study was supported by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT20-11 and Grant ETF9134 and by the EU Regional Development Foundation, Environmental Conservation and Environmental Technology R&D Programme Project No. 3.2.0801.12-0044.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Post

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic parameters of extra-tropical cyclones in the northern Baltic are examined in relation to extreme sea level events at Estonian coastal stations between 1948 and 2010. The hypothesis that extreme sea level events might be caused not by one intense extra-tropical cyclone, as suggested by earlier researchers, but by the temporal clustering of cyclones in a certain trajectory corridor, is tested. More detailed analysis of atmospheric conditions at the time of the two most extreme cases support this concept: the sequence of 5 cyclones building up the extreme sea level within about 10 days was very similar in structure and periodicity.

  7. A macrophyte submodel for aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Carol Desormeau; Wlosinski, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    A macrophyte submodel has been incorporated and tested in CE-QUAL-R1, a one-dimensional, vertically averaged model of reservoir water quality. A quasi two-dimensional scheme was necessary to represent the spatial relationship of macrophytes in reservoirs adequately. The macrophyte processes modeled were photosynthesis, dark respiration, excretion and nonpredatory mortality. Process equations for photosynthesis as a function of light and temperature, and dark respiration as a function of temperature were tested using data from laboratory studies. The submodel was field tested, along with other components of CE-QUAL-R1, using data collected at Eau Galle Reservoir, WI, U.S.A.

  8. Habitat-related patterns of soft-bottom macrofaunal assemblages in a brackish, low-diversity system (southern Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Adam; Ziółkowska, Marcelina; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Coastal areas provide a high variety of sedimentary habitats that influence the structure of resident fauna even on small geographical scales. Therefore, examinations of spatial variations in benthic assemblages require background knowledge of the environmental and biotic heterogeneity of habitats in order to understand ecological processes in such areas. The effect of habitat-related abiotic and biological variables on macrofaunal benthic assemblages was studied seasonally in 2010 and 2011 in the brackish, semi-enclosed Puck Lagoon (Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea). Based on macrophytal biomass, two discrete benthic regions were identified in the lagoon: a region of large biomass and a region of few macrophytes. The quality of the surface sediment organic matter (measured as C/Nsed ratio), depth, and benthic macrophyte composition accounted for within-region variation, which led to the identification of four habitats. Shallow sandy sediments with low C/Nsed ratios provide high quality sedimentary food for animals that, together with species-rich, dense macrophyte vegetation, support diverse assemblages. High C/Nsed ratios and peat outcrops in shallow sands exert a negative effect on macrofaunal diversity. Two deeper sandy habitats with less massive, species-poor vegetation tend to host distinct faunal assemblages of higher abundance and biomass. The importance of benthic vegetation for macrofaunal assemblages in the southern Baltic Sea is suggested to stem from its complex spatial structure that offers a number of microniches for infaunal and epifaunal species. The effect of macrophytes on benthic faunal assemblages was consistent throughout most of the year with the strongest influence in summer when macrophytes reached the highest biomass.

  9. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...... of photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...

  10. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...... of photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...

  11. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  12. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  13. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  14. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  15. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  16. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  17. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening.

  18. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  19. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  20. Coastal environmental gradients – Key to reproduction habitat mapping of freshwater fish in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kallasvuo, Meri

    2010-01-01

    Habitat requirements of fish are most strict during the early life stages, and the quality and quantity of reproduction habitats lays the basis for fish production. A considerable number of fish species in the northern Baltic Sea reproduce in the shallow coastal areas, which are also the most heavily exploited parts of the brackish marine area. However, the coastal fish reproduction habitats in the northern Baltic Sea are poorly known. The studies presented in this thesis focused on the ...

  1. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...... at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the longterm wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting...... for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation...

  2. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  3. Organising Baltic Jazz festival

    OpenAIRE

    Väärä, Emmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to clarify how Baltic Jazz festival is organised in a matter of project based thesis, where the main product was the festival held in 2016. The festival is located on Kemiönsaari in Turku Archipelago and it has been up and running for 30 years next year. The paper includes seven key concepts that are important for understanding the field of event management as well as the main operations according to the literature found about special events and festivals. ...

  4. Baltic nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlys, Gediminas; Adliene, Diana [Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania)

    2009-07-01

    The Authors discuss the Baltic energy policy with respect to new nuclear power plants for Lithuania, Belarus and the Kaliningrad region. The construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania would threaten Russian interests in the region. Therefore Lithuania is looking to Russian plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Kaliningrad region as an attempt to subvert Lithuania's foreign partners and potential investors from participating in the Visaginas NPP project. However, the authors conclude, that the Visaginas NPP project is and must be the preferential project for the EU and NATO member states.

  5. Mechanisms of Region Construction: the Case of International Projects in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sologub Anastasiya Petrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the processes of regional construction and their specific features in the Baltic Sea region. The article provides insights into main approaches to defining the notion of the Baltic Sea Region, its geography, rationales and preconditions of the Baltic Sea Region construction. The author makes conclusion that currently the construction process is being continued, and it involves a wide range of actors: NGOs, local and regional authorities, scientific organizations, higher education institutions, business structures, international organizations. All these actors use different tools and act in different spheres. Although there is no clear answer to the question “Who and how constructs the Baltic Sea Region?”, it is concluded that the cooperation played a significant role in this process, for example, by determining the geography of the region and creating communication networks. Projects, in turn, become a widespread form of cooperation which are used by large Baltic interregional organizations, such as the Northern Dimension, Interregional programmes, the Council of the Baltic Sea States. International project activity of the described above actors, being the point of pooled resources application and also narratives on the regional issues, became one of the mechanisms of the region construction. The article proves that a wide variety of projects in various fields with the participation of different actors creates a picture of the Baltic Sea region building some of its features and providing common identity and responsibility ideas.

  6. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on aquatic macrophyte ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Gertie; Davies, Jo; Dobbs, Michael; Ebke, Peter; Hanson, Mark; Hommen, Udo; Knauer, Katja; Loutseti, Stefania; Maltby, Lorraine; Mohr, Silvia; Poovey, Angela; Poulsen, Véronique

    2010-05-01

    Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species because of differences in the duration and mode of exposure; sensitivity to the specific toxic mode of action of the chemical; and species-specific traits (e.g., duckweed's very short generation time). These topics were addressed during the workshop entitled "Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides" (AMRAP) where a risk assessment scheme for aquatic macrophytes was proposed. Four working groups evolved from this workshop and were charged with the task of developing Tier 1 and higher-tier aquatic macrophyte risk assessment procedures. Subsequently, a SETAC Advisory Group, the Macrophyte Ecotoxicology Group (AMEG) was formed as an umbrella organization for various macrophyte working groups. The purpose of AMEG is to provide scientifically based guidance in all aspects of aquatic macrophyte testing in the laboratory and field, including prospective as well as retrospective risk assessments for chemicals. As AMEG expands, it will begin to address new topics including bioremediation and sustainable management of aquatic macrophytes in the context of ecosystem services.

  7. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on aquatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, G.; Davies, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ebke, P.; Hanson, M.; Hommen, U.; Knauer, K.; Loutseti, S.; Maltby, L; Mohr, S; Poovey, A.; Poulsen, V.

    2010-01-01

    \\ud Introduction and background\\ud \\ud Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species be...

  8. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on auqatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ebke, P.; Hanson, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    ntroduction and background Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species because of dif...

  9. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on aquatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, G.; Davies, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ebke, P.; Hanson, M; Hommen, U.; Knauer, K; Loutseti, S.; Maltby, L.; Mohr, S.; Poovey, A.; Poulsen, V.

    2010-01-01

    \\ud Introduction and background\\ud \\ud Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species be...

  10. Dissolved organic carbon release by marine macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Barrón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC release by marine macrophyte communities (seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds were obtained experimentally using in situ benthic chambers. The effect of light availability on DOC release by macrophyte communities was examined in two communities both by comparing net DOC release under light and dark, and by examining the response of net DOC release to longer-term (days experimental shading of the communities. All most 85% of the seagrass communities and almost all of macroalgal communities examined acted as net sources of DOC. There was a weak tendency for higher DOC fluxes under light than under dark conditions in seagrass meadow. There is no relationship between net DOC fluxes and gross primary production (GPP and net community production (NCP, however, this relationship is positive between net DOC fluxes and community respiration. Net DOC fluxes were not affected by shading of a T. testudinum community in Florida for 5 days, however, shading of a mixed seagrass meadow in the Philippines led to a significant reduction on the net DOC release when shading was maintained for 6 days compared to only 2 days of shading. Based on published and unpublished results we also estimate the global net DOC production by marine macrophytes. The estimated global net DOC flux, and hence export, from marine macrophyte is about 0.197 ± 0.015 Pg C yr−1 or 0.212 ± 0.016 Pg C yr−1 depending if net DOC flux by seagrass meadows was estimated by taking into account the low or high global seagrass area, respectively.

  11. Modelling the influence of Major Baltic Inflows on near-bottom conditions at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991-2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions.

  12. COMPOSTING AQUATIC MACROPHYTES: SALVINIA AURICULATA AND EICHHORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available High population growth and densities in urban areas and the consumerism present in modern societies have pronounced effect on the generation of organic waste, which may become an environmental problem. Aerobic composting is one of the best known alternatives to treating these wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of composting as an alternative to the disposal of organic wastes from aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata collected in the reservoir UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Tocantins, Brazil and also produce an organic compound from different combinations of macrophytes, prunning residues and organic waste generated by the Campus of Palmas of UFT, TO. The study was conducted in an area of 80m² in unprotected environment at the experimental station of the Campus of Palmas. The experiments were done as three replications in the dry season (from 18.09.2008 to 11.21.2008 and rainy season (from 03.09.2009 to 05.04.2009 and the parameters temperature, pH, total nitrogen and carbon, and organic matter were monitored along with counts of microorganisms. It was possible to produce compost from the combinations of organic wastes within 65 days of composting during the dry season and 55 days in the rainy season. The aquatic macrophytes resulted in a good raw material for composting, since there is not a destination for the excess plant materials removed by the cleaning process of the reservoir.

  13. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  14. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    CERN Document Server

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space astrometry realistic, resulting in the approval by ESA of the first astrometry satellite Hipparcos in 1980 which brought a revolution of high-precision astrometry of positions, motions and distances of stars. The correspondence with ten observatories shows that only one of them has any archive of letters at all from the 1950s, that is in Copenhagen where about 7000 letters on scientific and administrative matters are extant.

  15. The wave climate and its seasonal variability in the northeastern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räämet, Andrus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic features of wave properties in the Baltic Sea and their seasonal variations are estimated by the use of a high-resolution version (3 miles of the wave model, WAM, driven by adjusted geostrophic winds for 1970–2007 under ice-free conditions. The model qualitatively reproduces the time series of the sea state and adequately replicates the seasonal patterns of wave intensity and the probability distribution functions for different wave heights in both offshore and coastal regions of the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland. The areas of the largest overall wave activity are located in the eastern parts of the Bothnian Sea and northern Baltic Proper, south of Gotland, and in the Arkona Basin. The windiest season (September–February and the time with the largest measured or modelled wave activity (October–March occur with a time lag of 0.5–2 months.

  16. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  17. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    , there is no reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...... the NATO aspect of Nordic-Baltic security....

  18. Seasonality in vegetation biometrics and its effects on sediment characteristics and meiofauna in Baltic seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Emilia; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Balazy, Piotr; Kuliński, Karol

    2014-02-01

    Seagrass meadows can act as ecosystem engineers, i.e., organisms that modify the availability of resources to other organisms. However, their possible positive impacts depend on the characteristics of the vegetation, and these can vary strongly seasonally. This study assesses seasonal variability in macrophyte taxonomic composition and seagrass biometrics in the temperate Baltic Sea eelgrass meadows. We hypothesize that the anticipated strong seasonality in vegetation cover induces parallel seasonal changes in seagrass engineering effects as indicated by changes in sediment characteristics and meiozoobenthic abundance, composition and diversity. Macrophytes, sediments, and fauna were sampled at two locations in the Puck Bay from vegetated bottoms and bare sands five times in one year. Zostera marina vegetation occurred throughout the year and showed strong seasonality with the highest values of shoot density, leaf length, and biomass in July (202.3 ± 30.0 95% CI shoots m-2) and the lowest in March (55.4 ± 15.0 shoots m-2). POC was significantly higher in vegetated sands, and these effects were evident throughout the study period regardless of variability in macrophyte vegetation. The density and diversity of meiofauna did not differ between the seagrass beds and bare sands even in summer months when vegetation was best developed. The lack of an effect of the seagrass meadows on the meiofauna can be explained by the relatively low shoot density and biomass of the studied seagrass meadows and/or higher macrobenthic predation on the vegetated bottom compared to bare sands. However, both the canopies of macrophytes and the effects of the vegetation on benthic systems could increase substantially over the course of the gradual, natural restoration of the seagrass meadows.

  19. Classifying aquatic macrophytes as indicators of eutrophication in European lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, W.E.; Mjelde, M.; Dudley, B.; Hellsten, S.; Hanganu, J.; Kolada, A.; van den Berg, Marcel S.; Poikane, S.; Phillips, G.; Willby, N.; Ecke, F.

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes are one of the biological quality elements in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for which status assessments must be defined. We tested two methods to classify macrophyte species and their response to eutrophication pressure: one based on percentiles of occurrence along a phosp

  20. Trace element concentrations in freshwater mussels and macrophytes as related to those in their environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria BEONE

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was primarily designed to contribute to the debate "Do accumulator species reflect the element contamination level of their environment?" This research was carried out: 1 to know the distribution of 15 trace elements and calcium in shell and soft tissues of three species of freshwater mussels and macrophytes; 2 to compare the accumulation capacity of each trace element by mussels and by eight species of macrophytes and 3 to test the relationships between the metal concentrations in the mussels and macrophytes and those in water and sediments. The variability of element residues in the mussels is the major limit to accumulator monitoring. The most important causes are: seasonal cycle, physical environment and biological factors such as the size, age and growth rate. This research was designed to eliminate the consequence of variability deriving from the season and the environment. To this end the mussels and macrophytes were collected at the same time from the same habitat: Ranco Bay, Lago Maggiore, Northern Italy. In addition, the element concentrations in more size-classes of the most abundant mussel species (Unio pictorum and Dreissena polymorpha were measured. Trace elements were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. By arranging the data in sequences of decreasing element concentrations in the organisms as well as in water and sediments, we were able to compare the accumulating ability of the tested species and evaluate their capacity to reflect environmental availability. Neither the sequences in the shell nor those in the tissues were similar to the sequence in the water. The differences between the sequences of the mussel tissues and those of the sediments were less striking than those between shells and sediments. Similar results were obtained by macrophytes. In conclusion, the results of this study (which mimics the monitoring practice prove that bioaccumulators cannot be used to evaluate the

  1. Biomass production by freshwater and marine macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.J.; Gerard, V.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Research on aquatic macrophytes as producers of biomass has been undertaken at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) on the east coast and on the west coast by a group of collaborators in a joint effort known as the Marine Biomass Project. Studies at WHOI have focused on estuarine and coastal situations with some attention recently to freshwater plants. The Marine Farm Project has primarily been concerned with oceanic biomass production. A group at WHOI has undertaken a wide variety of studies concerning aquatic macrophytes including nutrient uptake, growth, yields, and environmental factors affecting yields. Aquatic biomass production systems have been surveyed on a worldwide basis and currently the role of carbon as a potential limiting nutrient in biomass culturing is being examined. The Marine Farm Project is presently attempting to grow giant kelp in offshore waters off southern California. Other work related to aquatic biomass production includes an investigation at the University of California, Berkeley, of microalgae in ponds. This paper will emphasize discussion of the kelp production phases of the Marine Farm Project. Activities by the WHOI are briefly summarized.

  2. An optimisation approach for shallow lake restoration through macrophyte management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. H.; Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.

    2014-06-01

    Lake eutrophication is a serious global environmental issue. Phytoremediation is a promising, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly technology for water quality restoration. However, besides nutrient removal, macrophytes also deeply affect the hydrologic cycle of a lake system through evapotranspiration. Changes in hydrologic cycle caused by macrophytes have a great influence on lake water quality restoration. As a result of the two opposite effects of macrophytes on water quality restoration (i.e. an increase in macrophytes can increase nutrient removal and improve water quality while also increasing evapotranspiration, reducing water volume and consequently decreasing water quality), rational macrophyte control through planting and harvest is very important. In this study, a new approach is proposed to optimise the initial planting area and monthly harvest scheme of macrophytes for water quality restoration. The month-by-month effects of macrophyte management on lake water quality are considered. Baiyangdian Lake serves as a case study, using the common reed. It was found that water quality was closest to Grade III on the Chinese water quality scale when the reed planting area was 123 km2 (40% of the lake surface area) and most reeds would be harvested at the end of June. The optimisation approach proposed in this study will be a useful reference for lake restoration.

  3. An optimisation approach for shallow lake restoration through macrophyte management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake eutrophication is a serious global environmental issue. Phytoremediation is a promising, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly technology for water quality restoration. However, besides nutrient removal, macrophytes also deeply affect the hydrologic cycle of lake system through evapotranspiration. Changes in hydrologic cycle caused by macrophytes have a great influence on lake water quality restoration. As a result of the two opposite effects of macrophytes on water quality restoration (i.e. an increase in macrophytes can increase nutrient removal and improve water quality while also increasing evapotranspiration, reducing water volume and consequently decreasing water quality, rational macrophyte control through planting and harvest is very important. In this study, a new approach is proposed to optimise the initial planting area and monthly harvest scheme of macrophytes for water quality restoration. The month-by-month effects of macrophyte management on lake water quality are considered. Baiyangdian Lake serves as a case study, using the common reed. It was found that water quality was closest to Grade III on the Chinese water quality scale when the reed planting area was 123 km2 (40% of the lake surface area and most reeds would be harvested at the end of June. The optimisation approach proposed in this study will be a useful reference for lake restoration.

  4. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

  5. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  6. Tria Pharmaceuticals in the Baltics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Linda, a management consultant, had to solve a tricky problem regarding difficulties with the 'Baltic region subsidiary' of a global pharmaceutical company. She was hired by their Regional Headquarters (RHQ) for Central and Eastern Europe to disentangle this multifaceted challenge (eg sales down...

  7. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis...

  8. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals.

  9. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  10. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  11. Sea surface temperature development of the Baltic Sea in the period 1990-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Siegel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea Surface Temperature (SST maps derived from NOAA weathersatellites for the period 1990-2004 were used to investigateseasonal and inter-annual variations in the Baltic Sea. A comparison between monthly mean SST and in situ measurements at the MARNET station "Arkona Sea" showed goodagreement with differences in July and August. Monthly means reflect strong seasonal and inter-annualvariations. The yearly means show a slight positive trend withan increase of 0.8 K in 15 years. In particular, summer and autumnmonths contribute to this positive trend, with stronger trendsin the northern than in the southern Baltic. The winters arecharacterised by a slightly negative trend. The winter minimumSST in the Arkona Sea correlates best with the WIBIX climateindex derived for the Baltic region.

  12. Distribution and reproduction of the Arctic ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtiniemi, M; Gorokhova, E; Bolte, S

    2013-01-01

    genetically identified as M. ovum, contrary to their previous morphological identification as another ctenophore species, Pleurobrachia pileus. Thus, earlier reports on P. pileus in the Baltic Sea may actually refer to M. ovum. The abundance of M. ovum was regulated by both salinity and temperature...... in the southern, central and northern Baltic Sea, and its egg production, distribution and abundance were studied in relation to physical factors. Genetic analyses indicate that M. ovum is by far the most abundant small ctenophore in the Baltic Sea. Specimens from a 20 yr old ctenophore collection were also......, with highest abundances found in sea areas and water layers at temperatures 5.5 and oxygen levels >4 ml l-1. During summer, the highest abundances of ctenophores and their eggs were found near the halocline, while the distribution was more uniform throughout the water column during winter. Only ctenophores >3...

  13. The Danish Perspective on Baltic Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Brundtland & Don M. Snider, Nordic-Baltic Security: An International Perspective (Washington D.C.: the Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1994...Martin’s Press, c1992), p. 24. 180berg, p. 24-25. 19Arne Olav Brundtland & Don M. Snider, Nordic-Baltic Security: An International Perspective...Oznobistchev, "Russia in its Neighboring Environment: New Challenges and New Policy?" in Arne Olav Brundtland and Don M. Snider (eds.), Nordic-Baltic

  14. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... macrophytes under in vitro monoculture or polyculture conditions ... provide many beneficial ecological services, but they could also be problematic .... addition, it was also important to remove all the leaves from the explants.

  15. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  16. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches; Marina Gulo Alcorinte; Lucas Henrique Sahm; Guilherme Rossi Gorni; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Pau...

  17. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    OpenAIRE

    VJ. Pott; Pott, A; LCP. Lima; SN. Moreira; AKM Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river fl...

  18. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  19. The Baltics in the Geography of the Largest Transnational Corporations of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the place of the Baltic States on the corporate world map, a contemporary, foreign-investment-driven alternative to the more familiar political map. To this end, the author studies the geographical place of the Baltics in the documentation of transnational corporations. The research database consists of financial reports and presentations of 60 leading European (including Russian transnational corporations. Special attention is paid to companies from countries with significant FDI stock in the Baltic States. This study is a first step towards analyzing international investors’ interpretation of the new European borders. The connection between the neighborhood effect on FDI distribution and geographical segmentation in the corporate paperwork is established. Some companies use a multilevel division (e. g. Europe/Eastern Europe, where the Baltics is usually associated with “Europe” (with or without Russia and Turkey. However, in some cases the Baltic States are clustered u nder “home market” (as is the case with some Swedish companies, “former Soviet Union” (some Russian companies, “Northern Europe and Central Asia,” and even “Middle East and Eastern Europe." Varying understanding of where exactly th borders of Europe lie could explain the plurality of attitudes of the European business establishment to the EU sanctions against Russia.

  20. Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deutsch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether dissolved organic matter (DOM in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as δ13C values of high molecular weight DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM that reaches the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations our results indicate that substantial amounts of DOM (>50% seems to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.3, 2.7, and 4.1 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

  1. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Paulo, Brazil. In the review, we analyzed 10 articles, where we obtained data on 41 species. We also sampled 5 macrophyte genera, Egeria, Salvinia, Utricularia, Eleocharis, and Ceratophyllum, in August and December 2012 and in March and April 2013, in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas. We registered 21 Oligochaeta species associated to these macrophytes. With the data obtained in the review along with the inventory of the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas, we found a total of 41 species associated to aquatic macrophytes, with a higher richness of the Naididae family (93.33%, followed by Opistocystidae (4.44%, and Alluroididae (2.22%. Our study inventoried about 48% of the Oligochaeta diversity registered in continental ecosystems in Brazil, thus highlighting the significance of macrophytes as a resource for these invertebrates, mainly for the Naididae family.

  2. Gymnodinium corollarium sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) - a new cold-water dinoflagellate responsible for cyst sedimentation events in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, Annica; Kremp, Anke; Daugbjerg, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    unidentified cyst type commonly found in sediment trap samples collected from the northern and central open Baltic Sea. Based on LSU rDNA comparison, these cysts were assigned to G. corollarium. The cysts have been observed in many parts of the Baltic Sea, indicating the ecologic versatility of the species...... revealed a preference of G. corollarium for low salinities and temperatures, confirming it to be a cold-water species well adapted to the brackish water conditions in the Baltic Sea. At nitrogen-deplete conditions, G. corollarium cultures produced small, slightly oval cysts resembling a previously...

  3. Physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaeranta, Matti [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Myrberg, Kai [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance. (orig.)

  4. AirBaltic says RIX favors Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia lennujaama juht märkis 10. märtsi telesaates, et airBaltic ei saa oma arveid õigeks ajaks makstud. AirBaltic süüditab lennujaama Ryanairi soosimises. Valitsus kaalub airBalticule investorite otsimist

  5. Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize the opportunities provided by the information society and focus on the innovative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established between states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties between the peoples of the Baltic region.

  6. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  7. BALTIC NATIONAL TRANSMISSION NETWORK DEVELOPMENT TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Olejnikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of Baltic transmission networks, related to the program of the European Union (EU to improve the security of energy supply, competitiveness and improve the development. Infrastructure projects to meet the needs of electricity in the EU are considered. The highlight issues are plan of Baltic energy markets merging and Latvian energy market development tendency

  8. Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Jaspers

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29 and in laboratory experiments (6-33. Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25 than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15 and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6. Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained.

  9. Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29) and in laboratory experiments (6-33). Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25) than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15) and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6). Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained.

  10. Macrophytes shape trophic niche variation among generalist fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejřík, Lukáš; Šmejkal, Marek; Čech, Martin; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kiljunen, Mikko; Peterka, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Generalist species commonly have a fundamental role in ecosystems as they can integrate spatially distinct habitats and food-web compartments, as well as control the composition, abundance and behavior of organisms at different trophic levels. Generalist populations typically consist of specialized individuals, but the potential for and hence degree of individual niche variation can be largely determined by habitat complexity. We compared individual niche variation within three generalist fishes between two comparable lakes in the Czech Republic differing in macrophyte cover, i.e. macrophyte-rich Milada and macrophyte-poor Most. We tested the hypothesis that large individual niche variation among generalist fishes is facilitated by the presence of macrophytes, which provides niches and predation shelter for fish and their prey items. Based on results from stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic mixing models, perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.)) showed larger individual variation (i.e., variance) in trophic position in Milada as compared to Most, whereas no significant between-lake differences were observed for roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)). Contrary to our hypothesis, all the three species showed significantly lower individual variation in the relative reliance on littoral food resources in Milada than in Most. Rudd relied significantly more whereas perch and roach relied less on littoral food resources in Milada than in Most, likely due to prevalent herbivory by rudd and prevalent zooplanktivory by perch and roach in the macrophyte-rich Milada as compared to macrophyte-poor Most. Our study demonstrates how the succession of macrophyte vegetation, via its effects on the physical and biological complexity of the littoral zone and on the availability of small prey fish and zooplankton, can strongly influence individual niche variation among generalist fishes with different ontogenetic trajectories, and hence the overall

  11. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... to the Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels...... up the recovery of the Baltic Sea such that the sea could be unaffected by eutrofication sooner than without oxygenation pumping . We undertake a representative primary survey of the populations in Sweden, Finland and Lithuania in order to assess the preferences of the population around the Baltic...

  12. Investigation of Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis in invaded macrophyte communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although native macrophytes are beneficial in aquatic ecosystems, invasive macrophytes can cause significant ecological and economic harm. Numerous studies have attributed invasiveness to species’ characteristics, whereas others attribute invasion to biotic and abiotic characteristics of the invaded...

  13. Assessment of the Potential Biological Activity of Low Molecular Weight Metabolites of Freshwater Macrophytes with QSAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurashov, Evgeny A; Fedorova, Elena V; Krylova, Julia V; Mitrukova, Galina G

    2016-01-01

    ... (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) for the major components of three macrophytes widespread in the Holarctic species of freshwater, emergent macrophyte with floating leaves, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm...

  14. The non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea can be detected in GNSS coordinate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J. V.; Nordman, M.; Virtanen, H.; Nyberg, S.; Makinen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The tides in the Baltic Sea are minute and variation in the mass distribution of the sea is mostly caused by atmospheric pressure changes and wind. The same factors also control the so-called fill level of the Baltic, i.e., the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variation in the sea level can be abrupt and large, for example during storms. The variable load causes significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. Unlike tidal ocean loading, non-tidal ocean loading is so far not routinely corrected for in geodetic measurements. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea at 193 geodetic stations in northern Europe, for all the main geodetic observables: 3-D position, gravity, tilt and strain. For this we have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org), to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions using the program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg). The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series can be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. Here we concentrate on the computed 3-D deformation. We compare it with daily GPS coordinate time series, both from precise point positioning and from double-difference solutions. Both vertical and horizontal deformation due to the Baltic loading can be detected in the GPS time series. The standard deviation of time series of coordinate differences are reduced by up to 30% when the loading is corrected for.

  15. Effect of removal of free-floating macrophytes on zooplankton habitat in shallow wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Choi Jong-Yun; Jeong Kwang-Seuk; La Geung-Hwan; Joo Gea-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes improve the structural heterogeneity of microhabitats in aquatic ecosystems, often providing an important habitat for zooplankton. However, excessive development of free-floating macrophytes on the water surface can reduce the biomass of submerged macrophytes and result in a relatively simple habitat structure. We hypothesized that controlling the development of free-floating macrophytes would result in a more complex habitat structure by promoting the development of sub...

  16. Composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Manecki, Marcus; Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Deutsch, Barbara; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Jürgens, Klaus; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE) DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area) is 1.6 - 1.9 Tg C per year which is 43 to 51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area towards the North Sea is 1.8 - 2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years), seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur-containing organic molecules

  17. Trends and extremes of wave fields in the north-eastern part of the Baltic Prope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Broman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses one of the longest contemporarywave measurements in the northern Baltic Sea, performed at Almagrundet1978-2003. This record contains the roughest instrumentally measuredwave conditions (significant wave height = c. 7.8 m in the northernBaltic Proper until December 2004. The data for the years 1979-95,the period for which the data are the most reliable, show a linearrising trend of 1.8% per annum in the average wave height. Theseasonal variation in wave activity follows the variation inwind speed. The monthly mean significant wave height varies from0.5 m in May-July to 1.3-1.4 m in December-January. No correctionshave been made in the analysis to compensate for missing values,for their uneven distribution, or for ice cover.

  18. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  19. Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Fred; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikolaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Humborg, Christoph; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viestur; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Thodsen, Hans; Smart, James C. R.; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, wh...

  20. Implementation and implications of macrophyte reconfiguration in hydraulic river modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoren, Veerle; Schoelynck, Jonas; Buis, Kerst; Meire, Dieter; Bal, Kris; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2014-05-01

    In lowland rivers, abundant macrophyte growth can often be observed. The aquatic vegetation has an impact on the flow by creating friction which results in increased water levels and decreased flow velocities. At the same time submerged macrophytes are susceptible to hydrodynamic forces of the water. Their morphology is therefore often flexible and streamlined so that it enables reconfiguration (i.e. bending of macrophytes with water flow) and decreases potential damage at high flow velocities. Knowledge of these mutual interactions is crucial in order to model water flow in vegetated rivers. A correct estimation of flow velocity and water height is indispensable for the calculation of hydraulic, ecological and geomorphological parameters. The total resistance to water flow in a river can be described by a Manning coefficient. This value is influenced by river characteristics as well as by the presence of macrophytes. In this study a simple method is developed to quantify the resistance created by macrophytes after reconfiguration of their canopy. In order to achieve this we derive model formulations and plant parameters for three different macrophyte species and compare model simulation with measured flow velocity data for two case studies. Furthermore, the effect of macrophyte reconfiguration is investigated by modeling the same case studies with and without the implementation of macrophyte reconfiguration. It was found that the local resistance created by the vegetation was overestimated when reconfiguration was not considered. This resulted in an overestimation of stream velocity adjacent to the vegetation and an underestimation of the stream velocity within and behind the vegetation. Another effect was a higher water level gradient and consequently a higher Manning coefficient in the scenario without reconfiguration compared to the scenario with reconfiguration. Reconfiguration had also an influence on ecological and geomorphological parameters. It was found

  1. Effect of removal of free-floating macrophytes on zooplankton habitat in shallow wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jong-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes improve the structural heterogeneity of microhabitats in aquatic ecosystems, often providing an important habitat for zooplankton. However, excessive development of free-floating macrophytes on the water surface can reduce the biomass of submerged macrophytes and result in a relatively simple habitat structure. We hypothesized that controlling the development of free-floating macrophytes would result in a more complex habitat structure by promoting the development of submerged macrophytes. After applying three experimental treatments (NR, no removal; IR, intermediate removal; CR, complete removal of free-floating macrophytes, we found that CR of free-floating macrophytes improved the growth and development of submerged macrophytes and supported a large zooplankton assemblage. However, the largest zooplankton assemblage (in terms of abundance and diversity was recorded after the IR treatment. Although submerged macrophytes were abundant in the CR treatment, the number, abundance, and density of zooplankton species were much lower than those in the IR treatment. Preferential selection of different macrophyte types by zooplankton presumably led to variation in plant utilization of niches, and the simultaneous presence of different macrophyte life forms created a complex microhabitat structure that induced high species diversity and zooplankton density.

  2. Diversity of pico- to mesoplankton along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue O.O. Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  3. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  4. Climate change can cause complex responses in Baltic Sea macroalgae: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takolander, Antti; Cabeza, Mar; Leskinen, Elina

    2017-05-01

    Estuarine macroalgae are important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, and often foundation species providing structurally complex habitat. Climate change alters many abiotic factors that affect their long-term persistence and distribution. Here, we review the existing scientific literature on the tolerance of key macroalgal species in the Baltic Sea, the world's largest brackish water body. Elevated temperature is expected to intensify coastal eutrophication, further promoting growth of opportunistic, filamentous species, especially green algae, which are often species associated with intensive filamentous algal blooms. Declining salinities will push the distributions of marine species towards south, which may alter the Baltic Sea community compositions towards a more limnic state. Together with increasing eutrophication trends this may cause losses in marine-originating foundation species such as Fucus, causing severe biodiversity impacts. Experimental results on ocean acidification effects on macroalgae are mixed, with only few studies conducted in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that climate change can alter the structure and functioning of macroalgal ecosystems especially in the northern Baltic coastal areas, and can potentially act synergistically with eutrophication. We briefly discuss potential adaptation measures.

  5. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Ronny [Univ. of Kalmar (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  6. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit;

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...... the BSAP targets are set as target reductions for each countries.  The comparison reveals what the additional costs of fulfilling a political target for each country are instead pursuing a cost effective solution for the Baltic Sea.  In addition  we simulate cost minimising solutions for obtaining...

  7. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of solar radiation to the Baltic Sea and its penetration into its waters is described on the basis of selected results of optical and bio-optical studies in the Baltic published by various authors during the past ca 50 years. The variability in the natural irradiance of this sea is illustrated on time scales from short-term fluctuations occurring during a single day to differences in mean monthly values over a period of many years. Data on variability of the proportions between UV, VIS and IR energy in the light reaching the sea surface are also discussed.Long-term monthly mean values of the incident solar radiation flux at the surface of the Baltic Proper are given; they were obtained from meteorological and solar radiation measurements and model approximations. The transmittances of these mean monthly radiation fluxes across the surface of the Baltic are given, as are the typical energyand spectral characteristics of the underwater irradiance, its attenuation with depth in the sea and the associated euphotic zone depths, as well as typical ranges of variability of these characteristics in different Baltic basins. Some of these characteristics are illustrated by typical empirical data. These mean values are not fully representative, however, because with the sole use of classical in situ measurement methods from on board research vessels in the Baltic, it has not been possible to gather a sufficientlyrepresentative set of empirical data that would adequately reflect the variability of the optical characteristics of all the basins of this sea. The article goes on to introduce the statistical model of vertical distributions of chlorophyll a concentration in the Baltic and the bio-optical model of Baltic Case 2 waters, the use of which contribute very significantly to this description of the optical characteristics and will enable this data set to be hugely expanded to include all the Baltic basins. This opportunity is presented by the

  8. Strategic Assurance and Signaling in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    included around 6,100 troops, includes participants from the Partnership for Peace nations of Finland and Sweden , and focused on maritime interdiction...or combine old ways effectively. One way to change signaling is to include Sweden and Finland into a messaging campaign. Though not members of...If invaded and if Russia has A2/AD in the air and in the Baltic Sea, the Baltics lose resupply routes. Forging strong cooperation with Sweden and

  9. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  10. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  11. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on auqatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ebke, P.; Hanson, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    ntroduction and background Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test

  12. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on auqatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ebke, P.; Hanson, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    ntroduction and background Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test spe

  13. Experiments on growth interactions between two invasive macrophyte species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrat-Segretain, M-H.; Elger, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The success of invasive species has been attributed to the ability to displace other species by direct competition. We studied growth and possible competition between the two macrophyte species Elodea nuttallii and E. canadensis, because the former has been observed to replace the latter in the

  14. Macrophytes in estuarine gradients: flow through flexible vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic plants –or macrophytes- are an important part of coastal, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide, both from an ecological and an engineering viewpoint. Their meadows provide a wide range of ecosystem services: forming a physical protection of the shoreline, enhancing water quality and

  15. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) MACROPHYTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    MACROPHYTES ET GROUPEMENTS VÉGÉTAUX AQUATIQUES. ET AMPHIBIES DE LA ... plaine d'inondation indique que le marnage demeure important et la salinité des terres reste encore élevée. ..... The Journal of Ecology, vol. 54, n° 3 ...

  16. Macrophyte presence and growth form influence macroinvertebrate community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, P.D.; Wijnhoven, S.; van der Velde, G.

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate analysis demonstrated that macroinvertebrate assemblages of macrophyte-dominated sub-habitats within a small eutrophic pond differed markedly from those of Bottom substrate and Open water habitats. Certain habitats (e.g. Nymphaea and Phragmites) appeared to be quite similar in their

  17. Herbivory on freshwater and marine macrophytes : A review and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Wood, Kevin A.; Pages, Jordi F.; Veen, G. F. (Ciska); Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Santamaria, Luis; Nolet, Bart A.; Hilt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Until the 1990s, herbivory on aquatic vascular plants was considered to be of minor importance, and the predominant view was that freshwater and marine macrophytes did not take part in the food web: their primary fate was the detritivorous pathway. In the last 25 years, a substantial body of

  18. Herbivory on freshwater and marine macrophytes : A review and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Wood, Kevin A.; Pages, Jordi F.; Veen, G. F. (Ciska); Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Santamaria, Luis; Nolet, Bart A.; Hilt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Until the 1990s, herbivory on aquatic vascular plants was considered to be of minor importance, and the predominant view was that freshwater and marine macrophytes did not take part in the food web: their primary fate was the detritivorous pathway. In the last 25 years, a substantial body of evidenc

  19. Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; van der Velde, G.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition...

  20. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  1. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-03-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the stagnant water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. These strong inflows are known to be forced by persistent westerly wind conditions. In this study, MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well, and hence LVCs have been calculated for the period 1887-2015 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting in at least 60 km3 of water volume change excluding the volume change due to runoff have been chosen for a closer study (1948-2013) of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of LVCs is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones move along characteristic storm tracks. Furthermore, MBIs are characterized by even higher cyclonic activity compared to average LVCs. We obtained four main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 56-60°N, passing the northern North Sea, northern Denmark, Sweden and the Island of Gotland. A second broad corridor of frequent cyclone pathways enters the study area north of Scotland between 60 and 66°N turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. This branch bifurcates into smaller routes. One

  2. Mapping present and future potential distribution patterns for a meso-grazer guild in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenberger, Sonja; De Giovanni, Renato; Kulawik, Robert; Williams, Alan R; Bourlat, Sarah J; Maggs, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest semi-enclosed brackish water bodies characterized by many special features, including endemic species that may be particularly threatened by climate change. We mapped potential distribution patterns under present and future conditions for a community with three trophic levels. We analysed climate-induced changes in the species' distribution patterns and examined possible consequences for the chosen food web. Baltic Sea and northern Europe. We developed two open-source workflow-based analytical tools: one for ecological niche modelling and another for raster layer comparison to compute the extent and intensity of change in species' potential distributions. Individual ecological niche models were generated under present conditions and then projected into a future climate change scenario (2050) for a food web consisting of a guild of meso-grazers (Idotea spp.), their host algae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans) and their fish predator (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), literature and museum collections, together with five environmental layers at a resolution of 5 and 30 arc-minutes. Habitat suitability for Idotea balthica and Idotea chelipes in the Baltic Sea seems to be mostly determined by temperature and ice cover rather than by salinity. 2050 predictions for all modelled species show a northern/north-eastern shift in the Baltic Sea. The distribution ranges for Idotea granulosa and G. aculeatus are predicted to become patchier in the Baltic than in the rest of northern Europe, where the species will gain more suitable habitats. For the Baltic Sea, climate-induced changes resulted in a gain of suitable habitats for F. vesiculosus,I. chelipes and I. balthica, whereas lower habitat suitability was predicted for I. granulosa,F. radicans and G. aculeatus. The predicted north-eastern shift of I. balthica and I. chelipes into the distribution area of

  3. Mapping present and future potential distribution patterns for a meso-grazer guild in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenberger, Sonja; De Giovanni, Renato; Kulawik, Robert; Williams, Alan R; Bourlat, Sarah J; Maggs, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aim The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest semi-enclosed brackish water bodies characterized by many special features, including endemic species that may be particularly threatened by climate change. We mapped potential distribution patterns under present and future conditions for a community with three trophic levels. We analysed climate-induced changes in the species' distribution patterns and examined possible consequences for the chosen food web. Location Baltic Sea and northern Europe. Methods We developed two open-source workflow-based analytical tools: one for ecological niche modelling and another for raster layer comparison to compute the extent and intensity of change in species' potential distributions. Individual ecological niche models were generated under present conditions and then projected into a future climate change scenario (2050) for a food web consisting of a guild of meso-grazers (Idotea spp.), their host algae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans) and their fish predator (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), literature and museum collections, together with five environmental layers at a resolution of 5 and 30 arc-minutes. Results Habitat suitability for Idotea balthica and Idotea chelipes in the Baltic Sea seems to be mostly determined by temperature and ice cover rather than by salinity. 2050 predictions for all modelled species show a northern/north-eastern shift in the Baltic Sea. The distribution ranges for Idotea granulosa and G. aculeatus are predicted to become patchier in the Baltic than in the rest of northern Europe, where the species will gain more suitable habitats. Main conclusions For the Baltic Sea, climate-induced changes resulted in a gain of suitable habitats for F. vesiculosus,I. chelipes and I. balthica, whereas lower habitat suitability was predicted for I. granulosa,F. radicans and G. aculeatus. The predicted north-eastern shift of I. balthica

  4. FREQUENT CLONALITY IN FUCOIDS (FUCUS RADICANS AND FUCUS VESICULOSUS; FUCALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) IN THE BALTIC SEA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Johansson, Daniel; Larsson, Karl H; Huenchuñir, Cecilia J; Perus, Jens; Forslund, Helena; Kautsky, Lena; Pereyra, Ricardo T

    2011-10-01

    Asexual reproduction by cloning may affect the genetic structure of populations, their potential to evolve, and, among foundation species, contributions to ecosystem functions. Macroalgae of the genus Fucus are known to produce attached plants only by sexual recruitment. Recently, however, clones of attached plants recruited by asexual reproduction were observed in a few populations of Fucus radicans Bergström et L. Kautsky and F. vesiculosus L. inside the Baltic Sea. Herein we assess the distribution and prevalence of clonality in Baltic fucoids using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci and samples of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus from 13 Baltic sites. Clonality was more common in F. radicans than in F. vesiculosus, and in both species it tended to be most common in northern Baltic sites, although variation among close populations was sometimes extensive. Individual clonal lineages were mostly restricted to single or nearby locations, but one clonal lineage of F. radicans dominated five of 10 populations and was widely distributed over 550 × 100 km of coast. Populations dominated by a few clonal lineages were common in F. radicans, and these were less genetically variable than in other populations. As thalli recruited by cloning produced gametes, a possible explanation for this reduced genetic variation is that dominance of one or a few clonal lineages biases the gamete pool resulting in a decreased effective population size and thereby loss of genetic variation by genetic drift. Baltic fucoids are important habitat-forming species, and genetic structure and presence of clonality have implications for conservation strategies.

  5. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.;

    2007-01-01

    reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity...... some of the uncertainties and complexities associated with forecasting how fish populations, communities and industries dependent on an estuarine ecosystem might respond to future climate change.......The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...

  6. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...... to the increased international interest for the northern part of Europe: climate change resulting in ice melting in Greenland and the Arctic, and new resources and shipping routes opening up across the polar basin foremost among them. The world is no longer "unipolar" and not yet "multipolar," but perhaps "post....... This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....

  7. Temporal and habitat distribution of macrophytes in lowland eutrophic reservoir Gruža in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Topuzović, Marina; Pavlović, Dragana; Ostojić, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The research in this paper are based on the study of the distribution in time and space of macrophytes along the different parts of shoreline of Gruža Reservoir and emphasize the importance of establishing relations between distribution, diversity and mass of macrophytes and the ecological conditions of the environment. Development diversity of macrophytes needs to be constantly monitored and their regulation is necessary for Reservoir conservation, especially because...

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of macrophytes in the Gruža Reservoir (Serbia)

    OpenAIRE

    Topuzović Marina; Pavlović Dragana; Ostojić A.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of aquatic macrophytes in the Gruža Reservoir (Serbia) was conducted during the period 2007-2008. Detailed data on the actual condition of macrophytes were established and compared between four parts of the reservoir. The distributions of most aquatic macrophytes of the Gruža Reservoir are heterogeneous, with different values of the MMT and MMO indices and low values of the distribution ratio. Quantitative analysis indicates that the greatest diversity and abundance of species can be...

  9. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Krolová M.; Čížková H.; Hejzlar J.; Poláková S.

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic). Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region be...

  10. Macrophytes: Limitations of Using Them to Assess Reservoir Status According to the Water Framework Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Alaoui, Khadija Sossey; Galoux, Daniel; Rosillon, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of natural lakes. The use of macrophytes in reservoir monitoring is still limited and further studies are needed on their inter-calibration and sources of variation. Many status assessment methods based on macrophyte communities have been defined for lakes. Nevertheless, few of them have been tested for reservoirs. The purpose of the study is to hig...

  11. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Krolová M.; Čížková H.; Hejzlar J.; Poláková S.

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic). Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region be...

  12. Temporal and habitat distribution of macrophytes in lowland eutrophic reservoir Gruža in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Topuzović, Marina; Pavlović, Dragana; Ostojić, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The research in this paper are based on the study of the distribution in time and space of macrophytes along the different parts of shoreline of Gruža Reservoir and emphasize the importance of establishing relations between distribution, diversity and mass of macrophytes and the ecological conditions of the environment. Development diversity of macrophytes needs to be constantly monitored and their regulation is necessary for Reservoir conservation, especially because ...

  13. Invasive crayfish threaten the development of submerged macrophytes in lake restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E M van der Wal

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes enhance water transparency and aquatic biodiversity in shallow water ecosystems. Therefore, the return of submerged macrophytes is the target of many lake restoration projects. However, at present, north-western European aquatic ecosystems are increasingly invaded by omnivorous exotic crayfish. We hypothesize that invasive crayfish pose a novel constraint on the regeneration of submerged macrophytes in restored lakes and may jeopardize restoration efforts. We experimentally investigated whether the invasive crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard affects submerged macrophyte development in a Dutch peat lake where these crayfish are expanding rapidly. Seemingly favourable abiotic conditions for macrophyte growth existed in two 0.5 ha lake enclosures, which provided shelter and reduced turbidity, and in one lake enclosure iron was added to reduce internal nutrient loading, but macrophytes did not emerge. We transplanted three submerged macrophyte species in a full factorial exclosure experiment, where we separated the effect of crayfish from large vertebrates using different mesh sizes combined with a caging treatment stocked with crayfish only. The three transplanted macrophytes grew rapidly when protected from grazing in both lake enclosures, demonstrating that abiotic conditions for growth were suitable. Crayfish strongly reduced biomass and survival of all three macrophyte species while waterfowl and fish had no additive effects. Gut contents showed that crayfish were mostly carnivorous, but also consumed macrophytes. We show that P. clarkii strongly inhibit macrophyte development once favourable abiotic conditions for macrophyte growth are restored. Therefore, expansion of invasive crayfish poses a novel threat to the restoration of shallow water bodies in north-western Europe. Prevention of introduction and spread of crayfish is urgent, as management of invasive crayfish populations is very difficult.

  14. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, V J; Pott, A; Lima, L C P; Moreira, S N; Oliveira, A K M

    2011-04-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz) Morrone & Zuloaga.

  15. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ. Pott

    Full Text Available This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz Morrone & Zuloaga.

  16. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina Alves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigate spatial and temporal variation in the aquatic macrophyte community in four urban reservoirs located in Curitiba metropolitan region, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic macrophyte community differ among reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. METHODS: The reservoirs selected ranged from oligotrophic/mesotrophic to eutrophic. Sampling occurred in October 2011, January 2012 and June 2012. Twelve aquatic macrophytes stands were sampled at each reservoir. Species were identified and the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was estimated. Differences among reservoirs and over sampling periods were analyzed: i through two‑way ANOVAs considering the stand extent (m and the stand biodiversity - species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and beta diversity (species variation along the aquatic macrophyte stand; and ii through PERMANOVA considering species composition. Indicator species that were characteristic for each reservoir were also identified. RESULTS: The aquatic macrophyte stand extent varied among reservoirs and over sampling periods. Species richness showed only temporal variation. On the other hand, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index varied only among reservoirs. The beta diversity of macrophyte stands did not vary among reservoirs or over time, meaning that species variability among aquatic macrophyte stands was independent of the stand extent and reservoir eutrophication. Community composition depended on the reservoir and sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our initial expectation that reservoirs of different degrees of eutrophication have different aquatic macrophyte communities. As a consequence, each reservoir had particular indicator species. Therefore, monitoring and management efforts must be offered for each reservoir individually.

  17. Patterns of the aquatic macrophyte cover in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir (GO-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M Bini

    Full Text Available The relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover in upper segments of tributaries and this cover in these tributaries but near the reservoir's main body was tested. Sixteen taxa belonging to 12 families of aquatic macrophytes were recorded in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir. The most frequent species were Eichhornia azurea (frequency of occurrence = 92%; n = 37 sites and E. crassipes (44%. Upper segments of the tributaries were the main areas colonized by these aquatic macrophytes. The positive relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover between the upper and lower segments of tributaries indicates the importance of dispersion in the colonization of the arms and the reservoir's main body.

  18. Patterns of the aquatic macrophyte cover in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir (GO-MG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, L M; Oliveira, L G; Souza, D C; Carvalho, P; Pinto, M P

    2005-02-01

    The relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover in upper segments of tributaries and this cover in these tributaries but near the reservoir's main body was tested. Sixteen taxa belonging to 12 families of aquatic macrophytes were recorded in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir. The most frequent species were Eichhornia azurea (frequency of occurrence=92%; n=37 sites) and E. crassipes (44%). Upper segments of the tributaries were the main areas colonized by these aquatic macrophytes. The positive relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover between the upper and lower segments of tributaries indicates the importance of dispersion in the colonization of the arms and the reservoir's main body.

  19. Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wróblewski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.

  20. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  1. Organic carbon sequestration in coastal sediments across the Baltic Sea over the last 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryves, David; Lewis, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Peter; Weckström, Kaarina; Andrén, Elinor; Clarke, Annemarie; Andersen, Thorbjørn; Yang, Handong; Hietanen, Susanah; Jilbert, Tom; Aigars, Juris; Anderson, N. John

    2017-04-01

    across the dataset. Comparison with multiproxy data for these sites and other regional environmental data (including nutrient/pollution records) shows this rapid rise coincides with major changes in algal communities, suggesting fundamental ecosystem change with nutrient loading. Furthermore, these coastal sites also show similar trends to OCFC burial rates in north-western European lakes over the last 150 years, where OCFC burial rates peak in the 1980s before declining as catchment nutrient management strategies have been developed in many countries. This supports the hypothesis that the main driver of coastal eutrophication, primary productivity increase and OC burial is terrestrial nutrient loading (and that most coastal OC is autochthonous rather than allochthonous, terrestrial C), although in the Baltic this is complicated by internal nutrient (especially P) recycling under increasing anoxia and North Sea inflows, and in the northern part, drainage from DOC-rich boreal catchments with low population density and little agriculture.. Finally we also compare our data to offshore, deep water carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea to assess if OC burial rate estimates for the Baltic Sea region need revising due to under-estimation of the coastal carbon sink.

  2. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  3. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data, the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  4. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: mark.taggart@uclm.es; Mateo, R. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F. [Synchrotron Radiation Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Green, A.J. [Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Seville (Spain); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg{sup -1}, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  5. Vulnerabilities of macrophytes distribution due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Yadav, Sarita; Quaik, Shlrene; Pant, Gaurav; Maruthi, A. Y.; Ismail, Norli

    2017-08-01

    The rise in the earth's surface and water temperature is part of the effect of climatic change that has been observed for the last decade. The rates of climate change are unprecedented, and biological responses to these changes have also been prominent in all levels of species, communities and ecosystems. Aquatic-terrestrial ecotones are vulnerable to climate change, and degradation of the emergent aquatic macrophyte zone would have contributed severe ecological consequences for freshwater, wetland and terrestrial ecosystems. Most researches on climate change effects on biodiversity are contemplating on the terrestrial realm, and considerable changes in terrestrial biodiversity and species' distributions have been detected in response to climate change. This is unfortunate, given the importance of aquatic systems for providing ecosystem goods and services. Thus, if researchers were able to identify early-warning indicators of anthropogenic environmental changes on aquatic species, communities and ecosystems, it would certainly help to manage and conserve these systems in a sustainable way. One of such early-warning indicators concerns the expansion of emergent macrophytes in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones. Hence, this review highlights the impact of climatic changes towards aquatic macrophytes and their possible environmental implications.

  6. Microphyte and macrophyte-based lagooning in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumsi, I M K; Nya, J; Akoa, A; Eteme, R A; Ndikefor, A; Fonkou, T; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    A 720 m2 plant made of 8 ponds in series, set in Yaounde (Cameroon), was successively operated as a macrophyte-based system (type M) from November 1997 to October 98, a microphyte-based system (type m) from October 1999 to September 2000 and a combination of macrophyte and microphyte ponds (type M + m) from May to July 2001. Average applied loads varied over the years; from 420 kg. BOD5 ha(-1)d(-1) on the year 1997/98, the loads reached 510 kg BOD5 ha(-1)d(-1) in 1999/2000 and 500 in 2001. Though the system became more and more overloaded and sludge accumulated rapidly in the first ponds, it provided average removals of SS, BOD5 and COD that were always higher than 90% whatever the type of lagooning. Performances in the removal of SS, organic matter and the abatement of N-NH4+ and PO4(3-) did not significantly differ according to the type of lagooning and the applied load. Macrophyte lagooning did not show any definitive superiority as to nutrient removal when compared to microphyte lagooning. Microphyte lagooning was the most effective process in faecal indicators removal.

  7. Vulnerabilities of macrophytes distribution due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Yadav, Sarita; Quaik, Shlrene; Pant, Gaurav; Maruthi, A. Y.; Ismail, Norli

    2016-06-01

    The rise in the earth's surface and water temperature is part of the effect of climatic change that has been observed for the last decade. The rates of climate change are unprecedented, and biological responses to these changes have also been prominent in all levels of species, communities and ecosystems. Aquatic-terrestrial ecotones are vulnerable to climate change, and degradation of the emergent aquatic macrophyte zone would have contributed severe ecological consequences for freshwater, wetland and terrestrial ecosystems. Most researches on climate change effects on biodiversity are contemplating on the terrestrial realm, and considerable changes in terrestrial biodiversity and species' distributions have been detected in response to climate change. This is unfortunate, given the importance of aquatic systems for providing ecosystem goods and services. Thus, if researchers were able to identify early-warning indicators of anthropogenic environmental changes on aquatic species, communities and ecosystems, it would certainly help to manage and conserve these systems in a sustainable way. One of such early-warning indicators concerns the expansion of emergent macrophytes in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones. Hence, this review highlights the impact of climatic changes towards aquatic macrophytes and their possible environmental implications.

  8. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija;

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  9. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  10. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  11. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  12. Effects of Habitat and Human Activities on Species Richness and Assemblages of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in the Baltic Sea Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Irmler

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the staphylind fauna was studied in six habitats of the Baltic Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany). The following habitats lagoon, sandy beach, shingle beach, primary dune, wooded cliff, and woodless cliff were significantly separated by their species composition. Vegetation and soil moisture were the most important factors separating the assemblages. Lagoons exhibited the most species-rich habitat. Sandy beaches provided the highest number of endangered species. Both ...

  13. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  14. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  15. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  16. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  17. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  18. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  19. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  20. Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    it is neither exclusivist nor chauvinistic, and cooperation across national lines, particularly with other Baltic groups, is commonplace and effec... exclusivist or chauvinistic. Indeed, one of its trademarks has been an unflagging concern for the rights of other nations and a desire to coperate with

  1. Extending one-dimensional models for deep lakes to simulate the impact of submerged macrophytes on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachse, R.; Petzoldt, T.; Blumstock, M.; Moreira, S.; Pätzig, M.; Rücker, J.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.; Hilt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes can stabilise clear water conditions in shallow lakes. However, many existing models for deep lakes neglect their impact. Here, we tested the hypothesis that submerged macrophytes can affect the water clarity in deep lakes. A one-dimensional, vertically resolved macrophyte mode

  2. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  3. Deposition of large organic particles (macrodetritus in a sandy beach system (Puck Bay, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kotwicki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of organic macrodetritus deposited on the sandy shores of the southern Baltic, and to determine the type of washout material and their chemical composition (carbon and nitrogen.     Over 900 samples of macrodetritus (particles retained on a 0.5 mm sieve were collected from seven sampling locations along a 120 km stretch of coastline in Poland at monthly intervals in 2002. Analysis of the C and N content of several categories of detritus supplied information about seasonal changes in and the ageing of algal debris, and indicated that the amount of carrion is constant; the latter is apparently always metabolised very rapidly. The annual deposition of macroalgal detritus on this coast was estimated at 15 000 tonnes fresh weight, that is around 75% of the primary production of filamentous macroalgae in Puck Bay.     In comparison with the amounts of kelp deposited on sandy beaches in South Africa (Griffiths & Stenton-Dozey 1981, the massive seaweed washouts on Mediterranean beaches (Morand & Briand 1996, or the deposition of algal mats in the northern Baltic (Norkko & Bonsdorff 1996a, the quantities of macrodetritus on the shore in the study area are average, even allowing for the fact that the Baltic Sea is highly eutrophic (HELCOM 2005.

  4. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  5. Restoring macrophyte diversity in shallow temperate lakes: biotic versus abiotic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S.; Sarneel, J.M.; Gulati, R.D.; Liu, Z.; Van Donk, E.

    2013-01-01

    Although many lake restoration projects have led to decreased nutrient loads and increased water transparency, the establishment or expansion of macrophytes does not immediately follow the improved abiotic conditions and it is often unclear whether vegetation with high macrophyte diversity will retu

  6. Macrophyte-phytoplankton interactions: the relative importance of allelopathy versus other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Nes, van E.H.; Donk, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still controversial whethe

  7. Macrophyte-phytoplankton interactions: the relative importance of allelopathy versus other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; van Nes, E.H.; Van Donk, E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still controversi

  8. Competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in a future of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01


    This research was about the asymmetric competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in shallow freshwater ecosystems. I studied the effect of climate change on the dominance of free-floating macrophytes in temperate regions. The research approach was a combination of outdoor me

  9. Competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in a future of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01


    This research was about the asymmetric competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in shallow freshwater ecosystems. I studied the effect of climate change on the dominance of free-floating macrophytes in temperate regions. The research approach was a combination of outdoor

  10. Macrophyte species distribution, indices of biotic integrity and sampling intensity in isolated Florida marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study tested macrophyte condition metrics calculated after decreasing the effort and area of sampling by 33% to 66%, as tested in 74 emergent isolated wetlands. Four belted transects from wetland edge to center were established and rooted macrophytes were identified. The eff...

  11. Invertebrate grazing during the regenerative phase affects the ultimate structure of macrophyte communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elger, A.F.; Willby, N.; Cabello-Martinez, M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Although the biomass of freshwater macrophytes consumed by invertebrate herbivores (excluding crayfish) is usually low, there is growing evidence that invertebrates do exert a structuring effect on macrophyte communities. To explain this, we postulated that the effect of invertebrates may be conc

  12. Effects of the herbicide 2,4-D on the growth of nine aquatic macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belgers, J.D.M.; Lieverloo, van R.J.; Pas, van der L.J.T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on nine submersed macrophyte species. The first objective of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of various endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests. A second objective was to investigate the

  13. Experimental Effects of Lime Application on Aquatic Macrophytes: 4. Growth Response of Three Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    James PURPOSE: This investigation examined the growth response of three macrophyte species ( Elodea canadensis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisnaria...different macrophyte species. These hypotheses were tested using experimental mesocosms. METHODS: Elodea canadensis, Stuckenia pectinata, and...Snel, P. E. Zanstra, and R. J. Helder. 1982. The mechanism of bicarbonate assimilation by the polar leaves of Potamogeton and Elodea . CO2 concentrations

  14. Macrophyte-phytoplankton interactions: the relative importance of allelopathy versus other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; van Nes, E.H.; Van Donk, E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still

  15. Macrophyte-phytoplankton interactions: the relative importance of allelopathy versus other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Nes, van E.H.; Donk, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still controversial

  16. DMI's Baltic Sea Coastal operational forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Berg, Per; Weismann Poulsen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Operational forecasting is challenged with bridging the gap between the large scales of the driving weather systems and the local, human scales of the model applications. The limit of what can be represented by local model has been continuously shifted to higher and higher spatial resolution, with the aim to better resolve the local dynamic and to make it possible to describe processes that could only be parameterised in older versions, with the ultimate goal to improve the quality of the forecast. Current hardware trends demand a str onger focus on the development of efficient, highly parallelised software and require a refactoring of the code with a solid focus on portable performance. The gained performance can be used for running high resolution model with a larger coverage. Together with the development of efficient two-way nesting routines, this has made it possible to approach the near-coastal zone with model applications that can run in a time effective way. Denmarks Meteorological Institute uses the HBM(1) ocean circulation model for applications that covers the entire Baltic Sea and North Sea with an integrated model set-up that spans the range of horizontal resolution from 1nm for the entire Baltic Sea to approx. 200m resolution in local fjords (Limfjord). For the next model generation, the high resolution set-ups are going to be extended and new high resolution domains in coastal zones are either implemented or tested for operational use. For the first time it will be possible to cover large stretches of the Baltic coastal zone with sufficiently high resolution to model the local hydrodynamic adequately. (1) HBM stands for HIROMB-BOOS-Model, whereas HIROMB stands for "High Resolution Model for the Baltic Sea" and BOOS stands for "Baltic Operational Oceanography System".

  17. Well data summary sheets. Vol. 19. Danish North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This nineteenth volume of Well Data Summary Sheets includes data from two North Sea wells: Gulnare-1, Eg-1 and one well from the Baltic Sea: Stina-1. Minor corrections have been made since the first edition. The `Complete index of released wells` had been updated. Volume 27, 28 and 29 are regional volumes; volume 27 includes well data from Southern Jutland; volumes 28 and 29 cover well data from Northern Jutland. All data from released Danish North Sea wells are included in volumes 17-26 and 30. Data references are made to the revised volumes and not to the original published reference. (au)

  18. Carbonic anhydrase levels and internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations in aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase levels were examined in a variety of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats. In general, carbonic anhydrase levels increased across the habitat gradient such that activities were low in submersed aquatic macrophytes and high in emergent macrophytes with floating-leaved and free-floating plants exhibiting intermediate activities. Internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations were analyzed in relation to carbonic anhydrase activities. There was no correlation between these two parameters. Internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from low to high in submersed macrophytes, but were low in floating-leaved and emergent macrophytes. The observed internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in relation to the individual morphologies of the plants and the environments in which they occurred.

  19. Effects of altered estuarine submerged macrophyte bed cover on the omnivorous Cape stumpnose Rhabdosargus holubi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, J N; Whitfield, A K; Cowley, P D; Hill, J M

    2012-03-01

    The ecological importance of submerged macrophyte beds to fishes within estuaries was investigated through the example of the ubiquitous Cape stumpnose Rhabdosargus holubi, an omnivorous, vegetation and estuary-dependent species, using stable-isotope techniques and long-term abundance (catch-per-unit-effort) data from the East Kleinemonde Estuary, South Africa. Outputs from a Bayesian mixing model using δ(13) C and δ(15) N signatures indicated that the submerged macrophytes Ruppia cirrhosa and Potamogeton pectinatus were not a primary source of nutrition for R. holubi, confirming previous work that revealed that macrophytes are consumed but not digested. Long-term seine netting data showed reduced abundance of R. holubi during a prolonged period of macrophyte senescence, suggesting that submerged macrophyte habitats provide shelter that reduces mortality (predation risk) and a food-rich foraging area. © 2012 SAIAB. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Role of macrophyte life forms in driving periphytic microalgal assemblages in a Brazilian reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara L. Fernandes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play several roles in aquatic ecosystems, including the provision of habitat for many aquatic organisms, especially the periphyton. The aims of this study were to characterize the structure of periphytic microalgal assemblages on different aquatic macrophyte life forms in order to establish similarities between assemblages from nearby sampling sites. We hypothesized that i aquatic macrophytes with different life forms and morphological characteristics could differently influence the structure of the periphyton and that ii the greatest similarity in periphyton composition should be observed among macrophytes that occupy the same sampling site. The study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 in the Thomaz Osterne de Alencar reservoir (Crato City, Ceará State, Brazil and involved the taxonomic surveying of microalgae attached to five different macrophytes with the application of structural descriptors (richness, abundance, frequency, diversity and equitability. A total of 127 taxa, of which 44% belonged to the Chlorophyta, were identified. The microalgae assemblages showed high species richness on Salvinia auriculata Aubl., a free-floating macrophyte, and large abundance on Apalanthe granatensis (Humb. & Bonpl. Planch., a submerged anchored macrophyte. ANOVA indicated that periphyton significantly varied among the macrophytes investigated, and nearby sampling sites showed no structural similarities in microalgal assemblages. In general, we can conclude that the structure of periphyton assemblages is influenced by the substrate (i.e., macrophyte organ, as this can not only promote high diversity and equitability but can also be a predictor of dissimilarity in the distribution and frequency of occurrence of microalgae. These results reinforce the findings of other studies that have shown that macrophytes play an important role in structuring the periphyton assemblages.

  1. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Brogan

    Full Text Available Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades. However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern

  2. Physical and chemical properties of substrates produced using macrophytes aquatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walda Monteiro Farias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are widely used as bioindicators of water quality because their proliferation usually occurs in eutrophic water sources and has hit several parts of Brazil and the world, restricted the multiple uses of aquatic ecosystems. However, this group of plants is able to retain considerable amounts of nutrients, presenting high productivity and high growth rate, thus, a good source of biomass for use in the production of substrates. In order to evaluate the potential of aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Solms., water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers. in the production of substrates was performed in this work, the physical and chemical characterization and evaluation of the degree of humification. The treatments were arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial, completely randomized design with three replications. All substrates produced with 100% macrophyte density present within the limits of 400 kg m-3, considered ideal. The composite substrates with water hyacinth and water lettuce are with the electrical conductivity of 0,79 a 2,49 dS m-1 within recommended. organic compounds produced are considered mature and have high levels of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium; The substrate produced with 70% water lettuce +30 % dung and 70% composed of cattail manure +20% +10% topsoil and 70 +30% cattail manure have C/N ratio within the considered ideal; the humification ratio and humification index, except for the four treatments (70 % water lettuce manure +30%, 5 (100% water hyacinth and 8 (70% water hyacinth manure +30% are within the considered ideal, the percentage of humic acids and polymerization rate, except for treatments 1 (100% water lettuce and 12 (100% cattail, are shown below the ideal.

  3. The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European contribution to the investigation of the energy and water cycle over a large drainage basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raschke, E.; Meywerk, J.; Warrach, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large...... drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple...... interactively the atmosphere with the vegetated continental surfaces and the Baltic Sea including its sea ice. The intensive observational and modeling phase BRIDGE, which is a contribution to the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period of GEWEX, will provide enhanced datasets for the period October 1999-February...

  4. A new occurrence of the benthic amphipod Dyopedos monacanthus (Metzger, 1875 in the southern Baltic Sea - the first record in the Słupsk Furrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dziaduch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the occurrence of the epibenthic amphipod Dyopedos monacanthus (Metzger, 1875 in the Baltic Sea. This species belongs to the family Dulichiidae and is found in the North Atlantic and European coastal waters from northern Norway to the English Channel and the Danish Straits. Some 50 years ago, only a few individuals of D. monacanthus were occasionally sighted inthe western Baltic (the Arkona and Bornholm Basins. In summer 2006, unusual amphipod specimens were noticed at five deep-waterstations over the Slupsk Furrow. This was the first time that D. monacanthus was observed in that area,which is currently the easternmost limit of the species' range in the Baltic Sea.

  5. Salinity as a constraint on growth of oligohaline marsh macrophytes. II. Salt pulses and recovery potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of common oligohaline marsh macrophytes of the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to recover from pulses of increased salinity was investigated in a greenhouse experiment with Eleocharis palustris, Panicum hemitomon, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Scirpus americanus monocultures. Components of salinity pulses applied were final salinity reached (6 or 12 g/L), salinity influx rate (3 d or 3 wk), and duration of exposure (1, 2, or 3 mo). After each exposure period, we placed plants into freshwater until the end of the 120-d experiment to determine recovery potential. The four species varied in their ability to recover from the salinity pulses. Within a species, recovery varied with final salinity level and duration of exposure, and to a lesser extent with salinity influx rate. Scirpus americanus, growth of which was stimulated by salinity for 3 mo. Ability to recover decreased with increased salinity and increased duration of exposure for the remaining three species. Recovery of specific aspects of growth was also suppressed in these species by a rapid salinity influx rate compared to a slow influx rate. The complex variations in recovery patterns displayed by the different species may lead to changes in species dominance following the short-term salinity pulses that can occur during storm events, which in turn may affect marsh plant community composition and structure.

  6. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus Marenzelleria, and the species' current distribution in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Laine, A. O.; Jürss, K.; Bastrop, R.

    2008-06-01

    Studies of Marenzelleria species were often hampered by identification uncertainties when using morphological characters only. A newly developed PCR/RFLP protocol allows a more efficient discrimination of the three species Marenzelleria viridis, Marenzelleria neglecta and Marenzelleria arctia currently known for the Baltic Sea. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of two mitochondrial DNA gene segments (16S, COI) followed by digestion with restriction enzymes. As it is faster and cheaper than PCR/sequencing protocols used so far, the protocol is recommended for large-scale analyses. The markers allow an undoubted determination of species irrespective of life stage or condition of the worms in the samples. The protocol was validated on about 950 specimens sampled at more than 30 sites of the Baltic and the North Sea, and on specimens from populations of the North American east coast. Besides this test we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (16S, COI, Cytb) and starch gel electrophoresis to further investigate the distribution of the three Marenzelleria species in the Baltic Sea. The results show that M. viridis (formerly genetic type I or M. cf. wireni) occurred in the Öresund area, in the south western as well as in the eastern Baltic Sea, where it is found sympatric with M. neglecta. Allozyme electrophoresis indicated an introduction by range expansion from the North Sea. The second species, M. arctia, was only found in the northern Baltic Sea, where it sometimes occurred sympatric with M. neglecta or M. viridis. For Baltic M. arctia, the most probable way of introduction is by ship ballast water from the European Arctic. There is an urgent need for a new genetic analysis of all Marenzelleria populations of the Baltic Sea to unravel the current distribution of the three species.

  7. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena abundance in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidat, M.; Gilles, A.; Kock, K. H.; Siebert, U

    2008-01-01

    Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is the only cetacean species resident in the Baltic Sea. At least 2 different subpopulations occur in this area, with a presumed demarcation line in the western Baltic Sea. Aerial surveys were conducted during different seasons in the years 2002 to 2006, to obtain estimates of porpoise abundance for the southwestern Baltic. Within the survey area, 3 strata were defined. In total, 46 surveys were completed for these strata. Abundance estimates and correspondi...

  8. New Data on Ordovician Eocrinoids and Paracrinoids of the Baltic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, S.

    2009-04-01

    Eocrinoids are widespread in the Ordovician beds of the Baltic Region, often dominating in benthic communities of the Middle Ordovician. They are represented by 12 genera. New records allow the improvement of their morphology, stratigraphic and geographical distribution. Rhipidocystis was one of the first to appear in the Baltic basin (Upper Billingen of the eastern Baltic Basin); it reached its acme in the Volkhov and became scarce rare in subsequent strata, although survived up to the Uhaku. In the Azeri or Lasnamyagi, it gave rise to the close related genus Neorhipidocystis, which rarely occurs in the Lasnamyagi, Uhaku and Kukruze Regional Stages. New data on the arrangement of pores, morphology variability in the brachiols strongly suggest that Rhipidocystis is close to Volkhovian Paracryptocrinites and Cryptocrinites, which evolved from the last genus in the Azeri. Bockia, which occurs in the Azeri, Lasnamyagi, Uhaku and Kukruze, is closely related to Cryptocrinites and differs from it in the considerably larger size, greater number of plates, extended apertural part, and branching brachiolas. These five genera belong to the same lineage of closely related Ordovician eocrinoids, which is named the cryptocrinid-rhipidocystid lineage. In North America, a similar eocrinoid lineage developed in parallel. The two lineages probably evolved from a common ancestor, which inhabited eastern Gondwana in the Early Ordovician. Plates of Rhopalocystidae are abundant in the Volkhovian Regional stage; they show distinctive sutural pores, which are characteristic of the other branch of Ordovician eocrinoids, widespread in the northern marginal area of Gondwana. The thecal fragments, which are scarce in the Baltic Region, allow the reconstruction of only the distal part; however, it is evident that the Baltic genus differs sharply in shape from Gondwanian rhopalocystids. A unique eocrinoid specimen, with a spherical theca composed of many plates and a column similar in

  9. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  10. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  11. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future.

  12. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  13. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  14. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  15. Monitoring the dynamics of an invasive emergent macrophyte community using operational remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, T.P.; Ode, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Potamogeton crispus L. (curly pondweed) is a cosmopolitan aquatic macrophyte considered invasive in North America and elsewhere. Its range is expanding and, on individual water bodies, its coverage can be dynamic both within and among years. In this study, we evaluate the use of free and low-cost satellite remote sensing data to monitor a problematic emergent macrophyte community dominated by P. crispus. Between 2000 and 2006, we acquired eight satellite images of 24,000-ha Lake Sharpe, South Dakota (USA). During one of the dates for which satellite imagery was acquired, we sampled the lake for P. crispus and other emergent macrophytes using GPS and photography for documentation. We used cluster analysis to assist in classification of the satellite imagery and independently validated results using the field data. Resulting estimates of emergent macrophyte coverage ranged from less than 20 ha in 2002 to 245 ha in 2004. Accuracy assessment indicated 82% of image pixels were correctly classified, with errors being primarily due to failure to identify emergent macrophytes. These results emphasize the dynamic nature of P. crispus-dominated macrophyte communities and show how they can be effectively monitored over large areas using low-cost remote sensing imagery. While results may vary in other systems depending on water quality and local flora, such an approach could be applied elsewhere and for a variety of macrophyte communities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  16. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  17. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  18. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  19. Responses of aquatic macrophyte cover and productivity to flooding variability on the Amazon floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2013-11-01

    Macrophyte net primary productivity (NPP) is a significant but understudied component of the carbon budget in large Amazonian floodplains. Annual NPP is determined by the interaction between stem elongation (vertical growth) and plant cover changes (horizontal expansion), each affected differently by flood duration and amplitude. Therefore, hydrological changes as predicted for the Amazon basin could result in significant changes in annual macrophyte NPP. This study investigates the responses of macrophyte horizontal expansion and vertical growth to flooding variability, and its possible effects on the contribution of macrophytes to the carbon budget of Amazonian floodplains. Monthly macrophyte cover was estimated using satellite imagery for the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 hydrological years, and biomass was measured in situ between 2003 and 2004. Regression models between macrophyte variables and river-stage data were used to build a semiempirical model of macrophyte NPP as a function of water level. Historical river-stage records (1970-2011) were used to simulate variations in NPP, as a function of annual flooding. Vertical growth varied by a factor of ca. 2 over the simulated years, whereas minimum and maximum annual cover varied by ca. 3.5 and 1.5, respectively. Results suggest that these processes act in opposite directions to determine macrophyte NPP, with larger sensitivity to changes in vertical growth, and thus maximum flooding levels. Years with uncommonly large flooding amplitude resulted in the highest NPP values, as both horizontal expansion and vertical growth were enhanced under these conditions. Over the simulated period, annual NPP varied by ca. 1.5 (1.06-1.63 TgC yr(-1) ). A small increasing trend in flooding amplitude, and by extension NPP, was observed for the studied period. Variability in growth rates caused by local biotic and abiotic factors, and the lack of knowledge on macrophyte physiological responses to extreme hydrological conditions

  20. Temporal and spatial distribution of macrophytes in the Gruža Reservoir (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topuzović Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of aquatic macrophytes in the Gruža Reservoir (Serbia was conducted during the period 2007-2008. Detailed data on the actual condition of macrophytes were established and compared between four parts of the reservoir. The distributions of most aquatic macrophytes of the Gruža Reservoir are heterogeneous, with different values of the MMT and MMO indices and low values of the distribution ratio. Quantitative analysis indicates that the greatest diversity and abundance of species can be found in those parts of the reservoir with the shallowest water and greatest indentation of the shoreline.

  1. Animal diversity in Baltic rocky shore macroalgae: can Cladophora glomerata compensate for lost Fucus vesiculosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Salovius, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The substitution of canopy-forming perennial algae by annual filamentous algae is a common phenomenon on eutrophicated rocky shores with potential consequences for marine biodiversity. In the upper littoral of the northern Baltic Sea, this process is exemplified by decreased occurrence of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and increased amounts of filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis). In this study, macrofauna communities of F. vesiculosus and C. glomerata during summer have been compared and the effects on littoral macroinvertebrates of a total or partial replacement of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata have been estimated. The animal abundance and biomass were higher in C. glomerata than in corresponding amounts of F. vesiculosus (g dwt). Similar results were also obtained when animal abundance and biomass were extrapolated to algal cover per m 2 rocky substrate in the study area. Margalef's species richness was, on the other hand, higher in F. vesiculosus, whereas the Shannon-Wiener diversity was the same. The results indicate that C. glomerata maintains a high diversity of macroinvertebrates in the upper littoral zone of the northern Baltic Sea during summer. A possible substitution of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata does not immediately affect macroinvertebrate diversity negatively in the littoral zone, although, it is difficult to assess the full consequences due to lack of comparable algal data at wider temporal and spatial scales.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  3. Multimission satellite altimetric data validation in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of altimetric data is crucial for investigating the regional sea level variability. Few works has been performed to validate the altimetric data [1, 2] in the Baltic Sea. The exploring of multi-mission altimetric data in the Baltic Sea has yet to be published. The number of available...

  4. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...

  5. Baltic dimension of the European security and defence policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gladysh

    2015-03-01

    The basic threats and security challenges for the Baltic States nowadays are defined, including possible aggression from Russia, which is broadcasted through the mainstream media as a reaction to the idea of protecting Russian­speaking population of the Baltic States and the establishment of «geopolitical balance through their return to the Russian sphere of influence».

  6. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  7. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  8. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  9. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    For two consecutive days during spring 1997, the wind field over the Baltic Sea has been studied. The strength of the geostrophic wind speed is the major difference in synoptic conditions between these two days. During both days, the mesoscale wind field over most of the Baltic Sea is quite heter...

  10. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  11. airBaltic claims to be subsidizing Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Riia lennujaama väitel võlgneb airBaltic neile 3,5 miljoni euro väärtuses lennujaamatasusid ning annab lennufirma kohtusse. airBaltic on aga lennujaama diskrimineeriva käitumise tõttu pöördunud konkurentsiameti poole

  12. Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  13. Dissolved organic phosphorus in the Baltic Sea - temporal variability and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Günther; Nausch, Monika; Steinrücken, Pia; Balke, Jana; Woelk, Jana

    2014-05-01

    The temporal variability of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations in the Baltic Sea was investigated during three cruises in summer 2008, late winter/early spring 2009 and summer 2012 with focus on the central Baltic Sea. In summer 2008, characteristic cyanobacteria blooms occured in the Baltic Proper and DOP concentrations in the surface layer of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM have been estimated. In summer 2012, meteorological conditions did not favour intense cyanobacteria development and DOP concentrations were with 0.24 ± 0.04 µM lower on average. DOP degradation in autumn and winter resulted in lower concentrations of 0.21 ± 0.06 µM as can be seen in the winter cruise 2009. During the first two cruises also the spatial distribution of DOP in the surface layer between the Skagerrak and the northern Gulf of Bothnia could be measured. Highest summer concentrations of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM were found in the Baltic Proper, followed by the Gulf of Finland having on mean 0.25 ± 0.01 µM. DOP decreased down to 0.12 µM in the phosphorus limited Bay of Bothnia. Similar low concentrations were measured in the Skagerrak. The same spatial DOP pattern as in summer 2008 was observed in late winter/early spring 2009, but on lower concentration levels, except the Skagerrak and Kattegat were the spring bloom already has started. In addition, the bioavailable and refractory DOP fractions (B-DOP and R-DOP) were measured in time course experiments in 2008 and 2012, excluding C- and N- limitation. In summer 2008, the R-DOP constituted a higher proportion of DOP compared to B-DOP. A gradient has been observed from the northernmost station in the Bothnian Bay to the southern Baltic Proper. In the Bothnian Bay, only 0.01µM B-DOP could be detected, comprising 8% of DOP whereas B-DOP constituted a proportion of 25-29% in the Gotland Basin and up to 46% in the Gulf of Finland. In summer 2012, B-DOP concentrations of 0.09 ± 0.02 µM were measured in the eastern Gotland Basin

  14. Functional diversity of macrophyte communities within and between Pyrenean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric BALLESTEROS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Submersed vegetation is a common feature in about 70% Pyrenean high mountain (>1500 m a.s.l. lakes. Isoetids and soft-water elodeids are common elements of this underwater flora and can form distinct vegetation units (i.e. patches of vegetation dominated by different species within complex mosaics of vegetation in shallow waters (<7 m. Since isoetids exert a strong influence on sediment biogeochemistry due to high radial oxygen loss, we examined the small scale characteristics of the lake environment (water and sediment associated to vegetation patches in order to ascertain potential functional differences among them. To do so, we characterised the species composition and biomass of the main vegetation units from 11 lakes, defined plant communities based on biomass data, and then related each community with sediment properties (redox and dissolved nutrient concentration in the pore water and water nutrient concentration within plant canopy. We also characterised lake water and sediment in areas without vegetation as a reference. A total of twenty-one vegetation units were identified, ranging from one to five per lake. A cluster analysis on biomass species composition suggested seven different macrophyte communities that were named after the most dominant species: Nitella sp., Potamogeton praelongus, Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Sparganium angustifolium, Isoetes echinospora, Isoetes lacustris and Carex rostrata. Coupling between macrophyte communities and their immediate environment (overlying water and sediment was manifested mainly as variation in sediment redox conditions and the dominant form of inorganic nitrogen in pore-water. These effects depended on the specific composition of the community, and on the allocation between above- and belowground biomass, and could be predicted with a model relating the average and standard deviation of sediment redox potential from 0 down to -20 cm, across macrophyte communities. Differences in pore

  15. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing r...... catchability and thereby the assessment and exploitation patterns of this stock...

  16. Interactions between nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in gnotobiotic microcosms planted with the emergent macrophyte Glyceria maxima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Duyts, H.; Blom, C.W.P.M.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The population dynamics of the chemolithoautotrophic nitrifiers Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were studied in gnotobiotic microcosms fed with ammonium in response to the presence or absence of the emergent macrophyte Glyceria maxima and the heterotrophic denitrifying bacterium P

  17. Long-term allelopathic control of phytoplankton by the submerged macrophyte Elodea nuttallii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Decaestecker, E.; Muylaert, K.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: allelochemicals; chemical ecology; competition; nutrient limitation; shallow lakes Summary 1.It is well known that submerged macrophytes can suppress phytoplankton blooms in lakes and thus promote water quality and biodiversity. One of the possible mechanisms through which submerged macrop

  18. Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vardanyan, L.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    in root system. The representative macrophytes from two different physiographic locations show similar trends and order in accumulating different metals generally. Of the 14 metals investigated, 9 (Ca, Fe, Al, Cr, Cu, Ba, Ti, Co and Pb) showed higher rates...

  19. Three-Gorge Dam influences wetland macrophytes in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dongting Lake, located in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze, is regarded as a lake during the water swelling period and a continent in the ebbing period. The construction of the Three-Gorge Dam has influenced the water level of Dongting Lake and the growth of wetland macrophytes in the area. In this study, the growth of main species of wetland macrophytes, such as Carex and Phragmites at Dongting Lake, was observed, and the hydraulic gradient, one of the main factors dominating the abundance and distribution of wetland macrophytes, was also studied at six stations in Dongting Lake area and the effect of the Three-Gorge Dam construction on the growth of wetland macrophytes was observed.

  20. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and em>C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short and...

  1. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F. R.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Módenes, A. N.; Palácio, S. M.; Silva, E. A.; Rossi, F. L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N.

    2009-04-01

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr 6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  2. Effects of litter on substrate conditions and growth of emergent macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Peters, B.A.M.; Van den Berg, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Three successive emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia L., Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steudel and Glyceria maxima (Hartman) Holmbly) were each grown in substrates collected from three different zones of shoreline vegetation development (non- vegetated sediment, the interface between T. latifolia an

  3. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: f.espinoza@terra.com.br; Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Modenes, A.N.; Palacio, S.M.; Silva, E.A.; Rossi, F.L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr{sup 6+} mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  4. Nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in lakes and its impact on phytoplankton biomass and submerged macrophyte cover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Lauridsen, Torben Linding; Johansson, Liselotte Sander

    2017-01-01

    macrophyte cover. We conclude that P is of key importance for the ecological quality of Danish lakes but that increased N concentrations, particularly in shallow lakes with moderate to high TP, may have significantly adverse effects on lake water quality and ecological status in summer.......We used data on nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chla) and submerged macrophyte cover from up to 817 Danish lakes to elucidate seasonal variations in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and to study the impact of N or its role in combination with P. In both deep and shallow lakes, we found...... related more strongly to TP than to TN, but at high TP concentrations TN explained more of the variability in Chla than TP. Macrophyte cover tended to decrease at increasing TN when TP was between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/l. At macrophyte cover above 20%, Chla was considerably lower compared with lakes with low...

  5. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krolová, M; Čížková, H; Hejzlar, J; Poláková, S

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive...

  6. Does mechanical disturbance affect the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Ying-Shou; Huang, Lin; Xue, Wei; Sun, Gong-Qi; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophyte communities are frequently subjected to disturbance of various frequency and strength. However, there is still little experimental evidence on how mechanical disturbance affects the performance and species composition of such plant communities. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed wetland communities consisting of five co-occurring clonal submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara fragilis, and Myriophyllum spicatum) and subjected these communities to three mechanical disturbance regimes (no, moderate and strong disturbance). Strong mechanical disturbance greatly decreased overall biomass, number of shoot nodes and total shoot length, and increased species diversity (evenness) of the total community. It also substantially decreased the growth of the most abundant species (H. verticillata), but did not affect growth of the other four species. Our data reveal that strong disturbance can have different effects on different submerged macrophyte species and thus alters the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:24811826

  7. Capabilities of Seven Species of Aquatic Macrophytes for Phytoremediation of Pentachlorophenol Contaminated Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangyuan; Guo, Weijie; Li, Qingyun; Li, Huan; Zhao, Weihua; Cao, Xiaohuan

    2017-01-01

    Sediments are regarded as the ultimate sink of pentachlorophenol(PCP) in aquatic environment, and capabilities of seven species of aquatic macrophytes for remediating PCP contaminated sediment were investigated. Seven species of aquatic macrophytes could significantly accelerate the degradation of PCP in sediments. Among all, canna indica L., Acorus calamus L. and Iris tectorum Maxim. can be used as efficient alternative plants for remediation of PCP contaminated sediment, which attained 98%, 92% and 88% of PCP removal in sediments, respectively. PCP was detected only in root tissues and the uptake was closely related to the root lipid contents of seven plants. The presence of seven aquatic macrophytes significantly increased microbial populations and the activities of dehydrogenase compared with control sediments, indicating that rhizosphere microorganism played important role in the remediation process. In conclusion, seven species of aquatic macrophytes may act as promising tools for the PCP phytoremediation in aquatic environment, especially Canna indica L., Acorus calamus L. and Iris tectorum Maxim.

  8. Long-term allelopathic control of phytoplankton by the submerged macrophyte Elodea nuttallii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Decaestecker, E.; Muylaert, K.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: allelochemicals; chemical ecology; competition; nutrient limitation; shallow lakes Summary 1.It is well known that submerged macrophytes can suppress phytoplankton blooms in lakes and thus promote water quality and biodiversity. One of the possible mechanisms through which submerged

  9. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  10. Regulation and role of epiphytic nitrification and denitrification in macrophyte-dominated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Peder G.

    2000-02-01

    This thesis examines mechanisms regulating bacterial nitrification and denitrification in attached microbial communities on surfaces of aquatic macrophytes. It also evaluates the role of epiphytic nitrification and denitrification for the nitrogen turnover in macrophyte-dominated nutrient-rich freshwater. Epiphytic nitrification is promoted in light and epiphytic denitrification occurs mainly in dark, because the metabolic activity of the aquatic macrophyte and its epiphytes induce in light high and in dark low oxygen concentrations in epiphytic communities. Epiphytic nitrification and denitrification are also affected by the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquatic macrophyte. The spatial distribution of nitrification in emergent macrophyte wetlands is related to the species composition of the emergent vegetation, possibly because of a macrophyte species-related release of organic nitrification inhibitors. Contrasting to nitrifying bacteria, which are lithotrophic, denitrifying bacteria use organic substances as an energy source and are therefore stimulated by the release of organic matter from aquatic macrophytes. Epiphytic communities support more denitrification in nutrient-rich than in nutrient-poor environments. In lakes and ponds, epiphytic denitrification is higher at sheltered locations than at locations exposed to wind-induced water movements or currents. In flowing water, epiphytic denitrification occurs mainly at low oxygen concentrations in the surrounding water. However, because aquatic macrophytes impede water flow and induce low oxygen concentrations in dark, epiphytic denitrification can be present within dense vegetation despite of high oxygen concentrations in the surrounding water. Epiphytic nitrification is almost unaffected by flow conditions, and can occur both in light and in dark. In shallow-water systems such as treatment wetlands, aquatic macrophytes often provide most of the accessible surface area for attached nitrifying and

  11. Application of a littoral Baltic Sea resuspension model in a eutrophic lake-factors behind differences in the model performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jukka Horppila n; Joni Kaitaranta; Leena Nurminen

    2015-01-01

    abstract The performance of a linear resuspension model developed in the Baltic Sea was studied in the conditions of a eutrophic Lake Kirkkojärvi (southern Finland). The model predicts sediment resuspen-sion rate using data on vegetation cover, wind and sediment quality as an input. When the original model coefficients were used, the model resulted on average 1.8 fold overestimation of the resuspension rate in Kirkkojärvi. This was due to lower fetch and water depth, and less consolidated sediment of Kirkkojärvi compared with the Baltic Sea study site. When coefficients were adjusted for Kirkkojärvi, the model predictions were 1.1 times the measured values. Due to the continuous resuspension, the effect of the wind term in the model was so low that it could be excluded without affecting the accuracy of model predictions. The study demonstrated that in a shallow eutrophic lake accurate predictions on resuspension rate can be made using only data on sediment quality and on factors inhibiting resuspension (macrophytes). The model residuals increased with increasing resuspension rate and high rates of resuspension were underestimated by the model. Due to the fluffy sediment in Kirkkojärvi, erosion of sediment increases more than linear with increasing shear stress. Thus in such conditions, even better predictions could be achieved by a non-linear resuspension model.&2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation/the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  12. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series.

  13. Experimental Effects of Lime Application on Aquatic Macrophytes: 3. Growth Response Versus Exposure Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-17 January 2008 Experimental Effects of Lime Application on Aquatic Macrophytes : 3. Growth Response Versus Exposure Time by William...be effective in both suppressing submersed macrophyte growth and changing species composition (Babin et al. 1992; Chambers et al. 2001; Prepas et al...16 cm height) filled with homogenized sediment (obtained from Eau Galle Reservoir , WI; see James et al. (2005) for a description of sediment

  14. The use of macrophytes for heavy metal pollution control in urban wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tiantian

    1990-01-01

    A literature survey has been undertaken to identify the role and function of aquatic macrophytes in the removal of contaminants from polluted surface waters. The survey focussed primarily on heavy metals, however nitrate, phosphate and hydrocarbon removal are also discussed and the application of aquatic macrophytes in wastewater treatment systems is also described. The objectives of the research are: To determine heavy metal variations in water, sediment and plant tissues in both fiel...

  15. A preliminary evaluation of lake morphometric traits influence on the maximum growing depth of macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia M. Azzella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater light regime is widely considered the principal determinant of aquatic plant depth distribution. The majority of previous studies dealing with macrophytes in lakes have singled out Secchi disk transparency (SD values as the key empirical proxy to explain the maximum depth of macrophyte colonization (Zc. Few studies have investigated the role played by lake morphometry in structuring macrophyte beds. Using a balanced dataset including 20 Italian lakes (10 shallow and 10 deep lakes, we analysed transparency and lake morphometric traits to investigate their possible effects on Zc. Our results demonstrate that lake area plays a significant role, and confirm a direct influence of SD values on Zc. Considering lakes with an equal degree of transparency, smaller lakes may yield a lower Zc than larger ones. Morphology has a great influence on lake ecological characteristics especially on water thermal conditions and mixing depth. Based on our data, we argue that the thermal stratification plays a non negligible role in explaining macrophytes zonation, due to its influence on macrophytes life cycles and phytoplankton vertical distribution. Therefore, the present data suggest the need to enhance and refine our knowledge about the relationship between aquatic plants distribution and lake thermal conditions to better model the response of macrophytes to climate change and eutrophication.

  16. The study of aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics: a scientometrical view of the main trends and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, A A; Bini, L M; Thomaz, S M

    2008-11-01

    Aquatic macrophytes comprises a diverse group of organisms including angiosperms, ferns, mosses, liverworts and some macroalgae that occur in seasonally or permanently wet environments. Among other implications, aquatic macrophytes are highly productive and with an important structuring role on aquatic environments. Ecological studies involving aquatic plants substantially increased in the last years. However, a precise view of researches devoted to aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics is necessary to reach a reliable evaluation of the scientific production. In the current study, we performed a scientometrics analysis of the scientific production devoted to Neotropical macrophytes in an attempt to find the main trends and gaps of researches concerning this group. The publication devoted to macrophytes in Neotropics increased conspicuously in the last two decades. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Chile were the most productive among Neotropical countries. Our analyses showed that the studies dealt mostly with the influences of aquatic macrophytes on organisms and abiotic features. Studies with a predictive approach or aiming to test ecological hypothesis are scarce. In addition, researches aiming to describe unknown species are still necessary. This is essential to support conservation efforts and to subsidize further investigations testing ecological hypotheses.

  17. Emergent Macrophytes Support Zooplankton in a Shallow Tropical Lake: A Basis for Wetland Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Mesfin; Kifle, Demeke; Triest, Ludwig

    2017-09-08

    Understanding the biodiversity value of littoral zones of lakes is a priority for aquatic biodiversity conservation. However, less emphasis has been given to the littoral part of tropical African lakes, with many of the previous researches focusing only on the open water side. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of the littoral zone of a shallow freshwater tropical lake (Ziway, Ethiopia), dominated by two emergent macrophytes, on zooplankton community structure. We hypothesized that the wetland vegetation serves as a preferred microhabitat for zooplankton communities. A lake with substantial coverage of emergent macrophytes was monitored monthly from January to August, 2016. The monitoring included the measurements of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Sampling sites were selected to represent areas of the macrophyte vegetation (Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis) and the open water part of the lake. Sites with macrophyte vegetation were found to be the home of more dense and diverse zooplankton community. However, during the period of high vegetation loss, the density of crustacean zooplankton showed significant reduction within the patches of macrophytes. From biodiversity conservation perspective, it was concluded that the preservation of such small areas of macrophytes covering the littoral zone of lakes could be as important as protecting the whole lake. However, the rapid degradation of wetland vegetation by human activities is a real threat to the lake ecosystem. In the not-too-far future, it could displace and evict riparian vegetation and the biota it supports.

  18. Responses of bacterial community structure and denitrifying bacteria in biofilm to submerged macrophytes and nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songhe; Pang, Si; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Guo, Chuan; Addo, Felix Gyawu; Li, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Submerged macrophytes play important roles in constructed wetlands and natural water bodies, as these organisms remove nutrients and provide large surfaces for biofilms, which are beneficial for nitrogen removal, particularly from submerged macrophyte-dominated water columns. However, information on the responses of biofilms to submerged macrophytes and nitrogen molecules is limited. In the present study, bacterial community structure and denitrifiers were investigated in biofilms on the leaves of four submerged macrophytes and artificial plants exposed to two nitrate concentrations. The biofilm cells were evenly distributed on artificial plants but appeared in microcolonies on the surfaces of submerged macrophytes. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all samples, accounting for 27.3-64.8% of the high-quality bacterial reads, followed by Chloroflexi (3.7-25.4%), Firmicutes (3.0-20.1%), Acidobacteria (2.7-15.7%), Actinobacteria (2.2-8.7%), Bacteroidetes (0.5-9.7%), and Verrucomicrobia (2.4-5.2%). Cluster analysis showed that bacterial community structure can be significantly different on macrophytes versus from those on artificial plants. Redundancy analysis showed that electrical conductivity and nitrate concentration were positively correlated with Shannon index and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness (log10 transformed) but somewhat negatively correlated with microbial density. The relative abundances of five denitrifying genes were positively correlated with nitrate concentration and electrical conductivity but negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen.

  19. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate hypothesis (GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios of Potamogeton maackianus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum had no consistent trends with growth rates. However, protein:RNA ratios of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and V. natans all correlated negatively with growth rates, demonstrating GRH can apply to freshwater submerged macrophytes, even though they are threatening by eutrophication stress. Protein:RNA ratios positively correlated with N:P ratios in culture media and tissues in submerged macrophytes except in P. maackianus (30d, suggesting effects of varying N:P ratios in culture media on protein:RNA ratios are basically in concert with tissue N:P ratios under short-time eutrophication stress. Stoichiometric homeostasis coefficients (HN:P indicated submerged macrophytes have weak homeostasis. Stoichiometric homeostasis of V. natans was stronger than those of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and C. demersum. The differences in GRH and homeostasis of the four submerged macrophytes may be due to species traits.

  20. The structure and stratigraphy of the sedimentary succession in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin: New insights from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Erlström, Mikael; Bell, Nicholas; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present five interpreted regional seismic profiles, describing the full sedimentary sequence across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. The data for the study are part of an extensive and largely unpublished 2D seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by the Swedish Oil Prospecting Company (OPAB). The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic basin located in northern Europe. Most of the Swedish sector of the basin constitutes the NW flank of a broad synclinal depression, the Baltic Basin. In the SW of the Swedish sector lies the Hanö Bay Basin, formed by subsidence associated with inversion of the Tornquist Zone during the Late Cretaceous. The geological history presented here is broadly consistent with previously published works. We observe an area between the Hanö Bay and the Baltic Basin where the Palaeozoic strata has been affected by transpression and subsequent inversion, associated with the Tornquist Zone during the late Carboniferous-Early Permian and Late Cretaceous, respectively. We propose that the Christiansø High was a structural low during the Late Jurassic, which was later inverted in the Late Cretaceous. We suggest that a fan shaped feature in the seismic data, adjacent to the Christiansø Fault within the Hanö Bay Basin, represents rapidly deposited, coarse-grained sediments eroded from the inverted Christiansø High during the Late Cretaceous. We identify a number of faults within the deeper part of the Baltic Basin, which we also interpret to be transpressional in nature, formed during the Caledonian Orogeny in the Late Silurian-Early Devonian. East of Gotland a number of sedimentary structures consisting of Silurian carbonate reefs and Ordovician carbonate mounds, as well as a large Quaternary glacial feature are observed. Finally, we use the seismic interpretation to infer the structural and stratigraphic history of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins within the Swedish sector.

  1. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  2. Transformation of the Lake Ladoga-Baltic Sea water connection during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subetto, D.; Kuznetsov, D.; Ludikova, A.; Sapelko, T.; Averichkin, O.

    2009-04-01

    1. In this presentation we will present results of complex paleolimnological and archeological studies several lakes in the Karelian Isthmus, NW Russia, located along the former Ladoga-Baltic water-system connection. Complementary field expeditions were organized in 2007 and 2008 in order to core lakes Volojarvi, Makarovskoye, Lamskoye, Uzlovoye and a lake on the Isl.Puutsaari, Northern Ladoga. 2. The ancient water connection between Lake Ladoga and the Baltic in the northern lowland of the Karelian Isthmus has been originated after the ice retreating ca 14,000-12,000 cal BP. At that time, until the catastrophic dropping of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) water-level happened ca 11,500 cal BP, Lake Ladoga was a deep easternmost bay of the BIL. During the BIL stage the highest shoreline reached c. 50-60 m a.s.l. in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus. All studied lakes were flooded the BIL waters. Varved-type clay sediments were formed at that time 3. Arctic climatic and environmental conditions with stagnant ice/permafrost and sparse shrub, herb and grass vegetation on barren soils characterized the central highland of the Karelian Isthmus prior to 12,650 cal yrs BP. Steppe-tundra and cold, dry conditions are inferred between 12,650-11,200/11,000 cal yrs BP. 4. After 11,500 cal BP a straight/river existed in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus during ca 7000 years. 5. During the Yoldia Sea regression of the Baltic (11500-11 000 cal. BP) Lake Ladoga was re-connected with the Baltic. Water level of Lake Ladoga and lakes in its basin was dropped. The vegetation was arctic tundra with sparse vegetation, which made the soils susceptible to erosion as reflected by the silty clayey sediments in Lake Ladoga. Most of the studied lakes were isolated. 6. The earliest evidence of human settlement in north-eastern Baltic Area is attested at Antrea-Korpilahti (11,200-10,250 cal BP) where artifacts were found in the deposits of a channel between the Baltic and the Ladoga

  3. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  4. A MODIS-Based Novel Method to Distinguish Surface Cyanobacterial Scums and Aquatic Macrophytes in Lake Taihu

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Qichun; Zhang, Yuchao; Ma, Ronghua; Loiselle, Steven; Li, Jing; Hu, Minqi

    2017-01-01

      Satellite remote sensing can be an effective alternative for mapping cyanobacterial scums and aquatic macrophyte distribution over large areas compared with traditional ship's site-specific samplings...

  5. Spatial and temporal dynamics of macrophyte cover in a large regulated river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, A; Vericat, D; Gonzalo, L E; Batalla, R J

    2016-11-24

    The River Ebro basin is extensively dammed. Dams alter the geomorphological functioning of the river by altering its flow regime (e.g. reducing mean and maximum discharges), increasing bed stability (armouring) and decreasing turbidity (water clarity). These effects, together with an increase in nutrient concentrations and water temperature, have generated optimal conditions for the proliferation of aquatic macrophytes. In this paper, we analyse the temporal and spatial changes of macrophyte cover in the lowermost Ebro through a series of field campaigns carried out between 2009 and 2010. Special attention was paid to the spatial distribution of macrophytes in relation to flow hydraulics, channel geometry and bed sedimentology. Temporal changes in macrophyte cover were analysed in relation to the frequency and magnitude of both natural floods and flushing flows (artificial flow releases from dams with generally a magnitude that equates around a2-year flood in the river). Spatially, the proportion of macrophytes along the reaches showed a variable pattern, with a succession of areas with both high and low plant density, coinciding with the alternation of riffles and pools in the channel. The highest values of plant cover (>65%) occurred in riffles and in transition to riffle areas, while the lowest densities (1% or almost negligible) were observed in pools and transition to pool areas. Water depth and the grain-size distribution of the riverbed materials (i.e. D84), are found to be the main factors controlling the degree of plant cover in the lower Ebro. Temporally, the macrophyte proportion varied during the hydrological year, with a clear increment from late spring to early autumn (i.e. vegetation cover reached 40%, on average, of the channel surface). Macrophyte coverage decreases immediately following a flushing flow but in the long term, vegetation re-occupied the area again, even slightly increasing in some sections; overall, the mean percentage of macrophyte

  6. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Kregzde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveals interdependence between CDS spreads of the Baltic countries and analyses a contagion effect of the change of CDS spreads.

  7. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  8. Temporal trends and effects of diversity on occurrence of exotic macrophytes in a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Sidinei Magela; Carvalho, Priscilla; Mormul, Roger Paulo; Ferreira, Fernando Alves; Silveira, Márcio José; Michelan, Thaísa Sala

    2009-09-01

    Two exotic invasive macrophyte species (the emergent Urochloa subquadripara - tenner-grass - and the submersed Hydrilla verticillata - hydrilla) were investigated in a large sub-tropical reservoir. We analyzed their occurrences over an extended period and tested the hypothesis that macrophyte richness decreases their invasibility. The alternative hypothesis that the occurrence of these exotics is affected by fetch and underwater radiation (important determinants of macrophyte assemblage composition in this reservoir) was also tested. Incidence data (presence/absence) was obtained over 9.5 years at 235 stations. Logistic regression was applied to test whether the likelihood of occurrence of these two species was affected by macrophyte richness, fetch or underwater radiation. Tenner-grass was recorded at a high frequency and quickly recovered from disturbances caused by water drawdown. In contrast, H. verticillata was first recorded in 3 sites in January 2007, but it spread quickly, reaching 30.5% of the sites 19 months later. The main channel of the Paraná River was the main source of propagules for this species. The likelihood of occurrence of tenner-grass was positively affected by macrophyte richness but negatively affected by fetch. Thus, wave disturbance is probably more important than diversity in preventing invasion by this species. Hydrilla, by contrast, was negatively affected by macrophyte richness and positively affected by fetch and underwater radiation. Although this result might indicate that macrophyte diversity prevents hydrilla invasion, this is probably not true because hydrilla colonized deeper sites where few species of plant exist. Resistance to disturbances caused by water drawdown (tenner-grass) and waves (hydrilla) as well as persistency of tenner-grass and fast spread of hydrilla make these exotic species a cause for concern because of their potential impacts on water uses and maintenance of diversity.

  9. Simple relationships to predict attributes of fish assemblages in patches of submerged macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mayer Pelicice

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes play an important role in structuring habitats and, therefore, in determining patterns of aquatic biodiversity. Because these plants are widespread in shallow areas of many Neotropical reservoirs, the present work investigated if variables related to habitat structure, measured in patches of submerged macrophytes (Egeria densa and E. najas, can be used to predict fish assemblage attributes (fish density and species richness. Based on patch characteristics at fine spatial extents (macrophyte patches within reservoir arms, we considered plant biomass, volume and proportional volume (i.e. percentage of macrophyte volume in the water column as potential predictors. Fish and macrophytes were sampled with a 1-m² throw trap in littoral habitats of Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, and simple correlation analyses were performed. Fish richness and abundance were highly correlated with all variables (R = 0.53 to 0.90, a relationship consistently observed in all sites. When compared to biomass, plant volume and proportional volume did not yield stronger correlations. We observed stronger correlations when E. densa and E. najas patches were analyzed separately (mono-specificity, probably because particular effects of each macrophyte on habitat structuring were removed (e.g. unnoticed morphological differences or unknown effects on habitat quality. The high R values observed in all pairwise relationships are uncommon in ecological studies, highlighting the predictive potential of variables related to habitat structure. These results suggest that, at small spatial extents, macrophyte biomass may represent an interesting predictor of fish density and richness in reservoirs with extensive colonization of submerged plants.

  10. Monitoring the effects of floods on submerged macrophytes in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Real, Montserrat

    2012-12-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton to a macrophyte-dominated system. Macrophytes started to spread at the end of the 1990s and since 2002 artificial floods (flushing flows) of short duration (1-2 days) are released from the Riba-roja dam once or twice a year in order to reduce macrophyte density. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatiotemporal trends of the submerged macrophytes in two stretches of the lower Ebro River using high-resolution hydroacoustic methods, in order to elucidate the effects of artificial floods and natural floods on its distribution and abundance. Results showed that the mean cover in the two studied stretches (Móra and Ginestar) was not reduced after a flushing flow (from 36.59% to 55.85% in Móra, and from 21.18% to 21.05% in Ginestar), but it was greatly reduced after the natural flood (down to 9.79% in Móra and 2.04% in Ginestar); surprisingly the cover increased in Móra after the artificial flood. In order to increase the efficiency of floods in controlling macrophyte spreading, the magnitude and frequency of them should largely increase, as well as the suspended sediment load, approaching as much as possible to the original flood pattern before dam construction. Hydroacoustic methods combined with geostatistics and interpolation in GIS can accurately monitor spatiotemporal trends of submerged macrophytes in large rivers. This is the first article to apply this monitoring system to submerged macrophytes in rivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Last millennium palaeoenvironmental changes from a Baltic bog (Poland) inferred from stable isotopes, pollen, plant macrofossils and testate amoebae

    OpenAIRE

    Lamentowicz, Mariucz; Cedro, A.; Gałka, M; Goslar, T; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, G.; Edward A. D. Mitchell; Pawlyta, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic coast of Northern Poland is an interesting region for palaeoclimatic studies because of the mixed oceanic and continental climatic influences and the fact that the dominance of one or the other of these two influences might have changed over time. Also, unlike many more intensively studied regions of Europe, human impact in the region was rather limited until the 19th century. We present a 1200-year high-resolution record from Stążki mire, an ombrotrophic bog located 35 km from the...

  12. Life cycle strategies of bloom-forming, filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Hällfors, Seija; Huttunen, Maija; Laamanen, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Late-summer blooms of the Nostocalean cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena spp., occur annually over vast areas of the Baltic Sea. Apart from the planktonic bloom period, the annual cycle of these cyanobacteria is poorly known. With a combination of pelagial monitoring, sedimentation traps and germination experiments, we studied the annual cycle of formation, sedimentation and germination of cyanobacterial akinetes (resting stages) in the northern Baltic Sea during 2005-2006. Akinetes were only rarely encountered in the fall plankton, but they were abundant in the near-bottom sedimentation trap from the middle of July to August. All three taxa formed akinetes, but the numbers of A. flos-aquae akinetes were generally low. Of the three taxa, only Anabaena spp. were regularly found to germinate from the sediment samples. Estimates of Anabaena viable seed bank size ranged from 205 to 1913 akinetes g -1 (ww) of sediment. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae never germinated, and N. spumigena did so only occasionally. It is concluded that the three co-occurring taxa probably have different life cycle strategies, A. flos-aquae being holoplanktonic and Anabaena spp. planktonic during summer, but overwintering as akinetes in the bottom. Summer populations of N. spumigena may originate from both sedimented akinetes and trichomes that overwinter in the water column.

  13. Arctic Oscillation impact on thermal regime of the Baltic region Eastern part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) impact on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic region are presented. The region is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the region of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an impact on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea region. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.

  14. A less saline Baltic Sea promotes cyanobacterial growth, hampers intracellular microcystin production, and leads to strain-specific differences in allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutemark, Andreas; Vandelannoote, Angélique; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellular toxicity (microcystin) and allelopathic properties. We show that Dolichospermum can grow in all the three salinities tested with highest growth rates in the lowest salinity. All strains showed allelopathic potential and it differed significantly between strains and salinities, but was highest in the intermediate salinity and lowest in freshwater. Intracellular toxin concentration was highest in salinity 6. In addition, based on monitoring data from the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, we show that salinity has decreased, while Dolichospermum spp. biomass has increased between 1979 and 2013. Thus, based on our experimental findings it is evident that salinity plays a large role in Dolichospermum growth, allelopathic properties and toxicity. In combination with our long-term data analyses, we conclude that decreasing salinity is likely to result in a more favourable environment for Dolichospermum spp. in some areas of the Baltic Sea.

  15. A less saline Baltic Sea promotes cyanobacterial growth, hampers intracellular microcystin production, and leads to strain-specific differences in allelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brutemark

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellular toxicity (microcystin and allelopathic properties. We show that Dolichospermum can grow in all the three salinities tested with highest growth rates in the lowest salinity. All strains showed allelopathic potential and it differed significantly between strains and salinities, but was highest in the intermediate salinity and lowest in freshwater. Intracellular toxin concentration was highest in salinity 6. In addition, based on monitoring data from the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, we show that salinity has decreased, while Dolichospermum spp. biomass has increased between 1979 and 2013. Thus, based on our experimental findings it is evident that salinity plays a large role in Dolichospermum growth, allelopathic properties and toxicity. In combination with our long-term data analyses, we conclude that decreasing salinity is likely to result in a more favourable environment for Dolichospermum spp. in some areas of the Baltic Sea.

  16. Crustal properties in the continuum Baltic Shield-Scandinavian Mountains from seismic ambient noise and magnetotelluric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mansour, Walid; England, Richard W.; Fishwick, Stewart; Köhler, Andreas; Moorkamp, Max; Ottemøller, Lars; Smirnov, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    The Scandinavian passive margin is a good example of a region where a Precambrian shield is directly in contact with a younger mountain belt. Located along the Atlantic coast, the Scandinavian mountains, formed 440 Ma ago, show high peaks (> 1 km from the sea level) due to an uplift event 12 Ma ago. This topography contrasts strongly with the low topography of the Baltic shield (around 500 m from the sea level). If the mountain shows high topography compared to the shield, P-receiver functions analysis indicates that the Moho is deeper beneath the shield than beneath the orogenic belt. This result is surprising, as simple crustal isostasy would produce the opposite result. It is therefore likely that there is further variation in crustal and lithospheric properties between the shield and the mountain belt. In this perspective, several geophysical experiments (SCANLIPS2, POLENET-LAPNET, SCANLIPS3D, Norwegian National Seismic Network) have been deployed in the region in order to better understand the lateral variation in the crustal properties. From these different seismic arrays, we used the technique of ambient noise cross correlation in order to reconstruct the Rayleigh wave Green's function (R-R and Z-Z components) and produced a new Vs model of the upper crust in the transition between the Scandinavian mountains and Baltic Shield. In addition of this study, a magnetotelluric survey was done in the framework of MaSCa (MAgnetotellurics in the SCandes) project between 2011 and 2013 in the same area of broadband seismic network (Northern Scandinavia Mountains and the Baltic Shield). This project shows higher resistivity in the crust beneath the Baltic shield than beneath the orogenic belt. The results of this study are used in a joint inversion with seismic ambient noise in order to improve existing models. We used the multi objective genetic algorithms (GA) to inverse in the same time seismological data (receiver functions and dispersion curves from seismic ambient

  17. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  18. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  19. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  20. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  1. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  2. Biological detectors of radioactive contamination in the Baltic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagge, P; Salo, A

    1967-01-01

    Some bottom and pelagic animals are described, which could be used as indicators of radioactive contamination in Baltic environments, and some preliminary data on their concentrating rates and factors...

  3. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  4. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...... with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology......-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly...

  5. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  6. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  7. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  8. Ship-of-opportunity based phycocyanin fluorescence monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacteria bloom dynamics in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, J.; Ylöstalo, P.; Kaitala, S.; Hällfors, S.; Raateoja, M.; Maunula, P.

    2007-07-01

    Distribution of cyanobacteria cannot be evaluated using chlorophyll a (Chl a) in vivo fluorescence, as most of their Chl a is located in non-fluorescing photosystem I. Phycobilin fluorescence, in turn, is noted as a useful tool in the detection of cyanobacterial blooms. We applied phycocyanin (PC) fluorometer in the monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. For the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, PC fluorescence maximum was identified using the excitation-emission fluorescence matrix. Consequently, the optical setup of our instrument was noted to be appropriate for the detection of PC, and with minor or no interference from Chl a and phycoerythrin fluorescence, respectively. During summer 2005, the instrument was installed on a ferryboat commuting between Helsinki (Finland) and Travemünde (Germany), and data were collected during 32 transects providing altogether 200 000 fluorescence records. PC in vivo fluorescence was compared with Chl ain vivo fluorescence and turbidity measured simultaneously, and with Chl a concentration and biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria determined from discrete water samples. PC fluorescence showed a linear relation to the biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria, and the other sources of PC fluorescence are considered minor in the open Baltic Sea. Estimated by PC fluorescence, cyanobacterial bloom initiated late June at the Northern Baltic Proper, rapidly extended to the central Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, and peaked in the mid-July with values up to 10 mg l -1 (fresh weight). In late July, bloom vanished in most areas. During single transects, or for the whole summer, the variability in Chl a concentrations was explained more by PC fluorescence than by Chl a fluorescence. Thus, filamentous cyanobacteria dominated the overall variability in phytoplankton biomass. Consequently, we show that during the

  9. Molecular systematics in the acanthocephalan genus Echinorhynchus (sensu lato) in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väinölä, R; Valtonen, E T; Gibson, D I

    1994-01-01

    New biological species and high levels of inter- and intraspecific genetic divergence were discovered in an allozyme study of some North European members of the acanthocephalan genus Echinorhynchus (sensu lato), parasites of fish and malacostracan crustaceans. (i) A strong differentiation between the marine E. gadi and the fresh- and brackish-water E. salmonis (genetic identity I congruent to 0) supports a generic distinction between these taxa; however, the subdivision would not entirely concur with the concepts of Echinorhynchus (sensu stricto) and Metechinorhynchus suggested earlier. (ii) Samples of E. gadi from the Baltic, Norwegian and North Seas included three distinct, partially sympatric biological species (spp. I-III; I congruent to 0.5). (iii) E. bothniensis, previously only known from the northern Baltic Sea, represents a complex of freshwater taxa with an intermediate host relationship to the 'glacial relict' Mysis spp. and with a distributional and host analogy to the North American E. leidyi. A population in a northern lake in the Barents Sea basin is closely related to E. bothniensis of the Baltic area, but is probably specifically distinct; the divergence between these populations (I congruent to 0.6) is similar to that between their Mysis host species. (iv) Considerable intraspecific differentiation (FST = 0.25), probably reflecting post-glacial population bottlenecks, was found between Baltic and nearby lacustrine E. bothniensis, and between Atlantic and Baltic E. gadi sp. I.

  10. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  11. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework : Introduction and Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Wilk, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed...

  12. Deterring Russia’s Revanchist Ambitions in the Baltic Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    approval-rating-at- record-levels 22 Robert M. Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014), 272. 23 TASS (Russian News...breedlove-explains-implications-of- information-in-hybrid-warfare- 48 Katya Adler , “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article...Unconventional Warfare, Ukraine 2013-2014”, (Fort Bragg, NC), 39. Articles Adler , Katya. “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article, 06

  13. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Arvydas Kregzde; Gediminas Murauskas

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveal...

  14. The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In addition, leaders in the Baltic States share many views that are closer to the Nordic nations and the EU than the United States . The issue for...high-tax and highly regulated social welfare states of Western Europe, which, by the 1990s, had achieved a state of low growth, high unemploy- ment...government in the coup of August 1991, the three Baltic States broke completely with Moscow and were quickly recognized as independent nations by the Nordic

  15. Baroclinic internal wave energy distribution in the Baltic Sea derived from 45 years of circulation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Artem; Soomere, Tarmo; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    years and for single 5-yr intervals. The maxima of energy of such motions are concentrated in an approximately 50 km wide domain along the nearshore of Latvia and the Western Estonian archipelago. Several narrower regions of relatively high concentrations of energy are located around the southern tip of Sweden, along the coasts of Poland and the island of Gotland, and at the northern and north-eastern coasts of the Sea of Bothnia. The performed analysis sheds new light on the potential impact areas of long-period internal wave motions in the Baltic Sea and associated regions of intense mixing and large wave-driven near-bottom velocities.

  16. Impacts of aquatic macrophytes configuration modes on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Liu, Jinglan; Zhang, Rong; Zou, Yuqi; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Zhenming

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetland technology is regarded as an important ecological restoration technology and used widely in sewage disposal. In order to give them a wider scope of application and to improve their performance in water restoration, the current experiment was designed. Four aquatic macrophytes (dwarf cattail (TM), yellow-flowered iris (WI), water shallot (ST) and watermifoil (MS)) were picked and planted in artificial floating islands (AFIs) in different configurations (TM + WI, ST + MS and TM + WI + MS) and two patterns, radiation pattern (RP) and annular pattern (AP), for a 60-day experiment. Then, water quality and growth were monitored every 10 days. The results indicate that the different configurations performed diversely on waste water purification. First, a composite plant configuration removed more pollutant than a single one with the same total increment of biomass. Second, the plant configuration of MS + ST was most effective in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) or PO4(3-) removal, and TM + IW + MS was good at chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NO3(-) removal. However, different patterns comprised from the same species had a certain effect on absorption of pollutants. Generally speaking, plant configurations with a RP were better than an AP in purification. Accordingly, these provided the methods for the pollution wetland restoration.

  17. Determination of Algae and Macrophyte Species Distribution in Three Wastewater Stabilization Ponds Using Metagenomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the evaluation of algae and macrophyte species distributions in three wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs at a wastewater treatment plant in Ontario, Canada, which has experienced high pH levels at the final effluent and excessive algae growth during the summer since 2003. From samples collected from the system, the relative abundances of specific algae and aquatic plant (macrophyte taxa were assessed and correlated to water chemistry data. A strong shift from the dominance of green algae, chlorophyceae, in WSP#2, to the dominance of aquatic macrophytes, embryophyta, in WSP#4, was observed and corresponded to field observations. Correlation of the abundances to nutrient parameters suggested that the macronutrient rich conditions in WSP#2 allowed floating green algae to proliferate against macrophytes. In WSP#1 and WSP#4, macrophytes competed against algae and thrived, due to their adaptability to lower nutrient conditions. The pH increases occurred primarily in WSP#2 and were not buffered or reduced in WSP#1 and WSP#4. Two alternatives strategies for pH control were recommended for the system: decreasing algae growth in WSP#2 through duckweed seeding or macronutrient loading reduction; or designing and implementing a constructed wetland (CW in WSP#4 with soil and vegetation to buffer pH prior to release.

  18. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumalani, S. [Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geography; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geography; Mackey, H.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  19. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  20. Towards Deriving Renewable Energy from Aquatic Macrophytes Polluting Water Bodies in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badmus Abdurrahman Adeleye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to derive methane rich biogas from biomass of harvested water hyacinth polluting water bodies in selected rivers of the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Field visits were undertaken on selected rivers in the Niger Delta region in which aquatic macrophytes were collected and inventorized. Also different types of aquatic macrophytes were surveyed. Control by harvesting macrophytes and deriving energy (methane-rich biogas from biomass of one (water hyacinth was successfully carried out in this study. An initial test was conducted to evaluate methane rich biogas production from water hyacinth collected from the wild. After a successful production of combustible biogas, laboratory experiments aimed at generating biogas from harvested biomass of aquatic mycrophyte (water hyacinth cultivated under eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions were undertaken in the laboratory. The result of the study showed highest biogas yield of 22 L over a 40 day retention time for water hyacinth raised under eutrophic conditions. Biogas yield for water hyacinth raised under oligotrophic conditions recorded the highest yield of 53L over an 11 day retention time. The conversion of the biomass of harvested aquatic macrophyte (water hyacinth from the Niger Delta into renewable energy, that is combustible biogas, demonstrated an inevitable option for the control and management of environmental pollution associated with aquatic macrophytes and their usability for poverty alleviation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  1. Management of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Khan, Anisa B

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, potential of Eisenia fetida to recycle the different types of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) used as substrate in different reactors (Azolla pinnata reactor, Trapa natans reactor, Ceratophyllum demersum reactor, free-floating macrophytes mixture reactor, and submerged macrophytes mixture reactor) during 2 months experiment is investigated. E. fetida showed significant variation in number and weight among the reactors and during the different fortnights (P weeds) into three clusters-poor vermicompost substrates, moderate vermicompost substrate, and excellent vermicompost substrate. Two principal components (PCs) have been identified by factor analysis with a cumulative variance of 90.43 %. PC1 accounts for 47.17 % of the total variance represents "reproduction factor" and PC2 explaining 43.26 % variance representing "growth factor." Thus, the nature of macrophyte affects the growth and reproduction pattern of E. fetida among the different reactors, further the addition of A. pinnata in other macrophytes reactors can improve their recycling by E. fetida.

  2. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  3. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  4. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, U.; Schmitt, W.; Heine, S.; Brock, T.C.M.; Duquesne, S.; Manson, P.; Meregali, G.; Ochoa-Acuna, H.; Vliet, van P.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the SETAC workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field wat

  5. Bimodality in stable isotope composition facilitates the tracing of carbon transfer from macrophytes to higher trophic levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendonca, R.; Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Roland, F.; Ometto, J.P.; Paz, A.; Bueno, O.C.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Even though the suitability of macrophytes to act as a carbon source to food webs has been questioned by some studies, some others indicate that macrophyte-derived carbon may play an important role in the trophic transfer of organic matter in the food web of shallow lakes. To evaluate the importance

  6. Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Å.; Jönsson, A.; Rahm, L.

    2007-05-01

    Waves induce resuspension of surface sediments and contribute to the long-term mobilisation of particulate matter from erosion to accumulation bottoms. This has a major impact on the nutrient cycle in shallow seas by enhancing degradation, microbial production and recycling. The Baltic Sea represents such an area. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial and temporal resuspension patterns in the Baltic Sea. To estimate the bottom friction velocity, modelled wave data are used in combination with data on grain size. This new data set is compared to a resuspension threshold of friction velocity to estimate the events of resuspension. The variation in bottom friction velocity, resuspension frequency and duration are related to wind climate, fetch, water depth and sediment type. Substantial resuspension can be found down to 40-60 m, with durations from one day to as much as two weeks. The highest winds in the area are highly anisotropic with a dominance of S-SW-W winds and the highest resuspension frequencies are found along the shallow eastern coasts. A seasonal pattern is observed with relatively high friction velocities and high resuspension frequencies during winter. There is also a variation depending on grain size, where sediments with fine and medium sand have a considerably higher percentage of resuspension events than bottoms with other dominant grain sizes. Five sub-areas are identified, characterised by different sediment types, resuspension and wind characteristics. If, in the future, wind speed increases as predicted, resuspension of sediments will also increase with effects on the nutrient cycle.

  7. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO–LIM3.6-based ocean–sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pemberton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO–LIM3.6-based ocean–sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic. The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961–2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  8. ARCHITECTURE OF THE ESTLYANDSKAYA PROVINCE – A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND THE BASE OF N.M. SOKOLOV’S CREATIVE METHOD (neogothic style of the Baltic region and its reflection in the architectural appearance of the Southern capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmirskaya A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available N. M. Sokolov was the chief architect of Rostov-onDon city and as well as the author of the concept of architectural preferences continuity of a "brick style" at the end of XIX- beginning XX centuries that is presented in the article. The author assumes that the creative method of the architect was affected by the childhood and youth when he lived in Baltic and also the beginning of architectural and art activity of the master taking place in Riga. The author investigates the architectural development of the Baltic region, taking in attention that the value of N. M. Sokolov’s architectural creations has deep roots hidden in the development of architectural tradition of Baltic and in particular Riga where the master of a neogothic style of Rostov was born. The author reveals the main distinctive features of the Baltic architecture, the Gothic principle formation in the Baltic in terms of development of cities and cult sights of Riga and their transformation from the late Gothic into mannerism and neogothic style, the influence of cult Lutheran tradition on cult orthodox architecture. The author also considers construction materials of cult architecture, local design features of architecture of the Latvian people. The concepts "northern gothic style", "brick style" are revealed from the point of view of development of a Gothic form and influence of Medieval architecture on N. M. Sokolov's creativity

  9. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  10. Well data summary sheets. Vol. 17. Danish North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This seventeenth volume of Well Data Summary Sheets includes data from six North Sea wells: Gwen-2, Ravn-1, Middle Rosa Flank-1, East Rosa Flank-1, Tordenskjold-1, West Lulu-4 and one well from the Baltic Sea: Pernille-1. Minor corrections have been made since the first edition. The `Complete index of released wells` has been updated. Volume 27, 28 and 29 are regional volumes; volume 27 includes well data from Southern Jutland, volumes 28 and 29 cover well data from Northern Jutland. All data from released Danish North Sea wells are included in volumes 17-26 and 30. Data references are made to the revised volumes and not to the original published reference. (au)

  11. Material Culture and Diasporic Experiences: A Case of Medieval Hanse Merchantsin the Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    , regularly crossing the Seas and settling in foreign ports, created a network of diasporic communities often maintaining close physical and emotional connections with their home towns. This chapter focuses on the late medieval German diaspora in Kalmar (Sweden) and Tallinn (Estonia) and examines cultural......The Hanseatic League, a late medieval merchant association with roots in northern German towns, is credited with the establishment of extensive economic and geographic connections and considerable impact on the development of urban culture around the Baltic and the North Sea. Its merchants...... and material practices of these communities. It theorizes about the role and meaning of everyday material culture for Hanseatic merchants and their families, and investigates how material objects figured in the experience of relocation. It discusses the centrality of everyday things in rebuilding the migrants...

  12. Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Rhizosphere of Freshwater Macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Martina; Schramm, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    measurements revealed clear differences in ammonia oxidation rates. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was assessed using the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene as functional marker. Both AOA and AOB could be detected in the rhizosphere of all three plant......AMMONIA-OXIDIZING ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF FRESHWATER MACROPHYTES Martina Herrmann and Andreas Schramm Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark Aquatic macrophytes such as Littorella uniflora and Lobelia dortmanna release oxygen from......-specific microbial community distinct from that of unvegetated sediment and (ii) that aquatic macrophytes have an impact on abundance and activity of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in freshwater sediment. The goal of this study was to test these hypotheses for the key functional group for coupled nitrification...

  13. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  14. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  15. Kas Baltic Talks on oma missiooni täitnud? / Tiit Meren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meren, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    21.-24. septembril toimus Tapal Läänemere-äärsete riikide reservohvitseride traditsiooniline suurfoorum Baltic Talks 2006. 1931. aastal Norra ja Rootsi reservohvitseride algatatud Nording Meeting ning Baltic Talks'i algus

  16. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth.

  17. Factors involved in spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Portuguese coastal lagoon under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Cristina; Correia, Otília; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Cruces, Anabela; Freitas, Maria da Conceição; Branquinho, Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Submerged macrophytes are key in coastal ecosystems, with important structural and functional roles. Thus, the characterization of the submerged aquatic vegetation dynamics is of prime importance for assessing the ecological status of coastal ecosystems. The main aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes biomass in a temporarily open coastal lagoon in Melides, Portugal, and to evaluate the physiological performance of the dominant macrophyte in the system. This lagoon is subject to several disturbances such as the dramatic changes in water physicochemical parameters over time, since temporarily opens to the sea occur renewing the lagoon water content. Moreover it is under a Mediterranean climate with the inherently high temporal variability of precipitation and high temperatures during the summer. Our study shows that the submerged macrophyte community was dominated initially by Ruppia cirrhosa and then replaced by Potamogeton pectinatus, which showed a marked temporal and spatial pattern with extremely high values of biomass in August and in the inner part of the lagoon. The spatial and temporal biomass patterns in submerged macrophytes were mainly related with water level, salinity, pH and transparency. The physiological performance of R. cirrhosa was lower when there was greater biomass accumulation and in extremely shallow waters, whereas physiological vigor seemed to be greater at moderate temperatures and in areas with higher salinity and dissolved oxygen. The data from this study can be used to predict submerged biomass macrophyte responses to extreme water quality changes and to feed a decision support system for the best period to promote the seasonal artificial breaching of the sandy barrier.

  18. Baltijskaja Evropa: ot idei k strategii [From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmowski Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the historic prerequisites and forms of international cooperation in the Baltic region (“Baltic cooperation”. According to the author, Baltic Europe is being formed as a single administrative, economic, cultural and infrastructural area, which could become a new economic and cultural center of Europe. Special emphasis is given to policies and strategies of the EU in the Baltic Sea region.

  19. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  20. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  1. Macrophytes of the Grlište reservoir (Serbia: Fifteen years after its establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of macrophytes, often in dense populations, have developed on the Grlište Reservoir, Serbia over a period of 15 years. Fast development of vegetation is a consequence of anthropogenic impact in lake management. The methodology used in this research covered 100% of the water body, including all areas with or without aquatic plants. The results indicate that plant communities are still in the early phase of development. This leaves space for future development of competitor macrophyte species (Najas marina, Eleocharis palustris, Typha latifolia, Typha angustifolia, Phragmites australis, etc. capable of endangering stability of the lake, which will tend toward eutrophication.

  2. Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Rhizosphere of Freshwater Macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Martina; Schramm, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    AMMONIA-OXIDIZING ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF FRESHWATER MACROPHYTES Martina Herrmann and Andreas Schramm Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark Aquatic macrophytes such as Littorella uniflora and Lobelia dortmanna release oxygen from...... measurements revealed clear differences in ammonia oxidation rates. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was assessed using the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene as functional marker. Both AOA and AOB could be detected in the rhizosphere of all three plant...

  3. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  4. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  5. Phenol toxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna paucicostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Sook [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Green Environmental Research, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Phenol is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and a widely used reference toxicant for many bioassays. However, little information is available regarding the toxic effects of phenol on aquatic macrophytes. Seventy-two hour bioassays, with different end-points, were carried out to assess phenol toxicity in Lemna paucicostata. A concentration-dependent decline in frond multiplication and colony disintegration was observed, with 11.38 and 22.76 {mu}M phenol resulting in browning of fronds and colony disintegration, respectively. Growth of fronds, as measured by changes in surface area, was significantly inhibited with EC{sub 50} value of 2.70 {mu}M. When pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence imaging (i-PAM) was employed, the maximum quantum yield of PS II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) significantly declined with increasing phenol concentrations with resultant EC{sub 50} of 1.91 {mu}M and coefficients of variation (CVs) generated for the EC{sub 50} values of less than 4.7%. A gradual increase in fluorescence emissions from chlorophylls a and b and pheophytin up to a concentration of 2.85 {mu}M was found but declined markedly at higher concentrations. The significant correlation between the F{sub v}/F{sub m} and surface growth rate data implies that the former is an appropriate biomarker of whole plant toxicity. Using imaging Chl a fluorescence on L. paucicostata provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for assessing the toxic risks posed by phenol to aquatic ecosystems and has practical applications for municipal and industrial waste water management.

  6. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  7. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J.; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Wójcik, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential ‘northern glacial refugium’, i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe. PMID:27992546

  8. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  9. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  10. Macrophytes may not contribute significantly to removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance in model surface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Pascal; Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Beattie, Sarah A; Bartel, Caitlin N; Elliott, Ashley D; Montero, Oscar F; Lokesh, Sheetal; Favreau, Alex; Kozlova, Tatiana A; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Outdoor shallow wetland mesocosms, designed to simulate surface constructed wetlands to improve lagoon wastewater treatment, were used to assess the role of macrophytes in the dissipation of wastewater nutrients, selected pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Specifically, mesocosms were established with or without populations of Typha spp. (cattails), Myriophyllum sibiricum (northern water milfoil), and Utricularia vulgaris (bladderwort). Following macrophyte establishment, mesocosms were seeded with ARG-bearing organisms from a local wastewater lagoon, and treated with a single pulse of artificial municipal wastewater with or without carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine, and naproxen (each at 7.6μg/L), as well as sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine (each at 150μg/L). Rates of pharmaceutical dissipation over 28d ranged from 0.073 to 3.0d(-1), corresponding to half-lives of 0.23 to 9.4d. Based on calculated rate constants, observed dissipation rates were consistent with photodegradation driving clofibric acid, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine removal, and with sorption also contributing to carbamazepine and fluoxetine loss. Of the seven gene determinants assayed, only two genes for both beta-lactam resistance (blaCTX and blaTEM) and sulfonamide resistance (sulI and sulII) were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. Genes disappeared relatively rapidly from the water column, with half-lives ranging from 2.1 to 99d. In contrast, detected gene levels did not change in the sediment, with the exception of sulI, which increased after 28d in pharmaceutical-treated systems. These shallow wetland mesocosms were able to dissipate wastewater contaminants rapidly. However, no significant enhancement in removal of nutrients or pharmaceuticals was observed in mesocosms with extensive aquatic plant communities. This was likely due to three factors: first, use of naïve systems with an unchallenged capacity for nutrient assimilation and

  11. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  12. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  13. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Niemisto, L. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research (Finland)

    2001-04-01

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km{sup 2} of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep

  14. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in northern European waters and its potential impact on fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    The recent invasion by Mnemiopsis in northern European waters has lead to concerns for fishery interests especially in the central Baltic Sea, where it overlaps with commercially important cod recruits on their spawning grounds. We present laboratory feeding rate experiments along with video...... selected against cod eggs. Application of our clearance rates to in situ abundances confirmed that Mnemiopsis has a negligible direct predation impact on cod offspring. Further, due to drastically reduced reproduction rates at low salinities, occurrence of Mnemiopsis in the central Baltic appears...... to be dependent on advection, and is unlikely to reach large population sizes. Hence, Mnemiopsis constitutes neither a direct nor a potential indirect threat to the cod population in the central Baltic. However, its large reproduction potential in high saline areas with 11,500 eggs ind-1 d-1 and observed high...

  15. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  16. Climate-related differences in the dominance of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, S.; Kamarainen, A.; Jeppesen, E.; Nes, van E.H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Lacerot, G.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shallow lakes in warm climates have a higher probability of being turbid, rather than macrophyte dominated, compared with lakes in cooler climates, but little field evidence exists to evaluate this hypothesis. We analyzed data from 782 lake years in different climate zones

  17. Bioprospecting of Marine Macrophytes Using MS-Based Lipidomics as a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Maciel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment supports a remarkable diversity of organisms which are a potential source of natural products with biological activities. These organisms include a wide variety of marine plants (from micro- to macrophytes, which have been used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. However, the biochemistry and biological activities of many of these macrophytes (namely macroalgae and halophytes, including seagrasses are still far from being fully explored. Most popular bioactive components include polysaccharides, peptides, phenolics and fatty acids (FAs. Polar lipids (glycolipids, phospholipids and betaine lipids are emerging as novel value-added bioactive phytochemicals, rich in n-3 FA, with high nutritional value and health beneficial effects for the prevention of chronic diseases. Polar lipids account various combinations of polar groups, fatty acyl chains and backbone structures. The polar lipidome of macrophytes is remarkably diverse, and its screening represents a significant analytical challenge. Modern research platforms, particularly mass spectrometry (MS-based lipidomic approaches, have been recently used to address this challenge and are here reviewed. The application of lipidomics to address lipid composition of marine macrophytes will contribute to the stimulation of further research on this group and foster the exploration of novel applications.

  18. Impact of submerged macrophytes including charophytes on phyto- and zooplankton communities: allelopathy versus other mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, E.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are crucial for the stabilization of the clear water state in shallow, mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Especially, charophytes often play an important role because they are typically rapid colonizers and because charophyte meadows are believed to have a particularly strong pos

  19. Archaea Dominate the Ammonia-Oxidizing Community in the Rhizosphere of the Freshwater Macrophyte Littorella uniflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Martina; Saunders, Aaron M.; Schramm, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) had similar low relative abundances in freshwater sediment. In the rhizosphere of the submersed macrophyte Littorella uniflora, archaeal amoA was 500- to >8,000-fold enriched compared to bacterial amoA, suggesting that the enhanced nitrifi...... nitrification activity observed in the rhizosphere was due to ammonia-oxidizing Archaea....

  20. Ambiguous climate impacts on the competition between submerged macrophytes and phytoplankton in shallow lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, S.; Jeppesen, E.; Huszar, V.M.; Mazzeo, N.; Nes, van E.H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    1. Shallow lakes may switch from a state dominated by submerged macrophytes to a phytoplankton-dominated state when a critical nutrient concentration is exceeded. We explore how climate change may affect this critical nutrient concentration by linking a graphical model to data from 83 lakes along a

  1. Effect of Hydrologic Alteration on the Community Succession of Macrophytes at Xiangyang Site, Hanjiang River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened.

  2. Ecotypic differentiation in thermal traits in the tropical to warm-temperate green macrophyte Valonia utricularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggert, A.; Burger, E.M.; Breeman, Arno

    2003-01-01

    Differentiation of thermal traits (i.e. growth, survival and reproduction) was studied in the green macrophyte Valonia utricularis (Roth) C. Agardh, which has a world-wide tropical to warm-temperate distribution. Ecotypic differentiation between northeast Atlantic/Mediterranean and Indo-west Pacific

  3. Bioprospecting of Marine Macrophytes Using MS-Based Lipidomics as a New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Elisabete; Costa Leal, Miguel; Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, Maria Rosário; Calado, Ricardo

    2016-03-08

    The marine environment supports a remarkable diversity of organisms which are a potential source of natural products with biological activities. These organisms include a wide variety of marine plants (from micro- to macrophytes), which have been used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. However, the biochemistry and biological activities of many of these macrophytes (namely macroalgae and halophytes, including seagrasses) are still far from being fully explored. Most popular bioactive components include polysaccharides, peptides, phenolics and fatty acids (FAs). Polar lipids (glycolipids, phospholipids and betaine lipids) are emerging as novel value-added bioactive phytochemicals, rich in n-3 FA, with high nutritional value and health beneficial effects for the prevention of chronic diseases. Polar lipids account various combinations of polar groups, fatty acyl chains and backbone structures. The polar lipidome of macrophytes is remarkably diverse, and its screening represents a significant analytical challenge. Modern research platforms, particularly mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomic approaches, have been recently used to address this challenge and are here reviewed. The application of lipidomics to address lipid composition of marine macrophytes will contribute to the stimulation of further research on this group and foster the exploration of novel applications.

  4. Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States: Battling the Good Guys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Jan J.; Verhofstad, Michiel J. J. M.; Louwers, Evelien; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Brederveld, Robert J.; van Gerven, Luuk P. A.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2017-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable

  5. Hydroponic Uptake of Atrazine and Lambda-cyhalothrin in Aquatic Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J. L.; Farris, J. L.; Moore, M. T.; Smith, S.; Cooper, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Phytoremediation encompasses an array of plant-associated processes known to mitigate contaminants from soil, sediment, and water. Modification of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff includes processes directly associated with aquatic macrophytes in addition to soil geochemical modifications and associated rhizospheric degradation. Remediation attributes of two vegetative species common to agricultural drainages in the Mississippi Delta, USA, were assessed using atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin. Concentrations used in 8-d hydroponic exposures were calculated using recommended field applications and a 5% runoff model from a 0.65-cm rainfall event on a 2.02-ha field. While greater atrazine uptake was measured in Juncus effusus, greater lambda-cyhalothrin uptake occurred in Ludwigia peploides. Maximum pesticide uptake was reached within 48 h for each exposure and subsequent translocation of pesticides to upper plant biomass occurred in macrophytes exposed to atrazine. Sequestration of 98.2% of lambda-cyhalothrin in roots of L. peploides was measured after 8 d. Translocation of lambda-cyhalothrin in J. effusus resulted in 25.4% of pesticide uptake partitioned to upper plant biomass. These individual macrophyte remediation studies measured species- and pesticide-specific uptake rates, indicating that the seasonality of pesticide applications and macrophyte emergence might interact strongly to enhance mitigation capabilities in edge-of-field conveyance structures.

  6. Effects of contrasting omnivorous fish on submerged macrophyte biomass in temperate lakes: a mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    1.Freshwater fish can affect aquatic vegetation directly by consuming macrophytes or indirectly by changing water quality. However, most fish in the temperate climate zone have an omnivorous diet. The impact of fish as aquatic herbivores in temperate climates therefore remains unclear and depends on

  7. Clonal variation in the thermal response of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pectinatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilon, J.; Santamaria, L.

    2002-01-01

    Broadly distributed plants have to cope with dramatic differences across latitude in the prevailing environmental temperature. We investigated the effect of water temperature on plant morphology, biomass accumulation and oxygen-exchange for five clones of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton

  8. Diaspore bank of aquatic macrophytes maintaining species diversity in a Neotropical pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore bank is an important component of biological diversity acting mainly as storage and source of diaspores, which also indicate dynamics and patterns of maintenance of plant diversity. We tested the hypothesis that the diaspore bank would be the responsible factor for the maintenance of the aquatic plant species, used two techniques to evaluate the diaspore bank: seedling emergence and direct counting of field samples. Density and richness of the diaspore bank were correlated with plant cover of the aquatic macrophyte communities and also with the euphotic zone radiation in different phases of the hydrological cycle. The diaspore bank is a key factor in maintenance of aquatic macrophyte assemblages in this pond. Nymphaea amazonum was one of the dominant species in the pond and presented temporally peaks of plant cover. Furthermore, depth allowed induction of germination of stored diaspores. Therefore, the diaspore bank may predict which species colonizes a site when environmental characteristics are favorable and allows inferring which processes are linked to changes in structure of aquatic macrophyte assemblages. These mechanisms are the means for recovery of macrophyte species under natural disturbances, represented by water level oscillations in floodplains.

  9. Effects of contrasting omnivorous fish on submerged macrophyte biomass in temperate lakes: a mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    1.Freshwater fish can affect aquatic vegetation directly by consuming macrophytes or indirectly by changing water quality. However, most fish in the temperate climate zone have an omnivorous diet. The impact of fish as aquatic herbivores in temperate climates therefore remains unclear and depends on

  10. Interactions between piscivores, zooplanktivores and zooplankton in submerged macrophytes : Preliminary observations from enclosure and pond experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Perrow, M.R.; Landkildehus, F.

    1997-01-01

    behavioural changes of zooplanktivores has received little attention, even though this may be an important mechanism in enhancing the stability of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes. Preliminary observations from an unreplicated large-scale field enclosure experiment and a replicated pond experiment...

  11. Effect of Hydrologic Alteration on the Community Succession of Macrophytes at Xiangyang Site, Hanjiang River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai

    2017-01-01

    With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components) parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened. PMID:28127493

  12. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolová M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region between the highest and the lowest seasonal water levels. Three eulittoral sub-zones could be distinguished: the upper eulittoral with a stable community of perennial species with high cover, the middle eulittoral with relatively high richness of emergent and amphibious species present at low cover values, and the lower eulittoral devoid of permanent vegetation. Cover and species composition in particular sub-zones were primarily influenced by the duration and timing of flooding, followed by nutrient limitation and strongly reducing conditions in the flooded organic sediment. Our results stress the ecological importance of eulittoral zone in reservoirs with fluctuating water levels where macrophyte growth can be supported by targeted management of water level, thus helping reservoir managers in improving the ecological potential of this type of water bodies.

  13. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco, E-mail: marco.vervliet@biologie.uni-freiburg.d [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Straus, Alain [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Tremp, Horst [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hamer, Mick [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Jealott' s Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 6EY (United Kingdom); Maund, Stephen J. [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Wagner, Edgar [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schulz, Ralf [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  14. Aquatic macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity and conservation in wetlands of the Sinos River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, L; Rolon, A S; Stenert, C

    2010-12-01

    Wetlands are important sites for biological conservation because they support rich biodiversity and present high productivity. Species-area relationship is an important tool in conservation planning and it has been extensively used for wetland management. This study had as aims: (1) to analyse macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity in the fragmented wetlands of the Sinos River basin; and (2) to investigate whether wetland areas could work as a tool for selecting the important habitats for biodiversity conservation. Throughout the study, 56 species of macrophytes and 57 taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Macrophyte richness was related to the wetland area, but macroinvertebrate richness, however, was not related to the wetland area. The macrophyte and macroinvertebrate composition were not related to the wetland area. Species composition varied between the regions of the basin and the difference in the species composition occurred mainly by the distribution of macroinvertebrates. With regard to the biodiversity conservation of the Sinos River basin, the wetland area must not be a priority criterion for choosing the important wetlands for conservation. The environmental policies for biodiversity conservation must include management actions focused also on the protection of small wetlands. Moreover, other criteria should be analysed in further research such as habitat diversity, hydroperiod, geographic distribution and connectivity.

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Effects of Organic Amendments to Sediment on Freshwater Macrophyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    The growth of three submersed macrophyte species (Myriophyllum spicatum, Hyjdri11a verticillata, and Elodea canadensis) and three partially emergent... Elodea canadensis Rich. in Michx; and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Caspary. Nomenclature follows Godfrey and Wooten (1979, 1981). The first two species

  16. Effect of lighting conditions of coastal zone of Knyaginya lake on composition of macrophyte biohydrocenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Baranovsky

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In articlе the stuffs of researches of influence of a mode of illuminating intensity of coastal zone of a different exposition flood-land of lake Knyaginya (valley Samara on composition of highest aqueous green and macrozoobentos macrophytes biogeocenose are submitted.

  17. Interaction between the macrophyte Stratiotes aloides and filamentous algae: does it indicate allelopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Mau, B.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Van Donk, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides Linnaeus, which has recently received attention in studies on allelopathy, has been shown to suppress phytoplankton growth. In the Netherlands, S. aloides often co-occurs with floating filamentous algae. However, filamentous algae are generally absent in

  18. Impact of submerged macrophytes including charophytes on phyto- and zooplankton communities: allelopathy versus other mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, E.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are crucial for the stabilization of the clear water state in shallow, mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Especially, charophytes often play an important role because they are typically rapid colonizers and because charophyte meadows are believed to have a particularly strong

  19. A simple equation for describing the temperature dependent growth of free-floating macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van Tj.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors determining growth rates of free-floating macrophytes in the field. To analyse and predict temperature dependent growth rates of these pleustophytes, modelling may play an important role. Several equations have been published for describing temperatur

  20. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, 1999-2006 HELCOM thematic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Kanisch, G.; Luning, M.; Mattila, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Osvath, I.; Outola, I.

    2009-07-01

    The report describes work carried out by HELCOM's (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Commission) project on the Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea (MORS-PRO) during the period 1999-2006. The main topics include: sources of man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; levels of man-made radionuclides in seawater, sediments and biota; work on modelling and evaluations of the riks to man caused by radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; comparison of man-made radionuclides in the Baltic Sea with levels in other sea regions. The concequent recommendations and work on data quality are presented in the Appendix

  1. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  2. An enigmatic spiny harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones from Baltic amber (Palaeogene: Eocene; ca. 44–49 Ma is described as Piankhi steineri n. gen., n. sp. This enigmatic fossil expresses long, slender pedipalps without a tarsal claw, which is characteristic for the suborder Dyspnoi. The chelicerae are notably enlarged and the dorsal body surface is formed from a carapace with a separate prosomatic tergite (metapeltidium, plus a large opisthosomal scute (or scutum parvum. However these characters, combined with the distinctly spiny limbs and further rows of spines across the fossil's opisthosoma, have no parallel among the modern dyspnoid harvestmen that we are aware of. The fossil resolves features reminiscent of modern members of the dyspnoid families Ceratolasmatidae, Nipponopsalididae, Ischyropsalididae and Sabaconidae, but does not show unequivocal apomorphies of any one particular family. We must entertain the possibility that this is an extinct body plan from the Eocene of north-central Europe, and we tentatively refer the fossil to a new genus in an unresolved position among the Ischyropsalidoidea (Dyspnoi. An amorphous triangular structure behind the anal region is assumed to be faecal matter, rather than part of the original anatomy. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200007

  3. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  4. The Baltic Sea region and increasing international tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolei Konstantin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the Baltic Sea region stood out for its remarkable stability. The dramatic changes following the end of the Cold War did not have a profound effect on the territory. However, Russia's cooperation with other states in the Baltic Sea region began to lose momentum. This paper discusses the negative effects of the Ukrainian and Syrian crises and the increasing tension between Russia and other countries in the Baltic Sea region. In the short term, these trends are unlikely to re¬verse. Of the two possible scenarios — suspending relations until a solution to the political and military problems is found or trying to make use of every opportunity in economy, culture, science, education, etc., — the latter is preferable. A breakdown in regional cooperation will weaken Russia’s position. However, gaining positive momentum may prove instrumental in overcoming the confrontation between Russia and the West in the future.

  5. Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic viewpoints. The author identifies the main characteristics of the Russian energy policy in these countries, and provides with a forecast for energy policy development in the region. A geostrategic approach dictates any successful energy policy in the Baltic Sea region to bring in line Russian interests with those of the European states.

  6. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  7. The concentrations of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was 241Pu activities determination in different components (water, plankton and fish of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. The determination of 241Pu in the samples was done indirectly by activity measuring the increment in 241Am from the decay of β-emitting 241Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed between the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of 241Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of 241Pu with Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small.

  8. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past, primarily driven by atmospheric changes over the North Atlantic region. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested by model simulations and the potential climate forcing mechanism(s) behind the reconstructed long

  9. Removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies - Effects of macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauly, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    as on the bactericide Triclosan. Additionally, the capacity of different macrophytes species to affect the treatment process was examined. Three different macrophyte species were compared: bulrush (Typha latifolia), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). They were planted...... into containers (lysimeters) with a size of 1 m × 1 m × 1 m which were filled with 20 cm gravel at the bottom and 50 cm sludge on top, into which the macrophytes were planted. During the twelve months experiment reduction of 20-30% for HHCB and AHTN, 70% for Triclosan and 70% for OTNE were determined under...

  10. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  11. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stålnacke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (% and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily. The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP, as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  12. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  13. Use of low-altitude aerial photography to identify submersed aquatic macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Brown, Charles L.; Jaworski, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September 1978. Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type. A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience. The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy (i.e., omission errors) of all six classes combined was 68% correct, whereas, overall accuracy of individual classes ranged from 50 to 100% correct. Mapping accuracy (i.e. omission and commission errors) of individual classes ranged from 36 to 75%. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography, together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies.

  14. Aquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing but not for purification in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingying; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; van Kempen, Monique M. L.; Verbaarschot, Evi J. H.; Loeffen, Laury M. J. M.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2017-02-01

    The sequestration of nutrients from surface waters by aquatic macrophytes and sediments provides an important service to both natural and constructed wetlands. While emergent species take up nutrients from the sediment, submerged and floating macrophytes filter nutrients directly from the surface water, which may be more efficient in constructed wetlands. It remains unclear, however, whether their efficiency is sufficient for wastewater purification and how plant species and nutrient loading affects nutrient distribution over plants, water and sediment. We therefore determined nutrient removal efficiencies of different vegetation (Azolla filiculoides, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum) and sediment types (clay, peaty clay and peat) at three nutrient input rates, in a full factorial, outdoor mesocosm experiment. At low loading (0.43 mg P m-2 d-1), plant uptake was the main pathway (100 %) for phosphorus (P) removal, while sediments showed a net P release. A. filiculoides and M. spicatum showed the highest biomass production and could be harvested regularly for nutrient recycling, whereas C. demersum was outcompeted by spontaneously developing macrophytes and algae. Higher nutrient loading only stimulated A. filiculoides growth. At higher rates ( ≥ 21.4 mg P m-2 d-1), 50-90 % of added P ended up in sediments, with peat sediments becoming more easily saturated. For nitrogen (N), 45-90 % was either taken up by the sediment or lost to the atmosphere at loadings ≥ 62 mg N m-2 d-1. This shows that aquatic macrophytes can indeed function as an efficient nutrient filter but only for low loading rates (polishing) and not for high rates (purification). The outcome of this controlled study not only contributes to our understanding of nutrient dynamics in constructed wetlands but also shows the differential effects of wetland sediment types and plant species. Furthermore, the acquired knowledge may benefit the application of macrophyte harvesting to remove

  15. The role of submerged macrophytes and macroalgae in nutrient cycling: A budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lucienne R. D.; Snow, Gavin C.; Adams, Janine B.; Bate, Guy C.; Yang, Sheng-Chi

    2015-03-01

    This study used a budget approach to determine the effect of submerged macrophytes and macroalgae on the storage of N and P in an estuary. Above and below ground tissue content of nitrogen and phosphorus were determined for the various macrophyte species. The mouth of the estuary was artificially breached in February 2011 with a volume of 0.3 × 106 m3 and closed a week later. A 1:100 year flood with volume close to 3 × 106 m3 breached the mouth naturally in June 2011 flushing water and sediment out of the estuary. In order to track the change in the nutrient acquisition of the submerged macrophytes and macroalgae over a closed-mouth state, the nutrient budget was constructed for the period February 2011 to July 2011, from the time the mouth closed until it opened again. Relative to other inputs the sediment contributed 30% of the TN and 40% TP toward the nutrient budget, while the submerged macrophytes and macroalgae stored 20-30 % TN and 30-38 % TP. The river and precipitation contributed less than 3% of the TN and TP input. It was previously thought that the sediments of South African temporarily open/closed estuaries did not have the necessary organic stock to fuel primary production. However this research showed this to be incorrect. Submerged macrophytes and macroalgae significantly influenced nutrient cycling and this is the first detailed account of incorporating vegetation into a nutrient budget without relying solely on C:N:P ratios.

  16. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...... the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management unit...

  17. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change.

  18. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  19. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  20. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected ...... to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis....

  1. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  2. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.;

    to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis.......The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...

  3. Causes of different impact of Major Baltic Inflows on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, E. M.; Zezera, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of 1976, 1993, and 2003 on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea is considered based on calculations of the eastern Baltic cod egg abundance and offspring survival indices. The reproductive success (1976-1977) was defined by the elevation of the 11 psu isohaline and deepening of the 2 mL/L isooxygene surface, which provided the formation of a water layer suitable for cod spawning at a depth of 90-130 m. Prerequisites of the appearance of the reproductive layer in 1976-1977 were a previously high salinity level and penetrating two successive MBIs in one year. The cause of the weak MBI impact in 1993 was the previous salinity minimum; in 2003 it was rapid oxygen depletion due to an increase in temperature. As a result of their weaker influence, small and fragmented cod spawning biotopes appeared in the Gotland Basin.

  4. Effects of the 2014 Major Baltic Inflow on methane dynamics in the water column of the Central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar; Rehder, Gregor; Hietanen, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a brackish water body which exhibits strong salinity stratification between its almost fresh surface and the comparatively high salinity deep waters. Due to this stratification, the sub-halocline deep waters are insulated from the surface and are typically anoxic and contain large amounts of methane. Deep water renewal occurs predominantly by irregular inflow phenomena, during which specific meteorological conditions cause large amounts of oxic and highly saline North Sea water to enter the Baltic via the Danish straits. In late 2014, the third largest inflow ever recorded entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in the southern and central Baltic water column oxygen conditions and consequently also in the deep-water methane pool. We studied these changes during 2015 on six cruises spanning between March and December. Following the inflow, methane that had previously accumulated in the stagnant deep waters was largely removed over a period of several months. Based on methane oxidation rate measurements, stable isotope data and comparisons to changes in corresponding phosphate inventories, we show strong evidence that most of the methane removal observed was due microbial oxidation. The intruding water masses interacted with the old stagnant water masses, creating complex redox environments, which seemed ideal for microbial oxidation of methane. However, a considerable amount of methane was also removed by physical displacement to other parts of the Baltic Sea, the relative importance of these two process changing over time. By the end of 2015, the deep waters were turning anoxic again and methane started accumulating, indicating that the ability of the inflow to ventilate the Baltic Sea was relatively short-lived.

  5. Microbial decomposition of terrigenic organic matter discharged into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manecki, M.; Herlemann, D.; Pollehne, F.; Labrenz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, T.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    The permafrost soils in arctic regions contain a large amount of the worldwide organic carbon and global warming is expected to increase drainage of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the adjacent oceans. It is yet unclear how this terrigenic organic matter will influence the global carbon cycle and the feedback effects to the climate. We used the Baltic Sea as a model system to investigate the role of abiotic factors on the degradation of terrigenic dissolved organic matter (tDOM) upon discharge into a brackish system as well as the response of the microbial community. Water from the Kalix River in Northern Sweden, which drains also permafrost soils, was used as the tDOM source in incubation experiments with Baltic Sea water. Different qualities of tDOM were compared by applying concentration procedures: tDOM was added to fresh Baltic Sea water as untreated Kalix River water or concentrated by commonly use DOC concentration procedures (lyophilization, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction). We investigated the TDOC degradation by parallel measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, DOM composition (using a 15 Tesla Fourier Transformation Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS)), microbial activities and microbial community structure. FT-ICR-MS measurements showed qualitative differences in the DOM compositions for the different treatments and a drastic change in DOM composition between the third and fourth week of the incubation experiment. Despite the qualitative differences in DOM composition, the results obtained so far revealed that the added tDOC had, independent of the previous enrichment procedure, only little influence on bacterial activities, bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition dynamics. This indicates that the major portion of the added tDOC is of refractory nature. Instead, bacterial predation by heterotrophic protists had a strong impact on both bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition

  6. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  7. Recognising macrophyte-vegetated environments in the rock record: a new criterion using 'hooked' forms of crustose coralline red algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Paul Wright, V.; Woelkerling, Wm. J.

    2004-04-01

    The role of macrophytes (such as seagrasses) in influencing deposition in shallow marine environments has long been understood. They affect sediment textures such that they do not reflect ambient hydrodynamic conditions, and so the recognition of ancient vegetated environments is important for accurate palaeoenvironmental analysis. However, there is little direct fossil evidence of such plants in the rock record, and so the presence of former macrophyte cover generally has to be inferred from indirect evidence based on the characteristics of modern macrophyte-vegetated environments. We present a new criterion for the recognition of vegetated environments in the rock record, based upon a distinctive 'hooked' form of crustose coralline red algae that is definitively indicative of growth on seagrasses (and also on other macrophytes with similarly flattened blades), and has been recognised from both modern (Inhaca Island, Mozambique) and fossil (the Eocene of Oman) seagrass beds.

  8. Macrophyte succession in floodplain lakes : spatio-temporal patterns in relation to river hydrology, lake morphology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Two questions are central to the work in this thesis: 1. What are the factors determining macrophyte composition in floodplain lakes along the Lower Rhine? 2. What advice can be given for design of future water bodies?

  9. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 dual carbon pools contributing to organic matter enrichment in marine aerosol, Scientific Reports, 6, 2016. Masalaite, A., Remeikis, V., Garbaras, A., Dudoitis, V., Ulevicius, V., and Ceburnis, D.: Elucidating carbonaceous aerosol sources by the stable carbon δ13C TC ratio in size-segregated particles, Atmospheric Research, 158, 1-12, 2015.

  10. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Cunha-Santino; Fushita,A. T.; PERET, A.C.; Bianchini-Junior,I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL), the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure) rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at desc...

  11. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangxu Zou; Hui Zhang; Jie Zuo; Penghe Wang; Dehua Zhao; Shuqing An

    2016-01-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5??C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which ha...

  12. Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 1. Habitat use and food selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker; Kube, Jan; Probst, Sandra; Brenning, Ulrich

    1999-08-01

    The feeding habits of migrating dunlins Calidris alpina staging in different non-tidal coastal habitats in the southern Baltic Sea are described. The study also focuses on the structure of the benthic macrofauna of these habitats and the diet choice of dunlins. All investigations were carried out on Langenwerder Island (Wismar Bay), where different types of flats and beaches harbour a total of 30 to 40 species of marine macrofauna. The composition of the macrobenthos differed considerably between the eulittoral sandbank, the eulittoral mudflat, the pebble beach, and the sublittoral surroundings. Most dunlins were observed foraging in flocks of up to several hundred individuals on the eulittoral flats. Densities of up to 20 to 30 foraging dunlins ha -1 occurred annually during peak migration in September and October. Macrobenthos biomass in these habitats fluctuated between 20 and 40 g AFDM m -2. The mean total food consumption of dunlins during autumn migration was estimated at 0.01 g AFDM m -2 d -1. The predation pressure could be estimated at 3 to 6% of the suitable food supply. Dunlins staging on Langenwerder were able to attain a pre-migratory mass gain of 0.2 to 0.5% of their body weight per day within an 8 to 12-h daily feeding period. The birds fed predominantly on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor by probing. They selected small 7 to 31-mm-long individuals. When water levels were high, and the eulittoral flats inundated, many dunlins switched to foraging along the shorelines where a variety of small prey were taken from spilled macrophytes. Dunlins sometimes obviously ignored their most important food H. diversicolor, although available, by feeding on other prey such as juvenile fishes and shrimps, dipteran larvae or spilled amphipods. When feeding on amphipods, dunlins selected the smallest individuals.

  13. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  14. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) is an important assessment index in world dirty tanker shipping industry. Actors in the industry sector can gain numerous benefits from accurate forecasting of the BDTI. However, limitations exist in traditional stochastic and econometric explanation...

  15. Economic and Geographical Structure of the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It comprises the coastal areas of Russia, Germany, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic cooperation develop in the region. The region is not homogeneous in terms of socioeconomic development, thus there are certain differences in the areas and the intensity of international cooperation. The article sets out to identify structural characteristics of the Baltic Sea region. This requires studying practices of transnational and transboundary cooperation and possibilities for their adoption in other regions of the world. An important characteristic of the Baltic Sea region is a considerable difference between its coastal territories, the fact that affects the development of multilateral relations. This article examines the most pronounced socioeconomic differences that should be taken into account when forecasting cooperation trends in t he region, including those between the Baltic territories of Russia and their international partners.

  16. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    . Comparing the level of concern towards oxygenation pumping with impacts of other human activities in and around the Baltic Sea, we find that for 50% of the populations, pumping does not figure as one of the very concerning ac-tivities. Medium- and small-scale pumping is considered by 50% of the pop...

  17. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  18. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  19. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  20. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  1. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  2. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  3. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...

  4. Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season.

  5. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    requirement for neutral buoyancy. Superimposed on this, oxygen content and temperature have a significant effect on fertilization, egg/larva development, and survival. Within the Baltic Sea ecosystem, mixing of stocks may be anticipated and is particularly pronounced in the Arkona Basin because of its use...

  6. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  7. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  8. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  9. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  10. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  11. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Clemmesen, C.; Schaber, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a new invasive species in the Baltic Sea and the potential consequences for fish stock recruitment was investigated in spring 2007. The study focused on the Bornholm Basin, which serves as the major spawning ground for cod and sprat, the comme...

  12. Aquatic macrophytes in the large, sub-tropical Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormul, Roger Paulo; Ferreira, Fernando Alves; Michelan, Thaisa Sala; Carvalho, Priscilla; Silveira, Marcio José; Thomaz, Sidinei Magela

    2010-12-01

    In the last three decades, rapid assessment surveys have become an important approach for measuring aquatic ecosystem biodiversity. These methods can be used to detect anthropogenic impacts and recognize local or global species extinctions. We present a floristic survey of the aquatic macrophytes along the Brazilian margin of the Itaipu Reservoir conducted in 2008 and compare this with a floristic survey conducted ten years earlier. We used ordination analysis to determine whether assemblage composition differed among reservoir arms. Macrophyte species were sampled in each of the 235 sampling stations using a boat, which was positioned inside three places of each macrophyte stand to record species and search for small plants. We also collected submerged plants using a rake with the boat moving at constant velocity for ten minutes. We assigned individual macrophyte species to life form and identified representative species for each life form. A total of 87 macrophyte taxa were identified. The "emergent" life forms contained the highest number of species, followed by "rooted submerged" life forms. The extensive survey of macrophytes undertaken in September 2008 recorded more species than a survey conducted between 1995 and 1998. This could be due to changes in water physico-chemistry, disturbances due to water drawdown and the long period between surveys, which may have allowed natural colonization by other species. Additionally, differences in the classification systems and taxonomic resolution used in the surveys may account for differences in the number of species recorded. Assemblage composition varied among the arms and was affected by underwater radiation (as measured using a Secchi disk) and fetch. Five non-native species were found. Two of these non-native species (Urochloa subquadripara and Hydrilla verticillata) are of special concern because they have a high frequency of occurrence and occupy large marginal areas of the reservoir. Future surveys should be

  13. Remote Sensing supports EULAKES project for mapping submerged macrophytes in Lake Garda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Erica; Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia; Bolpagni, Rossano; Pellegrini, Giovanna; Braga, Federica

    2013-04-01

    Lake bottoms have an important role in the aquatic ecosystem: bathymetry and morphology may affect the hydrodynamic processes in coastal waters, while the presence of aquatic macrophytes helps to preserve the ecology. Within the context of macrophyte monitoring programs, technical advances in remote sensing with higher spatial and spectral resolutions provide opportunities for big scale ecological studies, with the possibility to assess a multitemporal analysis. One of the objectives of the EULAKES project has been to map aquatic vegetation cover inside the Garda Lake from hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) aerial images thanks to the application of a bio-optical model inversion technique (BOMBER: Bio-Optical Model Based tool for Estimating water quality and bottom properties from Remote sensing images). MIVIS images, with a spectral resolution of 102 bands, working between 430 and 1270 nm, were previously corrected for atmospheric, adjacency and glint effects before being processed with the BOMBER tool. One complete MIVIS overflight (12 runs) acquired on June 27th 2011, allowed the retrieval of a macrophyte presence map all around the first 7m deep coastal belt, with a validation error of about 10%, resulting from 89 in situ measures performed during images acquisition. A relevant spatial distribution could be observed, with higher aquatic plants concentration in the Southern part of the lake. A further local cover distribution map localized on the Sirmione Peninsula was integrated with previous results to perform a temporal analysis of macrophyte colonization patterns along this reduced littoral zone for the last 14 years (acquisitions on September 1997, July 2005 and July 2010). Considerable modifications in terms of macrophyte structural complexity and colonized areas were detectable: a drastic reduction of well-established dense communities (more than 70% of cover) and increasing of un-colonized areas were followed by

  14. Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (cyanobacterium) populations along a Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamanen, Maria J; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-11-01

    Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to a fjord-like extension of the Baltic Sea to the open Baltic Sea. Morphological differences among the populations were negligible. We found that the Baltic Sea was dominated (25 out of 27 sequences) by one ITS1-S (shorter band of ITS 1 [ITS1]) genotype, which also was found in the lakes. The lake populations of A. flos-aquae tended to be genetically more diverse than the Baltic Sea populations. Since the lake ITS1-S genotypes of A. flos-aquae are continuously introduced to the Baltic Sea via inflowing waters, it seems that only one ITS1 genotype is able to persist in the Baltic Sea populations. The results suggest that one of the ITS1-S genotypes found in the lakes is better adapted to the conditions of the Baltic Sea and that natural selection removes most of the lake genotypes from the Baltic Sea A. flos-aquae populations.

  15. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  16. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  17. Laboratory analysis of the habitat occupancy of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) in an invaded ecosystem: The north-eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkse, Kristiina; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Pärnoja, Merli; Kuprijanov, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    The Harris mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) arrived to the Baltic Sea in 1936. It was not until the late 2000es when the species considerably expanded its distribution area towards the northern Baltic Sea and formed a viable and expanding population. This introduction represents an appearance of a completely new function, as such larger epibenthic predators were previously missing from north-eastern Baltic Sea. In order to assess potential impacts of the crab to the invaded ecosystem, knowledge of the crab habitat preferences is required. This study experimentally evaluated the habitat occupancy of the Harris mud crab. The crab stayed more in vegetated boulders compared to unvegetated boulders or sandy habitats. There was an interactive effect between the presence of prey and crab population density with prey availability increasing the crab's affinity towards less favored habitats when population densities were low. Increased aggression between crab individuals increased their affinity towards otherwise less occupied habitats. Less favored habitats were typically inhabited by smaller individuals and presence of prey increased occupancy of some habitats for larger crabs. The experiment demonstrated that the crab may inhabit a large variety of habitats with stronger affinity towards boulder fields covered with the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus. This implies stronger impact of crab in such habitats in the invaded ecosystem.

  18. New insights into the structure and stratigraphy of the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea sedimentary Basin from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Erlström, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    A large dataset originally acquired by the Swedish Oil Prospecting CO. (OPAB) between 1970 and 1990 including 2D marine seismic data, well log data, core data and seismic interpretations has recently been made available by the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU). In this study this dataset has been used to produce a set of regional geoseismic sections across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. Regional depth structure maps detailing the deep structure of the basin produced from previous interpretations are also presented. The Baltic Sea Basin is an intra-cratonic basin located in northern Europe. The Swedish sector of the basin is characterised primarily by two structural elements, the Hanö Bay Basin and the Baltic Syneclise. The largest of these, the Baltic Syneclise, is a large synclinal depression formed during the Caledonian Orogeny. The Hanö Bay Basin was formed during the Mesozoic due to subsidence along the Christiansø Fault Zone. The Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin is primarily characterised by a sequence of shallow marine Cambrian sediments overlain by a relatively thin succession of Ordovician marine limestone and marls; these are in turn overlain by a thick layer of marl, siltstone and claystone deposited during the Silurian. Mesozoic sediments are found in the Hanö Bay and outer Hanö Bay area. These were deposited in areas of local subsidence, associated with transtensional tectonics prevalent within and adjacent to the Tornquist Zone, during the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian. Block faulting occurring throughout the Mesozoic also affected sedimentation patterns in the area. In this study a sparse grid of marine seismic reflection profiles have been reprocessed across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin. These have been interpreted based on the available well data and synthetic seismograms. Several regional seismic profiles were constructed which detail the major structural elements and basin stratigraphy across the Swedish sector. A

  19. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  20. Restoration in northern Lake Gehu, a eutrophic lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Wenchao; Pan, Jizheng; Ma, Shuzhan; Chen, Bingfa; He, Shangwei

    2017-02-01

    Lake Gehu is a severely eutrophic lake in southeast China. A series of restoration measures have been implemented since 2009 in northern Lake Gehu. This study compared aquatic plants, water quality, sediment, and phytoplankton between restoration and control areas to investigate the effect of restoration measures. The results demonstrated that aquatic macrophyte coverage increased from 0% to 10.6%; mean TP, TN, and CODMn concentrations increased by 50.0%, 42.4%, and 40.8%, respectively, compared with those before the measures were carried out; the mean Secchi depth (SD) increased to 42.5 cm, which is 1.4 times higher than that before restoration; the mean euphotic depth (Zeu) in the summer increased from 91 to 130 cm; the mean chl a concentration decreased from 34.8 to 20.2 μg/L, compared with that before restoration; the Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton increased by 28.7%. The mean TP and TN concentrations in sediments decreased by 63.8% and 52.4%, respectively, compared with that before dredging. These results indicate that the restoration in northern Lake Gehu was effective. To complete the transformation from an algae- to a macrophyte-stable state within the region, further measures must be adopted. This restoration of a eutrophic lake can serve as a reference for similar eutrophic lakes.

  1. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  2. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  3. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Bier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  4. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar age of Early Carboniferous dolerite sills in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Motuza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Early Carboniferous magmatic event in the southern Baltic Sea is manifested by dolerite intrusions. The presumable area in which the dolerite intrusions occur ranges from 30 to 60 km in east–west direction, and is about 100 km in north–south direction. The dolerites were sampled in well D1-1 and investigated by applying chemical analysis and 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating. Dolerites are classified as alkali and sodic, characterized by high TiO2 (3.92, 3.99 wt% and P2O5 (1.67, 1.77 wt% and low MgO (4.89, 4.91 wt% concentrations, enriched in light rare earth elements, originated from an enriched mantle magma source and emplaced in a continental rift tectonic setting. The 351 ± 11 Ma 40Ar/39Ar plateau age for groundmass plagioclase indicates a considerable age gap with the 310–250 Ma magmatism in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany. The magmatic rocks in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin are coeval with alkaline intrusions of NE Poland. Both magmatic provinces lie in the northwestward prolongation of the Pripyat–Dnieper–Donetsk Rift (370–359 Ma and may constitute a later phase of magmatic activity of this propagating rift system.

  5. Response of water temperature to surface wave effects in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The effects of wind waves on the Baltic Sea water temperature has been studied by coupling the hydrodynamical model NEMO with the wave model WAM. The wave forcing terms that have been taken into consideration are: Stokes-Coriolis force, seastate dependent energy flux and sea-state dependent momentum flux. The combined role of these processes as well as their individual contributions on simulated temperature is analysed. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwellinǵs. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data. The warming is primarily caused by sea-state dependent energy flux. Wave induced cooling is mostly observed in near coastal areas and is mainly due to Stokes-Coriolis forcing. The latter triggers effect of intensifying upwellings near the coasts, depending on the direction of the wind. The effect of sea-state dependent momentum flux is predominantly to warm the surface layer. During the summer the wave induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C.

  6. Study of aquatic macrophytes in the wetlands on the territory of Vrachanski Balkan nature park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valčev Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An overall study of the species composition and abundance of macrophytes in all open water bodies of a large protected territory was made for the first time in Bulgaria. Four high-mountain eutrophic lakes and the upper stretches of three rivers within the boundaries of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park were investigated. Thirty-nine macrophyte species (higher plants and mosses were identified scattered around, or forming more or less distinct vegetation groups. Three of the lakes are new for the country locations of the species Elatine alsinastrum and Peplis portula. The processes of eutrophication are more advanced in the lakes. The habitats formed around the investigated water bodies have been determined. They are three habitats of European Community interest for Bulgaria. The major threats for the investigated wetlands on the territory of the Park are pointed out.

  7. Cadmium and chromium removal kinetics from solution by two aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñe, N; Sánchez, G; Caffaratti, S; Maine, M A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine chromium and cadmium bioaccumulation processes of two free-floating macrophytes commonly used in wetlands for water treatment: Salvinia herzogii and Pistia stratiotes. Metal removal from the solution involves two stages: a fast one and a slow one. The fast stage of the Cd uptake is significantly different for each species, while it is not significantly different in Cr uptake. The most important processes of Cd uptake are biological ones in S. herzogii and adsorption, chelation and ionic exchange are in P. stratiotes. The main processes of Cr uptake in both macrophytes are adsorption, chelation and ion exchange. The slow stage is different for each species and metal. Cr precipitation induced by roots occurs in P. stratiotes. Cr uptake through leaves is probably the main cause of the increase of Cr in the aerial parts of S. herzogii.

  8. Removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics from swine wastewater by a constructed macrophyte floating bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Qiming; Hu, Lixia; Chen, Hancheng; Chang, Zhizhou; Zou, Huixian

    2010-12-01

    The potential of three varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Dryan, Tachimasari and Waseyutaka, to improve the water quality of swine wastewater was evaluated using a constructed macrophyte floating bed system. With respect to reductions in levels of nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAs, including sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole), Dryan performed better than Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. For Dryan, total N was reduced by 84.0%, total P by 90.4%, COD by 83.4% and sulfonamide antimicrobials by 91.8-99.5%. Similar results were observed for Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. The results indicated that the treatment of swine wastewater using the constructed macrophyte floating bed system was effective in the removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics.

  9. Aquatic macrophytes from Danube Delta lagoons Musura Bay and Zatonul Mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava D.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Danube Delta, a unique, young and continuing to grow region situated in the eastern part of Europe, is the largest continuous marshland and the second largest delta on the continent, and also a favorable place for developing a unique flora and fauna in Europe, with many rare and protected species. The predominance of the aquatic environment, led to the existence of a particular macrophytic flora. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of aquatic macrophytes. The present study took place over two years, between 2013-2014, and in each year a number of expeditions were made in the two lagoons (Musura Bay and Zătonul Mare in different seasons, in order to observe the diverse flora, because, due to seasonal variation in water quality, there might be a significantly seasonality of the vegetation also.

  10. THE POSITION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY ON THE BALTIC REPUBLICS’ (LATVIA, LITHUANIA, ESTONIA JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Dmitrievna Portnyagina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the EU in 2004 was of great significance not only for the EU members, but for the Russian Federation as the candidates were former USSR republics and countries that had been under the influence of the USSR.  The purpose of this article is to uncover the attitude of Russian and German officials to Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The study uses the methods of historicism and objectivity as its basis. A regional approach that describes the development of the region into global political process is used.The author proves that Russia has underestimated the consequence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The Russian Federation made the hasty judgement that the Baltic countries’ joining the EU would automatically solve the bilateral problems in relations between Russia, Latvia, Lithiania and Estonia. Russian politicians failed to detect negative economic consequences, which the Baltic states’ joining the European Union brought about. The position of the German government was ambiguous. It was impacted by the obligations within its role as the ‘motor’ of European integration, but also had to consider the direct interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.  The German ruling coalition by morally supporting the intention of the Baltic Republics to join the EU delegated the role of an ‘advocate’ of newly independent republics to the northern European countries while taking the right to defend primarily national interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.The materials of the study can be used for further research of the history of the Baltic Region, in lectures and special courses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-32

  11. Sea ice in the Baltic Sea - revisiting BASIS ice, a~historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.

    2014-06-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal sea, situated in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by sea ice, the local weather services have been monitoring sea ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today Finish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice types), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for sea ice in the Baltic Sea. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website www.baltic-ocean.org hosts the post-prossed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science PANGEA (doi:10.1594/PANGEA.832353).

  12. Sea ice in the Baltic Sea - revisiting BASIS ice, a historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal sea in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by sea ice, the local weather services have been monitoring sea ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961 to 1978/1979. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised in 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice types), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for sea ice in the Baltic Sea. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website http://www.baltic-ocean.org hosts the post-processed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.832353).

  13. Petroleum source rock evaluation of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales (Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician) in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression (eastern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Kotarba, Maciej J.; Piestrzyński, Adam; Shogenova, Alla; Więcław, Dariusz

    2017-03-01

    We present geochemical characteristics of the Lower Palaeozoic shales deposited in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression. In the study area, this strata are represented by the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Alum Shale recognized in southern Scandinavia and Polish offshore and a equivalent the Lower Tremadocian Dictyonema Shale from the northern Estonia and the Podlasie Depression in Poland. Geochemical analyses reveal that the Alum Shale and Dictyonema Shale present high contents of organic carbon. These deposits have the best source quality among the Lower Palaeozoic strata, and they are the best source rocks in the Baltic region. The bituminous shales complex has TOC contents up to ca. 22 wt%. The analysed rocks contain low-sulphur, oil-prone Type-II kerogen deposited in anoxic or sub-oxic conditions. The maturity of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales changes gradually, from the east and north-east to the west and south-west, i.e. in the direction of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. Samples, located in the seashore of Estonia and in the Podlasie region, are immature and in the initial phase of "oil window". The mature shales were found in the central offshore part of the Polish Baltic Basin, and the late mature and overmature are located in the western part of the Baltic Basin. The Alum and Dictyonema Shales are characterized by a high grade of radioactive elements, especially uranium. The enrichment has a syngenetic or early diagenetic origin. The measured content of uranium reached up to 750 ppm and thorium up to 37 ppm.

  14. Petroleum source rock evaluation of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales (Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician) in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression (eastern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Kotarba, Maciej J.; Piestrzyński, Adam; Shogenova, Alla; Więcław, Dariusz

    2016-05-01

    We present geochemical characteristics of the Lower Palaeozoic shales deposited in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression. In the study area, this strata are represented by the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Alum Shale recognized in southern Scandinavia and Polish offshore and a equivalent the Lower Tremadocian Dictyonema Shale from the northern Estonia and the Podlasie Depression in Poland. Geochemical analyses reveal that the Alum Shale and Dictyonema Shale present high contents of organic carbon. These deposits have the best source quality among the Lower Palaeozoic strata, and they are the best source rocks in the Baltic region. The bituminous shales complex has TOC contents up to ca. 22 wt%. The analysed rocks contain low-sulphur, oil-prone Type-II kerogen deposited in anoxic or sub-oxic conditions. The maturity of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales changes gradually, from the east and north-east to the west and south-west, i.e. in the direction of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. Samples, located in the seashore of Estonia and in the Podlasie region, are immature and in the initial phase of "oil window". The mature shales were found in the central offshore part of the Polish Baltic Basin, and the late mature and overmature are located in the western part of the Baltic Basin. The Alum and Dictyonema Shales are characterized by a high grade of radioactive elements, especially uranium. The enrichment has a syngenetic or early diagenetic origin. The measured content of uranium reached up to 750 ppm and thorium up to 37 ppm.

  15. Polyphenols with algicidal activity in the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum Spicatum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Elisabeth; Sütfeld, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    The role of phenols as defence mechanisms in various terrestrial plants is well studied. However, in aquatic environments, they are probably involved also in the chemical interactions between species. A periodic shift from dominance by submerged macrophytes to dominance by phytoplankton and vice versa without apparent change in the external nutrient loading is sometimes observed in shallow eutrophic lakes. Due to the fact that nutrient levels are not usually limiting to phytoplankton growth, ...

  16. Comparability of river quality assessment using macrophytes: a multi-step procedure to overcome biogeographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, F C; Segurado, P; Urbanič, G; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Ciadamidaro, S; Dörflinger, G; Ferreira, J; Germ, M; Manolaki, P; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Ferreira, M T

    2014-04-01

    This paper exposes a new methodological approach to solve the problem of intercalibrating river quality national methods when a common metric is lacking and most of the countries share the same Water Framework Directive (WFD) assessment method. We provide recommendations for similar works in future concerning the assessment of ecological accuracy and highlight the importance of a good common ground to make feasible the scientific work beyond the intercalibration. The approach herein presented was applied to highly seasonal rivers of the Mediterranean Geographical Intercalibration Group for the Biological Quality Element Macrophytes. The Mediterranean Group of river macrophytes involved seven countries and two assessment methods with similar acquisition data and assessment concept: the Macrophyte Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR) for Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, and the River Macrophyte Index (RMI) for Slovenia. Database included 318 sites of which 78 were considered as benchmarks. The boundary harmonization was performed for common WFD-assessment methods (all countries except Slovenia) using the median of the Good/Moderate and High/Good boundaries of all countries. Then, whenever possible, the Slovenian method, RMI was computed for the entire database. The IBMR was also computed for the Slovenian sites and was regressed against RMI in order to check the relatedness of methods (R(2)=0.45; p<0.00001) and to convert RMI boundaries into the IBMR scale. The boundary bias of RMI was computed using direct comparison of classification and the median boundary values following boundary harmonization. The average absolute class differences after harmonization is 26% and the percentage of classifications differing by half of a quality class is also small (16.4%). This multi-step approach to the intercalibration was endorsed by the WFD Regulatory Committee. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aquiatic macrophytes in Doñana protected area (SW Spain).

    OpenAIRE

    García Murillo, Pablo; Fernández Zamudio, María del Rosario; Cirujano Bracamonte, Santos; Sousa Martín, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    A big portion of the Doñana protected areas corresponds to wetlands; in them aquatic macrophytes are the main primary producers and play also other important ecological functions. Nevertheless, they are inconspicuous organisms and their importance in these ecosystems does not seem to be well reflected in the bibliography about this natural area. This paper reviews the most significant information gathered about this group of organisms in this protected area, provides an updated catal...

  18. Native macrophyte density and richness affect the invasiveness of a tropical poaceae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa S Michelan

    Full Text Available The role of the native species richness and density in ecosystem invasibility is a matter of concern for both ecologists and managers. We tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Urochloa arrecta (non-native in the Neotropics is negatively affected by the species richness and abundance of native aquatic macrophytes in freshwater ecosystems. We first created four levels of macrophyte richness in a greenhouse (richness experiment, and we then manipulated the densities of the same native species in a second experiment (density experiment. When the native macrophytes were adults, fragments of U. arrecta were added, and their growth was assessed. Our results from the richness experiment corroborated the hypothesis of a negative relationship between the native species richness and the growth of U. arrecta, as measured by sprout length and root biomass. However, the resistance to invasion was not attributed to the presence of a particular native species with a greater competitive ability. In the density experiment, U. arrecta growth decreased significantly with an increased density of all five of the native species. Density strongly affected the performance of the Poaceae in a negative manner, suggesting that patches that are densely colonized by native macrophytes and less subject to disturbances will be more resistant to invasion than those that are poorly colonized and more commonly subjected to disturbances. Our density experiment also showed that some species exhibit a higher competitive ability than others (sampling effect. Although native richness and abundance clearly limit the colonization and establishment of U. arrecta, these factors cannot completely prevent the invasion of aquatic ecosystems by this Poaceae species.

  19. Native macrophyte density and richness affect the invasiveness of a tropical poaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelan, Thaisa S; Thomaz, Sidinei M; Bini, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The role of the native species richness and density in ecosystem invasibility is a matter of concern for both ecologists and managers. We tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Urochloa arrecta (non-native in the Neotropics) is negatively affected by the species richness and abundance of native aquatic macrophytes in freshwater ecosystems. We first created four levels of macrophyte richness in a greenhouse (richness experiment), and we then manipulated the densities of the same native species in a second experiment (density experiment). When the native macrophytes were adults, fragments of U. arrecta were added, and their growth was assessed. Our results from the richness experiment corroborated the hypothesis of a negative relationship between the native species richness and the growth of U. arrecta, as measured by sprout length and root biomass. However, the resistance to invasion was not attributed to the presence of a particular native species with a greater competitive ability. In the density experiment, U. arrecta growth decreased significantly with an increased density of all five of the native species. Density strongly affected the performance of the Poaceae in a negative manner, suggesting that patches that are densely colonized by native macrophytes and less subject to disturbances will be more resistant to invasion than those that are poorly colonized and more commonly subjected to disturbances. Our density experiment also showed that some species exhibit a higher competitive ability than others (sampling effect). Although native richness and abundance clearly limit the colonization and establishment of U. arrecta, these factors cannot completely prevent the invasion of aquatic ecosystems by this Poaceae species.

  20. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO DETECT ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES ON GREEN ALGAE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt Nee Körner, Sabine; Beutler, Eike; Bauer, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    Detecting allelopathic inhibition of phytoplankton by submerged macrophytes in an ecologically meaningful way is not easy. Multiple-approach investigations from a laboratory scale to the ecosystem level have been recommended to overcome the shortcomings of individual methods. Whether results of different methods are qualitatively or quantitatively comparable has not yet been tested. Here, we compare the sensitivity of the green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chodat) E. Hegewald et Ant. Schmidt and Stigeoclonium helveticum Vischer to the allelopathic effect of the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum verticillatum L. The following three approaches were used: (i) coincubation of algae in dialysis membrane tubes in a lake inside and outside a M. verticillatum stand, (ii) coincubation of algae in dialysis membrane tubes in aquaria with and without M. verticillatum, and (iii) single additions of tannic acid (TA), an allelopathically active polyphenol present in this macrophyte, to the algae cultures. For each method, fluorescence-based (chl a, PSII activity) and particle-based (cell count, biovolume) parameters were compared after 48 h of incubation. Results revealed quantitative and qualitative differences between methods. Algae incubated in dialysis membrane tubes in aquaria showed a strong decrease in all parameters under the influence of macrophytes. In situ measurements were influenced by adverse growth conditions for the test algae and only detected significant reductions for biovolume. Single additions of TA induced a strong reduction of fluorescence-based parameters similar to aquarium results, but an increase in the cell count. Even the qualitative transfer of laboratory results to field conditions thus requires caution and a proper selection of parameters.

  1. Ocean Acidification Differentially Affects the Photosynthesis of Key New England Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachon, E.; Ets-Hokin, J. M.; Donham, E. M.; Price, N.

    2016-02-01

    While the influence of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on seawater chemistry is detrimental to calcification among CaCO3 reliant organisms such as commercially important shellfish species, non-calcareous macrophytes like seagrasses and seaweeds can experience enhanced growth under elevated pCO2 conditions and may be a substantial, if ephemeral, CO2 sink. Most marine macrophytes rely on enzyme conversion of HCO3- to supply the inorganic carbon necessary for photosynthesis; the ability to down-regulate this energetically expensive carbon acquisition under high pCO2 conditions could determine future species success. We exposed four commercially and ecologically relevant New England macrophytes (Saccharina latissima, Fucus vesiculosus, Ulva lactuca, and Zostera marina) to pre-industrial (280 uatm), present (400 and 520 utam - recorded in Casco Bay) and future (640, 880 and 1120 uatm - as predicted by the IPCC) pCO2 levels in 1.5 hr long respirometry assays after 72 hrs acclimation. CO2 consumption, photosynthetic quotient (Q = CO2 consumed:O2 evolved), and change in carbonate saturation state (Ωcalcite) were calculated for each sample using differences in initial and final carbonate chemistry and dissolved oxygen concentrations. All species experienced increases in rate of CO2 uptake and Q under elevated pCO2 treatments, but response level differed across species. Saccharina latissima had the greatest relative effect on all parameters measured, consuming 4 times more carbon at high pCO2 levels than the lowest performing species. While all macrophytes were able to raise Ωcalcite, the magnitude of change decreased at higher pCO2 levels, suggesting a limitation to the degree to which photosynthesis can locally raise calcification potential for sensitive native or farmed populations of shellfish in the future. The varied responses observed across species have implications for future community structures and for phytoremediation efforts.

  2. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  3. Toxicity of Zinc on Growth of an Aquatic Macrophyte, Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

    OpenAIRE

    Laitonjam Bedabati Chanu; Abhik Gupta

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of Zn on growth of an aquatic macrophyte, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. were studied. Fresh weight, dry weight, shoot length, root length, number of nodes, development of leaves, and chlorophyll and carotene contents were the different growth parameters considered. Toxicity symptoms like browning and decaying of roots could be observed in plants treated at 22.7 mg L-1 Zn as early as 3rd day of experiment while yellowing of older leaves appeared during the lat...

  4. Macrophytes of the Grlište reservoir (Serbia): Fifteen years after its establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Ž.; Borišev M.; Simić Slobodanka; Vučković Milijana; Igić Ružica; Vidović Milka; Miljanović B.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of macrophytes, often in dense populations, have developed on the Grlište Reservoir, Serbia over a period of 15 years. Fast development of vegetation is a consequence of anthropogenic impact in lake management. The methodology used in this research covered 100% of the water body, including all areas with or without aquatic plants. The results indicate that plant communities are still in the early phase of development. This leaves space for future development of competitor macro...

  5. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  6. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  7. Dissolved organic phosphorus and its bioavailable fraction in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, M.; Nausch, G.; Setzkorn, D.; Welz, Ä.

    2009-04-01

    In general, it is accepted that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) is besides dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) a source for phosphorus nutrition of phyto- and bacterioplankton. If available, DIP is usually preferred to DOP. DOP becomes the most important source under DIP depleted conditions occurring in the Baltic Sea in summer. However, its contribution to nutrition and consequently its significance is very difficult to appraise because only the bioavailable fraction (BAP = bioavailable phosphorus) can be used by organisms. DOP comprises also inert compounds which persist over longer periods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to quantify the bioavailable DOP. In 2004 and 2005, DOP and BAP concentrations were detected in surface water at three stations in the central Baltic Sea from May until July. In June/July 2008 an intensive measuring campaign was performed throughout the whole Baltic Sea. DOP measurements were done from the entrance to the North Sea in the West until the innermost parts of the Gulf of Bothnia in the North and the Gulf of Finland in the East. BAP was determined at 14 stations in the central and northern parts. DOP was determined using the alkaline potassium peroxidisulphate oxidation method followed by the manual DIP determination. BAP has been detected in time course experiments using 0.8 µm filtered sea water containing free-living heterotrophic bacteria and amended with 7 µM ammonium chloride and 1mg l-1 D-(+) glucosemonohydrate to prevent nitrogen and carbon limitation and increase the phosphorus demand in bacteria. BAP is defined as that proportion of DOP which is used by bacteria and calculated as the difference of DOP concentrations at the beginning and the lowest concentrations during an incubation for 4-6 days. In 2004 and 2005, most DOP concentrations ranged between 0.18 and 0.32 µM, with a declining tendency from spring to summer probably due to elevated uptake compared to its release caused by higher temperatures and DIP

  8. Cellulase and xylanase activity during the decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes in a tropical oxbow lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sciessere

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91 and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8 during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia sp., Eichhornia azurea and Cyperus giganteus on the surface and water-sediment interface (w-s interface of an oxbow lagoon (Óleo lagoon within a natural Brazilian Savanna Reserve. Overall, the enzymatic degradation of aquatic macrophytes in Óleo lagoon occurred during the whole year and was initiated together with leaching. Xylanase production was ca. 5 times higher than cellulase values due to easy access to this compound by cellulolytic microorganisms. Enzymatic production and detritus mass decay were similar on the surface and w-s interface. Salvinia sp. was the most recalcitrant detritus, with low mass decay and enzymatic activity. E. azurea and C. giganteus decomposition rates and enzymatic production were high and similar. Due to the physicochemical homogeneity observed in the Óleo lagoon, the differences between the decay rates of each species are mostly related with detritus chemical quality.

  9. Kinetics of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal from water by two floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, M A; Hadad, H R; Sánchez, G; Caffaratti, S; Pedro, M C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal kinetics from water by Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia herzogii. The accumulation in plant tissues and the effects of both Cr forms on plant growth were also evaluated. Plants were exposed to 2 and 6 mg L(-1) of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) during 30 days. At the end of the experiment, Cr(VI) removal percentages were significantly lower than those obtained for Cr(III) for both macrophytes. Cr(III) removal kinetics involved a fast and a slow component. The fast component was primarily responsible for Cr(III) removal while Cr(VI) removal kinetics involved only a slow process. Cr accumulated principally in the roots. In the Cr(VI) treatments a higher translocation from roots to aerial parts than in Cr(III) treatments was observed. Both macrophytes demonstrated a high ability to remove Cr(III) but not Cr(VI). Cr(III) inhibited the growth at the highest studied concentration of both macrophytes while Cr(VI) caused senescence. These results have important implications in the use of constructed wetlands for secondary industrial wastewater treatment. Common primary treatments of effluents containing Cr(VI) consists in its reduction to Cr(III). Cr(III) concentrations in these effluents are normally below the highest studied concentrations in this work.

  10. Assessment of the Potential Biological Activity of Low Molecular Weight Metabolites of Freshwater Macrophytes with QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kurashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the assessment of the spectrum of biological activities (antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial with PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances for the major components of three macrophytes widespread in the Holarctic species of freshwater, emergent macrophyte with floating leaves, Nuphar lutea (L. Sm., and two species of submergent macrophyte groups, Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton obtusifolius (Mert. et Koch, for the discovery of their ecological and pharmacological potential. The predicted probability of anti-inflammatory or antineoplastic activities above 0.8 was observed for twenty compounds. The same compounds were also characterized by high probability of antifungal and antibacterial activity. Six metabolites, namely, hexanal, pentadecanal, tetradecanoic acid, dibutyl phthalate, hexadecanoic acid, and manool, were a part of the major components of all three studied plants, indicating their high ecological significance and a certain universalism in their use by various species of water plants for the implementation of ecological and biochemical functions. This report underlines the role of identified compounds not only as important components in regulation of biochemical and metabolic pathways and processes in aquatic ecological systems, but also as potential pharmacological agents in the fight against different diseases.

  11. Assessment of the Potential Biological Activity of Low Molecular Weight Metabolites of Freshwater Macrophytes with QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashov, Evgeny A; Fedorova, Elena V; Krylova, Julia V; Mitrukova, Galina G

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the assessment of the spectrum of biological activities (antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial) with PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) for the major components of three macrophytes widespread in the Holarctic species of freshwater, emergent macrophyte with floating leaves, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., and two species of submergent macrophyte groups, Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton obtusifolius (Mert. et Koch), for the discovery of their ecological and pharmacological potential. The predicted probability of anti-inflammatory or antineoplastic activities above 0.8 was observed for twenty compounds. The same compounds were also characterized by high probability of antifungal and antibacterial activity. Six metabolites, namely, hexanal, pentadecanal, tetradecanoic acid, dibutyl phthalate, hexadecanoic acid, and manool, were a part of the major components of all three studied plants, indicating their high ecological significance and a certain universalism in their use by various species of water plants for the implementation of ecological and biochemical functions. This report underlines the role of identified compounds not only as important components in regulation of biochemical and metabolic pathways and processes in aquatic ecological systems, but also as potential pharmacological agents in the fight against different diseases.

  12. Cadmium and chromium removal kinetics from solution by two aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sune, N. [Quimica Analitica-Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), U.N.L. Sgo del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Quimica Analitica-Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), U.N.L. Sgo del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Caffaratti, S. [Quimica Analitica-Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), U.N.L. Sgo del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Maine, M.A. [Quimica Analitica-Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), U.N.L. Sgo del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)]. E-mail: amaine@fiqus.unl.edu.ar

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this work was to determine chromium and cadmium bioaccumulation processes of two free-floating macrophytes commonly used in wetlands for water treatment: Salvinia herzogii and Pistia stratiotes. Metal removal from the solution involves two stages: a fast one and a slow one. The fast stage of the Cd uptake is significantly different for each species, while it is not significantly different in Cr uptake. The most important processes of Cd uptake are biological ones in S. herzogii and adsorption, chelation and ionic exchange are in P. stratiotes. The main processes of Cr uptake in both macrophytes are adsorption, chelation and ion exchange. The slow stage is different for each species and metal. Cr precipitation induced by roots occurs in P. stratiotes. Cr uptake through leaves is probably the main cause of the increase of Cr in the aerial parts of S. herzogii. - Cd uptake processes are biological processes in S. herzogii and adsorption, chelation and ionic exchange are in P. stratiotes, whereas Cr uptake processes in both macrophytes are adsorption, chelation and ion exchange.

  13. Assessment of the Potential Biological Activity of Low Molecular Weight Metabolites of Freshwater Macrophytes with QSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Elena V.; Krylova, Julia V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the assessment of the spectrum of biological activities (antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial) with PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) for the major components of three macrophytes widespread in the Holarctic species of freshwater, emergent macrophyte with floating leaves, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., and two species of submergent macrophyte groups, Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton obtusifolius (Mert. et Koch), for the discovery of their ecological and pharmacological potential. The predicted probability of anti-inflammatory or antineoplastic activities above 0.8 was observed for twenty compounds. The same compounds were also characterized by high probability of antifungal and antibacterial activity. Six metabolites, namely, hexanal, pentadecanal, tetradecanoic acid, dibutyl phthalate, hexadecanoic acid, and manool, were a part of the major components of all three studied plants, indicating their high ecological significance and a certain universalism in their use by various species of water plants for the implementation of ecological and biochemical functions. This report underlines the role of identified compounds not only as important components in regulation of biochemical and metabolic pathways and processes in aquatic ecological systems, but also as potential pharmacological agents in the fight against different diseases. PMID:27200207

  14. Microbial communities in marine sediments modify success of an invasive macrophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribben, Paul E; Nielsen, Shaun; Seymour, Justin R; Bradley, Daniel J; West, Matthew N; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-08-29

    Invasive plants have extensive impacts on ecosystem function and biodiversity globally. Our inability to manage invasive species stems in part from a lack of understanding of the processes that control their successful establishment and spread. To date, studies have largely considered how above-ground processes control native/invasive plant interactions. Emerging research from terrestrial and wetland ecosystems demonstrates that below-ground processes under microbial control can determine the outcome of interactions between native and invasive plants. Whether sediment microbes modify the success of invasive macrophytes in marine ecosystems is untested, despite marine sediment microbes controlling many ecological processes (e.g. nutrient cycling) comparable to those in terrestrial ecosystems. We first show that sediment bacterial communities differ between the native seagrass Zostera capricorni and the invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia and that those differences relate to functional changes in sulfur cycling between the macrophytes. Second, by experimentally manipulating the microbial communities we show that intact microbial communities in Z. capricorni sediments provide biotic resistance by reducing C. taxifolia fragment growth 119% compared to when they are inactive, and intact microbial communities in C. taxifolia sediments have positive feedbacks by increasing fragment growth 200%. Thus, similar to terrestrial ecosystems, microorganisms appear to indirectly control the success of invasive macrophytes in marine ecosystems.

  15. Habitat selection by three littoral zone fishes: effects of predation pressure, plant density and macrophyte type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, J.H.; McIvor, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments which demonstrated that three littoral zone fishes differentially selected among three macrophytes when seeking refuge from predation. In the presence of a predator (a juvenile Micropterus salmoides), mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna). and dollar sunfish (Lepomis marginatus) displayed ferential use of four tank areas containing patches of either Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton illinoensis, Panicum hemitomon, or no plants. Patterns habitat selection, and the consistency of these patterns among replicates, differed among the three fishes and among three plant-density treatments - natural (each macrophyte presented at its mean field density), equal (all three macrophytes at the same density), and control (no plants). Selection for H. verticillata by mosquitofish was significant for both the equal and natural treatments, and thus was not caused by differences in plant density alone. Sailfin mollies displayed significant selection for H. verticillata only in the natural plant-density treatments. Dollar sunfish showed less consistent habitat selection than either mosquitofish or sailfin mollies. Significant habitat selection was not found in the absence of a predator, and there was no evidence for lection among the tank areas in control treatments. Patterns of habitat selection by the three fishes in our laboratory study corresponded to observed habitat use in Lake Okeechobee.

  16. An invasion risk map for non-native aquatic macrophytes of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argantonio Rodríguez-Merino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater systems are particularly susceptible to non-native organisms, owing to their high sensitivity to the impacts that are caused by these organisms. Species distribution models, which are based on both environmental and socio-economic variables, facilitate the identification of the most vulnerable areas for the spread of non-native species. We used MaxEnt to predict the potential distribution of 20 non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula. Some selected variables, such as the temperature seasonality and the precipitation in the driest quarter, highlight the importance of the climate on their distribution. Notably, the human influence in the territory appears as a key variable in the distribution of studied species. The model discriminated between favorable and unfavorable areas with high accuracy. We used the model to build an invasion risk map of aquatic macrophytes for the Iberian Peninsula that included results from 20 individual models. It showed that the most vulnerable areas are located near to the sea, the major rivers basins, and the high population density areas. These facts suggest the importance of the human impact on the colonization and distribution of non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula, and more precisely agricultural development during the Green Revolution at the end of the 70’s. Our work also emphasizes the utility of species distribution models for the prevention and management of biological invasions.

  17. Epiphytic bacterial communities on two common submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake: diversity and host-specificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dan; REN Lijuan; WU Qinglong

    2012-01-01

    Leaves of terrestrial and aquatic plants are home to a wide diversity of bacterial species.However,the diversity and variability of epiphytic bacteria on their submerged plant hosts remains poorly understood.We investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytic bacteria from two common submerged macrophytes:Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata in Taihu Lake,Jiangsu,China,using methods of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and clone library analyses targeted at bacterial 16S rRNA genes.The results show that:(1) the libraries of the two waterweeds contain wide phylogenetic distribution of bacteria,and that the sequences of the two libraries can be separated into 93 OTUs (at 97% similar value); (2) Betaproteobacteria,including Burkholderiales,was the most abundant bacterial group on both plants.Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the second largest groups on V.natans and H.verticillata,respectively.Both clone libraries included some sequences related to those of methanotrophs and nitrogen-fixing bacteria; (3) Cluster analysis of the T-RFLP profiles showed two distinct clusters corresponding to the two plant populations.Both ANOSIM of the T-RFLPdata and Libshuff analysis of the two clone libraries indicated a significant difference in epiphytic bacterial communities between the two plants.Therefore,the epiphytic bacterial communities on submerged macrophytes appear to be diverse and host-specific,which may aid in understanding the ecological functions of submerged macrophytes in general.

  18. NORTHERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inertia, water balance, physiological strength, and susceptibility to predation between adults .... Judd PW and Rose FL 1977 Aspects of the thermal biology of the Texas tortoise ... pctrdolis lmheoeki) and their conservation in northern Tanzania.

  19. Change of climate pattern in the Baltic States using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethere, Liga; Sennikovs, Juris; Bethers, Uldis

    2017-04-01

    correlated with the precipitation variables in spring and summer but also with the temperature in spring. High values of PC3 imply wet regions - with more prominent rain and rapid snow melt in spring. The spatial distribution shows similarities to the yearly precipitation patterns reported in literature. In the second part of work we analyzed the climate for years 2071-2100. First, it was observed that in the future the precipitation variation is increased and the temperature variation is decreased. Second, we used the loadings of the principal components from the first part of this work (past climate) to calculate the climate indices for the future periods. The indices acquired using this approach had similar correlation coefficients with the initial variables. When compared with the past climate, the PC2 values in future mainly increase in the seaside region and in the northern part of Baltic countries while slightly decrease in the southern part. The PC3 also mainly shows increase in the coastal region with very minimal changes for the rest of the map. There is little change for the PC1 component.

  20. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  1. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  2. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2016-01-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies......, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern...

  3. Reinventing the Baltic Sea Region: From the Hansa to the Eu-Strategy of 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael North

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The political changes of 1989 stimulated a new perception and perspective of the Baltic Sea Region. And this gained momentum with the Eastern Enlargement of the EU. The new situation encouraged research as well. In this context the “Baltic Sea” is not an unchangeable physical setting, but also a construction of different actors or protagonists. People and powers continuously reinvent the Baltic Sea Region. That is why; the following paper focuses on the different notions of the Baltic Sea Region from the Middle Ages up to now and also examines the recent EU-Strategy of this region.

  4. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  5. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  6. ARCHITECTURE OF THE ESTLYANDSKAYA PROVINCE – A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND THE BASE OF N.M. SOKOLOV’s CREATIVE METHOD (the main milestones of the architect’s biography in the context of the Baltic Region architecture development in terms of cult architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmirskaya A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available N. M. Sokolov was the chief architect of Rostov-on-Don city and as well as the author of the concept of architectural preferences continuity of a "brick style" at the end of XIX- beginning XX centuries that is presented in the article. The author assumes that the creative method of the architect was affected by the childhood and youth when he lived in Baltic and the beginning of architectural and art activity of the master taking place in Riga. The author investigates the architectural development of the Baltic region, taking in attention that the value of N. M. Sokolov’s architectural creations has deep roots hidden in the development of architectural tradition of Baltic and in particular Riga where the master of a neogothic style of Rostov was born. The author reveals the main distinctive features of the Baltic architecture, the Gothic principle formation in the Baltic in terms of development of cities and cult sights of Riga and their transformation from the late Gothic into mannerism and neogothic style, the influence of cult Lutheran tradition on cult orthodox architecture. The author also considers construction materials of cult architecture, local design features of architecture of the Latvian people. The concepts "northern gothic style", "brick style" are revealed from the point of view of development of a Gothic form and influence of Medieval architecture on N. M. Sokolov's creativity

  7. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  8. Identification of gymnodimine D and presence of gymnodimine variants in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Kirsi; Koskela, Harri; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Miles, Christopher O; Krock, Bernd; Vanninen, Paula

    2016-03-15

    Gymnodimines are lipophilic toxins produced by the marine dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Currently four gymnodimine analogues are known and characterized. Here we describe a novel gymnodimine and a range of gymnodimine related compounds found in an A. ostenfeldii isolate from the northern Baltic Sea. Gymnodimine D (1) was extracted and purified from clonal cultures, and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) experiments. The structure of 1 is related to known gymnodimines (2-5) with a six-membered cyclic imine ring and several other fragments typical of gymnodimines. However, the carbon chain in the gymnodimine macrocyclic ring differs from the known gymnodimines in having two tetrahydrofuran rings in the macrocyclic ring.

  9. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    of arctic waters. Warm and saline conditions of 15–20 psu or more, at least twice present levels, persisted throughout the early Eemian. A rise in sea level at Licze appears to correlate with a similar event in eastern Denmark, as both coincide with the increase in Corylus (ca. 750 years...... into the interglacial). This sea-level rise might therefore have a basinwide extent, and has been attributed to an opening of the Danish Belts. Whereas dinoflagellate cysts reflect sustained high salinites within the upper water column, a concomitant increase in abundance of the chlorococcalean alga Pediastrum within......A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...

  10. On the systematic position of Electrocrania Kusnezov, 1941 with the description of a new species from Baltic amber (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Michael

    2015-11-19

    A new fossil species of Electrocrania Kusnezov is described, i.e. Electrocrania michalskii sp. nov. The male moth in Baltic amber is in a sufficiently good condition to allow its assignment to the family Micropterigidae on the basis of four re-cognized autapomorphies of this family (Kristensen 1998). The unique venation of the specimen places it in the genus Electrocrania stat. rev. and allows a redescription of that genus that has recently been treated as synonym of Micropterix Hübner. It is argued that Electrocrania is a distinct genus within Micropterigidae that is not associated with Micropterix, but probably can be assigned to the "Northern Hemisphere genera"-lineage of Micropterigidae.

  11. Effects of Habitat and Human Activities on Species Richness and Assemblages of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in the Baltic Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Irmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the staphylind fauna was studied in six habitats of the Baltic Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany. The following habitats lagoon, sandy beach, shingle beach, primary dune, wooded cliff, and woodless cliff were significantly separated by their species composition. Vegetation and soil moisture were the most important factors separating the assemblages. Lagoons exhibited the most species-rich habitat. Sandy beaches provided the highest number of endangered species. Both sandy beaches and woodless cliffs showed the highest number of exclusive species. A loss of species was determined in the gradient from sandy to shingle beaches. Few species preferred shingle beaches; abundance of Cafius xantholoma increased with the increasing amount of shingle. More species preferred the sandy conditions, for example, Polystomota grisea, P. punctatella, and Phytosus spinifer. Anotylus insecatus and Bledius defensus require distinct mixtures of sand and silt on woodless cliffs. Tourist impact on sandy beaches accounts for approximately 50% loss of species.

  12. Sea level rise projections for northern Europe under RCP8.5

    OpenAIRE

    Grinsted, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; R. E. M. Riva; D. Dahl-Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise poses a significant threat to coastal communities, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Sea level rise is not uniform globally but is affected by a range of regional factors. In this study, we calculate regional projections of 21st century sea level rise in northern Europe, focusing on the British Isles, the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea. The input to the regional sea level projection is a probabilistic projection of the major components of the global sea level budget. Local sea lev...

  13. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  14. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  15. Studying local earthquakes in the area Baltic-Bothnia Megashear using the data of the POLENET/LAPNET temporary array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltseva, Olga; Kozlovskaya, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Earthquakes in areas within continental plates are still not completely understood, and progress on understanding intraplate seismicity is slow due to a short history of instrumental seismology and sparse regional seismic networks in seismically non-active areas. However, knowledge about position and depth of seismogenic structures in such areas is necessary in order to estimate seismic hazard for such critical facilities such as nuclear power plants and nuclear waste deposits. In the present paper we address the problem of seismicity in the intraplate area of northern Fennoscandia using the information on local events recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET (Polar Earth Observing Network) temporary seismic array during the International Polar Year 2007-2009. We relocate the seismic events using the program HYPOELLIPS (a computer program for determining local earthquake hypocentral parameters) and grid search method. We use the first arrivals of P waves of local events in order to calculate a 3-D tomographic P wave velocity model of the uppermost crust (down to 20 km) for a selected region inside the study area and show that the velocity heterogeneities in the upper crust correlate well with known tectonic units. We compare the position of the velocity heterogeneities with the seismogenic structures delineated by epicentres of relocated events and demonstrate that these structures generally do not correlate with the crustal units formed as a result of crustal evolution in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic. On the contrary, they correlate well with the postglacial faults located in the area of the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear (BBMS). Hypocentres of local events have depths down to 30 km. We also obtain the focal mechanism of a selected event with good data quality. The focal mechanism is of oblique type with strike-slip prevailing. Our results demonstrate that the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear is an important large-scale, reactivated tectonic structure that has to be taken into

  16. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K

    1994-05-01

    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least."

  17. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants......, and concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  18. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.;

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort analysis....... Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning decreased...

  19. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations.

  20. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  1. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic–anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (may produce View the Math......ML source and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When...

  2. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  3. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  4. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  5. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  6. THE GREGARIOUS BEHAVIOR OF INVESTORS FROM BALTIC STOCK MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate market participants’ gregarious behaviour in Baltic stock markets, namely Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the period January 2003-December 2013. The herding behaviour derives from the investors’ irrationality, who trade financial assets based on their positive expectations about prices future growth, generating manias among other market participants, thus ignoring the real return rates and the risk levels of their investments.The inve...

  7. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  8. Emission Permits trade between the Nordic and Baltic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-05-01

    A bottom-up technology oriented model of the energy systems in the Nordic and Baltic countries have been constructed and used for analysing an optimal set of energy and emission trading within the region. The model used is MARKAL, which has been developed within the IEA-ETSAP. The analyses are based on national emission levels agreed on in the Kyoto protocol (and the following burden sharing negotiations within the European Union), and with an additional strengthening after 2010. Only energy related CO{sub 2} emissions are explicitly considered. Nuclear power in Sweden is assumed to be phased out. The results show that especially Norway and Sweden have large abatement costs when acting alone, whale the Baltic countries will probably not need to take domestic actions due to the Kyoto protocol if they act alone, as the restructuring of their economies in the beginning of the 1990ties cut emissions (and their economies) dramatically. It is shown that emission trading among the Nordic and Baltic countries can reduce abatement costs among the Nordic countries significantly, possibly down to a level equivalent to a world market (Annex I) permit price. Extending the Nordic common electricity market to Balticum will have minor influence on overall energy system costs. There is no pronounced direction for net electricity flow between the Nordic and Baltic countries. High marginal costs during peak hours in Balticum indicate that imports of Nordic hydro power during peak-hours could be a cost-effective option. This possibility could be implemented with a subsea AC/DC connection between Sweden and Latvia. It is politically viable to develop more hydropower in Norway, this country will be the major electricity exporter in the region, while Sweden will be the main importer. Changing scenario assumptions, i.e. no more Norwegian hydropower, but life extension of Swedish nuclear power, could change this picture. (author)

  9. Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Rajib

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibilit...

  10. The role of pH in structuring communities of Maine wetland macrophytes and chironomid larvae (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, T.S.; Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Mingo, T.M.; Bennatti, C.R.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Aquatic vascular plants, or macrophytes, are an important habitat component for many wetland organisms, and larvae of chironomid midges are ubiquitous components of wetland fauna. Many chironomids are primary consumers of algae and detritus and form an essential energetic link between allochthonous and autochthonous primary production and higher trophic levels, while others are predators and feed on smaller invertebrates. Live macrophytes serve mostly as habitat, whereas plant detritus serves as both habitat and as a food source. Assemblages of macrophytes and chironomid larvae were surveyed in ten Maine wetlands, five with low pH (5.5), and explained in terms of physical and chemical habitat variables. Macrophyte richness was significantly greater, and richness of chironomid larvae was lower, in low pH wetlands. There was no difference in chironomid abundance related to pH. However, community structure was related to pH, suggesting that competitive dominance of a few taxa was responsible for lower richness in low pH wetlands, whereas competition was weaker in high pH wetlands, making coexistence of more chironomid taxa possible. An examination of individual chironomid taxa by stepwise multiple regression showed that distribution of most taxa was controlled by water chemistry variables and macrophyte habit (i.e., floating, submergent).

  11. Fish assemblage dynamics in a Neotropical floodplain relative to aquatic macrophytes and the homogenizing effect of a flood pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L.C.; Bulla, C. K.; Agostinho, A. A.; Vasconcelos, L. P.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aquatic macrophytes is a key factor in the selection of habitats by fish in floodplain lakes because these plants enhance the physical and biological complexities of aquatic habitats. The seasonal flood pulse may influence this interaction, but there is no information in the literature about the effects that flood events may have on macrophytes assemblages and its associated effects on fish assemblages. Thus, this article aimed to investigate whether species richness, evenness and similarities in fish assemblage composition differed between littoral areas vegetated with macrophytes and unvegetated areas, before and after a flood. We sampled three lakes in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River basin. Sampling was conducted before (December 2004 and January 2005) and after (early March, late March and May 2005) a flood event. Overall, species richness and evenness were higher in macrophytes-covered areas. Before the flood, the composition of fish assemblages was distinct when comparing vegetated and unvegetated areas. After the flood, the similarity in fish assemblage composition was higher, indicating a homogenization effect of floods for fish inhabiting littoral areas of floodplain lakes. After the flood, opportunistic species dominated the fish assemblages in aquatic macrophytes, apparently restructuring assemblages in the littoral, restarting a succession process. Thus, the observed homogenization effect of the flood could minimize biological interactions and could induce fish assemblages to begin a new process of structurization.

  12. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Karen Bulla

    Full Text Available We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size. In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  13. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, C. K.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size). In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  14. Structure of the littoral fish assemblage in an impounded tributary: the effects of macrophytes presence (subtropical region, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Silva, S; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of macrophytes presence in the structure of littoral fish assemblages in the littoral zone, monthly samples were collected from September, 2006 to August, 2007 in an impounded tributary of the Itá Reservoir, the Fragosos River, located in the Upper Uruguay River Basin. Fish were collected using a beach seine and sampling was conducted in the littoral zone inside a macrophyte stand and in an area with no macrophytes. A total of 5,191 fish were captured during the study period. Fish assemblage attributes (fish abundance, species richness, and diversity) varied significantly between sampling months and areas. The abundance of Astyanax cf. bimaculatus, Astyanax fasciatus, Geophagus brasiliensis, and Gymnotus carapo also varied significantly between sampling months and areas. Detrended Correspondence Analysis showed a clear spatial segregation at the first axis and a slight temporal segregation at the second axis. These results were confirmed by Multiple Response Permutation Procedure analysis. Apparently, the presence of the aquatic macrophytes is not the only factor influencing the distribution of littoral fish assemblages in the Fragosos River. Littoral fish seem to be taking advantage of low- to medium-sized macrophyte stands, but few species used maximum-sized stands.

  15. Spatial distribution and biomass of aquatic rooted macrophytes and their relevance in the metabolism of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biel Obrador

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to characterise the current autotrophic compartment of the Albufera des Grau coastal lagoon (Menorca, Balearic Islands and to assess the relationship between the submerged macrophytes and the limnological parameters of the lagoon. During the study period the submerged vegetation was dominated by the macrophyte Ruppia cirrhosa, which formed dense extensive meadows covering 79% of the surface. Another macrophyte species, Potamogeton pectinatus, was also observed but only forming small stands near the rushing streams. Macroalgae were only occasionally observed. Macrophyte biomass showed a clear seasonal trend, with maximum values in July. The biomass of R. cirrhosa achieved 1760 g DW m-2, the highest biomass ever reported for this species in the literature. The seasonal production-decomposition cycle of the macrophyte meadows appears to drive the nutrient dynamics and carbon fluxes in the lagoon. Despite the significant biomass accumulation and the absence of a washout of nutrients and organic matter to the sea, the lagoon did not experience a dystrophic collapse. These results indicate that internal metabolism is more important than exchange processes in the lagoon.

  16. UVR induce optical changes and phosphorous release of lake water and macrophyte leachates in shallow Andean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz MODENUTTI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out laboratory experiments in order to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR on optical features and phosphorous release of Dissolved Organic Mater (DOM from lake water and macrophyte leachates. Lake water samples were obtained from lakes Escondido and El Trébol, and macrophytes (Potamogeton linguatus and Schoenoplectus californicus from their littoral zones. After UVR exposure, DOM from lake El Trébol seemed to react more quickly than that from Lake Escondido and this seems to be related with the degree of lability or aromaticity in the DOM bulk of each lake. Leachates from both macrophytes showed different absorbance spectra with differences in photochemical transformations after UVR exposure: S. californicus leachates exhibited the highest photodegradation. A significant Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP release was observed in lake water after UVR exposure. Lake El Trébol showed the highest SRP concentrations, suggesting that the release of orthophosphate was favored by low molecular weight DOM. P. linguatus leachates have more dissolved phosphorus content than S. californicus ones and after UVR exposure, P. linguatus leachate did not react to UVR while S. californicus exhibited a decrease in SRP. However both macrophyte leachates showed the higher P release in darkness. The obtained results indicated that macrophyte leachates could contribute significantly to changes in the optical characteristics and in the nutrient content in shallow Andean lakes. An increasing input of P. linguatus leachates would produce DOM of high molecular size and a higher P release than S. californicus.

  17. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M; Mebane, Christopher A; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M; Marcarelli, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, and root length) and population-level (number of plants and dry mass) responses of L. minor and community-level (ash-free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [Chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and Chl a were also greatest in P-enriched water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single-species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water-quality measures.

  18. Towards an improved mechanistic understanding of major saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Katharina; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed water body connected to the North Sea only via the shallow and narrow Danish Straits. Of special importance to the salinity and oxygen dynamics of the Baltic Sea are major Baltic inflows (or highly saline barotropic inflows), that are the only process to effectively ventilate water masses below the permanent halocline. Their occurrence is typically explained by a sequence of easterly winds over a period of several weeks followed by westerly gales during which the highly saline Kattegat water is pushed over the entrance sills. While this explanation is accurate in a descriptive sense, it does not necessarily serve as sufficient explanation for the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. Recently, attempts were made to understand major Baltic inflows in the context of large barotropic inflows and it was found that a sequence of easterly and westerly circulation types forces not only major Baltic inflows but large barotropic inflows in general. Thus, clarification on the factors that are exclusive to the formation of major Baltic inflows is needed. Based on a realistic numerical ocean model setup of the Baltic Sea system and for the period 1979-2015 we investigate on the important ingredients to the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. The analysis is based on the complete set of large barotropic inflows, and both atmospheric and oceanic factors are covered. We find that both, the salinity in the transition area between the North Sea and Baltic Sea, as well as details in the atmospheric circulation during the event, are of importance to the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. Even though excess river runoff is often held responsible for the occurrence of stagnation periods (i.e. extended periods without the occurrence of major Baltic inflows), attempts to classify its role were not made. Therefore, sensitivity experiments with the strong major Baltic inflow of December 2014 were performed, where river runoff and salinity in the transition

  19. Monthly Ensembles in Algal Bloom Predictions on the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiha, Petra; Westerlund, Antti; Stipa, Tapani

    2010-05-01

    In this work we explore the statistical features of monthly ensembles and their capability to predict biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Sea. Operational marine environmental modelling has been considered hard, and consequently there are very few operational ecological models. Operational modelling of harmful algal blooms is harder still, since it is difficult to separate the algal species in models, and in general, very little is known of HAB properties. We present results of an ensemble approach to HAB forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of the forecasting method to biochemical modelling. It turns out that HABs are indeed possible to forecast with useful accuracy. For modelling the algal blooms in Baltic Sea we used FMI operational 3-dimensional biogeochemical model to produce seasonal ensemble forecasts for different physical, chemical and biological variables. The modelled variables were temperature, salinity, velocity, silicate, phosphate, nitrate, diatoms, flagellates and two species of potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria nodularia spumigena and aphanizomenon flos-aquae. In this work we concentrate to the latter two. Ensembles were produced by running the biogeochemical model several times and forcing it on every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from ECMWF's mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analysed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for estimating the probable amounts of algae. Validation for the forecast method was made by comparing the final results against available and valid in-situ HAB data.

  20. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in the Baltic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõokene, Margus; Kisuro, Aigars; Mačiulis, Valentinas; Banaitis, Valdas; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2014-07-01

    While the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been investigated worldwide, nothing is known about its use in the Baltic states. The purpose of this study was thus to explore ECT practice in the three Baltic countries. A 21-item, semi-structured questionnaire was sent out to all psychiatric inpatient settings that provided ECT in 2010. In Lithuania, four services provided ECT in 2010. Only modified ECT with anaesthesia and muscle relaxation is performed in the country. In 2010, approximately 120 patients received ECT, i.e., 0.375 patients/10,000 population. Only two centres offer ECT in Latvia. The first centre treated only three patients with ECT in 2010, while the second centre six patients. In both centres outdated Soviet machines are used. The main indication for ECT was severe, malignant catatonia. ECT is practiced in five psychiatric facilities in Estonia. In 2010, it was used in the treatment of 362 patients (17% women) nationwide, i.e., 2.78 patients/10,000 population. Only a senior psychiatrist may indicate ECT in Estonia and pregnancy is no contraindication. In 2010, the main indication for ECT was schizophrenia (47.8%). This 2010 survey revealed significant differences in the use and availability of ECT between the Baltic countries.