WorldWideScience

Sample records for northeastern province kenya

  1. Orthobunyavirus antibodies among humans in selected parts of the Rift Valley and northeastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Collins; Venter, Marietjie; Swanepoel, Robert; Sang, Rosemary

    2015-05-01

    Ngari, Bunyamwera, Ilesha, and Germiston viruses are among the mosquito-borne human pathogens in the Orthobunyavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae, associated with febrile illness. Although the four orthobunyaviruses have been isolated from mosquito and/or tick vectors sampled from different geographic regions in Kenya, little is known of human exposure in such areas. We conducted a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in Kenya. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization tests in 89 (25.8%) of 345 persons tested. Multivariable analysis revealed age and residence in northeastern Kenya as risk factors. Implementation of acute febrile illness surveillance in northeastern Kenya will help to detect such infections.

  2. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Falk; Wareth, Gamal; El-Adawy, Hosny; Henning, Klaus; Pletz, Mathias W.; Heller, Regine; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    During 2014–2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk. PMID:27662463

  3. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, John; Melzer, Falk; Wareth, Gamal; El-Adawy, Hosny; Henning, Klaus; Pletz, Mathias W; Heller, Regine; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    During 2014-2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk.

  4. Economic and nutritional conditions at settlement schemes in Coast Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Okello, W.; Veerman, W.

    1991-01-01

    This report is concerned with land distribution and rural development and presents the final results of a survey carried out in 1985-1986 in four settlement schemes: Diani and Ukunda in Kwale District and Roka and Mtwapa in Kilifi District, Coast Province, Kenya. In each scheme 100 households were

  5. The impact of nutrition education at three health centres in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains an account of a study of the effects of nutrition education as given at three health centres in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers in similar social and economic situations were selected for interviewing: frequent and infrequent

  6. The impact of nutrition education at three health centres in Central Province, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains an account of a study of the effects of nutrition education as given at three health centres in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers in similar social and economic situations were selected for interviewing: frequent and infrequent visitors. They were compared on the following indicators: nutritional knowledge, maternal food preferences, food consumption of the children during the previous day and nutritional status of the children. ...

  7. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  8. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Cats from Liaoning Province, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Honglie; Cao, Lili; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Dansheng; Ding, He; You, Juan; Yao, Xinhua; Dong, Hang; Guo, Yanbing; Yuan, Shuxian; Zhang, Xichen; Gong, Pengtao

    2017-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D. immitis. The prevalence was significantly higher in feral cats compared with domestic cats (8.4% vs 1.4%, P0.05), but older cats (≥3 years old) showed a statistically higher prevalence compared with younger cats (cats (2.4% vs 0.51%, P>0.05), all these results suggest that outdoor exposure time may be one of the most important factors for D. immitis prevalence in cats. Results reveal that D. immitis are prevalence in domestic and feral cats in northeastern China, which indicates that appropriate preventive measures should be taken to decrease the incidence of feline heartworm disease in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

  9. Serological evidence of Francisella tularensis in febrile patients seeking treatment at remote hospitals, northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Njeru

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tularaemia is a highly contagious infectious zoonosis caused by the bacterial agent Francisella tularensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis in febrile patients in northeastern Kenya. During 2014–2015, 730 patients were screened for anti-F. tularensis antibodies using a combination of ELISA and Western blot. Twenty-seven (3.7% individuals were positive for F. tularensis. Tularaemia was not suspected by the treating clinicians in any of them. Our results suggest that tularaemia may be present in Kenya but remain unreported, and emphasizes the need for local clinicians to broaden their diagnostic repertoire when evaluating patients with undifferentiated febrile illness.

  10. Predictors of overweight and obesity in adult women in Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbochi Regina W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since obesity in urban women is prevalent in Kenya the study aimed to determine predictors of overweight and obesity in urban Kenyan women. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nairobi Province. The province was purposively selected because it has the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kenya. A total of 365 women aged 25–54 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results Higher age, higher socio-economic (SE group, increased parity, greater number of rooms in the house, and increased expenditure showed greater mean body mass index (BMI,% body fat and waist circumference (WC at highly significant levels (p Conclusions The predictors of overweight and obesity showed that urbanization and the nutrition transition were well established in the sample of women studied in the high SE groups. They exhibited a sedentary lifestyle and consumed a diet high in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, and alcohol and lower in fibre and carbohydrate compared with those in the low SE groups.

  11. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a function of both regional, or global, climatic changes, as well as fluctuations in the albedo resulting from variations in the Snow Covered Area (SCA. These impacts are crucial to human activities, especially to those living in middle-latitude areas such as Liaoning Province. Thus, SCA monitoring is currently an important tool in studies of global climate change, particularly because satellite remote sensing data provide timely and efficient snow cover information for large areas. In this study, MODIS L1B data, MODIS Daily Snow Products (MOD10A1 and MODIS 8-day Snow Products (MOD10A2 were used to monitor the SCA of Liaoning Province over the winter months of November–April, 2006–2008. The effects of cloud masking and forest masking on the snow monitoring results were also assessed. The results show that the SCA percentage derived from MODIS L1B data is relatively consistent, but slightly higher than that obtained from MODIS Snow Products. In situ data from 25 snow stations were used to assess the accuracy of snow cover monitoring from the SCA compared to the results from MODIS Snow Products. The studies found that the SCA results were more reliable than MODIS Snow Products in the study area.

  12. The nutritional impact of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abr. sum.: Contains an account of a study of the effects of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers were selected for interviewing: recent entrants and longtime participants. The study concentrates on the

  13. Educational Marginalization: Examining Challenges and Possibilities for Improving Educational Outcomes in Northeastern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okilwa, Nathern S. A.

    2015-01-01

    As a developing country in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya has fared comparatively well in educating its young people. The new constitution of Kenya and various acts of parliament identify education as a fundamental human right and mandates the government to provide basic education for all. Consistent with the government's "Vision 2030," most…

  14. Primary discussion on the characteristics and metallogenesis of Lingshan composite massif in northeastern Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ping; Tian Bangsheng

    2005-01-01

    A large amount of measured data has been applied to elaborate magmatic metallogenesis of Lingshan composite massif in northeastern Jiangxi Province, and to set up a metallogenetic model for polymetallic deposits, the detailed description on the characteristics of Nb-Ta, W-Sn and Pb-Zn deposits have been given. It is suggested that the Lingshan composite massif is of a ring-like multiphase batholith. Both differences and regular changes exist in following aspects such as spatial distribution, petrology, petrochemistry, microelements, REE and so on. The genetic type of the massif is regarded as A-type granite. Important mineral resources associated with the massif are Nb-Ta, W-Sn and Pb-Zn deposits. (authors)

  15. Community unit performance: factors associated with childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Tanaka, Junichi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Ogendo, Kenneth; Honda, Sumihisa

    2017-02-16

    The government of Kenya launched its community health strategy in 2006 to improve certain aspects of its community health program. Under the strategy, community units (CUs) were established as level one of the Kenyan health system. A core member at this level is the community health worker (CHW). The objective of this study was to assess the relationship among the performance of the CUs, the prevalence of childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment for it by controlling individual and community-level factors. The main dataset used in this study was the 2011 Nyanza Province county-based Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). In addition, based on the list of community units in Nyanza Province, Kenya, we identified the area's CUs and their performance. MICS data and data on CUs were merged using sub-location names. There were 17 individual and two community-level independent variables in this study. Bivariate analysis and a multilevel logistic regression were performed. Factors significantly associated with a lower prevalence of diarrhea among children under five were the child's increasing age, middle-aged household heads, children who received more attention, water treatment and rural versus urban area residence, while male children and highly performing CUs were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diarrhea. In addition, middle wealth index, severity of diarrhea and middle- and high-CU performance were significantly associated with appropriate treatment for childhood diarrhea. Although this study found that children living in areas of high CU performance were more likely to have diarrhea, these areas would have been identified as being more at risk for diarrhea prevalence and other health concerns, prioritized for the establishment of a CU and allocated more resources to improve the performance of CUs. A higher CU performance was significantly associated with the appropriate treatment. It was suggested that CHWs could have a positive effect on

  16. Landscape Genetics of Aedes mcintoshi (Diptera: Culicidae), an Important Vector of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Northeastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lindsay P; Alexander, Alana M

    2017-09-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne, zoonotic disease that affects humans, wild ungulates, and domesticated livestock in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Rift Valley fever virus exhibits interepizootic and epizootic phases, the latter defined by widespread virus occurrence in domesticated livestock. Kenya appears to be particularly vulnerable to epizootics, with 11 outbreaks occurring between 1951 and 2007. The mosquito species Aedes mcintoshi (subgenus Neomelaniconion) is an important primary vector for RVFV in Kenya. Here, we investigate associations between genetic diversity and differentiation of one regional subclade of Ae. mcintoshi in Northeastern Kenya with environmental variables, using a multivariate statistical approach. Using CO1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1) sequence data deposited in GenBank, we found no evidence of isolation by distance contributing to genetic differentiation across the study area. However, we did find significant CO1 subpopulation structure and associations with recent mean precipitation values. In addition, variation in genetic diversity across our seven sample sites was associated with both precipitation and percentage clay in the soil. The large number of haplotypes found in this data set indicates that a great deal of diversity remains unsampled in this region. Additional sampling across a larger geographic area, combined with next-generation sequencing approaches that better characterize the genome, would provide a more robust assessment of genetic diversity and differentiation. Further understanding of the genetic structure of Ae. mcintoshi could provide useful information regarding the potential for RVFV to spread across East African landscapes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Community unit performance: factors associated with childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Kawakatsu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The government of Kenya launched its community health strategy in 2006 to improve certain aspects of its community health program. Under the strategy, community units (CUs were established as level one of the Kenyan health system. A core member at this level is the community health worker (CHW. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship among the performance of the CUs, the prevalence of childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment for it by controlling individual and community-level factors. Methods The main dataset used in this study was the 2011 Nyanza Province county-based Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS. In addition, based on the list of community units in Nyanza Province, Kenya, we identified the area’s CUs and their performance. MICS data and data on CUs were merged using sub-location names. There were 17 individual and two community-level independent variables in this study. Bivariate analysis and a multilevel logistic regression were performed. Results Factors significantly associated with a lower prevalence of diarrhea among children under five were the child’s increasing age, middle-aged household heads, children who received more attention, water treatment and rural versus urban area residence, while male children and highly performing CUs were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diarrhea. In addition, middle wealth index, severity of diarrhea and middle- and high-CU performance were significantly associated with appropriate treatment for childhood diarrhea. Conclusions Although this study found that children living in areas of high CU performance were more likely to have diarrhea, these areas would have been identified as being more at risk for diarrhea prevalence and other health concerns, prioritized for the establishment of a CU and allocated more resources to improve the performance of CUs. A higher CU performance was significantly associated with the appropriate

  18. Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Les élections générales de 2002 au Kenya, à la suite desquelles un régime notoire pour sa corruption a été remplacé par un gouvernement de coalition désireux d'instaurer une réforme, ont été considérées comme un événement charnière dans l'histoire du pays. Le CRDI, déjà actif au Kenya depuis plus de 30 ans, ...

  19. Compositional variation through time and space in Quaternary magmas of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, located in southern Kenya >100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley, has produced mafic, monogenetic eruptions throughout the Quaternary. The volcanic field is considered to be an off-rift manifestation of the East African Rift System, and is known for the significant compositional variability of its eruptive products, which range from nephelinites to basanites, alkali basalts, hawaiites, and orthopyroxene-normative subalkaline basalts [1]. Notably, erupted compositions vary systematically in time and space: Pleistocene volcanism, occurring in the northern Chyulu Hills, was characterized by highly silica-undersaturated magmas, whereas Holocene volcanism, restricted to the southern Chyulu Hills, is less silica-understaturated, consistent with a progressive decrease in depth and increase in degree of melting with time, from north to south [1]. Pronounced negative K anomalies, and enriched trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope signatures have been attributed to a metasomatized, amphibole-bearing, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source [2]. Seismic evidence for a partially molten zone in the SCLM beneath this region [3] may be consistent with such an interpretation. We have analyzed Chyulu Hills samples for Os, Hf and high precision Pb isotopes to further evaluate the magma sources and petrogenetic processes leading to systematic compositional variation in time and space. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and strong negative correlations of 206Pb/204Pb and highly incompatible trace element ratios with SiO2 are consistent with the progression from a deeper, HIMU-type source to a shallower, EM-type source. Os isotope systematics, however, suggest a more complex relationship; although all samples are more radiogenic than primitive mantle, the least radiogenic values (similar to primitive OIB) are found in magmas with intermediate SiO2, and those with lower or higher SiO2 are more radiogenic. This may be explained by interaction

  20. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, D O

    2001-12-01

    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5 degrees S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterized by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25 degrees C and 31 degrees C during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and

  1. Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obura, David O. [CORDIO East Africa, Mombassa (Kenya)

    2001-07-01

    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5deg S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterised by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25degC and 31degC during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and tourist

  2. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  3. Protein-energy malnutrition and the home environment : a study among children in Coast Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1987-01-01

    Abr. abstr.: This is an account of a study concerning the occurrence of childhood malnutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya. The socioeconomic characteristics of women with malnourished children who attended Kilifi Family Life Training Centre in the year 1984/1985 were analysed. Next, the possible

  4. Mijikenda agriculture in Coast Province of Kenya : peasants in between tradition, ecology and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijenberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Mijikenda live in the hinterland of the southern Kenya coast. They are peasants with small farms growing maize, rice, cassava and cowpea, coconut palms and cashew or fruit trees for the household and the market. A few households own cattle, most keep some goats or sheep and nearly all

  5. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P iron deficiency (Serum ferritin iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498

  6. A new karst-dwelling bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Xiangkhoang Province, northeastern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Roman A; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Konstantinov, Evgeniy L; Chulisov, Anatoliy S; Orlov, Nikolai L; Poyarkov, Nikolay A

    2018-05-18

    We describe a new karst-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Ban Thathom, Xiangkhoang Province, northeastern Laos. The new species can be distinguished from other congeners by having four dark dorsal bands between limb insertions, a discontinuous nuchal loop, 10 precloacal pores in males or 10-12 precloacal pits (females) separated by a diastema from a series of enlarged femoral scales bearing 18 or 19 pores (male) or 8-10 pits (females) along each femur, 14-18 dorsal tubercle rows at midbody, no precloacal groove, 30-36 midbody scale rows across belly between ventrolateral skin folds, transversely enlarged subcaudal plates, and a maximal known snout-vent length of 75.5 mm. Our description brings to 22 the number of Cyrtodactylus species recorded from Laos.

  7. Individual and contextual factors associated with community health workers' performance in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Sugishita, Tomohiko; Tsutsui, Junya; Oruenjo, Kennedy; Wakhule, Stephen; Kibosia, Kennedy; Were, Eric; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-10-01

    Several African and South Asian countries are currently investing in new cadres of community health workers (CHWs) as a major part of strategies aimed at reaching the Millennium Development Goals. However, one review concluded that community health workers did not consistently provide services likely to have substantial effects on health and that quality was usually poor. The objective of this research was to assess the CHWs' performance in Western Kenya and describe determinants of that performance using a multilevel analysis of the two levels, individual and supervisor/community. This study conducted three surveys between August and September 2011 in Nyanza Province, Kenya. The participants of the three surveys were all 1,788 active CHWs, all their supervisors, and 2,560 randomly selected mothers who had children aged 12 to 23 months. CHW performance was generated by three indicators: reporting rate, health knowledge and household coverage. Multilevel analysis was performed to describe the determinants of that performance. The significant factors associated with the CHWs' performance were their marital status, educational level, the size of their household, their work experience, personal sanitation practice, number of supervisions received and the interaction between their supervisors' better health knowledge and the number of supervisions. A high quality of routine supervisions is one of the key interventions in sustaining a CHW's performance. In addition, decreasing the dropout rate of CHWs is important both for sustaining their performance and for avoiding the additional cost of replacing them. As for the selection criteria of new CHWs, good educational status, availability of supporters for household chores and good sanitation practices are all important in selecting CHWs who can maintain their high performance level.

  8. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  9. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Steinfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  10. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  11. Community-based evaluation of PMTCT uptake in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K Kohler

    Full Text Available Facility-based assessments of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programs may overestimate population coverage. There are few community-based studies that evaluate PMTCT coverage and uptake.During 2011, a cross-sectional community survey among women who gave birth in the prior year was performed using the KEMRI-CDC Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Western Kenya. A random sample (n = 405 and a sample of women known to be HIV-positive through previous home-based testing (n = 247 were enrolled. Rates and correlates of uptake of antenatal care (ANC, HIV-testing, and antiretrovirals (ARVs were determined.Among 405 women in the random sample, 379 (94% reported accessing ANC, most of whom (87% were HIV tested. Uptake of HIV testing was associated with employment, higher socioeconomic status, and partner HIV testing. Among 247 known HIV-positive women, 173 (70% self-disclosed their HIV status. Among 216 self-reported HIV-positive women (including 43 from the random sample, 82% took PMTCT ARVs, with 54% completing the full antenatal, peripartum, and postpartum course. Maternal ARV use was associated with more ANC visits and having an HIV tested partner. ARV use during delivery was lowest (62% and associated with facility delivery. Eighty percent of HIV infected women reported having their infant HIV tested, 11% of whom reported their child was HIV infected, 76% uninfected, 6% declined to say, 7% did not recall; 79% of infected children were reportedly receiving HIV care and treatment.Community-based assessments provide data that complements clinic-based PMTCT evaluations. In this survey, antenatal HIV test uptake was high; most HIV infected women received ARVs, though many women did not self-disclose HIV status to field team. Community-driven strategies that encourage early ANC, partner involvement, and skilled delivery, and provide PMTCT education, may facilitate further reductions in vertical transmission.

  12. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Rivas, P. C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales (Argentina); Desimoni, J., E-mail: desimoni@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    The activity concentrations of both natural ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th chains and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Moessbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contribution is lower, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of {sup 40}K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by {sup 238}U (60-92 Bq/kg) and {sup 232}Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of {sup 235}U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (L{sub D} = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was {sup 137}Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Moessbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the {sup 137}Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or with other iron species.

  13. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J.; Imbellone, P.; Rivas, P. C.; Desimoni, J.

    2011-11-01

    The activity concentrations of both natural (238U and 232Th chains and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Mössbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe3+ paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the α-Fe2O3 contribution is lower, Fe3O4 was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe3+ paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of 40K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by 238U (60-92 Bq/kg) and 232Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of 235U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (LD = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was 137Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Mössbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the 137Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe3O4 or with other iron species.

  14. Health facility committees and facility management - exploring the nature and depth of their roles in Coast Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabare Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community participation has been emphasized internationally as a way of enhancing accountability, as well as a means to enhance health goals in terms of coverage, access and effective utilization. In rural health facilities in Kenya, initiatives to increase community accountability have focused on Health Facility Committees (HFCs. In Coast Province the role of HFCs has been expanded with the introduction of direct funding of rural facilities. We explored the nature and depth of managerial engagement of HFCs at the facility level in two rural districts in this Coastal setting, and how this has contributed to community accountability Methods We conducted structured interviews with the health worker in-charge and with patients in 30 health centres and dispensaries. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with district managers, and with health workers and HFC members in 12 health centres and dispensaries. In-depth interviews with health workers and HFC members included a participatory exercise to stimulate discussion of the nature and depth of their roles in facility management. Results HFCs were generally functioning well and played an important role in facility operations. The breadth and depth of engagement had reportedly increased after the introduction of direct funding of health facilities which allowed HFCs to manage their own budgets. Although relations with facility staff were generally good, some mistrust was expressed between HFC members and health workers, and between HFC members and the broader community, partially reflecting a lack of clarity in HFC roles. Moreover, over half of exit interviewees were not aware of the HFC's existence. Women and less well-educated respondents were particularly unlikely to know about the HFC. Conclusions There is potential for HFCs to play an active and important role in health facility management, particularly where they have control over some facility level resources

  15. Health facility committees and facility management - exploring the nature and depth of their roles in Coast Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Catherine; Opwora, Antony; Kabare, Margaret; Molyneux, Sassy

    2011-09-22

    Community participation has been emphasized internationally as a way of enhancing accountability, as well as a means to enhance health goals in terms of coverage, access and effective utilization. In rural health facilities in Kenya, initiatives to increase community accountability have focused on Health Facility Committees (HFCs). In Coast Province the role of HFCs has been expanded with the introduction of direct funding of rural facilities. We explored the nature and depth of managerial engagement of HFCs at the facility level in two rural districts in this Coastal setting, and how this has contributed to community accountability We conducted structured interviews with the health worker in-charge and with patients in 30 health centres and dispensaries. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with district managers, and with health workers and HFC members in 12 health centres and dispensaries. In-depth interviews with health workers and HFC members included a participatory exercise to stimulate discussion of the nature and depth of their roles in facility management. HFCs were generally functioning well and played an important role in facility operations. The breadth and depth of engagement had reportedly increased after the introduction of direct funding of health facilities which allowed HFCs to manage their own budgets. Although relations with facility staff were generally good, some mistrust was expressed between HFC members and health workers, and between HFC members and the broader community, partially reflecting a lack of clarity in HFC roles. Moreover, over half of exit interviewees were not aware of the HFC's existence. Women and less well-educated respondents were particularly unlikely to know about the HFC. There is potential for HFCs to play an active and important role in health facility management, particularly where they have control over some facility level resources. However, to optimise their contribution, efforts are needed to

  16. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-Economic Development in Kenya's Cooperative Sector: An Empirical Analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyongesa, D.J.W.; M'mboyi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of stigma is attached to HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya. Many organizations have tried and continue trying to educate the public on this scourge. However, none of these organizations has thought of the cooperative sector. This research is unique because it examines the Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-economic Development of Kenya's Cooperative sector. It is an empirical analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province with special reference to the Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS). It was a joint research that examined HIV/AIDS from a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective was to identify and quantify the effects of HIV/AIDS on the performance of cooperative societies, particularly the impact of HIV/AIDS on savings, share capital, age groups and gender. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of cooperative societies in the province. PCGIVE computer package was used to run regressions on simultaneous and recursive models. The findings clearly show that between 1991 and 2000 cooperatives in Nairobi province lost approximately USD 479 million due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. Besides, though savings, share capital and assets increased significantly, the scourge was negative the gains. Of the dead and the infected, females and ages between 18-48 were more affected by the epidemic. Policy specify recommendations vital for containment of HIV/AIDS in the cooperative sub sector of the Kenyan economy are made. These are with a view to classifying the appropriate roles of both public and private sectors in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the cooperative sector. Last but not least further areas of research are suggested

  17. Pregnant Women's Intentions and Subsequent Behaviors Regarding Maternal and Neonatal Service Utilization: Results from a Cohort Study in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea A Creanga

    Full Text Available Higher use of maternal and neonatal health (MNH services may reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya. This study aims to: 1 prospectively explore women's intentions to use MNH services (antenatal care, delivery in a facility, postnatal care, neonatal care at 35 and high-school education were significant predictors of intention-behavior discordance regarding delivery in a facility; several delivery-related factors were significantly associated with intention-behavior discordance regarding use of postnatal and neonatal care. Delivery facilities were chosen based on proximity to women's residence, affordability, and service quality; among women who delivered outside a health facility, 16.3% could not afford going to a facility. Good/very good birth experiences were reported by 93.6% of women who delivered in a facility and 32.6% of women who did not. We found higher MNH service utilization than previously documented in Nyanza province. Further increasing the number of facility deliveries and use of postnatal care may improve MNH in Kenya.

  18. Pregnant Women's Intentions and Subsequent Behaviors Regarding Maternal and Neonatal Service Utilization: Results from a Cohort Study in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, Andreea A; Odhiambo, George Awino; Odera, Benjamin; Odhiambo, Frank O; Desai, Meghna; Goodwin, Mary; Laserson, Kayla; Goldberg, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Higher use of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services may reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya. This study aims to: 1) prospectively explore women's intentions to use MNH services (antenatal care, delivery in a facility, postnatal care, neonatal care) at MNH services (≥93.9% and ≥87.5%, respectively, for all services assessed). Actual service use was high for antenatal (98.1%) and neonatal (88.5%) care, but lower for delivery in a facility (76.9%) and postnatal care (51.8%). Woman's age >35 and high-school education were significant predictors of intention-behavior discordance regarding delivery in a facility; several delivery-related factors were significantly associated with intention-behavior discordance regarding use of postnatal and neonatal care. Delivery facilities were chosen based on proximity to women's residence, affordability, and service quality; among women who delivered outside a health facility, 16.3% could not afford going to a facility. Good/very good birth experiences were reported by 93.6% of women who delivered in a facility and 32.6% of women who did not. We found higher MNH service utilization than previously documented in Nyanza province. Further increasing the number of facility deliveries and use of postnatal care may improve MNH in Kenya.

  19. Sequence-based HLA-A, B, C, DP, DQ, and DR typing of 100 Luo infants from the Boro area of Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam; Copin, Richard; Leary, Shay; Mack, Steven J; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Sette, Alessandro; Blatner, Gretta; Siefers, Heather; Ernst, Joel D

    2017-04-01

    One hundred healthy infants enrolled as controls in a tuberculosis vaccine study in Nyanza Province, Kenya provided anonymized samples for DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, and -DRB3/4/5 loci. The purpose of the study was to characterize allele frequencies in the local population, to support studies of T cell immunity against pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are no detectable deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions for the HLA-B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. A minor deviation was detected at the HLA-A locus due to an excess of HLA-A*02:02, 29:02, 30:02, and 68:02 homozygotes. The genotype data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under identifier 3393. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Survey of the Role of Audit Committees in Promoting Corporate Governance and Accountability in Constituency Development Fund Management: A Case Study of Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kakui Kilika

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of thisstudy is to present a case for the need for audit committee in Constituency DevelopmentFund to promote corporate governance and accountability in constituencydevelopment fund management in Nairobi Province, Kenya. The study provides ananalysis and critique of the extent of engagement research in the field ofcorporate governance and accountability in constituency Development Fundmanagement and present case for further research that may be directed tooutside Nairobi province. The study found that the extent of literature in thefield of corporate governance and accountability and reporting in contrast tothe field to management CDF in Nairobi had largely ignored the practice withinCDF organizations.  The study argues thatCDF can benefit from the methodological and theoretical insights of auditcommittee and other disciplines. The study suggests where further contributionsmight be made by future research endeavors engaging with audit committees withorganizations. Engaging audit committee in CDF governance and accountabilityhas the potential to improve theorizing practice and the sustainabilityperformance with organizations. Drawing on the methods and theories of otherdisciplines and the papers in the special issues (of audit committee the studypresents away forward for researchers engaging with audit committees in organizationalpracticing corporate governance and accountability.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Jilin Province, Northeastern China: Emergence of a New CRF07_BC Transmission Cluster and Intersubtype Recombinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chuanyi; Feng, Yi; Xie, Cunxin; He, Xiang; Takebe, Yutaka; Sun, Liuyan; Guo, Qi; Xing, Hui; Kalish, Marcia L.; Shao, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected persons living in the Jilin province of northeastern China. Methods Plasma samples from 189 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients were collected between June 2010 and August 2011 from all nine cities of Jilin province. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences of gag P17–P24 and env C2–C4 gene regions were amplified using a multiplex RT-PCR method and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were used to determine the HIV-1 genotypes. Results Based on all sequences generated, the subtype/CFR distribution was as follows: CRF01_AE (58.1%), CRF07_BC (13.2%), subtype B’ (13.2%), recombinant viruses (8.1%), subtype B (3.7%), CRF02_AG (2.9%), subtype C (0.7%). In addition to finding CRF01_AE strains from previously reported transmission clusters 1, 4 and 5, a new transmission cluster was described within the CRF07_BC radiation. Among 11 different recombinants identified, 10 contained portions of gene regions from the CRF01_AE lineage. CRF02_AG was found to form a transmission cluster of 4 in local Jilin residents. Conclusions Our study presents a molecular epidemiologic investigation describing the complex structure of HIV-1 strains co-circulating in Jilin province. The results highlight the critical importance of continuous monitoring of HIV-infections, along with detailed socio-demographic data, in order to design appropriate prevention measures to limit the spread of new HIV infections. PMID:25356726

  2. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  4. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R. L.; Lepre, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Global climate is often elected as a catalyst for environmental change and used to characterize selective pressures acting on Plio-Pleistocene African hominins. Vrba's Habitat Theory (1992) and Pott's Variability Selection (1998) credit mammalian evolutionary pattern and process to global climate regulated by orbital forcing. Feibel (1999: 276) argues the need for a middle ground, tethering the "global-scale climatic phenomena" to "environmental change, habitat shift, and biotic evolution" and offers the basin as a scale for analysis. Feibel suggests that all basins are not created equal, and will respond to climate change with different sensitivities and thresholds. As such, interpretations of climate proxies must account for differences in basin size, climatic regime(s), topography, geology, and water availability when drawing relationships to global phenomena. Here we examine pedogenic carbonate isotopes (d13C, d18O) from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora Region to elucidate the differential influences of climate, tectonics, and deposition on ecological factors of early hominin evolution in the northeastern Turkana Basin of Kenya. One of the richest Plio-Pleistocene fossil localities in Africa, Koobi Fora has served as a setting for hominin evolution between 4.0 and 1.0 Ma. Numerous paleosols, stratigraphically controlled by tuffaceous marker beds, are preserved in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the Koobi Fora Formation. Cerling and others (1988) and Wynn (2000) conducted isotopic studies of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group deposits of the Turkana Basin. With these data Wynn (2004) demonstrates stepwise d13C shifts over the last 4.0 Ma, with marked events at 2.5 and 1.8 Ma, and interprets increased aridity on a basin scale due to comparable records on the east and west side of present Lake Turkana. In this study, we increased the sample size of the current database and conducted widespread sampling of synchronous lateral horizons in the

  5. Descriptive characteristics and health outcomes of the food by prescription nutrition supplementation program for adults living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Cohen, Craig R; Young, Sera L; Wamuyu, Catherine; Armes, Mary N; Otieno, Benard O; Leslie, Hannah H; Dandu, Madhavi; Stewart, Christopher C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2014-01-01

    The clinical effects and potential benefits of nutrition supplementation interventions for persons living with HIV remain largely unreported, despite awareness of the multifaceted relationship between HIV infection and nutrition. We therefore examined descriptive characteristics and nutritional outcomes of the Food by Prescription (FBP) nutrition supplementation program in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were gathered from a retrospective cohort of 1,017 non-pregnant adult patients who enrolled into the FBP program at a Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) site in Nyanza Province between July 2009 and July 2011. Our primary outcome was FBP treatment success defined as attainment of BMI>20, and we used Cox proportional hazards to assess socio-demographic and clinical correlates of FBP treatment success. Mean body mass index was 16.4 upon enrollment into the FBP program. On average, FBP clients gained 2.01 kg in weight and 0.73 kg/m2 in BMI over follow-up (mean 100 days), with the greatest gains among the most severely undernourished (BMI 20, though 44.5% achieved a BMI increase ≥0.5. Greater BMI at baseline, younger age, male gender, and not requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were associated with a higher rate of attainment of BMI>20. This study reports significant gains in weight and BMI among patients enrolled in the FBP program, though only a minority of patients achieved stated programmatic goals of BMI>20. Future research should include well-designed prospective studies that examine retention, exit reasons, mortality outcomes, and long-term sustainability of nutrition supplementation programs for persons living with HIV.

  6. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Petri de Odriozola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. OBJECTIVES We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. METHODS Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. RESULTS We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year; this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants. Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13% and 45-64 (38.83% year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB predominated (70.35% and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2 (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337 DG2/MB cases, with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0. The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  7. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola, Elisa Petri de; Quintana, Ana María; González, Victor; Pasetto, Roque Antonio; Utgés, María Eugenia; Bruzzone, Octavio Augusto; Arnaiz, María Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year); this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants). Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13%) and 45-64 (38.83%) year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB) predominated (70.35%) and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2) (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337) DG2/MB cases), with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0). The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases). Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  8. 3D modeling of magnetotelluric data unraveling the tectonic setting and sources of magmatism in the northeastern corner of Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, A. L.; Vitorello, I.; Padua, M. B.; Batista, J. C.; Fuck, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex orogenic system formed by crustal blocks of different ages, origin and evolution amalgamated during the West Gondwana convergence in late Neoproterozoic-early Phanerozoic Brasiliano Orogeny. We discuss here new magnetotelluric (MT) data collected along four linear profiles crisscrossing the northeastern corner of the province to assess its deep electrical resistivity structure. Dimensionality analysis showed that a 3D electrical structure predominates in the subsurface and thus the data were modeled by a 3D MT data inversion scheme. The modeling revealed several subvertical discontinuities, with significant lateral contrast in the overall geoelectric structure, down to upper mantle depths. A major conductivity anomaly is registered in the crust beneath Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Serido Group) and this anomaly deepens to upper mantle depths in the northwest direction below a zone of Paleoproterozoic plutons (Caico Complex). It has been suggested that the Serido Group was originally initiated as a sedimentary basin developed upon a Paleoproterozoic basement during a Neoproterozoic extension event related to a collisional foredeep of a south-dipping subduction slab, contrary to our northwest-dipping conductivity vergence. In case of the Caico Complex, because of the petrogenesis of its orthogneisses that indicates partial melting of a metasomatically enriched spinel-to garnet-bearing lherzolite with adakitic features, we also propose a subduction zone environment for its original magmatism. Considering the tenuous evidence indicating that this conductive anomaly could extend down into the upper mantle in the same region where teleseismic tomography register an attenuation of P waves, it can be concluded that this zone could also be the source of the metasomatic fluids and minerals observed along north-south Mesozoic volcanic plugs and flows of alkaline rocks and alkali basalts (Macau-Queimadas belt). In

  9. Existing drug resistance among Staphylococcus spp. from raw milk samples in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand by direct quadriplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buppachat Trakarnchan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and mupirocin resistant among the isolates from milk, three hundred and eighty-one samples were collected in Khon Kaen province, Thailand, during January to March, 2014. Quadriplex PCR was a method of choice. The occurrence of S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. were 21.26 and 34.12%, respectively. Among the 81 S. aureus isolates, 82.72 (67/81, 11.11 (9/81, and 6.17% (5/81 were S. aureus, S. aureus carrying mecA, and S. aureus harboring mupA genes, respectively. These two mutant genes may possibly be transferred to other bacteria in milk. Therefore, good hygienic practices and strict control may limit the spread.

  10. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945) defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215) and 20.4% (193) abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase) of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20) attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15) to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14) to feeling better and 10.8% (13) to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3), herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7), low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0), alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9), previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68), co-infection with Human immune-deficient Virus (HIV) (OR 1

  11. Understanding orphan and non-orphan adolescents' sexual risks in the context of poverty: a qualitative study in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Milka; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; Askew, Ian; Van den Born, Bart

    2013-07-25

    Some studies show orphanhood to be associated with increased sexual risk-taking while others have not established this relationship, but have found factors other than orphanhood as predictors of sexual risk behaviours and outcomes among adolescents. This study examines community members' perceptions of how poverty influences adolescent sexual behaviour and outcomes in four districts of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Eight study sites within the four districts were randomly selected. Focus group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of adolescents, parents and caregivers. Key informant interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of community leaders, child welfare and healthcare workers, and adolescents. The two methods elicited information on factors perceived to predispose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to sexual risks. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Participants included 147 adolescents and parents/caregivers in 14 focus groups and 13 key informants. Poverty emerged as a key predisposing factor to sexual risk behaviour among orphans and non-orphans. Poverty was associated with lack of food, poor housing, school dropout, and engaging in income generating activities, all of which increase their vulnerability to transactional sex, early marriage, sexual experimentation, and the eventual consequences of increased risk of unintended pregnancies and STI/HIV. Poverty was perceived to contribute to increasing sexual risks among orphan and non-orphan adolescents through survival strategies adopted to be able to meet their basic needs. Policies for prevention and intervention that target adolescents in a generalized poverty and HIV epidemic should integrate economic empowerment for caregivers and life skills for adolescents to reduce vulnerabilities of orphan and non-orphan adolescents to sexual risk behaviour.

  12. Perceptions of malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practises among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard

    2014-12-17

    Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case

  13. Evaluating the controls on Tourmaline Crystallization in the mylonitic granite-gneiss pluton in the Northeastern of Jan mine (Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moradi

    2017-02-01

    tourmaline and associated minerals, chemistry of tourmaline – bearing granitoid pluton, and location of petrological of tourmaline minerals can be sought. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Shahrekord University for providing the budget for this research. References Copjakova, R., Skoda, R., Galiova, M.V. and Novak, M., 2013. Distributions of Y + REE and Sc in tourmaline and their implications for the melt evolution; examples from NYF pegmatites of the Trebic Pluton, Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic. Journal of Geosciences, 58(2: 113–131. Cuney, M. and Friedrich, M., 1987. Physicochemical and crystalchemical controls on accessory mineral paragenesis in granitoids: implications for uranium metallogenesis. Bulletin Mineralogie, 110(2-3: 235–247. Jolliff, B.L., Papike, J.J. and Laul, J.C., 1987. Mineral recorders of pegmatite internal evolution: REE contents of tourmaline from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite, South Dakota. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51(8: 2225–2232. Kontak, D.J., Dostal, J., Kyser, K. and Archibald, D.A., 2002. A petrological, geochemical, isotopic and fluidinclusion study of 370 Ma pegmatite–aplite sheets, Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(5: 1249–1286. Moradi, A., Shabanian Boroujeni, N. and Davodian Dehkordi, A.R., 2015. Geochemistry and determination genesis of tourmalines in the mylonitic granite-gneiss pluton in Northeastern of Jan mine (Lorestan province(. Journal of Petrology, 23(6: 65-82. (in Persian with English abstract Moradi, A., Shabanian Boroujeni, N. and Davodian Dehkordi, A.R., 2017. Geochemistry of granitoid pluton in northeastern of mine Jan (province Lorestan. Journal of Economic Geology (in Persian with English abstract. (in print Pesquera, A., Torres-Ruiz, J., Gil-Crespo, P.P. and Jiang, S. Y., 2005. Petrographic, chemical and B-isotopic insights into the origin of tourmaline-rich rocks and boron recycling in the Martinamor antiform (Central Iberian Zone, Salamanca, Spain

  14. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepre, C. J.; Quinn, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    , characterized by uplift in Ethiopia and associated down-warping of the Turkana Basin in Kenya. While the formation of ephemeral-lacustrine and fluvial environments of deposition during the transgressive and highstand systems tract was due to sedimentation rates out-pacing subsidence rates that was associated with the infilling of the stable lake by deltaic environments. Infilling and depletion of accommodation space were primary steps needed to increase the sensitivity of the basin to climate change. Relatively shallow East African sedimentary basins are more sensitive to climate-related changes in evapo-transpiration than relatively deeper basins (e.g. Feibel, 1999). Transgressive and regressive lake margin facies that are associated with the transgressive systems tract suggest that the base level of the ephemeral-lacustrine system periodically oscillated during 2.0 and 1.5 Ma (Feibel, 1994b). The hominin record of Koobi Fora preserves relatively primitive forms between 4.0 and 2.5 Ma and relatively derived forms after about 2.5 Ma (cf. Walker, 2002). Australopithecines are associated with paleoenvironmental change that was forced by linear subsidence rates. The appearance of paranthropines in the region at about 2.5 Ma (cf. Wood, 1991) is associated with an episode of major faulting and paleoenvironmental change that was forced by an exponential decrease in subsidence rates. The appearance of early African Homo erectus in the Koobi Fora Region at 1.8 Ma (e.g. Wood, 1992; Collard and Wood, 1999) coincides with decreased subsidence rates but an increase in the sensitivity of paleoenvironmental organization in the region to climate change.

  15. The Kenya Coast in national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter provides a concise review of the process of regional development and the concomitant growing regional inequalities in Kenya. By focusing on Coast Province, it aims to verify statements which stress that the province has gradually moved to a marginal position in Kenyan society. Examining

  16. The Jiaodong gold district, northeastern China, in the context of the Late Paleozoic and Late Mesozoic large igneous provinces, orogeny and metallogeny in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, Hugo

    The Permo-Triassic continental large igneous provinces (LIPs) of Eurasia linked in to orogenic systems in decay. Their bulk appearance varies from the massive flood-basalts and (ultra)mafic intrusives to the groups of coeval, widely spread, diverse intrusions and extrusions of the Scattered Igneous

  17. Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kenya Veterinarian is a journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy ...

  18. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastritis Increases Risk of Colorectal Polyps: a Hospital Based-Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive. Colorectal polyps were confirmed by histological examination of colorectal biopsies. Patient demographic data were analyzed for correlations. The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 77 (25.4%), lesions being found more frequently in Helicobacter pylori infected patients than non-infected subjects [38.4% vs. 12.5%; Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.26 (1.32 - 3.86), p gastritis were at high risk of having adenomas featuring dysplasia [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.16 - 7.99); P = 0.02]. There was no varaition in location of polyps, age group, sex and gastric lesions with respect to Helicobacter pylori status. This study showed that Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially adenomas with dysplasia in the Thai population. Patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis may benefit from concurrent colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal polyps as a preventive and early treatment for colorectal cancer.

  19. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  20. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    The Ediacaran-Cambrian plutonic activity is one of the most important geological features of the Rio Grande do Norte Domain (Borborema Province, NE Brazil). It is represented by several batholiths, stocks and dykes. Based on the petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristic of different rocks, this plutonic activity can be grouped in six separate suites: shoshonitic (Shos), porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline (PHKCalcAlk), equigranular high K calc-alkaline (EHKCalcAlk), calc-alkaline (CalcAlk), alkaline (Alk) and charnockitic alkaline (ChAlk). Geochemically, the Shos, CalcAlk and Alk suites are differentiated from the others, while ChAlc can be distinguished from the others in some diagrams. The greatest difficulty lies in distinguishing between the chemically similar PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. To this end, existing geochronological data as well as related petrographic and textural field aspects may be used to distinguish the two mentioned suites (PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk). Petrographically, the Shos suite has composition between gabbro/diorite and quartz monzonite. Monzogranites (with subordinate granodiorites and quartz monzonites) predominate in both PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. Calc is composed of granodiorites to tonalites. Alc is formed by alkali feldspar granites (with subordinate alkali feldspar quartz syenites and syenogranites), whereas ChAlc has quartz mangerites and charnockites. The suites were emplaced between the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma) and Cambrian (541-485 Ma), predominantly in the Ediacaran, based on 34 U-Pb datings (zircon, titanite, monazite and columbite-tantalite), 17 Rb-Sr (whole rock) and 1 Sm-Nd (total rock and mineral) internal isochrons. The Shos suite has U-Pb ages varying from 599 ± 16 (Poço Verde pluton) to 579 ± 7 (Acari and São João do Sabugi plutons), slightly older than those of the PHKCalcAlk suite, which ranges between 591 ± 4 Ma (Totoró pluton) and 544 ± 7 Ma (São José de Espinharas pluton). The Calc

  1. Infection of cattle in Kenya with Brucella abortus biovar 3 and Brucella melitensis biovar 1 genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muendo, Esther N.; Mbatha, Peter M.; Macharia, Joseph; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Janszen, Paul V.; Pastoor, Rob; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from bovine milk samples from a herd in central Kenya, and Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from aborted fetus materials and vaginal discharge fluids from cattle in central and eastern provinces of Kenya. All infections including those with B.

  2. Traditional medicines among the Embu and Mbeere people of Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical information and traditional medicines were investigated and documented in Embu and Mbeere districts, Eastern Province of Kenya. Oral interviews were obtained from over 100 herbalists, both men and women aged between 40 and 80 years. All the herbalists interviewed were Christians and had little ...

  3. Capacity Building of a District Education System: Insights from Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipankar; Phillip, Serene; Verma, Prashant Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Both (a) in-school factors such as over-focus on academic performance, absence of uniform, and corporal punishment, and (b) out-of school factors such as caring for ailing parents, child labor, etc., hinder participation of orphan and vulnerable children (PVC) in Free Primary Education (FOE) system in Nyasa Province, Kenya. In this context Concern…

  4. School Leadership Challenges along Kenya's Borabu-Sotik Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaya, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multi-case study carried out in southwestern Kenya along the border areas of Nyanza and Rift Valley province. The purpose of the research was to examine the challenges public secondary school principals faced in their leadership roles and suggest efforts they might adopt to minimize the effects of these…

  5. Archives: Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Journal Home > Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 21 of 21 Items. 2014. Vol 38, No ...

  6. IDRC in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya has long been the economic hub of East Africa. IDRC opened a regional office in the country's capital, Nairobi, in 1975. This office now oversees our activities in countries across sub-Saharan Africa and plays an important role in identifying strategic areas of support in Kenya. Poverty remains widespread in the.

  7. Kenya Veterinarian: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kenya Veterinarian is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Kenya Veterinary Association on research and clinical practice of veterinary medicine. The main ... Three copies must be provided in English, double-spaced, Times New Roman throughout on one side A4 paper with a wide margin all round.

  8. Orthopaedic training in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Orthopaedic training in Kenya, like in other East, central and .... quite a number of good facilities that would train an ... provide a forum for exchange of ideas and training. (2,3) ... administrators purely interested in service provision,.

  9. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies ... experiences in trade in different regions of the world. Some studies ... To assess the relationship between domestic sugar retail prices and sugar sales in ...

  10. SANREM-CRSP Kenya Brochure

    OpenAIRE

    Ongugo, Paul O.

    2007-01-01

    Brochure produced by Kenya research team to explain the SANREM project in Kenya. The brochure discusses the aim, objective, areas of coverage, current work and ways to learn more about the SANREM CRSP activities in Kenya. LTRA-1 (Decentralization Reforms and Property Rights)

  11. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Larval parasitism of Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in north-eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Liljesthröm

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m² que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.In host-parasitoid interactions, parasitoid efficiency may be increased by different quantity and quality of plant signals. Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham is a pest on soybean, with larvae feeding endophitically on various herbaceous leguminosae. In this study we analyzed larval parasitism of C. aporema on Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L and Glycine max Merrill in the north-east of the Buenos Aires province. Larval density was higher on L. albus (109,2 larvae/m², than on the other

  12. Determinants of under-five mortality in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettarh, R R; Kimani, J

    2012-01-01

    The disparity in under-five year-old mortality rates between rural and urban areas in Kenya (also reported in other in sub-Saharan African countries), is a critical national concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location and maternal factors on the likelihood of mortality among under-five children in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to determine mortality among under-five children (n=16,162) in rural and urban areas in the 5 years preceding the survey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare the influence of key risk factors in rural and urban areas. Overall, the likelihood of death among under-five children in the rural areas was significantly higher than that in the urban areas (ppoverty was a key predictor for mortality in the rural areas, but the influence of breastfeeding was similar in the two areas. The likelihood of under-five mortality was significantly higher in the rural areas of Coast, Nyanza and Western Provinces than in Central Province. The study shows that the determinants of under-five mortality differ in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Innovative and targeted strategies are required to address rural poverty and province-specific sociocultural factors in order to improve child survival in rural Kenya.

  13. UROLITHIASIS IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-01

    Oct 1, 2010 ... of Human Anatomy, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Request ... Management: Fourty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by .... for ureteroscopy in our resource poor setting and compares ... A. J., (Eds) Campbell's Urology.7th Ed Philadelphia:.

  14. Economic Reforms and Cost Efficiency of Coffee Farmers in Central Kenya: A Stochastic-Translog Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanja, A.M.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Work reported in this paper analyses the cost efficiency levels of small-holder coffee farmers in four districts in Central Province, Kenya. The level of efficiency is analysed using a stochastic cost frontier model based on household cross-sectional data collected in 1999 and 2000. The 200 surveyed

  15. The Swahilization of Kenya`s socio-political culture

    OpenAIRE

    King`ei, Geoffrey Kitula

    2012-01-01

    Although it has spread mainly as a lingua franca, Kiswahili, Kenya`s national language, is increasingly becoming the language of intercultural communication. Most interestingly, Kiswahili is catching up as the medium of intra-group conversation in many rural up-country areas in Kenya. Not only do most Kenyan women wear lesos and kangas bearing Kiswahili proverbial sayings but the youth form different language communication almost invariably converse and interact through the medium of share or...

  16. Estimación del número de reproducibilidad basal para la leishmaniasis tegumentar americana en dos localidades del nordeste de la Provincia de Salta, Argentina Estimation of the basic reproducibility number for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in two sitesin northeastern Salta Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rosales

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Un modelo matemático determinístico del tipo SIR para tres hospedadores es aplicado para analizar el proceso de transmisión de la leishmaniasis tegumentar americana, en las localidades Río Blanco y paraje Las Carmelitas, ubicadas en el Nordeste de la Provincia de Salta, Argentina, del mismo se deriva la expresión para el número de reproducibilidad basal Ro. Se implementa el modelo en ambiente MATLAB, en base a datos de las zonas endémicas se realizan simulaciones y se obtienen estimaciones numéricas de Ro. Para el caso de Río Blanco hemos obtenido el valor Ro = 4,689, mientras que para el paraje Las Carmelitas se obtuvo Ro = 1,948. Estudiando numéricamente el modelo también se estima la fuerza de infección, obteniendo para las localidades mencionadas 0,239 y 0,171 (unidad 1/año, respectivamente. Las simulaciones muestran que en la localidad de Río Blanco la fase endémica resulta más sostenida que la fase inter-epidémica presentada en el paraje Las Carmelitas. Las estimaciones obtenidas para estos parámetros epidemiológicos indican donde las instituciones del Ministerio de Salud Pública de la Provincia y de la Nación tendrán más dificultad para el control y la erradicación de la enfermedad.A SIR-type deterministic mathematical model for three hosts is applied to analyze the transmission process for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Río Blanco and Las Carmelitas, located in northeastern Salta Province, Argentina, and to derive the expression for the baseline reproducibility number Ro. The model is implemented in the MATLAB environment, and based on data from endemic areas, simulations are performed and numerical estimations of Ro are obtained. Río Blanco shows Ro = 4.689 and Las Carmelitas Ro = 1.948. By studying the model numerically, we also estimate the force of infection, namely 0.239 and 0.171 (unit 1/year, respectively. The simulations show that in Río Blanco, the endemic phase was more sustained than the inter

  17. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  18. Air pollution in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karue, J.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work will look into PM-10 particulate matter collected from Nairobi City, Kenya (metropolitan city) and the remote forest on Mount Kenya (Timau Hills 3,875 m) for background monitoring. Previous work was done along the roadside, where total suspended particulate matter was collected and zinc, lead, and bromine were identified as highly enriched elements. The nine elements analyzed by EDXRF were found to account for 20% of the total mass. In this work we hope to account for more mass by including AAS and ion chromatography in the analytical methods. Indoor (industrial) samples will also be collected using Personal Samplers with a PM-10 Cyclone Head. Receptor modelling will be done taking into account the indoor data. Variations of the data with seasons and changes in weather will be analyzed. The background data will be used to assess long-range transfer of particulate. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  19. NODC Report: Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The Kenya National Oceanographic Data Center (KeNODC) began operating in January 1997. The first set of activities included identification of staff members and setting up of office infrastructure. Amidst all this, the Center conducted the first planning mission in March 1997 to set out priorities for action. Foremost were the duty allocations among the four staff members designated by KMFRI. This has been followed by a familiarization of a number of IODE policy documents and manuals for op...

  20. Marked og produkter i Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Et forskningsprojekt med dansk deltagelse undersøger, hvordan masseproduktion af insekter kan etableres i Kenya og bidrage med fødevarer til mennesker og protein til husdyrfoder.......Et forskningsprojekt med dansk deltagelse undersøger, hvordan masseproduktion af insekter kan etableres i Kenya og bidrage med fødevarer til mennesker og protein til husdyrfoder....

  1. Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregerson, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

  2. Rift Valley fever outbreak--Kenya, November 2006-January 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-02

    In mid-December 2006, several unexplained fatalities associated with fever and generalized bleeding were reported to the Kenya Ministry of Health (KMOH) from Garissa District in North Eastern Province (NEP). By December 20, a total of 11 deaths had been reported. Of serum samples collected from the first 19 patients, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus RNA or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against RVF virus were found in samples from 10 patients; all serum specimens were negative for yellow fever, Ebola, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and dengue viruses. The outbreak was confirmed by isolation of RVF virus from six of the specimens. Humans can be infected with RVF virus from bites of mosquitoes or other arthropod vectors that have fed on animals infected with RVF virus, or through contact with viremic animals, particularly livestock. Reports of livestock deaths and unexplained animal abortions in NEP provided further evidence of an RVF outbreak. On December 20, an investigation was launched by KMOH, the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), the Walter Reed Project of the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, CDC-Kenya's Global Disease Detection Center, and other partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). This report describes the findings from that initial investigation and the control measures taken in response to the RVF outbreak, which spread to multiple additional provinces and districts, resulting in 404 cases with 118 deaths as of January 25, 2007.

  3. Er Kenya klar til valget?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den 17. januar begyndte nomineringen af Kenyas kommende politikere. De politikere, der efter valget skal lede Østafrikas regionale stormagt frem til 2018. Nomineringsprocessen gav flere forskellige interessante indikationer på Kenyas ”demokratiske parathed” og dermed måske også en god fornemmelse...... af, hvordan det kommende valg i marts vil forløbe. Dette brief kommer med et bud på, om Kenya kan gøre sig fri af de mørke skygger fra valget i 2007....

  4. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 27 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme .... Differential production of immune parameters by mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to ...

  5. Population Genetics of Two Key Mosquito Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Reveals New Insights into the Changing Disease Outbreak Patterns in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouassi, David P.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Sole, Catherine L.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

  6. Population genetics of two key mosquito vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus reveals new insights into the changing disease outbreak patterns in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Tchouassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification.

  7. Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655

  8. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  9. Energy Diversity and Development in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    support for renewable energy development can be seen in Kenya’s efforts to obtain outside funding. Kenya is one of six countries selected by Climate...for Kenya (Nairobi: Repub- lic of Kenya, 2011). 17 Ministry of Energy, Feed-in Tariffs Policy on Wind, Biomass, Small-Hydro, Geothermal, Biogas and

  10. Molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in Dermacentor silvarum from a forest area of northeastern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun); L. Zhan (Lin); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); B.-H. Wen (Bo-Hai); H. Yang (Honghui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn total, 676 Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) from a forest area of Jilin Province in northeastern China were examined by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. The overall positive rate was 10.7%, with a 95% confidence interval

  11. Echinococcus spp. in central Kenya: a different story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, H; Magambo, J; Njenga, S; Zeyhle, E; Mbae, C; Mulinge, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2014-10-01

    Research on cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a long history in Kenya, but has mainly concentrated on two discrete areas, Turkana and Maasailand, which are known to be foci of human CE in Africa. Here, we report on a survey for CE in livestock from central to northeastern Kenya, from where no previous data are available. A total of 7,831 livestock carcasses were surveyed. CE prevalence was 1.92% in cattle (n = 4,595), 6.94% in camels (n = 216), 0.37% in goats (n = 2,955) and 4.62% in sheep (n = 65). Identification of the parasite was done using an RFLP-PCR of the mitochondrial nad1 gene, which had been validated before against the various Echinococcus taxa currently recognized as distinct species. From a total of 284 recovered cysts, 258 could be identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n = 160), E. ortleppi (n = 51) and E. canadensis (n = 47) by RFLP-PCR of nad1. In cattle, fertile cysts occurred mostly in the lungs and belonged to E. ortleppi (31 of 54), while the vast majority were sterile or calcified cysts of E. granulosus s.s.. Most fertile cysts in camels belonged to E. canadensis (33 of 37); sterile or calcified cysts were rare. Goats harboured fertile cysts of E. ortleppi (n = 3)--which is the first record in that host species--and E. canadensis (n = 1), while all cysts of E. granulosus were sterile. Only sterile cysts were found in the three examined sheep. Typically, all cysts in animals with multiple infections belonged to the same species, while mixed infections were rare. Our data indicate that the epidemiological situation in central to northeastern Kenya is clearly different from the well-studied pastoral regions of Turkana and Maasailand, and the apparently low number of human CE cases correlates with the infrequent occurrence of E. granulosus s.s.

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Kinyanjui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenya has a disproportionately high rate of road traffic accidents each year, many of them resulting in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs. A review of articles written on issues pertaining to the medical treatment of people with TBI in the past 15 years in Kenya indicates a significantly high incidence of TBIs and a high mortality rate. This article reviews the available literature as a first step in exploring the status of rehabilitation of Kenyans with cognitive impairments and other disabilities resulting from TBIs. From this preliminary review, it is apparent that despite TBI being a pervasive public health problem in Kenya, it has not received due attention in the public and private sectors as evidenced by a serious lack of post-acute rehabilitation services for people with TBIs. Implications for this lack of services are discussed and recommendations are made for potential approaches to this problem.

  13. Supporting 'Young Carers' in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, C.; Onyango, V.

    2013-01-01

    , avoiding engagement with support strategies that could be seen as support of child labour. To challenge this view, and move from policy paralysis to action, we present a study from western Kenya that explores community perceptions of children's work and caregiving as well as opportunities for support....... The study draws on 17 community group conversations and 10 individual interviews, involving 283 members of a Luo community in the Bondo District of western Kenya. We provide a detailed account of how integral children's work is to household survival in the context of poverty, HIV and AIDS as well...

  14. Fire frequency effects on fuel loadings in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Florentino Garza

    2001-01-01

    Loadings of downed woody fuels in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province are heavier on sites in southeastern Arizona with low fire frequencies and lower on sites in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, with high fire frequencies. Low fire frequencies in southeastern Arizona are attributed largely to past land uses and the fire suppression policies of land management...

  15. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

    1996-08-01

    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  16. Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross-. Sectional Survey of ... Keywords: Contraception, Expenditure, Budget, Decision-making. Résumé. A mesure ... increasingly receiving attention, including in. Kenya17. In Kenya ...

  17. Running Head: Education in Kenya | Emenyonu | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Running Head: Education in Kenya. ... Modern Kenya has been steadily evolving since 1963 when the country attained independence. ... refining traditional values and incorporating them in the goals and objectives of Kenya's modern system ...

  18. The geomorphology of Southeast Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    A geomorphological map of an area of 66 500 km 2 in the southeastern part of Kenya has been prepared. In the littoral zone eight major terrace levels occurring between the present shore and approximately 160 m +MSL have been described. Analysis of radiometric datings and

  19. Urban farmers in Nakuru, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.

    2000-01-01

    The present report contains the result of a general survey, carried out in June-July 1999, on farming practices performed by the inhabitants of Nakuru town, Kenya. The two major objectives of the survey were: 1) to collect basic data on farming by the Nakuru townspeople and 2) to provide the

  20. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  1. Kenya sõdurid tungisid Somaaliasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kenya sõjaväelased tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse, et tabada mässulisi, kes on viimastel nädalatel korraldanud Kenyas mitmeid inimrööve. Kenya väed tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse päev pärast seda, kui Nairobi kuulutas sõja Al-Qaedaga seostatud äärmusrühmitusele Shabaab

  2. Barriers to wind power exports from the Maritime provinces to the US northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed a study that evaluated wind energy export potential from the Maritime provinces to the northeastern United States. The study assessed key market issues likely to affect the exports. The study showed that the Maritime provinces are capable of generating 5500 to 7500 MW of wind. The current electricity system is capable of integrating 2100 MW. Wind power integration between the 2 regions would require transmission upgrades, increased transmission capacity, and better coordination between system operators. Barriers to exports from the Maritimes include limited capacity on existing interties and high transmission tariffs. Uniform transmission tariffs are needed throughout the Maritime provinces. Coordination and integration of operators and utilities is needed to reduce the costs of wind power integration. Increased wind power production reduces price risks related to high energy prices. It was concluded that wind power is a cost-effective method of providing renewable and low carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generation electricity in the northeastern United States. tabs., figs

  3. Herd-level seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi infection in dairy cattle population in the central and northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Sławomir J; Czopowicz, Michał; Weber, Corinna N; Müller, Elisabeth; Nalbert, Tomasz; Bereznowski, Andrzej; Kaba, Jarosław

    2018-04-17

    Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi infections are widespread in cattle population of Europe, however data on their prevalence in Poland are only fragmentary. Therefore, the cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the herd-level seroprevalence of F. hepatica and O. ostertagi infection in dairy cattle population in the central and north-eastern provinces Poland, and to identify basic local risk factors for these infections. In total, 598 herds were enrolled, 394 (65.9%) in the north-eastern province and 204 (34.1%) in the central province. In each herd the questionnaire survey was conducted and bulk-tank milk (BTM) sample was collected and screened using two indirect immunoenzymatic tests. Optical density ratio (ODR) was regarded as the quantitative proxy of exposure to either of the two parasites. Both Fasciola and Ostertagia ELISA ODR in the north-eastern province was significantly higher than ODR in the central province. At the cut-off value of ODR = 0.27 the true herd-level seroprevalence of F. hepatica was 79.6% (95% CI: 74.0%, 84.3%) in the north-eastern province and 13.0% (95% CI: 5.3%, 21.7%) in the central province. At the cut-off of ODR = 0.50151 of 188 herds (80.3%, 95% CI: 74.1%, 85.4%) were seropositive for O. ostertagi in the north-eastern province and only 70 of 136 herds (51.5%, 95% CI: 43.1%, 59.7%) were seropositive in the central province. Location of a herd in the north-eastern province, longer grazing period practiced in a herd and > 50%-share of grazing grass in roughage were all positively related to the increase in exposure to both parasites. Moreover, the use of hay or haylage as main roughage proved to be positively related to the increase in exposure to F. hepatica. F. hepatica and O. ostertagi are widespread in cattle population in Poland, however their occurrence at a herd-level varies between different regions of Poland. This diversity can only partly be explained by different herd management, and appears

  4. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirangu, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that relies on the use of nuclear technology in the diagnosis and treatment (therapy) of diseases. Nuclear medicine uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body, tissue or cell. This uptake is then imaged by the use of detectors mounted in gamma cameras or PET (positron emission tomography) devices.. Unlike other radiation applications for medical use, nuclear medicine uses open (unsealed) sources of radiation. In a country with an estimated population of 48 million in 2017, Kenya has only two (2) nuclear medicine facilities (units). Being a relatively new medical discipline in Kenya, several measures have been taken by the clinical nuclear medicine team to create awareness at various levels

  5. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Mutiso, Kavulani [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nairobi (Kenya); Sconfienza, Luca Maria [University of Milan, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan (Italy); IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Monu, Johnny [University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  6. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Kathryn J.; Mutiso, Kavulani; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Monu, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  7. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  8. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndrirangu, T.T.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that relies on the use of nuclear technology in the diagnosis and treatment (therapy) of diseases. Nuclear medicine uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body, tissue or cell. Unlike other radiation applications for medical use, nuclear medicine uses open (unsealed) sources of radiation. The tracer is introduced into the body of the patient through several routes (oral, intravenous, percutaneous, intradermally, inhalation, intracapsular etc) and s/he becomes the source of radiation. Early diagnosis of diseases coupled with associated timely therapeutic intervention will lead to better prognosis. In a country with an estimated population of 42 million in 2017, Kenya has only two (2) nuclear medicine facilities (units) that is Kenyatta National Hospital - Public facility and Aga Khan University Hospital which is a Private facility. Being a relatively new medical discipline in Kenya, several measures have been taken by the clinical nuclear medicine team to create awareness at various levels. Kenya does not manufacture radiopharmaceuticals. We therefore have to import them from abroad and this makes them quite expensive, and the process demanding. There is no local training in nuclear medicine and staff have to be sent abroad for training, making this quite expensive and cumbersome and the IAEA has been complimenting in this area. With concerted effort by all stakeholders at the individual, national and international level, it is possible for Kenya to effectively sustain clinical nuclear medicine service not only as a diagnostic tool in many disease entities, but also play an increasingly important role in therapy

  9. Becoming a teacher at teacher training colleges in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kari

    Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya.......Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya....

  10. Infection of cattle in Kenya with Brucella abortus biovar 3 and Brucella melitensis biovar 1 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muendo, Esther N; Mbatha, Peter M; Macharia, Joseph; Abdoel, Theresia H; Janszen, Paul V; Pastoor, Rob; Smits, Henk L

    2012-01-01

    Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from bovine milk samples from a herd in central Kenya, and Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from aborted fetus materials and vaginal discharge fluids from cattle in central and eastern provinces of Kenya. All infections including those with B. melitensis were in cattle with reproductive problems kept in mixed herds indicating that cross infection occurs from small ruminants. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis genotyping revealed a close molecular homology of the B. melitensis isolates with an isolate from Israel and a close homology of the B. abortus isolates with an isolate from Uganda indicating that these genotypes have a wide geographic distribution. Infection of cattle with B. melitensis may complicate the control of brucellosis in this country.

  11. Development research in Kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's 2002 general election, replacing a notoriously corrupt regime with a coalition government committed to reform, was seen as a landmark event in the country's history. IDRC, active in Kenya for some 30 years by then, reacted quickly with a package of projects expressly designed to advance and take advantage of ...

  12. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    Tree 1 PPK Peoples Party of Kenya Trumpet 1 NLP National Labour Party Bull (Ndume) 1 KADDU Kenya African Democratic Development Union Fruit Basket...15%, Asian, European, and Arab 1% Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2% Languages: English

  13. Health education and teacher education in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Forskningsseminar på Kenyatta University, Nairobi, key note om sundhedsundervisning og læreruddannelse i Kenya, baseret på post.doc.-forskningsprojekt 2009-2011.......Forskningsseminar på Kenyatta University, Nairobi, key note om sundhedsundervisning og læreruddannelse i Kenya, baseret på post.doc.-forskningsprojekt 2009-2011....

  14. The state of emergency care in the Republic of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wachira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 580,000 km2 in size, the Republic of Kenya is as big as Botswana but only half the size of countries like South Africa, Mali, and Angola. Kenya is comprised of eight provinces: Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, and Western. The 2009 census revealed a population of over 38 million people, with a population density of approximately 66 persons per square kilometre. Majority of the population (68% lives in rural areas, as compared with the sub-Saharan African average of approximately 62%. With a gross domestic product (GDP per capita of US $1,600 in 2010, Kenya is considered a low-income country—with 50% of the population living below the poverty line. HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects the country’s mortality and morbidity. Although its prevalence is higher than the regional average at 6.3% for people ages 15–49 years, it is much lower than many other sub-Saharan African countries. In addition to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrheal diseases are major killers. The burden of communicable diseases is high, with malaria as the leading cause of morbidity (30%, followed by respiratory diseases (24.5%. Malaria prevalence is 14%, and HIV prevalence is 7.4%, with a higher rate in women (8.5% compared to men (5.6%. The non-communicable disease burden is also on the rise with diabetes prevalence at 3.3%, a threefold increase over the last 10 years. Mental health issues and road traffic injuries are also on the rise. Thirteen percent of school-age children aged 13–15 years are active cigarette smokers. These put Kenya in the company of other low-income countries predicted by the World Health Organization (WHO to face the “double hump” burden of communicable and chronic disease over the next several decades.

  15. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ochieng

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007 to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV.The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2% were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive, followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively. For DENV and RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01 with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01. These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

  16. Northeastern states sharpen biomass focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Wood energy use in the northeastern region of the USA currently replaces an estimated annual equivalent of 45--50 million barrels of oil. Including municipal wastes and recovered methane emissions for regional landfills, total biomass contribution to the energy economy is over 70 million barrels of oil equivalent annually. A reasonable consensus suggests wood alone could replace the equivalent of over 300 million barrels of oil each year on a sustainable basis over the next two decades. Beyond energy security, over 60,000 total jobs are now provided in the region by the wood energy industry. Over 375,000 total jobs could be generated by the wood energy industry, about 65,000 in the harvesting, transportation, and end-use operations of the wood energy industry. Biomass producers must be committed to sustainable development by necessity. Sound forest management practices that keep residual stand damage from wood harvesting to a minimum can create positive impacts on the region's forest. When combined with a balanced energy policy, the conditional use of wood energy can play a modest, but significant, role in reducing air emissions. Depletion of traditional energy resources creates open-quotes bubbleclose quotes benefits which will be exhausted after a generation. Sustainable development of biomass can create inexhaustible wealth for generations, and does not pose the risk of sudden ecological disruption. While the choice between policy options is not mutually exclusive, the interrelationship between energy security, economic growth and environmental quality clearly favors biomass. The environmental benefits and the economic growth impacts of biobased products produced by the northeastern states are considerable. The 11 states located in the northeastern USA should intensify their efforts to work with industry and investors to expand markets for industrial biobased products, either produced from local feedstocks or manufactured by companies operating in the region

  17. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  18. Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Adhiambo, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out and improve on strategy used in the Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya; Case of African Merchants Assurance Company Ltd (AMACO). AMACO is one of the 44 insurance firms in Kenya. Among others it is a local incorporated company, which makes a difference in that it is not one of the leading insurance firms in Kenya, which is held by such firms as British-American insurance company. The methodology used is quantitative, qualitative methods, interview ...

  19. Implementation of Participatory Forest Management in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, S. H.; Løber, Trine; Skensved, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of powers before and after the implementation of participatory forest management (PFM) in Kenya. The paper is a case study of the Karima forest in the Central Highlands of Kenya. The study relies primarily on 34 semi-structured interviews with key actors...... of the forest communities and weak downward accountability relations. Finally, it illustrates a planning process, which has weaknesses in participation and inclusiveness. Consequently, the paper suggests three areas for PFM policy reform in Kenya: (i) the role (powers) and function of CFAs; (ii) benefit sharing...

  20. AHP 27: A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Bum ཚེ་རིང་འབུམ།

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsering Bum (b. 1985 describes his early life in Amdo in terms of dreams, herding, punishment from a lama, schooling experiences, attending a Kalachakra teaching, a lhatzi gathering, irrigation, his grandfather, archery, and other important moments and influences. Another incredible production from Kevin Stuart's Tibetan English students! Tsering Bum gives us a series of intricately woven vignettes of his childhood and adolescence in a small Tibetan village in Qinghai Province. A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood takes readers into the social and material culture of Tsering's family and fellow villagers. We begin with a home scene on the heated brick hyitsi 'bed', where the family sleeps, meals are taken, and guests are entertained. Through Tsering's writing we taste the noodles his mother makes by hand, know the life of the herders, meet ritualists who communicate with the mountain deity, visit a Kalachakra for blessings, experience an archery contest that ends in singing and drink, swim naked in cold mountain rivers, celebrate Losar, or Tibetan new year festival, visit a nomad festival, enter the transformative world of a county primary school, and hear the accounts of three deaths. The stories take us through a landscape of mountains, rivers, and grasslands to new worlds that for the narrator end with a kindled sense of global vision and self-worth. Mark Bender, Ohio State University I highly recommend this exciting new work. Tsering Bum's account of his life is a quick and pleasant read, full of insights into many aspects of contemporary Tibetan culture. From village rituals associated with death and archery contests to the challenges of modern schooling in rural areas, Tsering Bum leads us quickly through a narrative that links past and present to hopes for the future. Tibetan Buddhism and mountain pilgrimage play a limited but significant role in the story. As a historian, I was most interested in the chapter 'Grandpa' that recounts the

  1. (via/vili) in khwisero, western kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... KHWISERO, WESTERN KENYA: LESSON FROM THE FIELD AFFECTING POLICY AND PRACTICE. S. K. Ngichabe ... In SSA, cervical cancer affects mostly women in .... inaccessible to the lower socio-economic population.

  2. Situational Analysis of Leishmaniases Research in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    leishmaniasis, as currently conducted in Kenya with sodium stibogluconate, is ... to intermittent drug exposure [80-83], the isolation of ... general, these vaccination protocols elicited ..... hybridization with non-radioactive probes. Parasitology ...

  3. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Shi, Kun; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Quan; Du, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Toxolasma gondii is one of the most important obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. Recently, toxoplasmosis is of increasing concerns because T. gondii not only has a worldwide distribution but also can infect virtually all warm-blooded hosts including donkeys. However, limited information is available concerning the genetic characterization of T. gondii in donkeys in northeastern China. In this study, a total of 302 brain tissue samples collected from donkeys from Jilin (n=108) and Liaoning (n=194) provinces, northeastern China, were examined for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive samples were genotyped at 11 loci (i.e., SAG1, alternative SAG2, 5'-and 3'-SAG2, SAG3, L358, BTUB, c22-8, GRA6, c29-2, PK1 and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. Of 302 brain tissue samples, 19 (6.29%) were PCR-positive for T. gondii. The prevalence rates of T. gondii were 6.48% (7/108) and 6.19% (12/194) in Jilin Province and Liaoning Province, respectively. The prevalence of T. gondii in different season groups varied from 5.56% to 7.41%. The prevalence of T. gondii in "Cage-free" donkeys was higher than that in "Captive" donkeys. Of the 19 positive samples, only two isolates were successfully genotyped at all loci, three were genotyped at 9 loci. In total, four samples belong to ToxoDB genotype #9, one belong to ToxoDB genotype #10. This is firstly characterized the T. gondii isolates from donkeys in northeastern China. The results of the present study will improve the information of the distribution of T. gondii genotypes in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Innovation and Financial Inclusion in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omanga, Josphat; Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the role of financial innovation and mobile phone technologies to financial inclusion in Kenya. In order to do so, a case study on M-PESA is conducted, the leading mobile service of money transfers in Africa, which is offered by Safaricom. M-PESA services are cheap and easy...... suggests that M-PESA services can be considered a type of disruptive innovation that promotes financial inclusion and wealth growth in Kenya....

  5. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera, Dolichopodidae from Central and North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Grichanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During a 2016-2017 survey conducted in Isfahan, Lorestan, Markazi, North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, South Khorasan and Tehran provinces located in the Central and North-Eastern Iran, about 1000 specimens of Dolichopodidae were collected and identified. Eight dolichopodid species [Dolichopus jaxarticus Stackelberg, 1927, Hydrophorus viridis (Meigen, 1824, Medetera diadema (Linnaeus, 1767, M. lamprostoma Loew, 1871, M. roghii Rampini et Canzoneri, 1979, Tachytrechus kowarzi Mik, 1864, Tachytrechus sogdianus Loew, 1871, and Thinophilus flavipalpis (Zetterstedt, 1843] are recorded for the first time in Iran. Dolichopus subimmaculatus Kazerani, Pollet, Khaghaninia, 2017, is placed in synonymy with Dolichopus perversus Loew, 1871 (syn. nov.. Lectotype is designated for D. perversus.

  6. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  7. A Practitioner’s Perspective on the Kenya I and Kenya II Cases before the ICC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    On 10 September 2013 the International Criminal Court (ICC) began hearing a case against William Ruto, Deputy President of the Republic of Kenya, and Joshua Sang. The related case against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, was scheduled to begin in November 2013 but has since been

  8. A Public Lecture Series on Kenya Cities in the 21. Centuary Environment and Development in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obudho, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Issues of Development planning in Kenya have gained added importance over the last few years in view of the recent political events in the country which have indeed occupied a centre stage within the world community. Surprisingly, however, there has been little published on the problems, experiences, and approaches of spatial and urban development in Kenya from a comparative and comprehensive view. The present volume is intended to help bridge the gap by bringing together a number of original contributions on urbanization and planning Kenya covering an interdisciplinary perspective. The essential focus is on comparative historical analysis of the urbanization process in Kenya, the resulting limitations and problems of urban development, and consequent challenges and responses of development planning. The book Provides a frame work for understanding the nature of Kenya urbanism and urbanization, limitations on that urbanism and urbanization imposed by traditional notions and analytical approaches to it

  9. Healthcare priority setting in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukachi, Salome A.; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Siso, Jared Maaka

    2014-01-01

    In resource-poor settings, the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) has been identified as an important advance in priority setting that helps to operationalize fair priority setting in specific contexts. The four conditions of A4R are backed by theory, not evidence, that conformance with them...... improves the priority setting decisions. This paper describes the healthcare priority setting processes in Malindi district, Kenya, prior to the implementation of A4R in 2008 and evaluates the process for its conformance with the conditions for A4R. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key...... players in the Malindi district health system and a review of key policy documents and national guidelines show that the priority setting process in the district relies heavily on guidelines from the national level, making it more of a vertical, top-down orientation. Multilateral and donor agencies...

  10. All projects related to kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluating impacts of gender integration on agriculture and food security outcomes ... Kenya's agricultural labour force; however, gender inequalities often undermine their productivity and ... Region: Canada, Israel, Kenya, India, United States.

  11. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  12. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. N. Ogendo, Bsc, MPH, Living goods Nairobi, Kenya,Ministry of Health, Environmental Health ... led drive to set up pit latrines in rural kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable ... Development and Sustainable Development goals lay.

  13. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okuku

    Keywords: Spatial data infrastructure, Kenya NSDI, development, .... calculated based on the value of the 16 indicators of SDI readiness (Table 1). .... instance, majority of the staff at Survey of Kenya; the National Mapping Agency are GIS and.

  14. ON THE PRESENCE OF PYRAMIODONTHERIUM (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, MEGATHERIIDAE IN THE LATE MIOCENE OF NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA AND ITS BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO BRANDONI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The biochron of the subfamily Megatheriinae, large to very large terrestrial sloths typified by Megatherium Cuvier, in Argentina extends from the middle Miocene of Patagonia to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Megatheriines reached their highest diversity in the lower levels (="conglomerado osífero", late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation in Entre Ríos Province, northeastern Argentina. Among the four megatheriines that occur in this unit, the genera Promegatherium Ameghino, Eomegatherium Kraglievich and Pliomegatherium Kraglievich represent relatively small to medium-sized taxa. Here we describe new material assigned to Pyramiodontherium, the largest of the four genera from the same bed and comparable in size to some Quaternary species of Megatherium. Three valid species of Pyramiodontherium have been recognized, all distributed mainly in northwestern Argentina, from the late Miocene in Catamarca Province (and probably also in Tucumán Province, and the late Pliocene in La Rioja Province. The presence of this genus in northeastern Argentina extends its known paleobiogeographical distribution. 

  15. Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouma, J.O.; Mwangi, J.M.; Mdachi, R.; Njiru, Z.K.; Ndung'u, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

  16. Kenya | Page 30 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accueil · Sud du Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Langue English. Read more about Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis.

  17. Solar home systems in Kenya: unlocking consumer finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simm, Ian; Haq, Amir; Widge, V.

    2000-01-01

    The article reports on the International Finance Corporation's support of projects in Kenya where the funding is being used to enlarge the solar lending of a network of financial organisations which can reach a large number of rural Kenyans. The demand, advantages and potential of photovoltaics and solar systems generally in Kenya are discussed. Kenya's fragile financial institutions are mentioned

  18. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  19. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  20. Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    popular support, the new government looked well-placed to initiate thorough and last- ing reform — a ... to assemble a mix of projects suited for early action. ... approval process lacked a degree of rigour or substantive risk analysis, the diversity.

  1. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  2. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade.

  3. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  4. Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Zipporah

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable...

  5. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  6. Digital Radiography in Kenya today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenta, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    Its nearly one year and a half since digital imaging/radiography was introduced in Kenya mainly in Nairobi. the technology is becoming an increasingly effective and acceptable modality of producing radiographs from the traditional conventional radiography in use to date. the digital radiography offers numerous advantages that have been noted for the short period over the conventional way. For instance radiographs are produced in real time (less than 3 minutes), by so doing the technology has eliminated the wait for the processing period. the radiation exposure to the patient under the radiological examination is reduced as much as 90% from the traditional conventional film taking. The cost, labour and record-keeping necessary to maintain a chemical processor and darkroom operations are as well eliminated. The cost of purchasing and disposing of film wastes/darkroom processing chemicals, which are environmentally hazardous, also become unnecessary.digital radiography technology makes the digital images comparable to other images on the screen at that instant making both the patient and the clinician easily access images when needed. digital receptors have also replaced the cassette containing intensifying screens and film that is used in conventional radiography

  7. Factors associated with severe human Rift Valley fever in Sangailu, Garissa County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Desirée LaBeaud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV causes acute, often severe, disease in livestock and humans. To determine the exposure factors and range of symptoms associated with human RVF, we performed a population-based cross-sectional survey in six villages across a 40 km transect in northeastern Kenya.A systematic survey of the total populations of six Northeastern Kenyan villages was performed. Among 1082 residents tested via anti-RVFV IgG ELISA, seroprevalence was 15% (CI95%, 13-17%. Prevalence did not vary significantly among villages. Subject age was a significant factor, with 31% (154/498 of adults seropositive vs. only 2% of children ≤15 years (12/583. Seroprevalence was higher among men (18% than women (13%. Factors associated with seropositivity included a history of animal exposure, non-focal fever symptoms, symptoms related to meningoencephalitis, and eye symptoms. Using cluster analysis in RVFV positive participants, a more severe symptom phenotype was empirically defined as having somatic symptoms of acute fever plus eye symptoms, and possibly one or more meningoencephalitic or hemorrhagic symptoms. Associated with this more severe disease phenotype were older age, village, recent illness, and loss of a family member during the last outbreak. In multivariate analysis, sheltering livestock (aOR = 3.5 CI95% 0.93-13.61, P = 0.065, disposing of livestock abortus (aOR = 4.11, CI95% 0.63-26.79, P = 0.14, and village location (P = 0.009 were independently associated with the severe disease phenotype.Our results demonstrate that a significant proportion of the population in northeastern Kenya has been infected with RVFV. Village and certain animal husbandry activities were associated with more severe disease. Older age, male gender, herder occupation, killing and butchering livestock, and poor visual acuity were useful markers for increased RVFV infection. Formal vision testing may therefore prove to be a helpful, low-technology tool

  8. The Adolescent Girls Initiative-Kenya (AGI-K: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Austrian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adolescent girls in Kenya and elsewhere face considerable risks and vulnerabilities that affect their well-being and hinder a safe, healthy, and productive transition into early adulthood. Early adolescence provides a critical window of opportunity to intervene at a time when girls are experiencing many challenges, but before those challenges have resulted in deleterious outcomes that may be irreversible. The Adolescent Girls Initiative-Kenya (AGI-K is built on these insights and designed to address these risks for young adolescent girls. The long-term goal of AGI-K is to delay childbearing for adolescent girls by improving their well-being. Intervention AGI-K comprises nested combinations of different single-sector interventions (violence prevention, education, health, and wealth creation. It will deliver interventions to over 6000 girls between the ages of 11 and 14 years in two marginalized areas of Kenya: 1 Kibera in Nairobi and 2 Wajir County in Northeastern Kenya. The program will use a combination of girl-, household- and community-level interventions. The violence prevention intervention will use community conversations and planning focused on enhancing the value of girls in the community. The educational intervention includes a cash transfer to the household conditioned on school enrollment and attendance. The health intervention is culturally relevant, age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education delivered in a group setting once a week over the course of 2 years. Lastly, the wealth creation intervention provides savings and financial education, as well as start-up savings. Methods/Design A randomized trial will be used to compare the impact of four different packages of interventions, in order to assess if and how intervening in early adolescence improves girls’ lives after four years. The project will be evaluated using data from behavioural surveys conducted before the start of the program

  9. Relationships between crustal structure and extension in the Basin and Range Province and East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G R [University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019 (United States)], E-mail: grkeller@ou.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Basin and Range Province of the western United States and northern Mexico is often cited as a classic example of a wide rift. It is also a region where metamorphic core complexes such as the ones observed in the Aegean region are observed. On the other hand, the eastern arm (Kenya rift) of the East African rift is considered to be the classic example of a continental rift, which is by some definitions narrow. In this paper, these two features are briefly compared in terms of crustal structure and associated manifestations of extension.

  10. SUICIDE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA: CAUSES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide is against the law in Kenya. The existence of suicide phenomena in the society is a major issue that needs to be looked into with a lot of concern, and creating effective preventative measure is a matter of urgency. Knowledge concerning suicide is largely limited. The majority of people in the society treat suicide ...

  11. Enhancing biomass energy use in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banwell, P.S.; Harriss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper argues that in Kenya, environmental and economic factors will favour the continued use of biomass as a primary fuel for household an institutional cooking for the next decade or longer. The paper describes several successful projects which have improved the efficiency of urban charcoal use and of rural woodfuel use. The Kenya Ceramic Jiko, a more efficient version of the traditional charcoal stove, is a model programme sustained by free market competition, artisans participation, and widespread public acceptance. The Maendeleo stove is the best example of a successful rural woodstove project. The performance attributes of the stove, and its promotion through Kenya's largest women's organization, have resulted int he distribution of an estimated 26,000 Maendeleo stoves. Rural stove efficiency will become important as the cash-based economy expands in those areas. Agroforestry will also be critical to an enhanced use of biomass energy in Kenya. Experience to date shows that successful agroforestry programmes will have to be appropriate to local conditions and crops. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  13. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amitabh@1234

    Kenya is a boon for a field linguist but misinformed politicians and education policy ... to date. Language realities have been observed in this study from a temporal lens of .... The knowledge of a language of international currency is not a curse, and it is ... But the colonial mind-sets of the people worked against the growth.

  14. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  15. (Boda boda) riders in Bungoma Town, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even stationary bikes can cause trauma to the blood supply to the penis, resulting in Erectile Dysfunction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of long term bicycle riding on erectile function among bicycle taxi (bodaboda) riders in Bungoma town. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study. Setting: Bungoma County, Kenya.

  16. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  17. Assessment of productive employment policies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, P.; Kinyanjui, B.; Akinyoade, A.; Mukoko, C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses productive employment policies in Kenya. The main objective being to reflect on the current state of affairs, identify constraints and gaps among these policies. The paper is mainly based on desk-top research which reviews available literature and policy papers on

  18. Congenital malformations among newborns in Kenya | Muga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the patterns and incidence of congenital malformations at birth in newborns in Kenya and thereby analyze associated predisposing factors in their mothers. This single cross-sectional ... followed by malformations of the central nervous system (28.6%). Polydactyl was the most ...

  19. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  20. Information seeking and communication behaviour of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the findings of a study which sought insight into engineer's information seeking and communication behaviour at Kenya Railways Corporation. The study employed a user centered approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which were system centered. It focused broadly and ...

  1. Sharing Special Education Strategies in Rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, Cynthia T.

    2014-01-01

    As a former special education teacher at the elementary, middle and high school levels, many unique and complex learning situations were encountered. The author, who was a junior faculty member on her initial trip to Kenya, experienced a very challenging, yet rewarding, learning opportunity with teachers gathered in a community located in rural…

  2. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Wachira*

    2013-12-01

    This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000–2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  3. Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Marylee

    The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

  4. reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged ... MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE. T r o p ic a l D is e a s e r e s e a r c h l a b o r a. To r y, K h o ... research and capacity building collaboration in Southeast Asia. Eco EID is ...

  5. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  6. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2014-08-29

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders in a Rural District of Kenya, and Socio-Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kiima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Association between common mental disorders (CMDs, equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population, were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs. Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.

  8. Petrology of metabasites in the south of Arousan, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Bayat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metagabbro, metadiabase and metabasalt of the Chah Palang and Me'raji mountains associated with Lower Paleozoic metamorphites are situated in the south of Arousan. Metabasites of these areas are relatively similar in terms of mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. Rock-forming minerals of the Me'raji metabasites are feldspar, amphibole, biotite, sphene, epidote, chlorite ± calcite. Metagabbro and metadiabase of the Chah Palang area are similar to the Me'raji metabasites in mineralogy and geochemistry. Volcanic rocks are overlain by metagabbros and consist of plagioclase, biotite, sphene, sanidine, chlorite, epidote and iron oxides. The rigid dykes, which are found in the volcanic units are associated with metagabbros and mineralogically are similar to the metavolcanics. Amphibolitic dykes are composed of amphibole, plagioclase and biotite with preferred orientation. Metabasites show limited range of differentiation. Me'raji metabasites are basalt and trachy-basalt in composition, whereas the Chah Palang ones present basalt and trachy-basalt composition. Similar to metabasites of the other parts of Iran, the studied basic rocks demonstrate alkaline to transitional chemical characteristic and are formed in an extensional environment by low-degree partial melting of a garnet-spinel peridotite. Metamorphic episodes have changed the studied rocks to amphibolite and greenschist, but the primitive igneous textures are preserved.

  9. Hydrogeochemical and spectroscopic studies of radioactive materials in Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Esmaeili Vardanjani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwaters hydrochemistry of Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas and geochemistry of rare earth elements, indicate Ayrakan alkali granite as the origin of uranium and other dissolved elements in groundwaters of these areas. Geochemical and hydrogeochemical studies as well as the trend of uranium and thorium transition and mobility in aqueous environments of these areas indicate uranium adsorption by iron hydroxide (goethite as the deterrent agent against uranium transition and mobility from depth to surface. Gamma-ray spectroscopic study of sediments from Cheshmeh Shotori area by HPGe detector indicates the presence of 226Ra in high contents and as the radioactive nuclide that is the reason for high activity of these sediments. Production of 226Ra from 238U decay, shorter half-life of 226Ra compared to 238U, radium transition by groundwaters from depth to surface as well as hydrogeochemical evidences, all suggest the possibility of existence of hidden uranium deposit and uranium mineralization in depth and the distance between Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas.

  10. Women's Nutribusiness cooperatives in Kenya: an integrated strategy for sustaining rural livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the cooperatives were established, facilities and equipment were supplied and extensive participatory training was provided by university-affiliated investigators and project staff. This initiative enabled approximately 2500 rural Kenyan women farmers to add value to their crops by processing and locally marketing nutritious, convenient, culturally-appropriate weaning food mixes. Implementation of the NutriBusiness model is described and challenges of cultural engagement are highlighted.

  11. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  12. Mosquito-borne arbovirus surveillance at selected sites in diverse ecological zones of Kenya; 2007 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in East Africa necessitated the determination of distribution of risk by entomologic arbovirus surveillance. A systematic vector surveillance programme spanning 5 years and covering 11 sites representing seven of the eight provinces in Kenya and located in diverse ecological zones was carried out. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled bi-annually during the wet seasons and screened for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled by species, collection date and site and screened for arboviruses by isolation in cell culture and/or RT-PCR screening and sequencing. Results Over 450,000 mosquitoes in 15,890 pools were screened with 83 viruses being detected/isolated that include members of the alphavirus, flavivirus and orthobunyavirus genera many of which are known to be of significant public health importance in the East African region. These include West Nile, Ndumu, Sindbis, Bunyamwera, Pongola and Usutu viruses detected from diverse sites. Ngari virus, which was associated with hemorrhagic fever in northern Kenya in 1997/98 was isolated from a pool of Anopheles funestus sampled from Tana-delta and from Aedes mcintoshi from Garissa. Insect only flaviviruses previously undescribed in Kenya were also isolated in the coastal site of Rabai. A flavivirus most closely related to the Chaoyang virus, a new virus recently identified in China and two isolates closely related to Quang Binh virus previously unreported in Kenya were also detected. Conclusion Active transmission of arboviruses of public health significance continues in various parts of the country with possible undetermined human impact. Arbovirus activity was highest in the pastoralist dominated semi-arid to arid zones sites of the country where 49% of the viruses were isolated suggesting a role of animals as amplifiers and indicating the need for improved arbovirus disease diagnosis among pastoral communities. PMID:23663381

  13. The relationship between teacher-related factors and students' attitudes towards secondary school chemistry subject in Bureti district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Chepkorir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between teacher-related factors and student’s attitudes towards Chemistry subject in secondary schools in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted in Bureti District in Kericho County, Kenya. This paper highlights issues on the teaching methods used by chemistry teachers, the teachers’ availability to attend to various needs of students on the subject, their use of teaching and learning resources in teaching, teachers’ personal levels of skills and knowledge of the subject matter in Chemistry and the impact of students’ negative attitudes towards Chemistry on teachers’ effectiveness. The research design used in the study was descriptive survey. The target population comprised Form Four students in ten selected secondary schools in Bureti District of Rift Valley Province Kenya. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study sample. Schools were selected from the following categories: Girls’ schools, Boys’ schools and Co-educational schools. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents from Form Four classes as well as a teacher in each school. In all, one hundred and eighty-nine students and ten teachers filled the questionnaires. The data collection instruments were questionnaires based on the Likert scale and document analysis. Data was analyzed descriptively using frequency tables, means and percentages while hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Variance. From the study findings, a number of indicators revealed that there are some factors influencing students’ attitudes towards Chemistry, including lack of successful experiences in Chemistry, poor teaching. It was recommended that science teachers’ should encourage development of positive self-concept of ability among students. Among other recommendations, the study suggests that guidance and counselling of students in schools should be encouraged, to ensure positive attitudes towards and full

  14. Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zipporah

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable Diseases 2015-2020). The prevalence of HIV is 6.8 (KIAS 2014). Most of these patients will benefit from palliative care services, hence the need to integrate palliative care services in the public healthcare system. The process of integrating palliative care in public hospitals involved advocacy both at the national level and at the institutional level, training of healthcare professionals, and setting up services within the hospitals that we worked with. Technical support was provided to each individual institution as needed. Eleven provincial hospitals across the country have now integrated palliative care services (Palliative Care Units) and are now centres of excellence. Over 220 healthcare providers have been trained, and approximately, over 30,000 patients have benefited from these services. Oral morphine is now available in the hospital palliative care units. As a success of the pilot project, Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association (KEHPCA) is now working with the Ministry of Health Kenya to integrate palliative care services in 30 other county hospitals across the country, thus ensuring more availability and access to more patients. Other developing countries can learn from Kenya's successful experience.

  15. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M

    1993-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000 li...... indicates that over the past decade the surveyed area has greatly reduced neonatal and NNT mortality. Possible strategies for accelerated NNT control have been identified by the survey....

  16. Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya Allen L. Richards, Ju Jiang, Sylvia Omulo, Ryan Dare, Khalif Abdirah~a~, P:bdile Ali, Shanaaz K...infection with obligate intracellular rickettsiae , which are transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors (e.g., lice, fleas, ticks, and mites... Rickettsiae are associated with arthropods for a least a part of their life cycle and are passed to other arthropods by transovarial transmission or

  17. Procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyololo, O'Brien Munyao; Stevens, Bonnie; Gastaldo, Denise; Gisore, Peter

    2014-11-01

    To determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures and procedural pain management practices in neonatal units in Kenya. Cross-sectional survey. Level I and level II neonatal units in Kenya. Ninety-five term and preterm neonates from seven neonatal units. Medical records of neonates admitted for at least 24 h were reviewed to determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures performed in the 24 h period preceding data collection (6:00 to 6:00) as well as the pain management interventions (eg, morphine, breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, containment, non-nutritive sucking) that accompanied each procedure. Neonates experienced a total of 404 painful procedures over a 24 h period (mean=4.3, SD 2.0; range 1-12); 270 tissue-damaging (mean=2.85, SD 1.1; range 1-6) and 134 non-tissue-damaging procedures (mean=1.41, SD 1.2; range 0-6). Peripheral cannula insertion (27%) and intramuscular injections (22%) were the most common painful procedures. Ventilated neonates and neonates admitted in level II neonatal units had a higher number of painful procedures than those admitted in level I units (mean 4.76 vs 2.96). Only one procedure had a pain intensity score documented; and none had been performed with any form of analgesia. Neonates in Kenya were exposed to numerous tissue-damaging and non-tissue-damaging procedures without any form of analgesia. Our findings suggest that education is needed on how to assess and manage procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  19. Steps towards Nuclear Power Regulator in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatebe, E.

    2017-01-01

    The first radiation protection law in Kenya was passed in 1948 and it was referred to as the''Radiological Protection Ordinance -1948''. The ordinance established the Radiological Protection Board (RPB). The current law is the Radiation Protection Act, Cap 243.that was amended in 2014. To regulate the peaceful use of atomic energy through provision of nuclear safety and security culture for the protection of persons, society and the environment against radiation. The Establishment of Nuclear Electricity Project Committee in 2010 is Predecessor of KNEB (2012). Whose mandate among others: Assist in coming up with a legalisation and regulatory framework for support of nuclear power. Human resource development for support of Nuclear Power programme. The country hosted Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) and Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) Missions in 2015 and 2016 respectively to addressed legal and regulatory framework. A Multi-agency cooperation has resulted to the Nuclear Regulatory Bill. The Government has been sponsoring 15 students annually for post graduate studies in Nuclear Science at University of Nairobi. IAEA has been a great partner in the development of Kenya's nuclear regulatory regime; It is expected that in the next two years, Kenya will have the core capacity for regulating a nuclear power program. The Bill has taken into consideration suggestions and recommendation of the INIR & IRRS Missions, and comments from the office of Legal Affairs-IAEA and local stakeholders

  20. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, Anthony Kiti

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This project is based on studies of radiation doses received by radiation workers from sample of radiation facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, using TLD badges. Radiation doses received by workers during performance of a few types of radiological exposures and application of sealed and unsealed radionuclides have been measured at a number of x ray departments (diagnostic radiology), radiotherapy and nuclear medicine and training and research. Radiation dose measurements were based on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) techniques, using the laboratory facilities of the National Radiation Protection Laboratory (NRPL) at KNH, in Nairobi, Kenya. Evaluation of doses from TLD badges exposed to X-rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Nuclear medicine recorded the highest dose as compared to Radiotherapy, Training and research and Diagnostic radiology. Age and gender have no relation with dose absorption. Yearly average dose seems to have been reducing from 2002 to 2005, representing an improvement in radiation protection. Overall, the results show that radiation workers in Kenya are working under safe environments since the doses received are within acceptable limits of radiation protection. The data presented in this research provides a database, which should serve as a useful reference for comparison with similar studies in the future. (author)

  1. Epidemiological analysis of human fascioliasis in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asma W; Tanveer, Akhtar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    A coprological study was performed to assess human fascioliasis in 7200 subjects inhabiting rural communities of localities close to the capital city of Lahore in the northeastern part of the very highly populated Punjab province, Pakistan, a country where human infection had never been reported before 2005. The analysis of 1200 subjects including 50 subjects/month throughout a two-year study in each of six localities surveyed provided an overall prevalence of 1.18%, with a range between 0.67% and 1.75% according to localities. Infection rates did not differ according to gender, excepting a higher rate in females (1.13% vs 0.77%) in one locality. Prevalences according to age groups proved to be higher in 11-20 years with 1.57%, followed by 1.18% in 0-10 years and 0.47% in 21-30 years, while no infection above 30 years. Seasonal prevalences proved to be significantly different when comparing summer and autumn with winter and spring. Monthly prevalences showed two peaks, the highest in August (4.67%) and another in January (2.17%). Correlation studies of monthly prevalences with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and pan evaporation showed significant results only with humidity. Despite prevalences being low, the very high number of inhabitants and population densities of the areas surveyed suggest a wide public health problem potentially infecting up to 150,000 rural people, children included, only in the respective districts. Additionally, the situation becomes of more concern when considering the present climate change trend affecting the Punjab, which indicates a progressively increasing fascioliasis transmission risk in that animal endemic area in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhisi, Johnston; Patel, Kritika; Buziba, Nathan; Rotich, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Cancer of esophagus is the 9 th It is aggressive with poor prognosis especially in its late stage. Cancer of esophagus is geographically unevenly distributed with high incidence found within sharply demarcated geographic confines. Earlier reports from this country indicated relatively high proportion of cases in residents of Western and Central provinces with low incidence in the residents of the Rift Valley Province. This does not seem to be in agreement with our findings. Several aetiological factors have been associated with this type of cancer although their definitive mechanistic role is not clear. The main aim of this study was to describe the incidence, clinical epidemiology and histology of esophageal cancer in the North Rift region of Western Kenya, which forms the patients catchment area of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. This study involved a review of all available pathology reports beginning from January 1994 up to May 2001 from Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. All reports of esophageal cancer were abstracted and analyzed according to gender, age and ethnical background. All cases were based on histological diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software package. Esophageal cancer in this area is the most common cancer in men, yet it is the third common cancer in women. A male to female ratio of 1.5 to 1 was observed. Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age of the patients with this cancer was 58.7 years. The ethnic group most afflicted were Nandis and Luhyas. They are the majority tribes in this area. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 90% of the cases. Cancer of the esophagus is the most common malignancy in males and the third common malignancy in females in the catchment area of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. There is need to carry out further work to establish the aetiologic factors

  3. Rift Valley fever in Kenya: history of epizootics and identification of vulnerable districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, R M; Munyua, P; Ithondeka, P M; Macharia, J M; Hightower, A; Luman, E T; Breiman, R F; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2011-03-01

    Since Kenya first reported Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease in livestock in 1912, the country has reported the most frequent epizootics of RVF disease. To determine the pattern of disease spread across the country after its introduction in 1912, and to identify regions vulnerable to the periodic epizootics, annual livestock disease records at the Department of Veterinary Services from 1910 to 2007 were analysed in order to document the number and location of RVF-infected livestock herds. A total of 38/69 (55%) administrative districts in the country had reported RVF epizootics by the end of 2007. During the 1912-1950 period, the disease was confined to a district in Rift Valley province that is prone to flooding and where livestock were raised in proximity with wildlife. Between 1951 and 2007, 11 national RVF epizootics were recorded with an average inter-epizootic period of 3·6 years (range 1-7 years); in addition, all epizootics occurred in years when the average annual rainfall increased by more than 50% in the affected districts. Whereas the first two national epizootics in 1951 and 1955 were confined to eight districts in the Rift Valley province, there was a sustained epizootic between 1961 and 1964 that spread the virus to over 30% of the districts across six out of eight provinces. The Western and Nyanza provinces, located on the southwestern region of the country, had never reported RVF infections by 2007. The probability of a district being involved in a national epizootic was fivefold higher (62%) in districts that had previously reported disease compared to districts that had no prior disease activity (11%). These findings suggests that once introduced into certain permissive ecologies, the RVF virus becomes enzootic, making the region vulnerable to periodic epizootics that were probably precipitated by amplification of resident virus associated with heavy rainfall and flooding.

  4. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok

    2017-07-18

    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  5. Oxigen isotope compositions as indicators of epidote granite genesis in the Borborema Provinces, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.P.; Valley, J.W; Sial, A.N; Spicuzza, M.J

    2001-01-01

    Neoproterozoic magmatic epidote-bearing granitoids intrude low-grade metapelites in the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro terrane (CST), and gneisses and migmatites in the Serido terrane (ST), in the Borborema structural province, northeastern Brazil. Granitoids in both terranes contain biotite and hornblende, and are metaluminous, calc-alkalic, and oxidized I-type granites according to White's (1992) classification. However, in spite of these similarities, this work shows that mineral oxygen isotope data from plutons of the two terranes indicate different magma sources, and that magmatic epidote besides crystallizing at different pressure conditions, can have variable isotopic composition (au)

  6. The effects of nutrition rehabilitation at three Family Life Training Centres in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1982-01-01

    During the course of 1978, the three Family Life Training Centres studied admitted 273 women accompanied by 674 children. Women with malnourished children (and their siblings) are admitted to these centres for a 3-week course consisting primarily of nutrition and health education, but also covering

  7. Institutional Support : Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA-Kenya ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IEA-Kenya is an independent organization that uses research to inform its policy advocacy work, relying on a small team of in-house staff and a large set of external ... This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will allow IEA-Kenya to strengthen its governance structure, managerial capacity, research skills and staff ...

  8. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Despite the availability of many species of amaranth in Kenya, there is inadequate information on their nutritional diversity and how they can be best used in mitigation of malnutrition. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the nutritional diversity of five leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya. Methodology ...

  9. Kenya | Page 57 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The devastating drought that gripped much of East Africa in 2009 was one of the worst in living memory. But in the arid and semi-arid lands of Northern Kenya, drought is no stranger. Since 1993, Kenya has declared six national disasters because of drought. Read more about Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in ...

  10. Employment Challenges in Kenya | Omolo | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya's employment challenge is manifested in terms of a 12.7 per cent open unemployment rate, 21 per cent underemployment and a working poor estimated at 46 per cent of the employed. ... To reverse the trend in slow employment growth, Kenya must focus on ensuring high and sustained economic growth. In addition ...

  11. Nutritional and health challenges of pastoralist populations in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines nutritional and health challenges facing pastoralists who inhabit fragile rangelands and are one of the most nutritionally vulnerable population groups in Kenya. The review is based on a synthesis of literature on pastoralist food security, nutrition and health status and livelihoods in Kenya's rangelands.

  12. Food consumption and food prices in Kenya : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Abr. sum.: This report reviews government policies concerning consumer food prices in Kenya. In respect of official food pricing, Kenya can be said to pursue a 'cheap food' policy. It was found that most foods falling under price control measures showed less price increases than the average rate of

  13. Characterization of Armillaria isolates from tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Perez Sierra, A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Armillaria is a primary root rot pathogen of tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya. The main species presently described in this country are A. mellea and A. heimii. A survey covering fourteen districts of Kenya was carried out and forty-seven isolates of Armillaria collected. Cultural morphology,

  14. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district ...

  15. Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Kenya Forests Act 2005

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Forest in Kenya is an important source of livelihood, environmental services, and economic growth. In November of 2005 the Government of Kenya (GOK) ratified a new Forests Act. The act contains many innovative provisions to correct previous shortcomings, including a strong emphasis on partnerships, the engagement of local communities, and promotion of private investment. The purpose of the...

  16. Kenya | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Effects of Radio on Perception of Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa. Language English. Read more about Effets des émissions radiophoniques sur la perception de la biotechnologie agricole en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Les droits des ...

  17. Kenya | Page 38 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accueil · Sud du Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Effects of Radio on Perception of Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa. Langue English. Read more about Effets des émissions radiophoniques sur la perception de la biotechnologie agricole en Afrique. Langue French. Read more about Les droits des ...

  18. Human Rhinovirus B and C Genomes from Rural Coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agoti, Charles N.; Kiyuka, Patience K.; Kamau, Everlyn; Munywoki, Patrick K.; Bett, Anne; van der Hoek, Lia; Kellam, Paul; Nokes, D. James; Cotten, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Primer-independent agnostic deep sequencing was used to generate three human rhinovirus (HRV) B genomes and one HRV C genome from samples collected in a household respiratory survey in rural coastal Kenya. The study provides the first rhinovirus genomes from Kenya and will help improve the

  19. Documenting human rights violations against sex workers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukera, MaryFrances

    2007-12-01

    The human rights of sex workers are an increasing concern for prominent women's rights organizations such as the Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA). As FIDA-Kenya's MaryFrances Lukera writes, documenting human rights abuses against sex workers is critical to responding to Kenya's HIV epidemic.

  20. the inception of a doctors union in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-01-25

    Jan 25, 2012 ... of the Kenyan health sector and improve health services in Kenya. ... that up to three quarters of doctors will have left the government payroll three .... dispensation in Kenya which brought along a strong bill of rights, giving ...

  1. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  2. Kiswahili kama Nyenzo ya Maendeleo Nchini Kenya | Mukuthuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ukuzaji na uendelezaji wa Kiswahili kama lugha ya taifa nchini Kenya ni lengo la taifa ambalo bado halijapewa kipaumbele kinachostahili. Hata hivyo, tangu Kenya ilipojinyakulia uhuru, matumizi ya lugha hii yamepevuka kinyume na matarajio ya wengi, kiasi kwamba, kwa sasa, mchango wake katika kufanikisha ...

  3. Kenya | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya. Read more about Dynamique du marché du travail en temps de crise - le cas de l'Afrique. Language French. Read more about Labour Market Dynamics in Times of Crisis: Evidence from Africa. Language English. Read more about Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Kenya. Language French.

  4. Kenya | Page 63 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya. Read more about Initiative de renforcement des capacités de recherche en santé au Kenya et au Malawi - phase de démarrage. Language French. Read more about Understanding Obstacles to Peace in the Great Lakes Region : Actors, Interests and Strategies. Language English. Read more about Comprendre les ...

  5. Situational Analysis of Leishmaniases Research in Kenya | Tinui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1980, the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) has spearheaded research on leishmaniases research in Kenya focusing on various aspects including characterization of Leishmania species, biology, and ecology of sand fly vectors, development of biological strategiesF for sand fly control, identification of ...

  6. Prosopis pods as human food, with special reference to Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first documented introduction of Prosopis in Kenya was in 1973, since when it has spread widely, adversely affecting natural habitats, rangelands and cultivated areas. P. juliflora is the most common naturalised species in Kenya, but P. pallida also occurs. In contrast to their undesirable effects as invasive weeds, many ...

  7. ability in Large Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    Kenya's national planning strategy, Vision 2030. Agri- culture, natural resource exploitation, and infrastruc- ... sitions due to high levels of poverty and unclear or in- secure land tenure rights in Kenya. Inadequate social ... lease to a private company over the expansive Yala. Swamp to undertake large-scale irrigation farming.

  8. Accounting Systems in Small and Micro Enterprises in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a long time in Kenya, the practices and principles of accounting have been viewed to be for use by corporate and other formally structured organizations. This paper seeks to investigate what accounting means to small and micro traders in Kenya, by reviewing the practices and principles they use in running their ...

  9. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: China, Far East Asia, India, Kenya, North and Central America, Panama, Peru, South America, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, South Asia. Programme: Agriculture et ... Sujet: HEALTH SURVEYS, HEALTH STATISTICS, MATERNAL MORTALITY, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH. Région: Kenya ...

  10. Towards a Practical Proposal for Multilingualism in Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Jane A. N.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes multilingualism in education, where indigenous languages are used alongside English as the media of instruction in schools to eventually promote their use in Kenya. It begins by stating Kenya's language policy in education. It then states the responses given by some primary and secondary school teachers who were interviewed…

  11. Estimated sedimentation rate by radionuclide techniques at Lam Phra Phloeng dam, Northeastern of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasimonton Moungsrijun; Kanitha Srisuksawad; Kosit Lorsirirat; Tuangrak Nantawisarakul

    2009-01-01

    The Lam Phra Phloeng dam is located in Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern of Thailand. Since it was constructed in 1963, the dam is under severe reduction of its water storage capacity caused by deforestation to agricultural land at the upper catchment. Sediment cores were collected using a gravity corer. Sedimentation rates were estimated from the vertical distribution of unsupported Pb-210 in sediment cores. Total Pb-210 was determined by measuring Po-210 activities. The Po-210 and Ra-226 activities were used to determine the rate of sediment by using alpha and gamma spectrometry. The sedimentation rate was estimated using the Constant Initial Concentration model (CIC), the sedimentation rate crest dam 0.265 gcm -2 y -1 and the upstream 0.213 gcm -2 y -1 (Author)

  12. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  13. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  14. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bar María Esther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90% Butia yatay (Mart. Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2% were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2. T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina.

  15. ÉTUDE DE CAS – Kenya : Paludisme et agriculture au Kenya ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... ... au Kenya, des chercheurs du Centre international de recherche sur la .... Les membres de l'équipe ont amorcé leur collaboration par la définition des ... Mutero est, à bon droit, chargé de la coordination de SIMA, qui loge au ...

  16. Les parlements du peuple au Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Despite the adoption of a new constitution in 2010, the post-election violence surrounding the flawed 2007 General Elections have fuelled on-going debates in Kenya about a state of political crisis and fragile democracy. Comparing two street parliaments from Eldoret and Nairobi in the context...... of electoral failure and constitutional reform, this paper investigates dynamics of political participation from below. The street parliaments form arenas for oral debates where speakers and participants collectively engage in the intentional shaping of spaces of speech. Inspired by the work of Karin Barber...

  17. Kenya – world leader in mobile payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Gostomski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been a real revolution in the Kenyan banking associated with the development of mobile telephony and mobile payments in the reporting country. In 2007, the largest mobile operator in Kenya launched M-Pesa system which is an innovative solution that enables its users to make mobile payments. M-Pesa system has become a big success. Nowadays, the Kenya’s inhabitants have access to other basic financial services while using their mobile phones. In particular, they can make savings and access loan products.

  18. Large-scale variation in lithospheric structure along and across the Kenya rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodehl, C.; Mechie, J.; Kaminski, W.; Fuchs, K.; Grosse, C.; Hoffmann, H.; Stangl, R.; Stellrecht, R.; Khan, M.A.; Maguire, Peter K.H.; Kirk, W.; Keller, Gordon R.; Githui, A.; Baker, M.; Mooney, W.; Criley, E.; Luetgert, J.; Jacob, B.; Thybo, H.; Demartin, M.; Scarascia, S.; Hirn, A.; Bowman, J.R.; Nyambok, I.; Gaciri, S.; Patel, J.; Dindi, E.; Griffiths, D.H.; King, R.F.; Mussett, A.E.; Braile, L.W.; Thompson, G.; Olsen, K.; Harder, S.; Vees, R.; Gajewski, D.; Schulte, A.; Obel, J.; Mwango, F.; Mukinya, J.; Riaroh, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Kenya rift is one of the classic examples of a continental rift zone: models for its evolution range from extension of the lithosphere by pure shear1, through extension by simple shear2, to diapiric upwelling of an asthenolith3. Following a pilot study in 19854, the present work involved the shooting of three seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profiles along the axis, across the margins, and on the northeastern flank of the rift (Fig. 1). These lines were intended to reconcile the different crustal thickness estimates for the northern and southern parts of the rift4-6 and to reveal the structure across the rift, including that beneath the flanks. The data, presented here, reveal significant lateral variations in structure both along and across the rift. The crust thins along the rift axis from 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; there are abrupt changes in Mono depth and uppermost-mantle seismic velocity across the rift margins, and crustal thickening across the boundary between the Archaean craton and PanAfrican orogenic belt immediately west of the rift. These results suggest that thickened crust may have controlled the rift's location, that there is a decrease in extension from north to south, and that the upper mantle immediately beneath the rift may contain reservoirs of magma generated at greater depth.

  19. Land of promise: The near frontier in northeastern B, C, filling in the gas gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    The boom in gas exploratory activity in the remote and sometimes hostile hinterland of Canada's most westerly province is discussed; a record $4 billion was invested in 2003/2004 in northeastern B,C, in the hunt for new gas reserves to replace the declining supplies across North America. In 2004, 1,277 new wells were drilled in the region, of which 893 were successful. Production has climbed to over 1.1 trillion cubic feet annually. Although exploration in the area dates back to the 1950s, the watershed moment in the current gas exploration boom was reached in 1999 with the discovery of the Ladyfern field in the plains region of northern B.C. which produced 725 million cubic feet per day by 2002. Production has declined significantly since then, but the hunt for the next deep Devonian gas play is continuing, with the large independents as the major investors. Talisman Energy, Petro-Canada and EnCana all have substantial drilling programs underway, and coalbed methane, which is estimated at 90 trillion cubic feet, is also very much part of the future. There are currently nine experimental coalbed methane projects underway in the province, with seven in the northeast. One company, Canadian Spirit Resources Inc, focuses exclusively on coalbed methane; with its 46 sections of natural gas rights, the company believes it sits on a gold mine, with nine to 14 billion cubic feet of natural gas expected from each section. 4 photos

  20. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    , Coast Province, Kenya. The information obtained from the project was then to be used to make recommedations on what uses the Jombo Hill Geothermal Field can be put to. (author)

  1. A biomass energy flow chart for Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senelwa, K.A.; Hall, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    Terrestrial (above ground) biomass production and its utilization in Kenya was analyzed for the 1980s. Total biomass energy production was estimated at 2574 x 10 6 GJ per year, most of which (86.7%) is produced on land classified as agricultural. Of the total production, agriculture and forrestry operations resulted in the harvesting of 1138 x 10 6 GJ (44.2% of total production), half of which (602 x 10 6 GJ) was harvested for use as fuel. Only 80 x 10 6 GJ was harvested for food and 63 x 10 6 GJ for industrial (agricultural and forestry) plus other miscellaneous purposes. About 85% of Kenya's energy is from biomass, with a per capita consumption of 18.6 GJ (0.44 toe, tonne oil equivalent) compared to less than 0.1 toe of commercial energy. Use of the biomass resource was found to be extensive involving bulk harvesting but with low utilization efficiencies; as a result the overall losses were quite high. Only 534 x 10 6 GJ (46.9% of harvested biomass) was useful energy. 480 x 10 6 GJ was left unused, as residues and dung, all which was either burnt or left to decompose in the fields. 124 x 10 6 GJ was lost during charcoal manufacture. Intensified use of the harvested biomass at higher efficiencies in order to minimize wastes would decrease the stress on the biomass resource base. (Author)

  2. Ethnopharmacological survey of Samburu district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaburia Humphrey F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical pharmacopoeia is confidently used in disease intervention and there is need for documentation and preservation of traditional medical knowledge to bolster the discovery of novel drugs. The objective of the present study was to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and their extinction threats in Samburu District, Kenya. Methods Field research was conducted in six divisions of Samburu District in Kenya. We randomly sampled 100 consented interviewees stratified by age, gender, occupation and level of education. We collected plant use data through semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus groups discussions. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were collected and deposited at University of Nairobi's botany herbarium. Results Data on plant use from the informants yielded 990 citations on 56 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 54 different animal and human diseases including; malaria, digestive disorders, respiratory syndromes and ectoparasites. Conclusion The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the study area for treatment of both human and veterinary diseases. The local population has high ethnobotanical knowledge and has adopted sound management conservation practices. The major threatening factors reported were anthropogenic and natural. Ethnomedical documentation and sustainable plant utilization can support drug discovery efforts in developing countries.

  3. Reproductive health issues in rural Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouma Peter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe reproductive health issues among pregnant women in a rural area of Kenya with a high coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and high prevalence of HIV (15%. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey among rural pregnant women in western Kenya. A medical, obstetric and reproductive history was obtained. Blood was obtained for a malaria smear and haemoglobin level, and stool was examined for geohelminths. Height and weight were measured. Results Of 673 participants, 87% were multigravidae and 50% were in their third trimester; 41% had started antenatal clinic visits at the time of interview and 69% reported ITN-use. Malaria parasitemia and anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusion In this rural area with a high HIV prevalence, the reported use of condoms before pregnancy was extremely low. Pregnancy health was not optimal with a high prevalence of malaria, geohelminth infections, anaemia and underweight. Chances of losing a child after birth were high. Multiple interventions are needed to improve reproductive health in this area.

  4. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  5. ÉTUDE DE CAS – Kenya : Paludisme et agriculture au Kenya ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... Dans le miroitement du chaud soleil de midi, il reste plutôt à l'ombre d'un arbre à discuter du plus grave problème de santé qui frappe son village : le ... au Kenya, des chercheurs du Centre international de recherche sur la physiologie des insectes et l'écologie (ICIPE) et de l'Institut international de gestion ...

  6. All projects related to Kenya | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, Natural Resources, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, LAND USE, Food security. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Senegal, Tunisia. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 1,486,000.00.

  7. Suggestions for the Improvement of Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya was started in 1990 following the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plants accidents. The main purpose was to measure the radioactivity of foodstuffs imported from oversees and to carry out environmental radiation monitoring of soil, rock, water and air sample to check for contamination. Through environmental radiation monitoring, the Food and Environmental Monitoring Section (FEM) of the Kenya Radiation Protection Board (RPB) works to protect the public and environment from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper was to highlight suggestions for the improvement of environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya with respect to protecting the public and the environment against undue radiation risk by ensuring that potential exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The suggestions for improvement will serve as a guideline for the strengthening of environmental radiation monitoring program in Kenya

  8. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  9. risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya. ... A community based cross-sectional study was done in Mombasa Old Town area, whereby males ... The study unveiled that physical exercise had protective effect there by ...

  10. Computers for Schools Kenya at top of the class | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... ... for Schools Kenya (CFSK) has won a coveted Africa-wide prize for its work. ... their expertise with groups looking to launch schemes elsewhere in Africa, ... can sink an ICT project, with the equipment falling into disrepair.

  11. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  12. All projects related to kenya | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Kenya, Malawi, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, United Kingdom ... Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems ... opportunity to investigate questions of women's space and citizenship in the state process.

  13. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    DISCIPLINARY ... Key Words: Foreign Direct Investments, Determinants, Inflows, Kenya. Introduction. Foreign Direct Investments .... Previous FDI inflows are also expected to influence current FDI inflows hence the need to include them in the model.

  14. Maize production in the central Kenya highlands using cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    effective in the production of maize, compared to singular application of manures (5 t ha-1) and mineral fertilizer alone applied at rates below ...... A Handbook of Methods, 2nd. Edition. ... Manure management in the Kenya highlands: Practices.

  15. Improving Performance of Urban Areas in the Context of Kenya's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IEA-Kenya intends to use an adapted version of the Municipal Performance Index that it ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  16. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Kiama; Dennis Likule

    2013-01-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  17. All projects related to kenya | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR), Kenya, is a 15-year-old ... increase work and educational achievement, and promote economic growth. ... Policy researchers have a key role to play in insuring that economic growth and ...

  18. All projects related to Kenya | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / Kenya ... Poor understanding of policy processes tends to reduce the value of research results and the ... Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display ...

  19. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... America, and the Caribbean with funds from the Government of Canada's fast-start financing. ... Water management and food security in vulnerable regions of China.

  20. All projects related to kenya | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Una Hakika: Scaling Digital Solutions for Conflict Management in Kenya and Burma. Project. Reducing ... Total Funding: CA$ 699,474.00. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA). Project. Malawi has high ...

  1. Kenya develops tool to predict malaria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-13

    Oct 13, 2010 ... In collaboration with scientists from the Kenya Meteorological Department and the International Centre ... a scientific model that uses weather predictions, information about the reproductive mechanisms of ... Related articles ...

  2. Managing health risks on small dairy farms in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-20

    Jun 20, 2016 ... ... in Kenya found that eating vegetables contaminated with animal manure or human waste was more ... Research improves secure access to nutritious food ... Integrated pest management yields economic and health benefits.

  3. The challenges of human resources in mental health in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    University of Nairobi, Kenya & Director, Africa Mental Health Foundation. (AMHF) ... The ratios decline further when psychiatrists available for clinical work in public facilities are ..... health problems at the level they are trained to handle medical.

  4. Management of Posterior Urethral Valves in Rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Posterior Urethral Valves in Rural. Kenya .... Antwi S. Audit of Posterior Urethral Valve (PUV) in Children at ... Community Paediatrics Committee, Infectious. Diseases ... Effect of Circumcision on Risk of Urinary Tract. Infection in ...

  5. Leveraging technology to reduce health inequities in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-22

    Nov 22, 2016 ... The three-year study, titled Addressing health inequities in Kenya: Potential and ... through applied research capacity building in e-health (SEARCH) program. ... For example, MoH was involved from project formulation and ...

  6. All projects related to Kenya | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-11-05

    Start Date: November 5, 2009. End Date: October 26, 2013. Topic: PESTICIDE RESIDUES, WATER POLLUTION, HEALTH HAZARDS, HEALTH SURVEYS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER RESOURCES, WATER MANAGEMENT. Region: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and ...

  7. All projects related to Kenya | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-11-05

    Start Date: November 5, 2009. End Date: October 26, 2013. Topic: PESTICIDE RESIDUES, WATER POLLUTION, HEALTH HAZARDS, HEALTH SURVEYS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER RESOURCES, WATER MANAGEMENT. Region: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and ...

  8. Kenya | Page 55 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    maturing, drought-tolerant sorghum variety introduced in Kenya as a solution for farmers trying to adapt to changing climate conditions, turns out to have an unexpected drawback – wild birds are eating it just before it can be harvested.

  9. The Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria in Western Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amon, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    ...) Plasmodium falciparum growth dynamics. The first two research topics were examined in a cohort of 248 males recruited from three highly endemic villages in western Kenya where severe malaria anemia is common...

  10. Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream Flow Records. ... river gauge stations in the basin using the empirical orthogonal function analysis ... the study basin to be grouped into four homogenous hydrological zones that ...

  11. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... and all counties have since committed funding toward scaling up successful technologies.

  12. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jakakah

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... ... Eastern Kenya where it is attractive to farmers because of its high economic value .... model (GLM) procedure of SAS (version 8.0; SAS Institute, Cary, ..... ammonium nitrate, and light intensity on the growth and nodulation of.

  13. Prospects for nuclear energy in Kenya under vision 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming energy poverty is one of Kenya's greatest challenges. Majority of Kenyans currently have no access to modern energy services and technologies. The challenge is thus to find appropriate and reliable solutions for providing energy sources for social and economic development. This study intends to focus on the development of nuclear power technology under the Kenya 2030 vision. This research project intends to investigate the advancement stages that Kenya has undertaken towards the implementation of nuclear power plants. A background review of nuclear energy in Kenya, and nuclear environments, have been reviewed and projected through the 2030 vision. The study will provide a useful starting point for policy makers interested in the state of the ecosystem

  14. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  15. Potential Climatic Zoning of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrough Sadat Baniaghil

    2017-12-01

    digital elevation model (DEM with a topo-to-raster function. Method of study In this study, the first agro-ecological requirements and of wheat were determined based on scientific resources. Studied climatic variables were included average, minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation in the date planting and during growth season of crop. Data of the last 10 years were collected and recorded from 25 stations located within the study area. The standardization of data was used from fuzzy method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used for weighting the criteria. Finally, using weighted linear combination (WLC in the software IDRISI, wheat cultivation potential map was prepared. Results and Discussion The results showed that the weighted criteria of AHP, the amount of precipitation during the growing season had the highest amount with 0.3407 and minimum temperature in the emergence stage with 0.0306 had the lowest coefficient in the rankings. The digital environmental layers overlaid and integration in GIS media then zoning of lands carried out in 4 classes (high suitable, suitable, less suitable and unsuitable. The results showed that 9.54% and 54.53% of this area were high suitable and suitable for wheat cropping, respectively. Conclusion In the output map from weighted linear combination, the located lands in East, Southeastern, South and Southwest had the lowest potential production for wheat. These areas were consisted of steep slopes, highest elevation, less precipitation and less favorable area in terms of areas which had unfavorable climate areas and other areas that located in the Northeastern, center and Northwest of the province had the best potential for wheat production which can be said cause of sufficient amount precipitation, low slope and elevation, favorable soil and temperature.

  16. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  17. Tropical spastic paraparesis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. de Castro Costa

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten possible cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará are presented. They show the typical symptoms and signs of TSP consisting of weakness of the lower limbs, spastic gait, hiperreflexia, bladder dysfunction and variable signs of posterior columns impairment. The laboratory examinations excluded other compressive, infective, degenerative or demyelinating lesions of their spinal cord. Our patients age ranged from 21 to 59 years, all were of black origin and all were of lower social class. There was a slight preponderance of females. An etiological implication of a retrovirus (HTLV-I has been shown for TSP, but for lack of technical conditions we could not determine it in our patients, and that stands as our subsequent step in those and further cases.

  18. Market Design for Rapid Demand Response - The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Nielsen; Tseganesh Wubale Tamirat

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been...

  19. Kenya; Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Ex Post Assessment (EPA) of Longer-Term Program Engagement paper for Kenya. This EPA focuses on 1993–2007, when Kenya was engaged in four successive IMF arrangements. Macroeconomic policy design was broadly appropriate, and implementation was generally sound. Growth slowed in the 1990s, but picked up after the 2002 elections, reflecting buoyant global conditions, structural reforms, and a surge of private capital inflows. Monetary policies were complic...

  20. Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Liao, Xiaoli; Zhai, Tianlin

    2018-04-01

    differences. Under the BAU scenario, the construction land is mainly in the south of Lijiang City and the northeastern part of Kunming. Under the FP scenario, the new construction land is concentrated near the Lashi dam in northern Yunnan Province, and the high-quality arable land in the valley will be better protected. The research results can provide reference for the optimization of land use pattern in Yunnan Province, and provide scientific basis for land use management and planning. Based on the value of ecosystem services, we should implement the policy of strict protection of arable land, both to ensure food supply and promote the healthy development of ecological environment.

  1. The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Metacognitive Prompting on Genetics Problem Solving Ability among High School Students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurah, Catherine Muhonja

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of students' genetics problem-solving ability. Focus group interviews substantiated and supported findings from the quantitative instruments. The study was conducted in 17 high schools in Western Province, Kenya. A total of 2,138 high school students were purposively sampled. A sub-sample of 48 students participated in focus group interviews to understand their perspectives and experiences during the study so as to corroborate the quantitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, zero-order correlations, 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA,, and sequential hierarchical multiple regressions. Qualitative data were transcribed, coded, and reported thematically. Results revealed metacognitive prompts had significant positive effects on student problem-solving ability independent of gender. Self-efficacy and metacognitive prompting significantly predicted genetics problem-solving ability. Gender differences were revealed, with girls outperforming boys on the genetics problem-solving test. Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relationship between metacognitive prompting and genetics problem-solving ability. This study established a foundation for instructional methods for biology teachers and recommendations are made for implementing metacognitive prompting in a problem-based learning environment in high schools and science teacher education programs in Kenya.

  2. Progress and priorities for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in Kenya: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Emily C; Ngugi, Anthony; Macharia, William; Akseer, Nadia; Khaemba, Emma Nelima; Bhatti, Zaid; Rizvi, Arjumand; Tole, John; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) in Kenya has been inconsistent over the past two decades, despite the global push to foster accountability, reduce child mortality, and improve maternal health in an equitable manner. Although several cross-sectional assessments have been done, a systematic analysis of RMNCH in Kenya was needed to better understand the push and pull factors that govern intervention coverage and influence mortality trends. As such, we aimed to determine coverage and impact of key RMNCH interventions between 1990 and 2015. We did a comprehensive, systematic assessment of RMNCH in Kenya from 1990 to 2015, using data from nationally representative Demographic Health Surveys done between 1989 and 2014. For comparison, we used modelled mortality estimates from the UN Inter-Agency Groups for Child and Maternal Mortality Estimation. We estimated time trends for key RMNCH indicators, as defined by Countdown to 2015, at both the national and the subnational level, and used linear regression methods to understand the determinants of change in intervention coverage during the past decade. Finally, we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to model the effect of intervention scale-up by 2030. After an increase in mortality between 1990 and 2003, there was a reversal in all mortality trends from 2003 onwards, although progress was not substantial enough for Kenya to achieve Millennium Development Goal targets 4 or 5. Between 1990 and 2015, maternal mortality declined at half the rate of under-5 mortality, and changes in neonatal mortality were even slower. National-level trends in intervention coverage have improved, although some geographical inequities remain, especially for counties comprising the northeastern, eastern, and northern Rift Valley regions. Disaggregation of intervention coverage by wealth quintile also revealed wide inequities for several health-systems-based interventions, such as skilled birth assistance

  3. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when

  4. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of

  5. First recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya, 1992-1993. II. Entomologic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P; Cordellier, R; Ouma, J O; Cropp, C B; Savage, H M; Sanders, E J; Marfin, A A; Tukei, P M; Agata, N N; Gitau, L G; Rapuoda, B A; Gubler, D J

    1998-10-01

    The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya occurred from mid-1992 through March 1993 in the south Kerio Valley, Rift Valley Province. We conducted entomologic studies in February-March 1993 to identify the likely vectors and determine the potential for transmission in the surrounding rural and urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected by landing capture and processed for virus isolation. Container surveys were conducted around human habitation. Transmission was mainly in woodland of varying density, at altitudes of 1,300-1,800 m. The abundance of Aedes africanus in this biotope, and two isolations of virus from pools of this species, suggest that it was the principal vector in the main period of the outbreak. A third isolate was made from a pool of Ae. keniensis, a little-known species that was collected in the same biotope. Other known yellow fever vectors that were collected in the arid parts of the valley may have been involved at an earlier stage of the epidemic. Vervet monkeys and baboons were present in the outbreak area. Peridomestic mosquito species were absent but abundant at urban sites outside the outbreak area. The entomologic and epidemiologic evidence indicate that this was a sylvatic outbreak in which human cases were directly linked to the epizootic and were independent of other human cases. The region of the Kerio Valley is probably subject to recurrent wandering epizootics of yellow fever, although previous episodes of scattered human infection have gone unrecorded. The risk that the disease could emerge as an urban problem in Kenya should not be ignored.

  6. Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness among primary school children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David M; Mutiso, Victoria; Maraj, Anika; Anderson, Kelly K; Musyimi, Christine; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Literature describing stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness by children in the developing world is lacking. Children's mental health issues in the Kenyan context are especially pertinent due to the increased likelihood of exposure to risk factors and the high prevalence of mental disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine socio-demographic factors associated with the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among Kenyan school children. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 4585 primary school-aged children in standards one through seven in the Eastern Province of Kenya. We examined relationships between the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes and age, gender, district, religion, being in the standard appropriate for one's age, and parental employment status. Stigma scores decreased with increasing age (β = -0.83; 95 % CI = -0.99 to -0.67). Boys had higher stigma scores compared to girls (β = 1.55; 95 % CI = 0.86-2.24). Students from the rural district had higher average stigma scores as compared to those from the peri-urban district (β = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.44-1.84). Students who were not in the standard appropriate for their age had lower stigma scores than those who were in the standard typical for their age (β = -1.60; 95 % CI = -2.43 to -0.77). Stigmatizing attitudes toward the mentally ill exist among primary school children in Kenya; thus, anti-stigma interventions are needed, and our findings highlight particular subgroups that could be targeted.

  7. Regenerative Resilience of Tree Species in a Degraded Forest within Mt Kenya Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenda, T.O; Kariuki, J.G; Kamondo, B.M; Kiamba, J.K

    2007-01-01

    There is widespread human induced degradation of natural forest in Kenya. The major challenge to this situation is to devise cost effective rehabilitation approaches to reverse this trend. A study was conducted in Nyanza province of Kenya describing the structure and diversity of a disturbed natural forest and understanding the role so various propagules, namely seed, soil seed bank and coppices in post-disturbance recovery. The pre-disturbance forest type was a podo-Cassipourea-Teclea tropical montane forest. Four 350 m long line-plot transects were randomly located within the forest. Tree and stump data were obtained from 20*20 m plots located at 50 m intervals, while sapling, seeding and soil seed bank data were obtained from 5*5 m, 1*1 m and 0.2*0.2*0.5 subplots respectively, nested within the large plot. An 'Index of Species Resilence' that defines their continued was developed based on the tree species ability to coppice and their representation in seedling, sapling and tree stages. The forest condition was highly heterogeneous as determined through spatial distribution of basal area, height and diameter of breast height (dbh) of trees and cut stumps, the latter an indicator of disturbance. The Resilience Index indicated that, out of the 40 tree species found in the forest, only 30% had stable presence while 50% had an unstable presence characterized by in key succession stages-implying low auto-recovery potential. Results indicated that, coppicing had a more critical role in regeneration than previously thought, with 78% of all cut-tree species coppicing while only 27.5% of all the trees species regenerated from seed. The role of soil seed bank in auto-recovery was insignificant in this site. The apparent high coppicing potential presents a new opportunity for managing natural forests

  8. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Melonie M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Turan, Janet M

    2013-12-02

    Women's ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV

  9. What's up in Kenya? (Besides population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N; Carty, W

    1987-11-01

    There are some indications that things are changing in Kenya, a nation with 1 of the world's fastest growing populations. Kenya's population will increase from the present 22.4 million to 44.8 million in the next 18 years if the 3.9% annual population growth rate remains constant. The government has renewed its campaign to increase awareness of the relationship between population growth and economic progress. There is not much progress to report as yet. Contraceptive prevalence is increasing slowly and now stands at 20% of eligible women. The government family planning program has been only minimally effective in recruiting or keeping family planning clients, but some smaller scale, private family planning programs demonstrate that Kenyans are receptive to family planning if they have access to appropriate and well-operated services. The key to the successful community-based program at Chogoria Hospital has been the use of the tradition of self-help. The original targets of the Family Planning Private Sector Project (FPPS), funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), have been met, and the new goals are for a total of 50 subprojects and 50,000 acceptors. The strategy of FPPS is to convince a company, plantation, para-state organization, private clinic, or school that its social and economic interests would be served by adopting a strong family planning program. The project then trains health clinic staff, and programs are designed to carry out the individual projects. Workers are educated about the economic and health benefits of smaller families and provided with appropriate information, contraceptives, and followup services. After 2 years of support, FPPS leaves the projects to the companies to operate and finance on a permanent basis. This approach works because Kenya has 1 of the largest and most socially responsible nongovernmental sectors in Africa. Project such as Chogoria and FPPS show that many Kenyans recognize the health and economic

  10. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  11. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes the data reports for sampling rounds collected in Northeastern Pennsylvania conducted as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydrualic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources

  12. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  13. Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, J. A. W.

    2004-01-01

    Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the

  14. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2012-01-01

    questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might...... and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome......This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...

  15. Identification of phlebotomine sandfly bloodmeals from Baringo District, Kenya, by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngumbi, P M; Lawyer, P G; Johnson, R N; Kiilu, G; Asiago, C

    1992-10-01

    Direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to identify the sources of bloodmeals in phlebotomine sandflies from Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. Some bloodmeals had been stored for over 4 years before being analysed. Among 356 sandflies identified, 62.9% were Phlebotomus martini, 14.8% Sergentomyia antennatus, 10% S.schwetzi, 6% S.clydei, 1.9% S.adleri, 1.6% P.duboscqi, 1.4% S.africanus and 0.8% S.bedfordi. Out of 224 P.martini bloodmeals, host source was identified for 69. The order of host preference for P.martini was: goat 28.5%, rabbit 22.7%, human 8.9% and others 8.9%. Evidence of mixed feeding was shown by four species comprising sixteen specimens, twelve of which were P.martini. The most effective methods for trapping bloodfed P. martini were sticky paper traps in termite hills, followed by light-traps. Of the 224 P.martini trapped, 58.9% were collected with traps in termite hills, and 22.7% with light traps. Roles of the three most popular hosts for P.martini should be investigated to ascertain whether they act as reservoirs in the transmission of Leishmania donovani causing visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya.

  16. Rapid Erosion Modeling in a Western Kenya Watershed using Visible Near Infrared Reflectance, Classification Tree Analysis and 137Cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGraffenried, Jeff B; Shepherd, Keith D

    2009-12-15

    Human induced soil erosion has severe economic and environmental impacts throughout the world. It is more severe in the tropics than elsewhere and results in diminished food production and security. Kenya has limited arable land and 30 percent of the country experiences severe to very severe human induced soil degradation. The purpose of this research was to test visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VNIR) as a tool for rapid assessment and benchmarking of soil condition and erosion severity class. The study was conducted in the Saiwa River watershed in the northern Rift Valley Province of western Kenya, a tropical highland area. Soil 137 Cs concentration was measured to validate spectrally derived erosion classes and establish the background levels for difference land use types. Results indicate VNIR could be used to accurately evaluate a large and diverse soil data set and predict soil erosion characteristics. Soil condition was spectrally assessed and modeled. Analysis of mean raw spectra indicated significant reflectance differences between soil erosion classes. The largest differences occurred between 1,350 and 1,950 nm with the largest separation occurring at 1,920 nm. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis indicated that the spectral model had practical predictive success (72%) with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) of 0.74. The change in 137 Cs concentrations supported the premise that VNIR is an effective tool for rapid screening of soil erosion condition.

  17. Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecsky, Kristen; Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2008-12-14

    superior lighting services to low income people in off-grid areas of developing countries, many of whom currently rely on fuel based lighting sources such as kerosene. If this potential is to be achieved in the near term, however, manufacturers must produce off-grid lighting products that are inexpensive, perform well, and meet the needs of potential end users. At present, relatively few products meet all three of these goals. In this article, we report results from a detailed study of lighting use by micro-enterprises in two small towns in Kenya's Rift Valley Province. The work included a survey about lighting use by 50 small businesses, careful measurements of kerosene lighting use patterns and associated costs for 23 of these businesses, and a subsequent field trial in which 14 of the 23 businesses purchased and used low cost LED lamps over a number of months.

  18. Sahiwal-Friesian Crossbreds for Milk Production at Loldia Estate in a Semi-Arid Area of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhuyi, W.B.; Lokwaleput, I.

    1999-01-01

    Data for this study was obtained from the Sahiwal-Friesian crossbred herd at Loldia Estate on northern shore of Lake Naivasha in the Rift Valley province of Kenya. Records on performance traits included milk yield, lactation length, age at first calving, calving interval, survival rate, herd structure and size for the period 1986-1991. The total herd size was 430 head of cattle and consisted of 33% calves, 14% steers, 14% heifers and breeding cows 39%.The mean Location Milk yield was 2,785 + or -- 871 kg (M + or - S.D) with a coefficient of variation of 31.26%. Month of calving had no effect on milk yield. Milk yield increased with parity, first lactation yield was 2434 kg and reached maximum yield of 3158 kg in the fourth lactation, an increase of 30%

  19. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  20. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  1. Evaluating the impact of social franchising on family planning use in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Nirali M.; Mbondo, Mwende; Wanderi, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, as in many low-income countries, the private sector is an important component of health service delivery and of providing access to preventive and curative health services. The Tunza Social Franchise Network, operated by Population Services Kenya, is Kenya?s largest network of private providers, comprising 329 clinics. Franchised clinics are only one source of family planning (FP), and this study seeks to understand whether access to a franchise increases the overall use ...

  2. First record of Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) in Argentina and notes on its natural history in Misiones province

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo; Copperi, Maria Sofia; Schwerdt, Leonela Vanesa; Pompozzi, Gabriel Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    This is the first record for the tarantula Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 in Parana and Araucaria Forests, Misiones province, northeastern Argentina. Specimens were found at Iguazú National Park and Urugua-í Wildlife Reserve. Data on its natural history is provided. Fil: Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico la Plata. Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (i); Argentina. Universidad Nacional de ...

  3. Analyzing the equity of public primary care provision in Kenya: variation in facility characteristics by local poverty level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equitable access to health care is a key health systems goal, and is a particular concern in low-income countries. In Kenya, public facilities are an important resource for the poor, but little is known on the equity of service provision. This paper assesses whether poorer areas have poorer health services by investigating associations between public facility characteristics and the poverty level of the area in which the facility is located. Methods Data on facility characteristics were collected from a nationally representative sample of public health centers and dispensaries across all 8 provinces in Kenya. A two-stage cluster randomized sampling process was used to select facilities. Univariate associations between facility characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES of the area in which the facility was located were assessed using chi-squared tests, equity ratios and concentration indices. Indirectly standardized concentration indices were used to assess the influence of SES on facility inputs and service availability while controlling for facility type, province, and remoteness. Results For most indicators, we found no indication of variation by SES. The clear exceptions were electricity and laboratory services which showed evidence of pro-rich inequalities, with equity ratios of 3.16 and 3.43, concentration indices of 0.09 (p Conclusions The paper shows how local area poverty data can be combined with national health facility surveys, providing a tool for policy makers to assess the equity of input and service availability. There was little evidence of inequalities for most inputs and services, with the clear exceptions of electricity and laboratory services. However, efforts are required to improve the availability of key inputs and services across public facilities in all areas, regardless of SES.

  4. Determinants of Secondary School Learners Performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan Sub County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaranga, Stephen; Simiyu, Patrick Cheben

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, Christian Religious Education is taught and examined by the Kenya National Examinations Council in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education at the end of the four years of Secondary Education cycle. The teaching of this subject in Secondary Schools ensures that learners are offered an opportunity to develop morally and spiritually…

  5. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Kenya (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    This harmonized data set has been derived from the Soil and Terrain Database for Kenya (KENSOTER), at scale 1:1M, compiled by the Kenya Soil Survey. The land surface of the Republic of Kenya - excluding lakes and towns - has been characterized using 397 unique SOTER units corresponding with 623 soil

  6. Community Environment and Education of Girls: The Case of Communities in Marsabit County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyaka, Jafred

    2018-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the role of the community in inhibiting girls' access and participation in formal education in Marsabit County-Kenya. As one of the marginalized counties in Kenya, the county had among the highest rate of illiteracy in Kenya with 68 per cent of residents with no formal education. The study involved a total of 128…

  7. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  8. Multiple virus lineages sharing recent common ancestry were associated with a Large Rift Valley fever outbreak among livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Githinji, Jane W K; Macharia, Joseph M; Kasiiti, Jacqueline L; Muriithi, Rees M; Gacheru, Stephen G; Musaa, Joseph O; Towner, Jonathan S; Reeder, Serena A; Oliver, Jennifer B; Stevens, Thomas L; Erickson, Bobbie R; Morgan, Laura T; Khristova, Marina L; Hartman, Amy L; Comer, James A; Rollin, Pierre E; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T

    2008-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia. Following initial RVF virus laboratory confirmation, a high-throughput RVF diagnostic facility was established at the Kenyan Central Veterinary Laboratories in Kabete, Kenya, to support the real-time identification of infected livestock and to facilitate outbreak response and control activities. A total of 3,250 specimens from a variety of animal species, including domesticated livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and camels) and wildlife collected from a total of 55 of 71 Kenyan administrative districts, were tested by molecular and serologic assays. Evidence of RVF infection was found in 9.2% of animals tested and across 23 districts of Kenya, reflecting the large number of affected livestock and the geographic extent of the outbreak. The complete S, M, and/or L genome segment sequence was obtained from a total of 31 RVF virus specimens spanning the entire known outbreak period (December-May) and geographic areas affected by RVF virus activity. Extensive genomic analyses demonstrated the concurrent circulation of multiple virus lineages, gene segment reassortment, and the common ancestry of the 2006/2007 outbreak viruses with those from the 1997-1998 east African RVF outbreak. Evidence of recent increases in genomic diversity and effective population size 2 to 4 years prior to the 2006-2007 outbreak also was found, indicating ongoing RVF virus activity and evolution during the interepizootic/epidemic period. These findings have implications for further studies of basic RVF virus ecology and the design of future surveillance/diagnostic activities, and

  9. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  10. Paleoenvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Navidi Izad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Palaeonvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan, is envisaged based on 69 samples studied palynologically. Diverse and well-preserved palynofloras, viz., miospores, dinoflagellate cysts, foraminiferal test linings, acritarchs, wood debris (plant tissue and Amorphous Organic Matters (AOM occur in the material examined. The presence of relatively abundant proximate dinoflagellates and ±laevigate acritarchs in the lower part of the section studied implies sedimentation in a turbulent shallow environment. However, occurrence in the upper part of the section of abundant chorate dinoflagellates as well as notable proportion of blade-shaped to equal dimensional opaque palynomacerals seem to signify marine incursion and accumulation in an open marine setting. In most of the samples examined, prevalence of transparent AOM denotes a low oxygenated environment and slow rate of accumulation. Moreover, incidence of three palynofacies types (II, IV, VI in the pertinent material also corroborates a shallow low oxygenated environment with low sedimentation rate which gradually deepened upward in the section.

  11. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  12. Sr-Nd evidence of paleoproterozoic mantle metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, M.H.B.M.; Pimentel, M.M.; Jardim de Sa, E.F

    2001-01-01

    In the Borborema Province (Northeastern Brazil), the Brasiliano/Pan-African Cycle is expressed by two prominent and penecontemporaneous features: a regional network of transcurrent shear zones and associated large granitoid magmatism. The Rio Grande do Norte Domain (RGND) is an orogenic domain located in the northeastern part of the Borborema Province, and its tectonic evolution is largely related to the Brasiliano orogeny (ca. 600 Ma). This domain includes four major tectonic terranes, which are represented by two metavolcanosedimentary sequences Jaguaribe-Oeste Potiguar and Serido belts, and its gneiss-migmatite Paleoproterozoic basement the Rio Piranhas and Sao Jose de Campestre massifs (Brito Neves et al., 2000). The rocks have been metamorphosed up to the amphibolite facies. Its deformational fabrics are dominated by extensive Brasiliano ductile shear zones displaying predominantly dextral transcurrent kinematic regime. These structures control the emplacement of several Neoproterozoic granitoid intrusions which are made up mainly by porphyritic granitoid suites with subalkaline monzonitic affinity. These occur as isolated plutons of various sizes or as composite intrusions, associated with basic-tointermediate suites. In the latter case, magma mingling and mixing attest that these are contemporaneous igneous suites. Several features suggest coeval relationships with granitic magmas, possibly implying processes such as assimilation or magma mixing. Field evidence of magma mixing include (i) extensive capture of feldspar phenocrysts of the acid mushes by the basic magmas, (ii) common presence of globular to ellipsoidal basic enclaves in the granitic suites, (iii) stockwork-type features consisting of felsic material veining through a diorite host and (iv) syn-plutonic basic dykes intruded into the porphyritic granites (Jardim de S 1994). In this work, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions from six distinct basic-to-intermediate suites were investigated to

  13. Comparison of two occurrence risk assessment methods for collapse gully erosion ——A case study in Guangdong province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Cheng, D. B.; He, J. J.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    Collapse gully erosion is a specific type of soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, and early warning and prevention of the occurrence of collapse gully erosion is very important. Based on the idea of risk assessment, this research, taking Guangdong province as an example, adopt the information acquisition analysis and the logistic regression analysis, to discuss the feasibility for collapse gully erosion risk assessment in regional scale, and compare the applicability of the different risk assessment methods. The results show that in the Guangdong province, the risk degree of collapse gully erosion occurrence is high in northeastern and western area, and relatively low in southwestern and central part. The comparing analysis of the different risk assessment methods on collapse gully also indicated that the risk distribution patterns from the different methods were basically consistent. However, the accuracy of risk map from the information acquisition analysis method was slightly better than that from the logistic regression analysis method.

  14. Morphostructural evidence for Recent/active extension in Central Tanzania beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, B.; Rolet, J.; Gernigon, L.; Ebinger, C.; Gloaguen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The southern tip zone of the Kenya Rift on the eastern branch of the East African System is usually thought to occur in the so-called North Tanzanian Divergence. In this region, the narrow (50 km-wide) axial graben of southern Kenya splays southwards, via a major EW-trending volcanic lineament, into a 200 km-wide broad rifted zone with three separate arms of normal faulting and tilted fault blocks (Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani arms from W to E). Remote sensing analysis from Central Tanzania demonstrates that rift morphology exists over an area lying 400 km beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift. The most prominent rift structures are observed in the Kilombero region and consist of a 100 km-wide range of uplifted basement blocks fringed to the west by an E-facing half-graben inferred to reach depths of 6-8 km from aeromagnetic dataset. Physiographic features (fault scarps), and river drainage anomalies suggest that the present-day rift pattern in the Kilombero extensional province principally results from Recent/Neogene deformation. That assumption is also supported by the seismogenic character of a number of faults. The Kilombero half-graben is superimposed upon an earlier rift system, Karoo in age, which is totally overprinted and is only evidenced from its sedimentary infill. On the other hand, the nature and thickness of the inferred Neogene synrift section is still unknown. The Kilombero rifted zone is assumed to connect northwards into the central rift arm (Manyara) of the South Kenya Rift via a seismically active transverse fault zone that follows ductile fabrics within the Mozambican crystalline basement. The proposed rift model implies that incipient rifting propagates hroughout the cold and strong crust/lithosphere of Central Tanzania along Proterozoic (N140=B0E) basement weakness zones and earlier Karoo (NS)rift structures. A second belt of Recent-active linked fault/basins also extends further East from the Pangani rift arm to the offshore

  15. Information for decision making from imperfect national data: tracking major changes in health care use in Kenya using geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Simon I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Ministries of Health across Africa invest substantial resources in some form of health management information system (HMIS to coordinate the routine acquisition and compilation of monthly treatment and attendance records from health facilities nationwide. Despite the expense of these systems, poor data coverage means they are rarely, if ever, used to generate reliable evidence for decision makers. One critical weakness across Africa is the current lack of capacity to effectively monitor patterns of service use through time so that the impacts of changes in policy or service delivery can be evaluated. Here, we present a new approach that, for the first time, allows national changes in health service use during a time of major health policy change to be tracked reliably using imperfect data from a national HMIS. Methods Monthly attendance records were obtained from the Kenyan HMIS for 1 271 government-run and 402 faith-based outpatient facilities nationwide between 1996 and 2004. A space-time geostatistical model was used to compensate for the large proportion of missing records caused by non-reporting health facilities, allowing robust estimation of monthly and annual use of services by outpatients during this period. Results We were able to reconstruct robust time series of mean levels of outpatient utilisation of health facilities at the national level and for all six major provinces in Kenya. These plots revealed reliably for the first time a period of steady nationwide decline in the use of health facilities in Kenya between 1996 and 2002, followed by a dramatic increase from 2003. This pattern was consistent across different causes of attendance and was observed independently in each province. Conclusion The methodological approach presented can compensate for missing records in health information systems to provide robust estimates of national patterns of outpatient service use. This represents the first such use of

  16. Agriculture and development in Africa: the case of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, G

    1987-01-01

    The Government of Kenya has successfully developed macroeconomic policies that overcome constraints in the domestic and international environments and have a relatively well-functioning public sector. At present, the major challenge facing Kenya concerns the ability of the government to improve agricultural productivity given the weakness of its research services and peasant resistance to development. The response to the 1984 drought indicates that the Government of Kenya has the formal structures in place to deal with emergencies, yet the absence of reliable statistics on grain production, marketing, and on-farm storage led to serious miscalculations of the severity of the drought. Government of Kenya has been reluctant to experiment with institutional forms that reduce the opportunity for direct political control, especially over agricultural marketing. Privatization of the grain trade or the establishment of cooperatively owned local dairies has been proposed but rejected as too risky. New policies and concerted action, at both the government and community levels, tend to be in response to threat or hardship rather than a result of a dynamic strategy. Given this tendency to avoid experimentation with alternative political forms, socioeconomic development in Kenya may be limited in the years ahead.

  17. Development of regional growth centres and impact on regional growth: A case study of Thailand’s Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapon Sang-arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatial economic structure and inequality in Thailand at the national and regional levels, with a particular focus on the Northeastern region in the period from 1987 to 2007. The study has three main points: 1 examination of the economic structure and inequality at the national level and in the Northeastern region according to the Theil index, 2 determination of regional growth centres and satellite towns by using growth pole theory as a conceptual framework and incorporating spatial interaction analysis and 3 analysis of the relationship between regional growth centres and satellite towns with regard to the impact on growth and inequality. The results show that the Northeastern region is definitely the lagging region in the nation, by both gross domestic product (GDP and gross regional product (GRP per capita. It was therefore selected for a case study. Spatial analysis identified Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani and Ubon Ratchathani as regional growth centres. Each of them has its own sphere of influence (or satellite towns, and the total area of regional growth centres and satellite towns are classified as sub-regions. The development of regional growth centres has a direct impact on sub-regional economic growth through economic and social relationships: urbanisation, industrial development, per capita growth, the number of higher educational institutes and so on. However, such growth negatively correlates with economic equality among the provinces in a sub-region. The inequality trend is obviously on an upswing. This study suggests that industrial links between regional growth centres and their satellite towns should be improved in order for regional growth centre development to have a consistently desirable effect on both economic growth and equality. Such a strong process means that the growth of regional growth centres will spread, leading to the development of their surrounding areas.

  18. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from farm-raised diarrheic sika deer in Northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available In China, overuse and/or abuse of antimicrobials are common in stockbreeding, which possess high risks of antimicrobial-resistant contaminations. The serogroups, major virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistant patterns of the antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli were investigated in the feces of diarrheic farm-raised sika deer from 50 farms in three Northeastern provinces of China. A total of 220 E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized. Twenty-eight O serogroups were identified from the obtained E. coli isolates with O2, O26, O128, O142 and O154 being dominant. Nearly all the isolates were resistant to at least four of the tested antimicrobials. More than 90% of the E. coli isolates carried at least one of the tested virulence genes. About 85% of the E. coli isolates carried one or more antimicrobial-resistant genes responsible for resistant phenotypes of sulfonamides, streptomycin/spectionomycin or tetracycline. The antimicrobial resistant level and pathogenic group occurrences of the obtained E. coli isolates were higher than that of livestock and wild animals reported in some developed countries. Thus, the fecal-carrying antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from the farm-raised sika deer is potentially a significant contamination source for freshwater systems and food chain, and may pose great health risks for human and animals in Northeastern China.

  20. Spatial Heterogeneity of Climate Change Effects on Dominant Height of Larch Plantations in Northern and Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Determining the response of dominant height growth to climate change is important for understanding adaption strategies. Based on 550 permanent plots from a national forest inventory and climate data across seven provinces and three climate zones, we developed a climate-sensitive dominant height growth model under a mixed-effects model framework. The mean temperature of the wettest quarter and precipitation of the wettest month were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables that markedly improved model performance. Generally, future climate change had a positive effect on stand dominant height in northern and northeastern China, but the effect showed high spatial variability linked to local climatic conditions. The range in dominant height difference between the current climate and three future BC-RCP scenarios would change from −0.61 m to 1.75 m (−6.9% to 13.5% during the period 2041–2060 and from −1.17 m to 3.28 m (−9.1% to 41.0% during the period 2061–2080 across provinces. The impacts of climate change on stand dominant height decreased as stand age increased. Forests in cold and warm temperate zones had a smaller decrease in dominant height, owing to climate change, compared with those in the mid temperate zone. Overall, future climate change could impact dominant height growth in northern and northeastern China. As spatial heterogeneity of climate change affects dominant height growth, locally specific mitigation measures should be considered in forest management.

  1. Implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care in Kenya and Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Osur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care (MPAC in two African countries. Design: Qualitative, program evaluation. Setting: Twenty-five public and private health facilities in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, and Kampala Province, Uganda. Sample: Forty-five MPAC providers, health facility managers, Ministry of Health officials, and non-governmental (NGO staff involved in program implementation. Methods and main outcome measures: In both countries, the Ministry of Health, local health centers and hospitals, and NGO staff developed evidence-based service delivery protocols to introduce MPAC in selected facilities; implementation extended from January 2009 to October 2010. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews evaluated the implementation process, identified supportive and inhibitive policies for implementation, elicited lessons learned during the process, and assessed provider satisfaction and providers’ impressions of client satisfaction with MPAC. Project reports were also reviewed. Results: In both countries, MPAC was easy to use, and freed up provider time and health facility resources traditionally necessary for provision of PAC with uterine aspiration. On-going support of providers following training ensured high quality of care. Providers perceived that many women preferred MPAC, as they avoided instrumentation of the uterus, hospital admission, cost, and stigma associated with abortion. Appropriate registration of misoprostol for use in the pilot, and maintaining supplies of misoprostol, were significant challenges to service provision. Support from the Ministry of Health was necessary for successful implementation; lack of country-based standards and guidelines for MPAC created challenges. Conclusions: MPAC is simple, cost-effective and can be readily implemented in settings with high rates of abortion-related mortality.

  2. Community radio and peace-building in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    and interviews with community radio practitioners conducted between 2007 and 2013, and addresses the following questions: How do the community radio stations work during elections – times of increased tensions? How do they discourage ethnic violence in their community? How is participation used in order to bring......In December 2007, violence broke out after the disputed general election in Kenya, which resulted in the death of 1100 Kenyans and left more than 660,000 displaced. Reports criticised media, especially vernacular media, for inflating the violence by using hate speech and incitement to violence......, and suggested that Kenya would benefit from more community media to prevent history from repeating itself. This article focuses on how Koch FM and Pamoja FM, two community radio stations in Nairobi, Kenya, worked during the 2007–08 tumult and 2013 general election. The article is based on observations...

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  4. Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.; Tecca, Alison E.; Eliason, Devin M.

    2018-04-18

    A study of uranium in groundwater in northeastern Washington was conducted to make a preliminary assessment of naturally occurring uranium in groundwater relying on existing information and limited reconnaissance sampling. Naturally occurring uranium is associated with granitic and metasedimentary rocks, as well as younger sedimentary deposits, that occur in this region. The occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater is poorly understood. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates uranium in Group A community water systems at a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 μg/L in order to reduce uranium exposure, protect from toxic kidney effects of uranium, and reduce the risk of cancer. However, most existing private wells in the study area, generally for single family use, have not been sampled for uranium. This document presents available uranium concentration data from throughout a multi-county region, identifies data gaps, and suggests further study aimed at understanding the occurrence of uranium in groundwater.The study encompasses about 13,000 square miles (mi2) in the northeastern part of Washington with a 2010 population of about 563,000. Other than the City of Spokane, most of the study area is rural with small towns interspersed throughout the region. The study area also includes three Indian Reservations with small towns and scattered population. The area has a history of uranium exploration and mining, with two inactive uranium mines on the Spokane Indian Reservation and one smaller inactive mine on the outskirts of Spokane. Historical (1977–2016) uranium in groundwater concentration data were used to describe and illustrate the general occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater, as well as to identify data deficiencies. Uranium concentrations were detected at greater than 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) in 60 percent of the 2,382 historical samples (from wells and springs). Uranium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to

  5. Climate Change: Drought and Desertification in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuor, V.O

    1997-01-01

    Drought is the failure of expected rain which leads to various effects in physical environment and human activities. Droughts are classified into three types namely; meteorological drought, agricultural and hydrological. Meteorological occurs when precipitation is below expectation, hydrological drought is experienced when water resources used for various activities reach levels when they become insufficient for those purposes. On the other hand agricultural drought occurs when when water supply for agriculture gets scarce and can defined as a moisture deficit that they cause un tolerable water stress during the growing season.In Kenya desertification is characterized by high temperatures that ranges between 14-31 degrees centigrade, with shallow soils of poor water holding capacity, the vegetation consists of variety of grasses, bushes and woodlands. Evergreen forest occurs along the major rivers such as Tana. Agricultural activities are usually concentrated in areas which are relatively wet like the highlands and flood plains with flood plains of permanent and seasonal seasonal rivers, surface storage areas and areas of seasonally -recharged shallow groundwater

  6. The Changing Concept of Adolescence in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Ginsberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenya has at least 42 tribes. Each of these tribes had a unique way of marking the boundary between childhood and adulthood. It is like once pubertal signs emerged, the adolescent was said to be ready for adulthood. Traditional conceptualization of adolescence is not clearly defined, because while puberty marks the beginning of adolescence today, this was not the case in the traditional society. In the traditional society, when a girl started getting her menstrual periods, she was considered mature and arrangements for marriage were started. Modern rites of passage tend to come closer to how modern text books define adolescence. Most boys undertake circumcision after completing primary school, as they wait to join high school. Upon realizing that the hospital ceremony, unlike the traditional one, is lacking in complementary teachings, some Churches have organized teachings prior to circumcision. For girls, after circumcision for them was banned, alternative rites of passage (ARPs are being instituted, most often targeting urban girls, but these, too, raise questions: Do alternative rites of passage fulfill the same functions for modern society that traditional ceremonies once fulfilled? And, if they do so for girls, is there reason to believe that they ought to be developed for both genders? This paper examines self-reports of Kenyans spanning three generations regarding social roles and identity-seeking among those who did (primarily older men and did not (primarily younger men and women of all ages participate in traditional initiation ceremonies.

  7. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  8. Mangrove Forest Structure in Ungwana Bay, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundotich, G; Karacchi, M.; Kairo, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Forest structure and natural regeneration was investigated in a 12-year-old Rhizophoria reforested stand at Gazi bay, Kenya. Within 10* 10m 2 plots, tree height and stem diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees of DBH>2.5 cm were determined. Stand volume was estimated by allometric equations derived from 50 harvested trees. The composition of juveniles was determined by within 5*5 m 2 inside the 10 * 10 plots. The stand density in Rhizophora plantation was 5,132 stems ha - 1, with a mean canopy height and stem diameter of 8.4+ 1 .1 m (range: 3.0 to 11.0 m) and 6.2+ 1 .87 cm (range: 2.5 to 12.4 cm) respectively. The stand volume was 103.80 m 3 ha-1 , stilt roots and branches combined was 43.09 m 3 ha-1 . Five species with juveniles; Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguieria gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Sonneretia alba and Xylocarpus granatum, were encountered with density of 4 886 juveniles ha-1 , with clustered distribution pattern

  9. Warm Water Pathways in the Northeastern North Atlantic ACCE RAFOS Float Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furey, Heather

    2001-01-01

    ...). The RAFOS float component of ACCE, entitled "Warm Water Pathways and Intergyre Exchange in the Northeastern North Atlantic", was designed to measure the warm water currents entering the northeastern...

  10. The impact of post-election violence on HIV and other clinical services and on mental health-Kenya, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamrah, Sapna; Mbithi, Agneta; Mermin, Jonathan H; Boo, Thomas; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Sharif, Sk; Cookson, Susan Temporado

    2013-02-01

    In December 2007, civil disruption and violence erupted in Kenya following national elections, displacing 350,000 people and affecting supply chains and services. The Kenyan government and partners were interested in assessing the extent of disruption in essential health services, especially HIV treatment. A two-stage cluster sampling for patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) was implemented ten weeks after elections, March 10-21, 2008, at twelve health facilities providing ART randomly selected in each of the three provinces most affected by post-election disruption-Rift Valley, Nyanza, and Central Provinces. Convenience samples of patients with tuberculosis, hypertension, or diabetes were also interviewed from the same facilities. Finally, a convenience sampling of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the three provinces was conducted. Three hundred thirty-six IDPs in nine camps and 1,294 patients in 35 health facilities were interviewed. Overall, nine percent of patients reported having not returned to their routine health care facility; 9%-25% (overall 16%) reported a temporary inability for themselves or their children to access care at some point during January-February 2008. Less than 15% of patients on long-term therapies for HIV, tuberculosis, diabetes, or hypertension had treatment interruptions compared with 2007. The proportion of tuberculosis patients receiving a ≥45-day supply of medication increased from five percent in November 2007 to 69% in December 2007. HIV testing decreased in January 2008 compared with November 2007 among women in labor wards and among persons tested through voluntary counseling and testing services in Nyanza and Rift Valley Provinces. Patients and their family members witnessed violence, especially in Nyanza and Rift Valley Provinces (54%-59%), but few patients (2.5%-14%, 10% overall) personally experienced violence. More IDPs reported witnessing (80%) or personally experiencing (38%) violence than did patients

  11. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    -regional, as well as inter-regional trafficking, is available. This study seeks to build synergy in the counter-trafficking efforts in Kenya. In so doing it aims to in the overall identify gaps in combating and responding to human trafficking and offer programmatic recommendations/suggestions particularly for IRC......Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra...

  12. I Kenya bliver lærergerningen et kald

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Når unge i Kenya starter på læreruddannelsen, ønsker de færreste af dem at blive lærer. Men i løbet af uddannelsen bliver profession og personlig identitet vævet sammen.......Når unge i Kenya starter på læreruddannelsen, ønsker de færreste af dem at blive lærer. Men i løbet af uddannelsen bliver profession og personlig identitet vævet sammen....

  13. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  14. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  15. Correlation between seismicity and geomorphology in Dingxi Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A M6.6 earthquake occurred on July 22, 2013 at Dingxi Basin in Gansu Province within the tectonially expanding northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the geomorphological features of the Dingxi Basin by using remote sensing technology and compared them with local seismic activity. We found that most of the river basins are at the robust stage of development and that the major local rivers and the development of some basins boundaries are controlled by the seismic faults. Among four zones identified to have significant tectonic activities, the northwestly-oriented one located in the south has the highest seismic activity, and it is where the M6. 6 earthquake occurrred.

  16. Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  18. USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA FOR DOCUMENTATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN NORTHEASTERN MESOPOTAMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Matoušková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two archaeological sites documented during the MULINEM (The Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia project. This project investigates the Late Sasanian and Islamic urban network in the land of Erbil, a historic province of Hidyab (Adiabene that is located in northern Iraq. The investigated sites are the two deserted cities of Makhmúr al-Quadíma and Al-Hadítha. It is assumed that these two sites used to form large cities with high business and cultural importance in the medieval period. The archaeological locations are endangered by various threats.The Al-Hadítha site seems to be under the control of the „Islamic state“ at the moment and Makhmúr al-Quadíma is located just next to the town of new Makhmúr that expands rapidly and without complex urban plans. Documentation of the archaeological sites has been done by using remotely sensed methods together with in-situ measurements (where available. FORMOSAT-2 data that has been gained through a research announcement: Free FORMOSAT-2 satellite imagery and when combined with other sources (recent and historical data it provides a powerful documentation tool. In-situ RPAS measurements and a DTM creation furnish a new source of highly valuable information. Influence of the political and security situation in Al-Hadítha will be analysed.

  19. Using Remotely Sensed Data for Documentation of Archaeological Sites in Northeastern Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, E.; Starková, L.; Pavelka, K.; Nováček, K.; Šedina, J.; Faltýnová, M.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces two archaeological sites documented during the MULINEM (The Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia) project. This project investigates the Late Sasanian and Islamic urban network in the land of Erbil, a historic province of Hidyab (Adiabene) that is located in northern Iraq. The investigated sites are the two deserted cities of Makhmúr al-Quadíma and Al-Hadítha. It is assumed that these two sites used to form large cities with high business and cultural importance in the medieval period. The archaeological locations are endangered by various threats.The Al-Hadítha site seems to be under the control of the „Islamic state" at the moment and Makhmúr al-Quadíma is located just next to the town of new Makhmúr that expands rapidly and without complex urban plans. Documentation of the archaeological sites has been done by using remotely sensed methods together with in-situ measurements (where available). FORMOSAT-2 data that has been gained through a research announcement: Free FORMOSAT-2 satellite imagery and when combined with other sources (recent and historical data) it provides a powerful documentation tool. In-situ RPAS measurements and a DTM creation furnish a new source of highly valuable information. Influence of the political and security situation in Al-Hadítha will be analysed.

  20. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

    2012-02-01

    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  1. Using Action Research to prevent work-related illness among rubber farmers in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Wijitra; Nilvarangkul, Kessarawan; Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Smith, John F; Phajan, Teerasak; Seetangkham, Sansanee

    2018-06-10

    This research aimed to enhance self-care among rubber farmers for preventing work-related illness. The project used Action Research's four phase iterative process: fact-finding to understand the problems, action planning, action plan implementation, and evaluation and reflection on action plan impacts. Sixty-six participants (46 rubber farmers and 20 community stakeholders) were purposively recruited from two villages in the top 10 rubber producing provinces in Northeastern Thailand. Demographic and work-related illness data were collected in face-to-face structured interviews, Focus group interviews and participant observations were used to collect data in each project phase. Night group meetings were held throughout the research phases. The intervention included training workshops and establishing a community health education team for ongoing farmer support. Results showed improved farmer self-care behaviors and establishment of a community health education team to encourage farmers to care for themselves properly. Community nurses, other health personnel, and the Thai government can build on initiatives like this to strengthen occupational health and safety practices and services policy for rubber farmers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical

  4. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  5. Spousal communication about HIV prevention in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate

    2011-11-01

    High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.

  6. Poverty reduction Approaches in Kenya: Assessing the Usefulness of the Right Based Approach in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao, Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While billions of dollars have been spent in development projects in least developed countries, poverty continues to increase. This study proposes human-rights based approach to poverty eradication. To this end, the study seeks to assess the key determinants of use of rights- based approaches to poverty reduction and it’s usefulness in Kenya with special reference to NGOs in Kibera. The study further high lights some of the basic skills of implementing the rights based approach to poverty reduction. The attempts to establish the proportion of NGOs applying rights based approach to poverty reduction in Kibera Division as well. The review of relevant literature has been undertaken and a field study done. The study is informed by a qualitative human rights framework.

  7. All projects related to kenya | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-08-11

    In eastern and southern Africa, most yogurt production is carried out by industries using large-scale fermentation technologies to target urban consumers. Start Date: August 11, 2015. Topic: SMALL FARMS, MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRY, EVALUATION METHODS, CANADA, EAST AFRICA, Gender. Region: Kenya, Tanzania ...

  8. Green Corridor East Africa. Horticultural supply chain Kenya – Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.; Westra, E.H.; Snels, J.C.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to gain insight into the current / existing horticultural supply chain (= flower) from Kenya to the Netherlands (Schiphol) and / or Germany (Frankfurt) with inland transport services to the country of destination (= Poland / Warsaw) with a focus on CO2-emission. And also

  9. Corruption and Entrepreneurship in Kenya | Ngunjiri | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on entrepreneurship in Kenya. The findings indicate that when formal institutions are inefficient corruption which subverts these institutions is beneficial in terms of economic development. Conversely, where formal institutions are relatively efficient, corruption is detrimental.

  10. Paediatric sleeping sickness in Kenya: A case report | Matete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A male child aged two years and eight months was diagnosed with the disease in western Kenya. The patient presented with severe respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegay and neurological symptoms. The disease transmission was associated with the socio-cultural habit of placing children under bushes whilst farming.

  11. Home-based HIV counselling and testing in Western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home-based HIV counselling and testing was feasible among this rural population in western Kenya, with a majority of the population accepting to get tested. These data suggest that scaling-up of HBCT is possible and may enable large numbers of individuals to know their HIV serostatus in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  13. Neonatal tetanus prevention programme in Kenya: Successes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the disease process, and success and controversies associated with neonatal tetanus control in Kenya. Data sources: Medline search on published articles in journals, books and national/ international agency reports. Data selection: Relevant literature from peer-reviewed scientific papers, international ...

  14. Monitoring spatial-temporal variability of aerosol over Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over Kenya based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the period between 2001 and 2012. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) ...

  15. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  16. Literacy and education in Kenya | Emenyonu | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern Kenya has been steadily evolving since 1963 when the country attained independence. It has made remarkable progress in all spheres of national growth and development. It is, however, in the area of literacy and education that the growth is most noticeable. Contemporary educational developments have built on ...

  17. amphibian diversity in shimba hills national reserve, kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.A

    The coastal forests of Kenya are part of the Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa biodiversity ... Schiøtz. These authors were mainly interested in “tree frogs” of the families Hyperoliidae ..... confined to the dry semi-deciduous forest (bushland savanna) (Schiøtz, 1999). About 23 .... Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

  18. Women and Higher Education Leadership in Kenya: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George

    2011-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…

  19. INITIAL INJURY CARE IN NAIROBI, KENYA: A CALL FOR TRAUMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... Objective: To describe the emergency care of injuries at a main city hospital. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Data were collected between February 1st, 1999 and 30th April, 1999 from the records of the 2000 bed Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and forty ...

  20. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This information showed that there is sufficient genetic variability in the cowpea genotypes studied, which can be exploited in breeding improved cowpea varieties for resistance to A. vogelii in Kenya. A great progress towards developing improved cowpea variety that meets farmer's preferences with durable resistance to A.

  1. Civil Society and the Democratisation Processes in Kenya and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil Society and the Democratisation Processes in Kenya and Uganda: A Comparative Analysis of the Contribution of the Church and NGOs. Jamu Anthony Okuku. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2002 7(2): 81-98). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the case of Koch FM radio. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... a new constitution that has expanded the democratic space and created broader awareness of ...

  3. From Dualism to Monism: The Structure of Revolution in Kenya's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home ... Vol 3, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It also created a scientific revolution in Kenya's treaty practice. For the first time, ...

  4. Kenya | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Language English. Read more about From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open Government Data in Developing Countries. Language English.

  5. Governance of tourism conservation partnerships: lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nthiga, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Governance of Tourism Conservation Partnerships: Lessons from Kenya

    Rita Wairimu Nthiga

    Since the 19th century nature conservation in Eastern Africa has evolved in different stages. Initial interventions emerged as a result of the decline and potential extinction of

  6. Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... convened stakeholder meetings, and identified priorities. Kenya has identified enforcement of a smoke-free Nairobi as its first priority, and countering indirect advertising as its second. This project will conduct research, build capacity, create awareness, enlist stakeholder support and advance strategies in support of these ...

  7. Trails in Academic and Administrative Leadership in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origins of Kenya Education Network, The African Institute for Capacity Development, ... Michieka's mission is to transform JKCAT into a science and technology-based public university which involves lobbying the agenda; staff recruitment ... with external funders like the Japan International Cooperation Agency; representing ...

  8. Orthopaedic training in Kenya | Mulimba | East African Orthopaedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To do a survey of the current orthopaedic specialists in Kenya's training since their first medical degrees. Determine the duration, facilities and methods of training. Methods: A number of doctors trained under different arrangements were identified, interviewed and where curriculum was available this was read.

  9. DRUG ABUSE IN KISUMU TOWN WESTERN KENYA Otieno AO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug abuse among secondary school students in nine schools in Kisumu town, ... Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and peer .... A preliminary survey of drug abuse was conducted among secondary school ..... illegal and medically prescribed psychotropic drugs from adolescence to.

  10. All projects related to kenya | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: EAST AFRICA, URBAN COMMUNITIES, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Region: Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 522,100.00. Task Shifting for Expanding Access to Quality Eye Care Services in Ethiopia. Project. Quality eye care ...

  11. Water conservation through trade: the case of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint of Kenya from both production and consumption perspectives and estimates the country’s virtual water export and import. Kenya’s virtual water export related to trade in agricultural products was 4.1 km3/y; its virtual water import was 4.0 km3/y. The

  12. The challenges of human resources in mental health in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Africa faces a skills shortage, in spite of training suitably qualified professionals. This is particularly evident in the discipline of. Psychiatry. An analysis of the distribution and availability of psychiatrists in Kenya was thus conducted and findings compared with specific other African countries (Uganda and ...

  13. All projects related to Kenya | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Region: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. Transitional Justice and the Role of Truth and ...

  14. Kenya | Page 45 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When Professor Monica Ayieko fries up some termites or crickets in the laboratory at Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology in western Kenya, everyone on campus salivates because of the aromas. “Not only is the smell incredibly pleasing, but it tastes just as good!” explains the head of the food ...

  15. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  16. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...

  17. Urban Youth speech Styles in Kenya and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M; Mous, M.; Nortier, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we compare Urban Youth Speech Styles (UYSS’s) in Nairobi, Kenya (Kiessling and Mous 2004) and in the western parts of the Netherlands as it has been documented around the major cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Den Haag and Utrecht (Dorleijn and Nortier 2012 and references there).

  18. High case fatality cholera outbreak in Western Kenya, August 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cholera is a disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera and has been an important public health problem since its first pandemic in 1817. Kenya has had numerous outbreaks of cholera ever since it was first detected there during 1971. In August 2010 an outbreak of cholera occurred in Kuria West District ...

  19. Fluoride adsorption onto an acid treated lateritic mineral from Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1) from Kenya was studied by batch experiments. The effect of acid-treatment of adsorbent and change in temperature, mass of LM-1, pH and selected competing ions was evaluated. The adsorption process was strongly influenced by ...

  20. Spaces of insecurity : human agency in violent conflicts in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenburg, K.; Zaal, A.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    There are regions in the world where socio-economic deprivation, ecological marginality, political exclusion, poverty and violence all seem to converge. The cases presented in this book describe various violent conflicts in rural Kenya and aim to understand spatial insecurity while searching for

  1. Consumer awareness and attitudes toward GM foods in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 604 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, in November and December 2003, at three points of sale (supermarkets, kiosks, and posho mills) to determine consumer awareness and attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods. Above a third (38%) of the respondents were aware of GM crops, mostly ...

  2. The challenge of mother tongue education in Kenya | Kobia | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of mother tongue in the cognitive, linguistic, personal and educational development of children cannot be overemphasised. It is out of this recognition that the UNESCO declared 2006 the Year of African Languages. In spite of this, the language policy in Kenya continues to be tilted in favour of English and to ...

  3. Kenya | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Language English. Read more about Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis. Language French. Read more about ...

  4. Democratic School Leadership Reforms in Kenya: Cultural and Historical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwan, Julius; Anderson, Lesley; Bennett, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss students', teachers' and school principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership reforms in Kenya. The article is based on a study that was conducted in two phases. In phase one (conducted between September and December 2007), interviews were undertaken with 12 school principals in which understandings of…

  5. Dairy development and nutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy

  6. A multivariate analysis of water quality in lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Fulanda, B.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality information in aquatic ecosystems is crucial in setting up guidelines for resource management. This study explores the water quality status and pollution sources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Analysis of water quality parameters at seven sampling sites was carried out from water samples

  7. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  8. Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion ...

  9. Farming systems and food security in Kwale District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines agricultural production and off-farm employment among the rural population in Kwale District Kenya. Research was carried out in two villages, located in different agro-ecological zones: Kibandaongo, in the low-potential livestock-millet zone, inhabited by the Duruma; and Bongwe,

  10. Hernia Surgery in Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya: Our 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average length of hospital stay was 3 days. Of the inguinal ... on hernia disease with reference to prevalence, pattern and management at a provincial general hospital in Kenya. Methods. After obtaining permission from the hospital administration, we .... financial constraint on hospitals, length of hospital stay and enable ...

  11. Community Norms About Youth Condom Use in Western Kenya: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most HIV prevention strategies for African youth have been ineffective in changing key behaviors like condom use, partly because community antagonism and structural barriers have rarely been addressed. Through qualitative research in rural Western Kenya, we sought to describe the attitudes of different segments of ...

  12. Food consumption and nutrition in the Kenya Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, W.; Mwadime, R.K.N.

    1998-01-01

    For a sizeable portion of Kenya's coastal population food security is not assured. Furthermore, the current food pattern, which relies heavily on maize and cassava, is lacking in dietary quality and variety. This results in nutritional problems among the population which are partly hidden, but which

  13. Quality Assurance of University Education in Alberta and Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the introduction of degree granting institutions, Alberta and Kenya have persistently made efforts to manage and improve the quality of university education. While contexts, stakeholders, and quality assurance regimes have changed over time, debate on academic quality in both jurisdictions has continued bringing to ...

  14. Risk factors for hypertension among urban males in Mombasa Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cerebro-vascular disease are increasing so rapidly that they will rank first and fifth respectively as causes of global health burden by the year. 2020. MeThODOLOGY. A community based cross-sectional study was done among 187 adult male residents of. Mombasa in Kenya. The methods involved survey on awareness ...

  15. Improving Performance of Urban Areas in the Context of Kenya's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2010, Kenya reformed its constitution and introduced greater decentralization of powers to lower levels of government. ... Le CRDI et le Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, ont conclu un accord en vue d'un nouvel investissement de 25 millions de dollars canadiens à l'occasion du lancement de la.

  16. All projects related to Kenya | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Youth engagement in addressing violent extremism and gender violence through early ... Tropical diseases in humans and livestock can cause death and remain a huge ... Region: Canada, Israel, Kenya, India, United States ... and Uganda experience disadvantages and gender inequalities in labour and production.

  17. Assessment of performance of smallholder dairy farms in Kenya: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 85:7891– 7899. ISSN 1997– ... agriculture and was the first to measure ... form is imposed on the function (production or ... Technical Efficiency Estimation: In this paper, the ... prices by the price of concentrate feed and ..... Kenya's milk remains uncompetitive in the market, ...

  18. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.

  19. Children's literature in Kenya: a mirror of Kenyan culture? | Gromov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on the assumption that the present state of writing for children in Kenya could in fact be reflecting the current condition of the entire Kenyan culture, particularly the culture of letters in the country. Using as a reference point the well-known book on Kenyan children's literature written in 1980s by. Asenath ...

  20. Right to Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the current inclusive education system in Kenya, and how those practices relate to Article 24 of the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Local laws and international instruments are presented to shed light on the extent to which students with disabilities have a right to inclusive…

  1. The Gendered Workplace in Kenya: A Comparative Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workplace conditions for male and female agricultural technicians in public and parastatal sector work settings in Kenya are analyzed to test the hypothesis that, relative to the public sector, the potential for differential treatment based on gender is likely to be higher in the parastatal sector. Compared to those in the public ...

  2. Characteristics of HIV-infected children seen in Western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: HIV-infected children below age of 15 years seen in a network of 18 clinics in Western Kenya. Interventions: Paediatric HIV diagnosis and care including treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and provision of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). Main outcome measures: Diagnosis, clinical ...

  3. Entomophagy among the Luo of Kenya: a potential mineral source?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Orech, Francis O; Mungai, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    Primary objective To determine the iron, zinc, and calcium content in different insects commonly eaten among the Luo of Kenya. Research design A cross-sectional design was chosen for the study in order to determine the insects eaten and their mineral content during a specific season...

  4. Elephants or Onions? Paying for Nature in Amboseli, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Boone, R.; Stringer, R.; Thornton, P.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional grazing grounds near Amboseli National Park (Kenya) are being rapidly converted to cropland ¿ a process that closes important wildlife corridors. We use a spatially explicit simulation model that integrates ecosystem dynamics and pastoral decision-making to explore the scope for

  5. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...

  6. Kenya-Malawi Health Research Capacity Strengthening Initiative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will support the creation of two task forces in Kenya and Malawi, respectively, to articulate nationally owned and strategies for an effective health research system in each country. The idea is to enhance the capacity of health research institutions to generate new scientific knowledge, and health policymaking ...

  7. Scaling digital learning in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The current project applies interactive multimedia software coupled with extensive professional development for teachers to enhance teaching and to improve the learning of children in Kenya. Prior projects explored the feasibility and measured the effectiveness of using ABRACADABRA (ABRA) early literacy software with ...

  8. Internal displacement in Kenya: the quest for durable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Internal displacement in Kenya has been a challenge since the colonial era but only recently has a legal framework been developed to address IDP protection issues. The process of developing this framework offers some useful lessons for stakeholders in similar situations.

  9. Perceptions and Reflections of Music Teacher Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on enquiry aimed to discover Kenyan music teachers' perceptions and expectations of their role; their view of the training they received; head teachers' perceptions and expectations of the role of the music teacher; and the expectations of both music teachers and head teachers of a music teacher education programme in Kenya.…

  10. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya | Kaluli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potable water for irrigation and industrial use is generally unavailable, and this calls for alternative water sources. Despite use of wastewater being illegal in Kenya, it is used to irrigate over 720 ha in Nairobi. In order to justify the formulation of a national policy to support wastewater reuse, secondary data which included the ...

  11. The Challenges of Urban Management in Kenya | Akatch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya the issue of regional and municipal management has been a thorny issue since independence. Soon after independence in 1963, the KANU Government bowing to pressures from KADU introduced Majimbo constitution that emphasised region-led administrative management as opposed to the unitary system of ...

  12. The Free Education Policy in Kenya: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limukii, Kaberia E.; Mualuko, Ndiku J.

    2012-01-01

    Educational reforms are crucial in a country if the reforms benefit the intended target group. One of the educational reforms in Kenya was the introduction of Free Primary Education. This was informed by the need to improve access and equity in provision of education. Informed by the need to eradicate ignorance, poverty and disease, the…

  13. Mungiki, Vernacular Organization and Political Society in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2010-01-01

    of Mungiki have been recruited by political leaders and functioned as violent militia; concurrently, it seeks representation in formal and parliamentary politics. The organization is distinct from ‘respectable’ segments of Kenya's civil society who participate in NGO activities and mainstream churches...

  14. Horticultural marketing channels in Kenya : structure and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the structure and development of horticultural marketing channels in Kenya. It is based primarily on a farm survey among some 500 farmers in Nyandarua, Kisii and Taita Taveta Districts and a trade survey of about 750 horticultural traders in 18 different market places.

  15. The Role of Economic Aspiration in Elections in Kenya | Oculi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both forms of social engineering gave prominence to tribalism as an organising tool. The power behind the success of these exercises was economic anxieties rooted in land, widespread unemployment and elite struggles for control of political influence. This perspective allows us to propose that stability in Kenya in the ...

  16. Didactic Competencies among Teaching Staff of Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Florah Katanu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the levels and types of didactic competencies that exist among teaching staff in universities in Kenya, giving recognition to curriculum development, pedagogical attributes and quality assurance competencies. The study was carried out in two phases among two samples of the teaching staff population. The first…

  17. Les agriculteurs tracent une nouvelle voie au Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 janv. 2014 ... L'équipe est soutenue par le Fonds canadien de recherche sur la sécurité alimentaire internationale (FCRSAI), initiative concertée du CRDI et d'Affaires étrangères, Commerce et Développement Canada. Le FCRSAI supervise 21 projets ... Kenya food security agriculture. Des organismes oeuvrant au ...

  18. Status of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makokha, George L.; Mutisya, Dorothy N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the status of e-learning in public universities in Kenya. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to both students and lecturers randomly sampled from seven public universities. Questionnaire responses were triangulated with interviews from key informants and focus group discussions (FGDs).…

  19. E-Learning Readiness in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Gordon O.; Awuor, Fredrick M.; Kyambo, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As e-learning becomes useful to learning institutions worldwide, an assessment of e-learning readiness is essential for the successful implementation of e-learning as a platform for learning. Success in e-learning can be achieved by understanding the level of readiness of e-learning environments. To facilitate schools in Kenya to implement…

  20. Kenya | Page 47 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Language English. Read more about From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open Government Data in Developing Countries. Language English.

  1. Kenya | Page 47 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Langue English. Read more about From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open Government Data in Developing Countries. Langue English. Read more ...

  2. Furniture Industry in Kenya : Situational Analysis and Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Creapo Oy; World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Government of Kenya recognizes that the performance of the furniture sector is crucial both to employment and growth in the country. The Ministry of Industrialization and Enterprise Development (MOIED) therefore requested an analysis of both the furniture and timber sectors, in order to understand their current state of development, their main constraints, and the interventions necessa...

  3. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Switching to Sudan grass for livestock fodder will increase food security in Kenya Farmers learned new techniques for producing livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... The company provided drip kits to 300 farmers in Tana River for chilli production (through loans of US$74 per kit).

  4. Kenya | Page 44 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions ... Organization (WHO) projects that NCDs such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease will be the most common cause of death in Africa.

  5. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okuku

    Keywords: Spatial data infrastructure, Kenya NSDI, development, assessment, ... of a nation can be used for; network survey of coordinates, waterways, ... to European community (INSPIRE) at the European national, regional and .... Digitisation efforts were spearheaded by the joint cooperation of JICA (Japan international.

  6. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Pearl oysters, seed collection, macrofauna, bivalves, settlement, monsoon seasons,. Kenya .... have shown that pearl oyster settlement is higher within calm ...... collectors in the Timor Sea, Northern Australia. J. Shellfish ... systems. Aquaculture, 189: 375-388. Urban, H.J. (2000b): Culture potential of the pearl.

  7. Itinerary in Kenya colony and the union of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1952-01-01

    In 1949 a trip was made to Kenya Colony, British East Africa, with the aim of collecting Phanerogamic plants and Ferns. The intention was to collect 12 sets of each number which I managed to do for about 70 %. Except for the first set which will be incorporated in the Rijksherbarium, the plants will

  8. Serving remote users in selected public university libraries in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of information services to support teaching, learning and research has long been a major objective of libraries in higher education. The students being served by these libraries, specifically in Kenya, may consist of on-campus and remote user groups. This study set out to explore the library section heads' ...

  9. Computers for Schools Kenya se classe au premier rang | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.

  10. Women Aspiring to Administrative Positions in Kenya Municipal Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combat, Victor F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Even though female teachers in Kenya municipal primary schools are majority and highly qualified, they fill fewer administrative positions than men. This study assesses the extent of women's participation in leadership positions, society's perception of female leaders, selection criteria of educational administrators, and barriers that affect or…

  11. Rainfall Erosivity Factor for Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya | Kariaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Runoff plots were established on bare soil classified as Dystric Nitosols (Typic Rhodudults) at Moi University Main Campus, on Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine the best erosivity factor for the area. This was found to be EI30, defined as the product of the rainstorm's kinetic energy and ...

  12. Towards a flexible plant breeders’ rights system in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyi, Peter Gitahi

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the relationship between plant breeders’ rights on the one hand and access to seeds and planting material on the other for smallholder farmers in Kenya. The objective of the thesis is to enquire whether the legal spaces that exist within plant breeders’ rights

  13. Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangau, Josiah Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…

  14. Country Immunization Information System Assessments - Kenya, 2015 and Ghana, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colleen; Clarke, Kristie E N; Grevendonk, Jan; Dolan, Samantha B; Ahmed, Hussein Osman; Kamau, Peter; Ademba, Peter Aswani; Osadebe, Lynda; Bonsu, George; Opare, Joseph; Diamenu, Stanley; Amenuvegbe, Gregory; Quaye, Pamela; Osei-Sarpong, Fred; Abotsi, Francis; Ankrah, Joseph Dwomor; MacNeil, Adam

    2017-11-10

    The collection, analysis, and use of data to measure and improve immunization program performance are priorities for the World Health Organization (WHO), global partners, and national immunization programs (NIPs). High quality data are essential for evidence-based decision-making to support successful NIPs. Consistent recording and reporting practices, optimal access to and use of health information systems, and rigorous interpretation and use of data for decision-making are characteristics of high-quality immunization information systems. In 2015 and 2016, immunization information system assessments (IISAs) were conducted in Kenya and Ghana using a new WHO and CDC assessment methodology designed to identify root causes of immunization data quality problems and facilitate development of plans for improvement. Data quality challenges common to both countries included low confidence in facility-level target population data (Kenya = 50%, Ghana = 53%) and poor data concordance between child registers and facility tally sheets (Kenya = 0%, Ghana = 3%). In Kenya, systemic challenges included limited supportive supervision and lack of resources to access electronic reporting systems; in Ghana, challenges included a poorly defined subdistrict administrative level. Data quality improvement plans (DQIPs) based on assessment findings are being implemented in both countries. IISAs can help countries identify and address root causes of poor immunization data to provide a stronger evidence base for future investments in immunization programs.

  15. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

  16. Delivery of Open, Distance, and E-Learning in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyerere, Jackline Anyona; Gravenir, Frederick Q.; Mse, Godfrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The increased demand and need for continuous learning have led to the introduction of open, distance, and e-learning (ODeL) in Kenya. Provision of this mode of education has, however, been faced with various challenges, among them infrastructural ones. This study was a survey conducted in two public universities offering major components of ODeL,…

  17. The "Invisible" Drama/Theatre in Education Curriculum in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Christopher Odhiambo

    2016-01-01

    This vignette presents the state of theatre in Education Kenya. The paper argues that though there are several theatre in education like practices, these have not been entrenched in the school curriculum. Theatre in Education finds expression and manifestations outside the mainstream school curriculum for instance in schools and colleges drama…

  18. Comrades' Power: Student Representation and Activism in Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Mwangi J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, student politics and governance of universities in Kenya and in other African countries have undergone a tremendous transformation. The unprecedented expansion and massification of public universities, the introduction of "Module 2" programmes, the admission of private, "parallel" and…

  19. The ethnification of electoral conflicts in Kenya: Options for positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these leaders turned elections into structures for rewarding loyalists and punishing ... 'transition election', realised the democratic intentions of regime change and assured the .... In addition, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Kenya .... ceremonies involve making sacrifices to the ancestors aimed at protecting.

  20. Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 juin 2016 ... Farmers have also formed 18 marketing groups (716 men and 1,007 women) to negotiate better prices. For example, farmers obtained up to 75% more than the average price for bulk poultry purchases. Read the story of change: Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya (PDF, 423 KB).

  1. High case fatality cholera outbreak in Western Kenya, August 2010

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Abstract. Introduction: Cholera is a disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera and has been an important public health problem since its first pandemic in 1817. Kenya has had numerous outbreaks of cholera ever since it was first detected there during 1971. In August 2010 an outbreak of cholera occurred in Kuria ...

  2. Sugarcane in vitro culture technology: Opportunities for Kenya's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    exchange annually and contributes to tax revenues to the ... Kenya‟s sugar production (MT) and consumption 1991-2011 (Source: World Bank estimates based on Kenya Sugar ..... selective agent (e.g. incorporation of a fungal culture filtrate) ...

  3. Tackling community undernutrition at Lake Bogoria, Kenya: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undernutrition remains a major public health concern for many developing nations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, undernutrition affects a substantial portion of the Kenyan population, especially children and those living in rural areas. Local and sustainable means of addressing undernutrition is still lacking in ...

  4. Kenya | Page 91 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second half of the book describes the specific programs that were visited in Malawi, ... on the theory and practice of participatory evaluation around the world. ... El Salvador, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, and St Vincent, the ... In some countries, the crisis is contributing to political instability and civil war.

  5. Geochronological and mineralogical constraints on depth of emplacement and ascencion rates of epidote-bearing magmas from northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Ferreira, Valderez P.; Pessoa, Ricardo R.; Brasilino, Roberta G.; Morais Neto, João M.

    2008-10-01

    Calc-alkalic to high-K calc-alkalic granitoid plutons in the Borborema province, northeastern Brazil, have been studied to constrain depth of emplacement by mineralogical and geological methods and to estimate upward magma transport rate based on partial dissolution of magmatic epidote. Laser-probe incremental heating 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of biotite and hornblende single crystals from the Neoproterozoic Tavares and Brejinho high-K calc-alkalic magmatic epidote (mEp)-bearing plutons reveals age differences of around 60 M.y. between these two minerals in each of these two intrusions. These data suggest solidification at relatively great depth followed by prolonged cooling interval between the closure temperatures of biotite and hornblende. Al-in-hornblende barometry indicates that hornblende in several mEp-bearing plutons in the Transversal Domain of the Borborema province solidified at 5 to 7 kbar, whereas in the Seridó and Macururé terranes, solidification pressures range from 3 to 4 kbar. Partial dissolution of epidote indicates very rapid upward transport. Partial corrosion occurred during 15-35 years (Cachoerinha-Salgueiro terrane), 10-30 years (Alto Pajeú), 15 years (Seridó), and 10 years (Macururé) corresponding to upward transport rates of 450-1300, 650-1050, 1200, and 1800 m/year respectively in these four terranes. Rapid upward magma migration in most cases was probably facilitated by diking simultaneous with regional shearing.

  6. Conservation Priorities for Terrestrial Birds in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Jeffrey V. Wells

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Partners in Flight (PIF) bird-conservation planning process, we assessed breeding land bird species according to seven categories of population vulnerability to derive a priority species pool in each of 12 physiographic areas that overlap the northeastern U.S. We then grouped species into the following habitat-species suites: (1) boreal-mountaintop...

  7. Proceedings of the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Clifton E., Jr., eds. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and demographics, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure constraints, environmental attitudes and values, leisure...

  8. Are Northeastern U.S. forests vulnerable to extreme drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam P. Coble; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Z. Carter Berry; Katie A. Jennings; Cameron D. McIntire; John L. Campbell; Lindsey E. Rustad; Pamela H. Templer; Heidi Asbjornsen

    2017-01-01

    In the Northeastern U.S., drought is expected to increase in frequency over the next century, and therefore, the responses of trees to drought are important to understand. There is recent debate about whether land-use change or moisture availability is the primary driver of changes in forest species composition in this region. Some argue that fire suppression from the...

  9. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  10. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  11. Historical perspective on diameter-limit cutting in northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Kelty; Anthony W. D' Amato; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2006-01-01

    The use of diameter-limit cutting and high-grading is currently a concern for long-term sustainability of forests in the Northeastern United States and surrounding areas. This paper reviews historical information about the kinds of harvesting used in this region from 1620 to 1950, to provide a context for current discussions. Throughout this period, most timber...

  12. Physical properties of 134 soils in six northeastern states

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. R. Eschner; B. O. Jones; R. C. Moyle

    1957-01-01

    From June 1954 to July 1955 the Vicksburg Infiltration Project collected and analyzed samples from 134 sites in six Northeastern States; the samples included 79 soil series and 114 soil types. This work was done to supply the U. S. Army with information needed for specialized research on military traffic ability. The basic data are herein presented because of their...

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Maiduguri, North-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is on the increase worldwide including in many developing countries. There is no report on the magnitude of obesity among adults in Maiduguri, a major city in northeastern Nigeria. MATERIALS and METHODS: We selected a sample of 1650 men and women aged 15 years and ...

  14. Northeastern FIA Tree Taper Study: Current Status and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; Charles T. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The northeastern unit of the Forest Inventory and Analysis program (NE-FIA) is engaged in an ongoing project to develop regionwide tree taper equations. Sampling intensity is based on NE-FIA plot data and is stratified by species, diameter class, and height class. To date, modeling research has been aimed largely at evaluating existing model forms (and hybrids thereof...

  15. Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton E. Watts; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher

    2010-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover GIS applications and recreation resource quality, meanings and measurement of recreation, climate change and resource planning, youth and outdoor recreation, urban recreation challenges, outdoor recreation--trails, human dimensions of wildlife, leisure and...

  16. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris

    1958-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  17. Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Burns; K., comps. Robinson

    2007-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  18. Optimal tree-stem bucking of northeastern species of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Joseph McNeel

    2004-01-01

    An application of optimal tree-stem bucking to the northeastern tree species of China is reported. The bucking procedures used in this region are summarized, which are the basic guidelines for the optimal bucking design. The directed graph approach was adopted to generate the bucking patterns by using the network analysis labeling algorithm. A computer-based bucking...

  19. Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans G. Vogelsong; [Editor

    1998-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover recreation; protected areas and social science; water based recreation management studies; forest recreation management studies; outdoor recreation management studies; estimation of economic impact of recreation and tourism; place meaning and attachment; tourism studies;...

  20. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern part of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Stephen, SI Mshelia. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.127-130. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. Home births and postnatal practices in madagali, North.Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Home births are common in resource poor countries and postnatal practices vary from one community to the other. Objective: To determine the proportion of home births, reasons for home delivery, and evaluate postnatal practices in Madagali, north.eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  3. Essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. from Northeastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Rabha, L.C.; Kanjilal, P.B.; Ghosh, A.C.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The oil, which was obtained by the steam distn. of the fresh rhizomes of C. amada (Zingiberaceae) growing in the plain districts of Northeastern India, was investigated by GC/MS. Nine components (97.4%) were identified. Myrcene was the major (88.6%) component. [on SciFinder (R)

  4. Proceedings of the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc; Christine, comps. Vogt

    2008-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  5. Proceedings of the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, comp., ed. Murdy; ed. comp.

    2004-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover planning issues, communications and information, management presentations, service quality and outdoor recreation, recreation behavior, founders? forum, featured posters, tourism and the community, specialized recreation, recreation and the community, management issues in...

  6. Occurrence and geochemistry of Nafada Gypsum, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum deposits occur in numerous locations within the Senonian Fika Shale at Nafada, northeastern Nigeria. Geologic investigations at Baro Winde and Wuro Dabo mines indicate the occurrence of three varieties of gypsum namely, Balatino laminated, Alabaster and Satin Spar. These are interlayered within shale and ...

  7. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  8. Proceedings of the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; eds.

    2009-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  9. Flora of Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone in northeastern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; J. Jesus. Sanchez-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Transects were done in desertscrub on limestone to characterize the flora of the westernmost Chihuahuan Desert. Most of the sites (15) were in the Municipios of Agua Prieta and Naco in northeastern Sonora, with single sites near Ascensión, northwestern Chihuahua and east of Douglas in southeastern Arizona. A total of 236 taxa were recorded on transects. Dicot perennial...

  10. A century of lessons about water resources in northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Hornbeck; James N. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    2001-01-01

    Water resources in forests of the northeastern United States have been a contentious issue throughout the 20th century. The Weeks Law of 1911 recognized the needs to protect water yield and quality, and stimulated long-term interest in the relationships between forests and water. Research has provided a clear understanding of the roles of forests in hydrologic and...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  12. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and

  13. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Vadillo, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (UABCS), La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Zaytsev, O. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)]. E-mail: ozaytsev@ipn.mx; Morales-Perez, R. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua (IMTA), Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15 degrees Celsius N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes 198 and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical variability of cyclone tracks, and that there were a considerable number of hurricane strikes along the Mexican coast. About 50% of the tropical cyclones formed turned north to northeast. It was rare that any passed further north than 30 degrees Celsius N in latitude because of the cold California Current. Hurricane tracks that affected the NE Pacific may be separated into 5 groups. We compared the historical record of the sea surface temperature (SST), related with the El Nino events with a data set of tropical cyclones, including frequency, intensity, trajectory, and duration. Although the statistical dependence between the frequencies of tropical cyclones of the most abundant categories, 1 and 2, over this region and SST data was not convincing, the percentage of high intensity hurricanes and hurricanes with a long life-time (greater than 12 days) was more during El Nino years than in non-El Nino years. [Spanish] La principal region de la formacion de ciclones en el oceano Pacifico Este es el Golfo de Tehuantepec, entre los 8 y los 15 grados Celsius N. En su fase inicial los ciclones se mueven hacia el oeste y el noroeste. El analisis historico de los ciclones que se han generado durante los ultimos 38 anos (de 1966 a 2004) muestra un promedio de 16.2 ciclones por ano, consistentes en 8.8 huracanes y 7.4 tormentas tropicales. El analisis muestra una gran variabilidad geografica en la trayectoria de los ciclones, de los cuales un gran numero impacta las

  14. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  15. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  16. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  17. A New Basal Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Masateru; Jintasakul, Pratueng; Azuma, Yoichi; You, Hai-Lu

    2015-01-01

    A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand, Sirindhorna khoratensis gen. et sp. nov is described. The new taxon is based on composite skull and mandible including premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, quadrate, braincases, predentary, dentaries, surangular, and maxillary and dentary teeth. It is diagnostic by such characters as, sagittal crest extending along entire dorsal surface of the parietal and reaching the frontoparietal suture (autapomorphy), tr...

  18. A New Basal Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masateru; Jintasakul, Pratueng; Azuma, Yoichi; You, Hai-Lu

    2015-01-01

    A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand, Sirindhorna khoratensis gen. et sp. nov is described. The new taxon is based on composite skull and mandible including premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, quadrate, braincases, predentary, dentaries, surangular, and maxillary and dentary teeth. It is diagnostic by such characters as, sagittal crest extending along entire dorsal surface of the parietal and reaching the frontoparietal suture (autapomorphy), transversely straight frontoparietal suture, caudodorsally faced supraoccipital, no participation of the supraoccipital in the foramen magnum, mesiodistally wide leaf-shaped dentary tooth with primary and secondary ridges on the lingual surface of the crown, perpendicularly-erected and large coronoid process of dentary, and nonvisible antorbital fossa of the maxilla in lateral view. Phylogenetic analysis revealed S. khoratensis as among the most basal hadrosauroids. Sirindhorna khoratensis is the best-preserved iguanodontian ornithopod in Southeast Asia and sheds new light to resolve the evolution of basal hadrosauriforms.

  19. A New Basal Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Shibata

    Full Text Available A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand, Sirindhorna khoratensis gen. et sp. nov is described. The new taxon is based on composite skull and mandible including premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, quadrate, braincases, predentary, dentaries, surangular, and maxillary and dentary teeth. It is diagnostic by such characters as, sagittal crest extending along entire dorsal surface of the parietal and reaching the frontoparietal suture (autapomorphy, transversely straight frontoparietal suture, caudodorsally faced supraoccipital, no participation of the supraoccipital in the foramen magnum, mesiodistally wide leaf-shaped dentary tooth with primary and secondary ridges on the lingual surface of the crown, perpendicularly-erected and large coronoid process of dentary, and nonvisible antorbital fossa of the maxilla in lateral view. Phylogenetic analysis revealed S. khoratensis as among the most basal hadrosauroids. Sirindhorna khoratensis is the best-preserved iguanodontian ornithopod in Southeast Asia and sheds new light to resolve the evolution of basal hadrosauriforms.

  20. Dissolved organic carbon in water fluxes of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in northeastern Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Tesón; Víctor H Conzonno; Marcelo F Arturi; Jorge L Frangi

    2014-01-01

    Water fluxes in tree plantations and other ecosystems carry dissolved organic carbon (DOC) provided by atmospheric inputs, autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms and from the lysis of dead material. These compounds may be colorless or provide a yellow-to-brown color to water and may also absorb visible light due to the presence of chromophores in the chemical...

  1. Notes on the distribution of lichen biota of Podlasie. III. Nowosady village, Podlaskie province (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kiercul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the biodiversity of lichen species in Nowosady village and surrounding areas. This work was conducted in 2014 (in August and biodiversity of lichen species growing on tree bark and bushes, on dead wood (anthropogenic origin, glacial erratics, concrete, mortared walls and other specific substrates like eternit roof slates has been assessed. The lichen species represented morphologically diverse forms: crustose (38%, foliose (38%, fruticose (13%, dimorphous (5%, placodial (3% and squamulose (3%. They belonged to different ecological types including epiphytes (27 species, epixyles (18 and epilithes (12. Out of 39 species identified in Nowosady village, five are included in the Polish red list of lichens: Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Ramalina farinacea and Ramalina fraxinea. Four taxons from the study area are under statutory protection of species. One species, Ramalina fraxinea is under full protection and 3 species (Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri and Hypogymnia tubulosa are under partial protection.

  2. Do fragmented landholdings have higher production costs? Evidence from rice farmers in Northeastern Jiangxi province, P.R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.; Heerink, N.; Kruseman, G.; Qu, F.

    2008-01-01

    Land fragmentation is generally seen as an obstacle to agricultural productivity improvements, but it can also facilitate labor smoothing and risk diversification. In this paper we examine the impact of land fragmentation on the variable production costs of rice farmers in three villages in Jiangxi

  3. Mammography practices for radiation protection in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, Anthony K.

    2008-01-01

    All mammography units in the country, totaling fourteen in number at the time, were evaluated on the basis of performance and practice to come up with useful data for summing up the mammography practice in Kenya. The study was carried out by performing hands-on quality control tests on the units using internationally established protocols. Image quality and dose measurement data were generated in all the centers and clearly indicated that the practice of mammography, more so on optimization viewpoint is so much varied. A standard method was used to obtain these data by use of mammography accreditation phantom. Data from actual patients was also collected in three major centers in Nairobi. On the criteria used for evaluating phantom image quality, ten out of fourteen units did satisfy the set criterion. The average glandular dose was 2.79 mGy per cranio caudal (cc) view of the phantom and 3.27 mGy per cc view for the sampled patients. The internationally recommended dose level for such a view is 3.0 mGy. One worrying observation made was that most units failed on one of the easiest test of mammographic unit assembly. Of most concern was the lack of technique charts for the practice detailing the imaging parameters being employed for the procedure. Most centers do not take the servicing of equipment seriously and others merely ignore even the crucial issues of equipment performance like the automatic exposure control and viewing conditions of the reporting areas.The results of this study calls for the setting up of a programme of optimization of radiological protection in mammography using the experience of other countries that have put in place quality assurance programs, setting and adoption of Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) as part of Quality Assurance (QA). This practice needs an effective quality control program which should start with the selection of appropriate equipment for mammography and the use of qualified personnel including the radiologist, radiographer

  4. Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C; Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Sindi, Kirimi; Loechl, Cornelia; Low, Jan; Levin, Carol; Kiria, Christine; Kurji, Jaameeta; Oyunga, Mary

    2013-07-11

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. χ2 test and Student's t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, ANC clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices.

  5. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors in Kenya: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Mwangi, Ann; Chege, Patrick; Simiyu, Chrispinus J; Aswa, Daniel F; Odhiambo, David; Obala, Andrew A; Ayuo, Paul; Khwa-Otsyula, Barasa O

    2013-09-01

    To describe the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in western Kenya using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). Population based survey of residents in an HDSS. Webuye Division in Bungoma East District, Western Province of Kenya. 4037 adults ≥ 18 years of age. Home based survey using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Self-report of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable intake. The median age of the population was 35 years (IQR 26-50). Less than 6% of the population reported high blood pressure or blood sugar. Tobacco and alcohol use were reported in 7% and 16% of the population, respectively. The majority of the population (93%) was physically active. The average number of days per week that participants reported intake of fruits (3.1 ± 0.1) or vegetables (1.6 ± 0.1) was low. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women were more likely to report a history of high blood pressure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.9), less likely to report using tobacco (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.11), less likely to report alcohol use (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) or eat ≥ 5 servings per day of fruits or vegetables (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) compared to men. The most common cardiovascular risk factors in peri-urban western Kenya are tobacco use, alcohol use, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Our data reveal locally relevant subgroup differences that could inform future prevention efforts.

  6. Media Concentration and the Coverage of the 2013 General Election in Kenya: Democracy at the Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Simiyu Tome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the relationship between journalistic freedom and media concentration in Kenya through the lens of the propaganda model (Baker, 2007. The research is based on two features of the 2013 General Election in Kenya: (1 a survey of the publics’ confidence in the conduct of journalists during the 2013 General election in Kenya and (2 a survey of journalists` perceptions of influence of media ownership on journalistic independence in Kenya. This research concludes that an increase in media concentration in Kenya has led to the shrinking of the democratic space. 71 percent of the surveyed Journalists believe media diversity in Kenya is at risk whilst 69 percent believe that viewpoint discrimination is occasioned by unhealthy Media Ownership trends in Kenya. The research also indicates that the perceived climate of distrust dogging the mainstream media in Kenya has seen the public turn to citizen journalism as an alternative source of information. This survey raises further questions about future implications for journalistic independence given the dominance of media concentration in Kenya.

  7. The Impact of Out-Migration on the Nursing Workforce in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M; Rogers, Martha F; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Oywer, Elizabeth; Wambua, David; Kamenju, Andrew; Arudo, John; Riley, Patricia L; Higgins, Melinda; Rakuom, Chris; Kiriinya, Rose; Waudo, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of out-migration on Kenya's nursing workforce. Study Setting This study analyzed deidentified nursing data from the Kenya Health Workforce Informatics System, collected by the Nursing Council of Kenya and the Department of Nursing in the Ministry of Medical Services. Study Design We analyzed trends in Kenya's nursing workforce from 1999 to 2007, including supply, deployment, and intent to out-migrate, measured by requests for verification of credentials from destination countries. Principle Findings From 1999 to 2007, 6 percent of Kenya's nursing workforce of 41,367 nurses applied to out-migrate. Eighty-five percent of applicants were registered or B.Sc.N. prepared nurses, 49 percent applied within 10 years of their initial registration as a nurse, and 82 percent of first-time applications were for the United States or United Kingdom. For every 4.5 nurses that Kenya adds to its nursing workforce through training, 1 nurse from the workforce applies to out-migrate, potentially reducing by 22 percent Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training. Conclusions Nurse out-migration depletes Kenya's nursing workforce of its most highly educated nurses, reduces the percentage of younger nurses in an aging nursing stock, decreases Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training, and represents a substantial economic loss to the country. PMID:21413982

  8. Inventory of lice of mammals and farmyard chicken in North-eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguini, Mohamed Nadir; Righi, Souad; Zeroual, Fayçal; Saidani, Khelaf; Benakhla, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Lice are permanent ectoparasites, extremely specific to their hosts. Their great importance in veterinary medicine remain significant, they can cause their direct pathogenic actions like irritability, dermatitis, anemia, decreased weight gain, and milk production. The purpose of this work was to made the first time an inventory of mammalian lice in North-eastern Algeria. Our survey of lice infestation was conducted on several animal species from five provinces of North-eastern Algeria. A total of 57 cattle, 83 sheep, 77 goats, 111 wild boars, and 63 farmyard chickens were examined. The collection of lice was carried out much more in mammals and chickens during the winter period. Lice were collected either manually or using brushing and kept in flasks containing 70% ethanol. The identification of lice was achieved in the laboratory using a binocular loupe. Concerning cattle, 63% and 27% of those examined subjects from Souk-Ahras and Guelma study areas, respectively, were carriers of lice. Damalinia bovis was the louse most frequently found on cattle in these two regions. Three other species were identified in Souk-Ahras: Haematopinus eurysternus (25%), Linognathus vituli (10%), and Solenopotes capillatus (5%). Regarding sheep, 39% and 24% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were carrying lice. Damalinia ovis was the most frequently encountered lice on sheep in both regions. Linognathus ovillus also was identified in Souk-Ahras, representing 0.3% of the collected lice. Concerning goats, 53% and 30% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were parasitized of lice. Two species of lice were found: Damalinia caprae and Linognathus africanus . For farmyard chickens, 69% and 100% of the farmyard chicken in Souk-Ahras and Mila were parasitized by lice, respectively. Menopon gallinae was the most frequently encountered louse in farmyard chicken in both regions. Eight other species were identified in Mila and four other species only in Souk-Ahras. Finally, 25

  9. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  10. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  11. Factors associated with parent-child communication about HIV/AIDS in the United States and Kenya: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Melissa N; Miller, Kim S; Lin, Carol; Fasula, Amy; Vandenhoudt, Hilde; Wyckoff, Sarah C; Ochura, Juliet; Obong'o, Christopher O; Forehand, Rex

    2010-10-01

    This study explored parent-child communication about HIV/AIDS among two populations disproportionately affected by HIV. Similar computer-assisted surveys were completed by parents of pre-teens, including 1,115 African American parents of 9-12-year-old children in southeastern US and 403 parents of 10-12-year-old children in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Multivariate analyses identified factors associated with parental report of ever talking to their child about HIV/AIDS. Twenty-nine percent of US parents and 40% in Kenya had never talked to their pre-teen about HIV/AIDS. In both countries, communication was more likely if parents perceived their child to be ready to learn about sex topics, had gotten information to educate their child about sex, and had greater sexual communication responsiveness (skill, comfort, and confidence communicating about sexuality). Programs are needed that help parents assess children's readiness to learn about sexual issues; access accurate information about adolescent sexual risks; and acquire the responsiveness needed to discuss sexual issues, including HIV/AIDS.

  12. Hydrochemistry of the Lake Magadi basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Eugster, H.P.; Rettig, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    New and more complete compositional data are presented for a large number of water samples from the Lake Magadi area, Kenya. These water samples range from dilute inflow (300 g/kg dissolved solids). Five distinct hydrologic stages can be recognized in the evolution of the water compositions: dilute streamflow, dilute ground water, saline ground water (or hot spring reservoir), saturated brines, and residual brines. Based on the assumption that chloride is conserved in the waters during evaporative concentration, these stages are related to each other by the concentration factors of about 1:28:870:7600:16,800. Dilute streamflow is represented by perennial streams entering the Rift Valley from the west. All but one (Ewaso Ngiro) of these streams disappear in the alluvium and do not reach the valley floor. Dilute ground water was collected from shallow pits and wells dug into lake sediments and alluvial channels. Saline ground water is roughly equivalent to the hot springs reservoir postulated by Eugster (1970) and is represented by the hottest of the major springs. Saturated brines represent surficial lake brines just at the point of saturation with respect to trona (Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O), while residual brines are essentially interstitial to the evaporite deposit and have been subjected to a complex history of precipitation and re-solution. The new data confirm the basic hydrologic model presented by Eugster (1970) which has now been refined, particularly with respect to the early stages of evaporative concentration. Budget calculations show that only bromide is conserved as completely as chloride. Sodium follows chloride closely until trona precipitation, whereas silica and sulfate are largely lost during the very first concentration' step (dilute streamflow-dilute ground water). A large fraction of potassium and all calcium plus magnesium are removed during the first two concentration steps (dilute streamflow-dilute ground water-saline ground water). Carbonate and

  13. Radiation Protection of the Young Patient: Kenya perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human body anatomy and health issues are universal. Radionuclide and ionizing radiation are used in a variety of techniques in research, primary and secondary healthcare. One out of every five patients attending a hospital in Kenya benefits from some type of nuclear procedure. In 2013 over 3.5 million Kenyans benefited from nuclear applications in medicine. The radiographer patient workload is 189,300 examinations while that of each radiologist approximately 325,000 per year. There is need for catalyzed effort in the transition to the state-of-the-art nuclear techniques/equipment to Kenya and development of quality assurance program in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Develop the manpower/human resource and Policies that lower expenses and increase availability of nuclear techniques in medicine

  14. Electrification for “Under Grid” households in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, 600 million people live without electricity. Despite ambitions of governments and donors to invest in rural electrification, decisions about how to extend electricity access are being made in the absence of rigorous evidence. In this paper, we present high-resolution spatial data on electrification rates in rural Kenya in order to quantify and visualize energy poverty in a novel way. Using our dataset of 20,000 geo-tagged structures in Western Kenya, we provide descriptive evidence that electrification rates remain very low despite significant investments in nearby grid infrastructure. This pattern holds across time and for both poor and relatively well-off households and businesses. We argue that if governments wish to leverage existing infrastructure and economies of scale, subsidies and new approaches to financing connections are necessary.

  15. Domestic connectivity: media, gender and the domestic sphere in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media i...... their traditional gender roles.......This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media...... into their daily lives and routines and that increased media access has opened up the home, turned the domestic space from a secluded place to a connected space, where women can get input from, connect and interact with the world beyond their immediate surrounding, while remaining at home concurrently fulfilling...

  16. Entomophagy among the Luo of Kenya: a potential mineral source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Orech, Francis O; Mungai, Michael N; Larsen, Torben; Friis, Henrik; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Primary objective To determine the iron, zinc, and calcium content in different insects commonly eaten among the Luo of Kenya. Research design A cross-sectional design was chosen for the study in order to determine the insects eaten and their mineral content during a specific season.Methods and procedures Five different insect species were identified and collected with the help of local informants in the Nyang'oma sublocation of the Bondo district in western Kenya, and were analysed for iron, zinc and calcium contents. Main outcomes and results The iron content ranged from 18 to 1562 mg/100 g dry matter, the zinc content from 8 to 25 mg/100 g, and the calcium content from 33 to 341 mg/100 g in five different insects, onyoso mammon (ant), oyala (termite), ogawo (termite), agaor (termite), onjiri mammon (cricket). Conclusions Insect eating could prove to be a valuable measure to combat, especially, iron and zinc deficiency in developing countries.

  17. Young mothers, first time parenthood and exclusive breastfeeding in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naanyu, Violet

    2008-12-01

    Breastfeeding behaviour is explored in Kenya using data collected in the town of Eldoret, Kenya. This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below 20 years of age as compared to older cohorts. Additionally, focus is laid on the effect of first time motherhood and breastfeeding difficulties on exclusive breastfeeding. Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the mean duration for exclusive breastfeeding in this sample is 2.4 months. Higher durations of exclusive breastfeeding are associated with increasing age and first time motherhood. Predictably, breastfeeding difficulties bear a negative association with exclusive breastfeeding. While HIV is transmissible through breastfeeding, breast milk remains a vital source of nourishment for infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. More research on mothering should examine the changing socio-economic milieu and its influence on women's infant feeding decisions

  18. Hyperiid amphipods around the seamounts and islands off northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Sampaio de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Data collected on large-scale surveys around the seamounts and islands off northeastern Brazil provide information on the hyperiid amphipod populations. Thirty-six species were identified. Most of the species belong to the Infraorder Physocephalata, representing 21 genera and 13 families. Thirteen species (Vibilia australis, L. latissimus, L. macrophthalmus, L. schizogeneios, Phronima atlantica, Phrosina semilunata, Primno brevidens, Eupronoe minuta, Oxycephalus clause, Rhabdosoma whitei, Amphithyrus bispinosus, Leptocotis tenuirostris and Tetrathyrus forcipatus have not previously been recorded in this region. The spatial distribution of the hyperiid amphipods was very patchy. Each area of these amounts and islands off northeastern Brazil has different oceanographic features and can be characterised by a clearly defined group of most abundant species.

  19. Opisthorchiasis in Northeastern Thailand: Effect of local environment and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchiasis is a kind of trematode infection. This parasitic infestation is a chronic hepatobiliary tract infection and can cause chronic irritation that will finally lead to cholangiocarcinoma. It is highly endemic in northeastern region of Thailand and contributes to many cholangiocarcinoma cases annually. The attempt to control the disease becomes a national policy. However, the sanitation becomes a major underlying factor leading to infection and meanwhile, the poverty and low education of the local people become an important concern. In this opinion, the authors discuss the effect of local environment and culture on opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand. Due to the pattern change of local environment, global warming and globalization, the dynamicity can be observed.

  20. Extremely high Tp53 mutation load in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Golestan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Golestan Province in northeastern Iran has one of the highest incidences of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC in the world with rates over 50 per 100,000 person-years in both sexes. We have analyzed TP53 mutation patterns in tumors from this high-risk geographic area in search of clues to the mutagenic processes involved in causing ESCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biopsies of 119 confirmed ESCC tumor tissue from subjects enrolled in a case-control study conducted in Golestan Province were analyzed by direct sequencing of TP53 exons 2 through 11. Immunohistochemical staining for p53 was carried out using two monoclonal antibodies, DO7 and 1801. A total of 120 TP53 mutations were detected in 107/119 cases (89.9%, including 11 patients with double or triple mutations. The mutation pattern was heterogeneous with infrequent mutations at common TP53 "hotspots" but frequent transversions potentially attributable to environmental carcinogens forming bulky DNA adducts, including 40% at bases known as site of mutagenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Mutations showed different patterns according to the reported temperature of tea consumption, but no variation was observed in relation to ethnicity, tobacco or opium use, and alcoholic beverage consumption or urban versus rural residence. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: ESCC tumors in people from Golestan Province show the highest rate of TP53 mutations ever reported in any cancer anywhere. The heterogeneous mutation pattern is highly suggestive of a causative role for multiple environmental carcinogens, including PAHs. The temperature and composition of tea may also influence mutagenesis.

  1. Kenya | Page 84 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La collecte de données dans les bidonvilles de Nairobi, au Kenya, peut être une opération dangereuse. Les recenseurs qui recueillent de l'information sur les ménages à l'aide du système de surveillance démographique (SSD) de l'African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC) risquent régulièrement de se ...

  2. Inventory of Used, Disused, Waste and Disposed Sources in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiti, S; Keter, J [Radiation Protection Board (RPBI), Kisumu (Kenya); Kinyua, R [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Thika (Kenya)

    2010-09-15

    Kenya is committed to the peaceful applications of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and training and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development. There are 4 nuclear medicine centers, 3 industrial radiotherapy facilities, 2 gamma irradiator facilities, one linear accelerator, 2 high dose radiation (HDR) Brachytherapy units, 5 industrial radiography units and many training and research facilities in the country that posses radioactive sources. The Kenya Radiation Protection Board is a Regulatory body established under Cap 243 of the Laws of Kenya cited as the Radiation Protection Act which provides for the protection of the public and radiation workers from dangers arising from materials capable of producing ionizing radiation. The mission of the Board is to accelerate, regulate and expand the contribution of nuclear and irradiation technology to the Kenyan economy through promotion of nuclear and radiation safety culture. The use of radioactive material requires an adequate established inventory. The objective of this project is to establish and maintain a national inventory of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources in Kenya. A national inventory was done by sending a questionnaire and personal communication as well thorough countrywide inspection surveys by Radiation Protection Officers from the regulatory body where lead pot containers were carried in case of disposal of a disused source or spent source. Advanced survey meters and automes radiation meters were used for radiation safety work, alarm meters were used to detect the threshold and source identifiers were used to identify unknown sources and their activities. A total of 130 radioactive sources (34 used, 20 disused, 39 waste and 37 disposed) including their JPEG images were identified and a national inventory established. Co-60 recorded the highest activity of 11,000 Ci followed by Cs-137 with 400 Ci and Ir-192 with 40 Ci. An updated inventory for the

  3. Catastrophic health expenditure and its determinants in Kenya slum communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buigut, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Amendah, Djesika D

    2015-05-14

    In Kenya, where 60 to 80% of the urban residents live in informal settlements (frequently referred to as slums), out-of-pocket (OOP) payments account for more than a third of national health expenditures. However, little is known on the extent to which these OOP payments are associated with personal or household financial catastrophe in the slums. This paper seeks to examine the incidence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure among urban slum communities in Kenya. We use a unique dataset on informal settlement residents in Kenya and various approaches that relate households OOP payments for healthcare to total expenditures adjusted for subsistence, or income. We classified households whose OOP was in excess of a predefined threshold as facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE), and identified the determinants of CHE using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that the proportion of households facing CHE varies widely between 1.52% and 28.38% depending on the method and the threshold used. A core set of variables were found to be key determinants of CHE. The number of working adults in a household and membership in a social safety net appear to reduce the risk of catastrophic expenditure. Conversely, seeking care in a public or private hospital increases the risk of CHE. This study suggests that a substantial proportion of residents of informal settlements in Kenya face CHE and would likely forgo health care they need but cannot afford. Mechanisms that pool risk and cost (insurance) are needed to protect slum residents from CHE and improve equity in health care access and payment.

  4. Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability – Nigeria and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian J. Pitt

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for ...

  5. Kenya Women in Physics: Societal, Cultural, and Professional Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Paul; Wabwile, Ruth L.; Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Odongo, Diana A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the challenges Kenyan women physicists face in their educational and career engagements as a result of social-cultural stigma, cultural prejudices, and balancing family and work demands. We also discuss steps being taken in Kenya to address gender inequality in almost all spheres of public and private workplaces and the benefits to a prosperous developing nation of educating the girl child.

  6. Determinants of value added tax revenue in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    WAWIRE, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Past studies that have been undertaken on the responsiveness of Value Added Tax revenues to changes in GDP in Kenya have found a positive relationship. However, the studies omit key determinants of tax revenues, such as the nature of the tax system, institutional, demographic and structural features of the economy. Due to this omission, the estimated income elasticities are unreliable for planning purposes, a situation that might be responsible for the recurring budget deficits. The...

  7. Analyse situationnelle de la lutte antitabac au Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Kenya est l'un des 12 pays d'Afrique subsaharienne participant à l'initiative Analyses situationnelles de la lutte antitabac en Afrique (ASTA) financée par le CRDI et la Fondation Bill et Melinda Gates. L'objectif de cette initiative est de favoriser la compréhension des possibilités et des obstacles liés à la lutte antitabac et ...

  8. Field testing mobile digital storytelling software in rural Kenya

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reitmaier, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available stories stands to benefit members of rural and often impoverished African communities. Informed by ethnography and technology experiments involving storytelling, we implemented a method to involve users in a rural community in South Africa?s Eastern... storytelling, rural, HCI4D, probe, evaluation 1. INTRODUCTION Storytelling practices in rural African communities such as Adiedo, Kenya are localized by rich oral traditions [4]. In such places people like to tell stories and they do so in a variety...

  9. Ideation and intention to use contraceptives in Kenya and Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Babalola; Neetu John; Bolanle Ajao; Ilene Speizer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive use remains low to moderate in most African countries. Ideation, or the ideas and views that people hold, has been advanced as a possible explanation for differences in contraceptive use within and across countries. Objective: In this paper, we sought to identify the relevant dimensions of ideation and assess how these dimensions relate to contraceptive use intentions in two illustrative countries, Kenya and Nigeria. Methods: Using factor analysis, we first ide...

  10. Et tilfaelde af tungiasis efter rejse i Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Rafn, Aase Cederlund; Poulsen, Thorkil

    2009-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by infestation by the female sand flea, Tunga penetrans. Prevalence in endemic areas may reach 83%, while it is rare in non-endemic areas. However, an increase in international travel to and from the affected regions may lead to a rise in the numb...... of cases in non-endemic countries. We present a Danish case of tungiasis contracted during a trip to Kenya....

  11. Old and new ways: family planning in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarsh, L

    1989-04-01

    Kenya has the highest fertility rate in the world. The average woman has 8 children. Further, urban areas attract people from rural areas leaving fewer people to farm the finite land or raise cattle. Therefore a reduced need for children to partake in agricultural activities exists. Nevertheless many barriers to family planning continue in Kenya. Family planning services are scarce especially in rural areas. Husbands must agree to their wives undergoing voluntary sterilization by going to the clinic to sign a consent form. Children are highly valued. Succession of the generations is important. The higher a woman's fertility the more valuable she is to husband. The continuance of legal polygamy fosters competition among a man's wives to have many sons with the 1 having the most being his most prized wife. In spite of these obstacles, the president of Kenya promotes family planning through his speeches and requires the Ministry of Health (MOH) to provide family planning services at all government hospitals. Moreover, church hospitals also provide family planning services. Additionally, articles that cover teenage pregnancy and family planning programs appear in daily newspapers. The MOH and the National Council on Population and Development are organizing a network of government and nongovernment organizations that provide family planning services to the public. A sample of these organizations include the Family Planning Association of Kenya, an influential women's organization (Mandeleo ya Wanawake), and several church organizations. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception's regional office has promoted minilaparotomies under local anesthesia since 1986. They are now used in maternal and child health programs in government hospitals, mission hospitals, and in several family planning clinics.

  12. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

  13. Corporate Governance Practices in Developing Countries: The Case for Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Mwanzia Mulili; Dr. Peter Wong

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of corporate governance from a historical perspective. The paper explores how the agency theory and stewardship theory affect corporate governance practices. The focus of the paper is on public universities in Kenya. An extensive review of literature indicates that the ideals of good corporate governance have been adopted by developing countries since the 1980s. Developing countries differ from developed countries in a wide variety of ways. Therefore, there is ...

  14. Et tilfaelde af tungiasis efter rejse i Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Rafn, Aase; Poulsen, Thorkil

    2009-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by infestation by the female sand flea, Tunga penetrans. Prevalence in endemic areas may reach 83%, while it is rare in non-endemic areas. However, an increase in international travel to and from the affected regions may lead to a rise in the numb...... of cases in non-endemic countries. We present a Danish case of tungiasis contracted during a trip to Kenya. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Mar-2...

  15. Integrating Social Accountability in Healthcare Delivery : Lessons Drawn from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wangũi Machira, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The Constitution of Kenya provides that most functions of the state are decentralized in a devolution process. The devolved health system is four tiered: community health services, primary care services, county referral services, and national referral services. However, even though roles and responsibilities are elaborately outlined, in practice the transition from national to county governments has been marred by inconsistency, poor understanding of the system, management challenges, and lac...

  16. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  17. Organizational Cultural Factors Hindering Women Ascending to Top Management Positions in Public Universities in Kenya: A Case of Moi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makori, Rebecca S.; Onyango, Maria; Attyang, Judith Miguda; Bantu, Edward; Onderi, Peter Omae

    2016-01-01

    It is observed that the major setback to economic development in Kenya is stagnation in industrial development. To overcome these, Kenya plans to be a middle level income nation by the year 2030. These plans are to be realized through "Vision 2030." To achieve these goals, Kenya requires gender mainstreamed team of highly skilled workers…

  18. Optimization of Northeastern Region First-Graders’ Adaptation to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Yakimchuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the adaptation of the children in the northeastern region of Russia to school. In the article the influence of the extreme environmental conditions on the health of the children living in the Magadan region, which is an additional factor influencing the success of the child’s adaptation to the changing conditions of life, is proven; the recommendations to optimize the process of adaptation that enhance the adaptive opportunities of first-graders are provided.

  19. Northeastern conifer research: Multiple species and multiple values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; John C. Brissette; Richard W. Judd

    2014-01-01

    The northern conifer, or spruce-fir, forest of the northeastern USA and adjacent Canada has had a defining influence on the economy and culture of the region. The same can be said of the USDA Forest Service’s research in this forest, which began more than 100 years ago. Forest Service research has evolved since that time in response to changes in the needs and...

  20. Bryophytes as indicators of radiocesium deposition in northeastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Nimis, P.L.; Bolognini, G.; Padovani, R.; Usco, A.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of moss carpets growing in forest vegetation have been used to map radioactive fallout in northeastern Italy. The main factors affecting data variability are the inclination of the carpets, water absorbing power, and their thickness. The best suited bioindicator proved to be Ctenidium molluscum. The results indicate that these carpets were able to intercept most of the radiocesium deposited after the Chernobyl accident, and that the removal half-time in the survey area is of circa 46 months